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Sample records for birth order modifies

  1. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using…

  2. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  3. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  4. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  5. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  6. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  7. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes.

  8. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  9. Risk Attitudes and Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2013-01-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...

  10. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  11. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  12. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  13. Education, Birth Order, and Family Size

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Jesper; Birchenall, Javier A.; Mansour, Hani; Urzua, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a general framework to analyze the trade-off between education and family size. Our framework incorporates parental preferences for birth order and delivers theoretically consistent birth order and family size effects on children's educational attainment. We develop an empirical strategy to identify these effects. We show that the coefficient on family size in a regression of educational attainment on birth order and family size does not identify the family size effect as defined...

  14. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Monique

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...

  15. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  16. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence. PMID:22581677

  17. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  18. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  19. BIRTH ORDER AMONG NORTHERN INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Agarwal; Sunil Kumar Garg; Megha Kulshreshtha Mishra; Lalita Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the ...

  20. Birth Order and Perceived Birth Order of Chemically Dependent and Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kristie G.; Newlon, Betty J.

    Birth order as it relates to family constellation is one of the principle concepts of Adlerian theory, and has implications for the understanding of chemical addiction. Adler premised that it was the individual's interpretation of his/her birth circumstances that was more important than sequential birth order. This study examined whether…

  1. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  2. Birth Order and Marital Bliss in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Leonard; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study offers a rank order of successful marriages, according to birth order in Israel. The results of two studies show that marriage consisting of a first born and a later born are more successful than marriages composed of two first borns or two later borns. (Author/PC)

  3. Birth Order and BMI in Teenage Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Koziel, S.; Kolodziej, H.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relation of birth order to relative weight and prevalence of obesity in a group of 13–15 years old girls. In 1997, 1458 girls were examined. The height and weight measured by trained staff were recorded. Family size and birth order were obtained by a questionnaire. For the purpose of the present study, 776 and 250 girls coming from two- and three-child full families, respectively, were selected from the total sample on the basis of ...

  4. Sibship size, birth order, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies).

  5. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  6. Sibship size, birth order, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies). PMID:16342569

  7. Strategic Parenting, Birth Order and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hotz, V. Joseph; Pantano, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by new evidence, there has been renewed interest about the effects of birth order on human capital accumulation. The underlying causal mechanisms for such effects remain unsettled. We consider a model in which parents impose more stringent disciplinary environments in response to their earlier-born children's poor performance in school in order to deter such outcomes for their later-born offspring. We provide robust empirical evidence that school performance of children in the NLSY-C d...

  8. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  9. Birth order and a two-dimensional assessment of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, F H

    1975-04-01

    Higher order personality dimensions of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism were studied as functions of birth order in two-sib families, using 141 female subjects, with control over sex of sibling and sib age separation. No significant personality dimension variance was attributable to birth order in females. The results were considered briefly in terms of the importance of birth order, heritability questions, and the possible contribution of birth order to lower order traits. PMID:1151602

  10. Birth Order and the Intrahousehold Allocation of Time and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Pörtner, Claus Christian

    2002-01-01

    A potential determinant of intrahousehold distribution is the birth order of children. While a number of studies have analysed birth order effects in developed countries there are still only a few dealing with developing countries. This paper develops a model of intrahousehold allocation with endogenous fertility, which captures the relation between birth order and investment in children and shows that a birth order effect in intrahousehold allocation can arise even without assumptions about ...

  11. The Relationship between Birth Order and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Crystal M.

    This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between birth order and several variables, especially academic achievement. One study found a relationship between leadership skills and birth order for males. Several studies found no relationship between birth order and academic achievement; grade point average; self-esteem; locus of control…

  12. Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Alison L. Booth; Kee, Hiau Joo

    2006-01-01

    We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their childr...

  13. New assessment of the effects of birth order and socioeconomic status on birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowding, V M

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the 20 698 singleton births occurring in one year to women resident in the Greater Dublin area provided information on birth weight, birth order, and social class. Low (less than or equal to 2500 g), suboptimal (less than or equal to 3000 g), and optimal (3001-4499 g) birth weights all showed a linear relation with social class. The incidence of low and suboptimal birth weight was highest in first, fifth, and subsequent births, and conversely optimal weight was commonest in second...

  14. Birth order and child outcomes: does maternal quality time matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Monfardini, Chiara; See, Sarah Grace

    2012-01-01

    Higher birth order positions are often associated with poorer outcomes, possibly due to fewer resources received within the household. Using a sample of PSID-CDS children, we investigate whether the birth order effects in their outcomes are due to unequal allocation of the particular resource represented by maternal quality time. OLS regressions show that the negative birth order effects on various test scores are only slightly diminished when maternal time is included among the regressors. T...

  15. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  16. Older and wiser? : birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway and focuses on the effect of birth order and family size on IQ, an outcome not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Importantly, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest th...

  17. Older and wiser? : birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway and focuses on the effect of birth order and family size on IQ, an outcome not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Importantly, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that earlier born...

  18. Older and wiser? Birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within-family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  19. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within-family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  20. Older and wiser? Birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J Devereux; Black, Sandra E; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within-family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  1. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within-family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  2. Ordered Delinquency: The “Effects” of Birth Order On Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Cundiff, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born to rebel hypothesis I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I us...

  3. What Research Shows About Birth Order, Personality, and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahraes, Herbert

    This brief report summarizes the findings and conclusions of studies concerning the relation between birth order and various aspects of personality and intellectual development. Major topics discussed are the relation between birth order of the child and: (1) the effects of sex and spacing between siblings on personality characteristics of the…

  4. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  5. Brief Report: Asperger's Syndrome and Sibling Birth Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karmen; Zimmerman, Andrew; Bauman, Margaret; Ferrone, Christine; Venter, Jacob; Spybrook, Jessaca; Henry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Prior investigations suggest that birth order position may be associated with the risk for developing a pervasive developmental disorder. This retrospective chart review examined the birth order status of 29 psychiatrically-referred patients with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Eighty-six percent of the subjects were first born. The finding was…

  6. Can Knowledge of Client Birth Order Bias Clinical Judgment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Allan E.

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians (N = 308) responded to identical counseling vignettes of a male client that differed only in the client's stated birth order. Clinicians developed different impressions about the client and his family experiences that corresponded with the prototypical descriptions of persons from 1 of 4 birth orders (i.e., first, middle, youngest, and…

  7. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Haan; E. Plug; J. Rosero

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential me

  8. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Haan; E. Plug; J. Rosero

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human ca

  9. Intelligence and Birth Order in Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Beijsterveld, T. C. E. M.; Beem, A. L.; Hoekstra, R. A.; Polderman, T. J. C.; Bartels, M.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. "Intelligence," 35, 503-514] to be negative. Subjects in this and in an…

  10. Epilepsia e ordem de nascimento Epilepsy and birth order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sandler

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante o método de Greenwood-Yule e o teste estatístico mais sensível de que se dispõe atualmente, o x² de Halperin, foi testada a possível associação entre a prevalência de epilepsia e a ordem de nascimento de 238 pacientes. Estes pacientes foram obtidos em dois hospitais de São Paulo, na tentativa de se controlar sua classe social; tratava-se de epilépticos com variados transtornos psiquiátricos. Concluiu-se por uma associação estatisticamente significante entre a doença e a ordem de nascimento dos 238 pacientes, com uma sobre-representação nos primeiros e nos últimos nascidos.This paper deals with birth order and epilepsy. The Greenwood-Yule's method was applied, with the most powerful statistical test available, Halperin's modified chi-square. The authors concluded that there is a consistent positive association between this illness prevalence and birth order of the patients, being first and last born over-represented, irrespective of their sibship size. The data were obtained in two psychiatric hospitals in the city of São Paulo, being social class factor qualitatively controlled. All the 238 patients studied suffered a wide range of psychiatric symptoms.

  11. Birth Order and Education: Evidence from a Korean Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hyunkuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of birth order on education. This paper is the first to control for the mother’s age at first birth. While previous studies find that earlier-born children are better off, this paper finds no effects.

  12. Birth Order and Educational Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Boden, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between birth order and later educational outcomes in a birth cohort of more than 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of twenty-five. Being later born was associated with gaining fewer educational qualifications at secondary level and beyond. The use of nested models to control for the confounding…

  13. Healthy(?), Wealthy, and Wise Birth Order and Adult Health.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2016-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education, IQ scores, and earnings, the evidence for effects on health is more limited. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway and focuses on the effect of birth order on a range of health and health-related behaviors, outcomes not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Interestingly, we find complicated effects of birth order. First-borns are more likely to be ov...

  14. Examining the effects of birth order on personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2015-11-17

    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain. PMID:26483461

  15. Examining the effects of birth order on personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2015-11-17

    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain.

  16. Examining the effects of birth order on personality

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrer, Julia M.; Egloff, Boris; Stefan C. Schmukle

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to laterborns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panel...

  17. Birth Order and Human Capital Development: Evidence from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Monique; Plug, Erik; Rosero, José

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human capital development from early childhood to adolescence. Turning to potential mechanisms we find that earlier born children receive less quality time from their mothers than later born children. In a...

  18. Birth Order and Parental Time: Evidence from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez Mora, Sylvia Marianella

    2015-01-01

    The motivation behind this study is the fact that previous empirical works have established that children with different birth order positions have different educational performance. There are some studies that point out that in developed countries, higher birth order positions (i.e. the younger children within a family) have poorer academic outcomes in comparison with older siblings (Black et al, 2005). However, studies in developing countries show an opposite pattern (de Haan et, 2014). Acc...

  19. Ordered Delinquency: The “Effects” of Birth Order On Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born to rebel hypothesis I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of both between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  20. Birth time/order-dependent neuron type specification

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Chih-Fei; Lee, Tzumin

    2009-01-01

    Neurons derived from the same progenitor may acquire different fates according to their birth timing/order. To reveal temporally guided cell fates, we must determine neuron types as well as their lineage relationships and times of birth. Recent advances in genetic lineage analysis and fate mapping are facilitating such studies. For example, high-resolution lineage analysis can identify each sequentially derived neuron of a lineage and has revealed abrupt temporal identity changes in diverse D...

  1. Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tychele Turner

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.

  2. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Rafael A; Lin Xi; Campbell Joy M; Moeser Adam J; Odle Jack

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birt...

  3. Birth order and selected work-related personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A S; Bedeian, A G; Mossholder, K W; Touliatos, J

    1988-12-01

    A possible link between birth order and various individual characteristics (e. g., intelligence, potential eminence, need for achievement, sociability) has been suggested by personality theorists such as Adler for over a century. The present study examines whether birth order is associated with selected personality variables that may be related to various work outcomes. 3 of 7 hypotheses were supported and the effect sizes for these were small. Firstborns scored significantly higher than later borns on measures of dominance, good impression, and achievement via conformity. No differences between firstborns and later borns were found in managerial potential, work orientation, achievement via independence, and sociability. The study's sample consisted of 835 public, government, and industrial accountants responding to a national US survey of accounting professionals. The nature of the sample may have been partially responsible for the results obtained. Its homogeneity may have caused any birth order effects to wash out. It can be argued that successful membership in the accountancy profession requires internalization of a set of prescribed rules and standards. It may be that accountants as a group are locked in to a behavioral framework. Any differentiation would result from spurious interpersonal differences, not from predictable birth-order related characteristics. A final interpretation is that birth order effects are nonexistent or statistical artifacts. Given the present data and particularistic sample, however, the authors have insufficient information from which to draw such a conclusion. PMID:12281942

  4. Birth order and selected work-related personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A S; Bedeian, A G; Mossholder, K W; Touliatos, J

    1988-12-01

    A possible link between birth order and various individual characteristics (e. g., intelligence, potential eminence, need for achievement, sociability) has been suggested by personality theorists such as Adler for over a century. The present study examines whether birth order is associated with selected personality variables that may be related to various work outcomes. 3 of 7 hypotheses were supported and the effect sizes for these were small. Firstborns scored significantly higher than later borns on measures of dominance, good impression, and achievement via conformity. No differences between firstborns and later borns were found in managerial potential, work orientation, achievement via independence, and sociability. The study's sample consisted of 835 public, government, and industrial accountants responding to a national US survey of accounting professionals. The nature of the sample may have been partially responsible for the results obtained. Its homogeneity may have caused any birth order effects to wash out. It can be argued that successful membership in the accountancy profession requires internalization of a set of prescribed rules and standards. It may be that accountants as a group are locked in to a behavioral framework. Any differentiation would result from spurious interpersonal differences, not from predictable birth-order related characteristics. A final interpretation is that birth order effects are nonexistent or statistical artifacts. Given the present data and particularistic sample, however, the authors have insufficient information from which to draw such a conclusion.

  5. Caesarean birth: consumption, safety, order, and good mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Joanne; Porter, Maree; Tracy, Sally K; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2007-09-01

    This article draws on qualitative data to explore the beliefs through which decisions about caesarean birth are made and to consider how these might contribute to the increasing rate of caesarean birth. A total of 36 interviews were conducted in Australia, including 12 hospital-based midwives, 6 obstetricians, and 18 women who had experienced caesarean birth within the 2 years prior to the research interview. Data reveal a belief derived from the pervasive discourse of neo-liberalism that women are self-governing autonomous subjects in their birth experience, with entitlement to the consumption of birthing information and services, as guided by obstetricians. Feeding into this belief are coexisting discourses that serve to organise 'free choice' in terms of safe/unsafe, order/disorder, life/death; and with ontological meanings, by structuring women's mothering identities as good/bad. The neo-liberal obligation to manage risk and pursue success for both mothers and babies means that women (and others) are obliged to choose what is set up as the most obvious and sensible option: safe, ordered caesareans. The structuring of discourses in this way shows how caesareans can be positioned as a preferential means of birth. PMID:17590252

  6. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree. PMID:25777302

  7. Birth order, sibship size, and status in modern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J N

    1997-09-01

    This paper investigates the possibility that birth order affects the degree to which individuals attain higher status. Humans give birth to a variable number of (usually) single offspring spaced one to many years apart, and continue to maintain contact with them for extended periods of time. The continued presence of older siblings, and arrival of younger ones, means that each child is reared in a different family environment. Research findings from the field of behavior genetics suggest that these differences have a significant impact on the development of individual differences between children in the same family. Although no two families are likely to be exactly the same, factors such as birth order remain constant across them, and may have similar influences. The present study examines the relationships between birth order, sibship size, and several variables thought to index future status attainment (status striving) in a random sample of Canadians. Firstborn children appear to be more status oriented than lastborns, and this effect is mediated by sibship size. While firstborn children are unaffected by the number of younger siblings they have, the status ambitions of youngest children decrease the more older siblings they have. Birth order effects on status attainment are not as strong as they are on status ambitions. PMID:26196964

  8. The German Birth Order Register - order-specific data generated from perinatal statistics and statistics on out-of-hospital births 2001-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Kreyenfeld; Scholz, Rembrandt D.; Frederik Peters; Ines Wlosnewski

    2010-01-01

    Until 2008, Germany’s vital statistics did not include information on the biological order of each birth. This resulted in a dearth of important demographic indicators, such as the mean age at first birth and the level of childlessness. Researchers have tried to fill this gap by generating order-specific birth rates from survey data, and by combining survey data with vital statistics. This paper takes a different approach by using hospital statistics on births to generate birth order-specific...

  9. Earliest Recollections and Birth Order: Two Adlerian Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Les

    1992-01-01

    Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…

  10. Birth Order, Sibling IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…

  11. Birth Order and Intelligence: Together Again for the Last Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Cleveland, H. Harrington; van den Oord, Edwin; Rowe, David C.

    2001-01-01

    The authors respond to critiques of their investigation of whether birth order reliably contributes to variance in intelligence, concluding that little in the critiques challenges the original position that cross-sectional data are suspect as evidence for within-family trends in intelligence. When looking inside families and directly comparing the…

  12. Resolving the Debate over Birth Order, Family Size, and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Cleveland, H. Harrington; van den Oord, Edwin; Rowe, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between birth order, family size, and intelligence quotient (IQ), evaluating sibling data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and comparing results with those from other studies using within-family data. Results indicated that although low IQ parents were making large families, large families were not…

  13. Birth Order and the Language Experience of Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the language experience of second-generation immigrant Korean American school-age children (4-18 years) by surveying their parents. Reports responses to a small portion of the questionnaire that specifically addressed the issue of birth order. (Author/VWL)

  14. Birth-Order Effects in the Academically Talented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Wayne D.

    1998-01-01

    Birth-order position was studied among 828 academically talented sixth-grade students. When compared to census data, the sample was disproportionately composed of first-born students. However, this effect was largely explained by the covariate of family size, with small families over represented among the gifted. Other findings indicated no…

  15. Birth Order and Intelligence: Further Tests of the Confluence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Robert D.; Sewell, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Confluence theory was developed to explain the negative effects of birth order on intelligence. Using aggregate, between-family, within-family, and paired-sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, tests the mathematical form of confluence theory and finds no support for it. Suggests that statistical methods used to fit the model to the…

  16. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo;

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years ...

  17. The Social and Academic Consequences of Birth Order: Real, Artifactual, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…

  18. Sibship size, birth order, and personality among Kuwaiti college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2007-08-01

    In a sample of 460 (103 men, 357 women) Kuwaiti college students (M age=21.9 yr., SD=3.0), scores on the Arabic Scale of Optimism and Pessimism, the Death Obsession Scale, the Arabic Scale of Obsession-Compulsion, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, the Taoist Orientation Scale, and the Suicidal Ideation Scale were not associated with sibship size and birth order.

  19. Sibship size, birth order, and personality among Kuwaiti college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2007-08-01

    In a sample of 460 (103 men, 357 women) Kuwaiti college students (M age=21.9 yr., SD=3.0), scores on the Arabic Scale of Optimism and Pessimism, the Death Obsession Scale, the Arabic Scale of Obsession-Compulsion, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, the Taoist Orientation Scale, and the Suicidal Ideation Scale were not associated with sibship size and birth order. PMID:17958106

  20. Parent-Child Quality Time: Does Birth Order Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that a first-born child receives 20-30 more minutes of quality time each day with his or her parent than a second-born child of the same age from a similar family. The birth-order difference results from parents giving roughly equal time to each child at any point in time while the amount of…

  1. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood pres

  2. Birth Order and Health of Newborns: What Can We Learn from Danish Registry Data?

    OpenAIRE

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Molitor, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown a strong negative correlation between birth order and cognitive test scores, IQ, and educational outcomes. We ask whether birth order differences in health are present at birth using matched administrative data for more than 1,000,000 children born in Denmark between 1981 and 2010. Using family fixed effects models, we find a positive and robust birth order effect; earlier born children are less healthy at birth. Looking at the potential mechanisms, we find that during earl...

  3. Birth order and gender affect cross-generational helping

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, J P

    2008-01-01

    Poster April 2008 European Human Behaviour and Evolution Conference (EHBE 2008) How does kin solidarity and parent-offspring conflict manifest itself in contemporary Western societies? The GENTRANS research project surveyed children of “baby boomers” of Finns born in 1945-50 (n=1115) and their adult children (n=1435) in 2007. We predicted that parent-offspring conflict will affect interaction between adult children and their parents so that sibship size and birth order correlate negati...

  4. Paternal-age and birth-order effect on the human secondary sex ratio.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruder, A

    1985-01-01

    Because of conflicting results in previous analyses of possible maternal and paternal effects on the variation in sex ratio at birth, records of United States live births in 1975 were sorted by offspring sex, live birth order (based on maternal parity), parental races, and, unlike prior studies, ungrouped parental ages. Linear regression and logistic analysis showed significant effects of birth order and paternal age on sex ratio in the white race data (1.67 million births; 10,219 different c...

  5. Appraising Birth Order in Career Assessment: Linkages to Holland's and Super's Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hartung, Paul J.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Study 1 (n=159) found significant differences in vocational personality types, interests, and values depending on birth order. Study 2 (n=119) found significant differences in occupational interests by birth order. Both results support Alfred Adler's theory that birth order determines aspects of vocational behavior. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  6. A Review of the Evidence for Birth Order Differences in Anxiety and Affiliation in Stressful Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, T.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews literature on birth order. An important conclusion is that birth order differences in anxiety level and affiliation are not generalized phenomena. Consistent birth order differences in both variables are found only among females. Firstborns are not habitually more anxious than laterborns and are not generally more affiliative than…

  7. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men. NBER Working Paper No. 13237

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and…

  8. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  9. IMPACT OF SIBSHIP SIZE, BIRTH ORDER, AND SEX COMPOSITION ON SCHOOL ENROLLMENT IN URBAN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Kırdar, Murat G.; Dayıoğlu, Meltem; Tansel, Aysıt

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of sibship size, birth order and sibling sex composition on children’s school enrollment in urban Turkey. Moreover, we examine how the effects of these variables vary by household income and the gender of the children. We utilize an instrumental variables estimation method in order to address parents’ joint fertility and schooling decisions where we use twin-births as instruments. In addition, we generate careful measures for birth order and siblings’ sex c...

  10. Birth order, educational attainment and earnings: an investigation using the PSID

    OpenAIRE

    Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stéphane

    2005-01-01

    Whether siblings of specific birth order perform differently has been a longstanding open empirical question. We use the family tree structure of the PSID to examine two claims found in the literature: whether being early in the birth order implies a distinct educational advantage, and whether there exists, within large families, a pattern of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order, to the point where it becomes best to be last-born. Drawing from OLS and family fixed effect...

  11. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundquist Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. Methods We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Results Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer.

  12. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer

  13. The effects of birth order and birth interval on the phenotypic expression of autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren A Martin

    Full Text Available A rise in the prevalence of diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in several studies in recent years. While this rise in ASD prevalence is at least partially related to increased awareness and broadened diagnostic criteria, the role of environmental factors cannot be ruled out, especially considering that the cause of most cases of ASD remains unknown. The study of families with multiple affected children can provide clues about ASD etiology. While the majority of research on ASD multiplex families has focused on identifying genetic anomalies that may underlie the disorder, the study of symptom severity across ASD birth order may provide evidence for environmental factors in ASD. We compared social and cognitive measures of behavior between over 300 first and second affected siblings within multiplex autism families obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset. Measures included nonverbal IQ assessed with the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, verbal IQ assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and autism severity assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS, an instrument established as a quantitative measure of autism. The results indicated that females were more severely impacted by ASD than males, especially first affected siblings. When first and second affected siblings were compared, significant declines in nonverbal and verbal IQ scores were observed. In addition, SRS results demonstrated a significant increase in autism severity between first and second affected siblings consistent with an overall decline in function as indicated by the IQ data. These results remained significant after controlling for the age and sex of the siblings. Surprisingly, the SRS scores were found to only be significant when the age difference between siblings was less than 2 years. These results suggest that some cases of ASD are influenced by a dosage effect involving unknown epigenetic

  14. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    OpenAIRE

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were...

  15. Crown Princes and Benjamins: Birth Order and Educational Attainment in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Eschelbach, Martina

    2009-01-01

    This study expands the literature on the determinants of educational attainment by analyzing the effects of birth order in Germany. These effects are typically attributed to sibling rivalry for parental resources. Using data from the German Life History Study on birth cohorts 1945-1978, we find highly significant effects of birth order on secondary education. The effects are of substantial magnitude, both in West and East Germany. To our knowledge, this is the first study that also examines p...

  16. Birth Order and Health of Newborns: What Can We Learn from Danish Registry Data?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Molitor, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    We ask whether birth order differences in health are present at birth using matched administrative data for more than 1 million children born in Denmark between 1981 and 2010. Using family fixed effects models, we find a positive and robust birth order effect; lower parity children are less healthy...... at birth. Looking at the potential mechanisms, we find that during earlier pregnancies women have higher labor market attachment, are more likely to smoke, receive more prenatal care, and are diagnosed with more medical pregnancy complications. Yet, none of these factors explain the birth order...... differences at birth. Data on hospital admissions reveal that the health advantage of higher parity children persists in the first years of life and disappears by age 7....

  17. Birth Order, Family Size, and Self-Esteem: A Filipino Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David; Astilla, Estela

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between birth order and self-esteem among 209 11- to 13-year-old girls attending a private high school in the central Philippines. The Self-Esteem Inventory was used to measure self-esteem. No evidence of any influence of birth order, family size, or their interaction with self-esteem was found. (Author/RH)

  18. Birth order and its association with the onset of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, Michael; Helmer, Drew A; Natelson, Benjamin H

    2002-08-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a medically unexplained illness that is diagnosed on the basis of a clinical case definition; so it probably is an illness with multiple causes producing the same clinical picture. One way of dealing with this heterogeneity is to stratify patients based on illness onset. We hypothesized that either the whole group of CFS patients or that group which developed CFS gradually would show a relation with birth order, while patients who developed CFS suddenly, probably due to a viral illness, would not show such a relation. We hypothesized the birth order effect in the gradual onset group because those patients have more psychological problems, and birth order effects have been shown for psychological characteristics. We compared birth order in our CFS patients to that in a comparison group derived from U.S. demographic data. We found a tendency that did not reach formal statistical significance for a birth order effect in the gradual onset group, but not in either the sudden onset or combined total group. However, the birth order effect we found was due to relatively increased rates of CFS in second-born children; prior birth order studies of personality characteristics have found such effects to be skewed toward first-born children. Thus, our data do support a birth order effect in a subset of patients with CFS. The results of this study should encourage a larger multicenter study to further explore and understand this relation.

  19. The New Birth Order Book: Why You Are the Way You Are. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Kevin

    Based on the premise that birth order powerfully influences one's personality, one's marital partner, and one's parenting style, this book presents personal anecdotes, testimonials, and descriptions of well-known individuals or individuals seen in counseling to illustrate the impact of birth order. The book also presents practical ways to take…

  20. Myers-Briggs Attitude Typology: The Influence of Birth Order with Other Family Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Virginia K.; Coll, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the influence of birth order with parenting style, age spacing, gender, and socioeconomic status on the Myers-Briggs attitude scales of Extroversion/Introversion and Judging/Perceiving. Results indicate that age spacing interacted with birth order to influence Extroversion/Introversion scores. Parenting style and gender interacted…

  1. What Causes Birth Order-Intelligence Patterns? The Admixture Hypothesis, Revived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2001-01-01

    Describes why birth order interests both parents and researchers, discussing what really causes apparent birth order effects on intelligence, examining problems with using cross-sectional intelligence data, and noting how to move beyond cross-sectional inferences. Explains the admixture hypothesis, which finds that family size is much more…

  2. Impact of Birth Order on Procrastination among College Students in Eldoret Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Chege Kimani

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the impact of birth order on procrastination among college students in Eldoret town. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: (1) to find out the prevalence of procrastination among college students in Eldoret town, (2) to find out the relationship between birth order on procrastination among college…

  3. Same-Sex Dyads and Toman's Theory of Birth-Order Compatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Rick J.

    Toman's theory of the relation of birth-order compatibility and interpersonal relations was extended to dyads (pairs) with members of the same sex. It was predicted that interpersonal compatibility between members of same-sex dyads (50 female, 27 male pairs of Vassar College roommates) would be positively correlated with birth-order compatibility…

  4. Birth Order and Participation in School Sports and Other Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Lopez, Elizabeth; Averett, Susan L.; Argys, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Argys, L.M., Rees, D.I., Averett S.L., & Witoonchart, B. (2006). Birth order and risky adolescent behavior. "Economic Inquiry", 44(2), 215-233 demonstrated that a strong link exists between birth order and adolescent risky behavior. Using data on 10th graders from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we extend the work of Argys et…

  5. Birth Order, Educational Attainment, and Earnings: An Investigation Using the PSID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    We examine the implications of being early in the birth order, and whether a pattern exists within large families of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order. Unlike other studies using U.S. data, we go beyond grade for age and look at racial differences. Drawing from OLS and fixed effects estimations, we find that being…

  6. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  7. The confluence model: birth order as a within-family or between-family dynamic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R B; Sulloway, Frank J

    2007-09-01

    The confluence model explains birth-order differences in intellectual performance by quantifying the changing dynamics within the family. Wichman, Rodgers, and MacCallum (2006) claimed that these differences are a between-family phenomenon--and hence are not directly related to birth order itself. The study design and analyses presented by Wichman et al. nevertheless suffer from crucial shortcomings, including their use of unfocused tests, which cause statistically significant trends to be overlooked. In addition, Wichman et al. treated birth-order effects as a linear phenomenon thereby ignoring the confluence model's prediction that these two samples may manifest opposing results based on age. This article cites between- and within-family data that demonstrate systematic birth-order effects as predicted by the confluence model. The corpus of evidence invoked here offers strong support for the assumption of the confluence model that birth-order differences in intellectual performance are primarily a within-family phenomenon.

  8. Twin birth order, birthweight and birthweight discordance: any relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka A.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely believed that in twin pairs, at birth, the first-born weigh more than the second-born but this concept has been challenged. Objective: To assess the truthfulness of this common concept that first-born twins are usually heavier than their second-born siblings at birth. Methods: In a series of 104 sets of live-born twins, the birth weights of first-born twins were compared with those of their second-born siblings, after controlling for gender. Their intra-pair birthweight differences were determined and twin pairs whose birthweight difference was 15% or more were designated as discordant. Results: Twin I was heavier than Twin II in 61.5% of cases while Twin II was heavier than Twin I in 28.9% of cases. Twins I and II had equal birthweights in 9.6% of cases. Comparing the mean birthweight of the first-born-male twin with that of second-born- male twin, it was 2515+427g (95% Confidence Interval, CI=2402-2628 versus 2432 +435g (95% CI=2321-2543 p>0.05. The mean birthweight of first-born-female twin was 2326+445g (95% CI=2214-2439 while that of the second-born-female twin was 2325+501g (95% CI=2197-2453 p>0.05. When the birthweight difference exceeded 750g, the probability that Twin I will be heavier than Twin II was 83.3% (5 of 6. Conclusion: Although the first-born twin was more often heavier than their second-born siblings, either could weigh more or less at birth. The larger the birthweight difference between growth-discordant twin pair, the greater the probability that the heavier twin would be delivered first

  9. The Effect of Birth Order on Attachment Style According to Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAKTAR, Seda; YAHŞİ, Gülşah

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is a vital neurobiopsychological phenomenon known to be dependent on the early relationship between baby and the caregiver. It mostly develops in the first year and out of repeated patterns of the primary attachment relationship. Birth order is defined as a person's rank by age among his or her siblings. Birth order is often believed to have a profound and lasting effect on psychological development. Also it has been thought that birth order has an impact on the attachment.  In thi...

  10. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler’s theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler’s birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) A...

  11. Does cardiorespiratory fitness modify the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adult life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Aoyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. METHODS: The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females aged 20-64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject's or his/her mother's memory. RESULTS: The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.141, p = 0.003, even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = -0.148, p = 0.001, although VO2max (β = -0.376, p<0.001 was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual's low birth weight.

  12. Birth order has no effect on intelligence: a reply and extension of previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichman, Aaron L; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Maccallum, Robert C

    2007-09-01

    We address points raised by Zajonc and Sulloway, who reject findings showing that birth order has no effect on intelligence. Many objections to findings of null birth-order results seem to stem from a misunderstanding of the difference between study designs where birth order is confounded with true causal influences on intelligence across families and designs that control for some of these influences. We discuss some of the consequences of not appreciating the nature of this difference. When between-family confounds are controlled using appropriate study designs and techniques such as multilevel modeling, birth order is shown not to influence intelligence. We conclude with an empirical investigation of the replicability and generalizability of this approach.

  13. The Early Bird gets the Worm? Birth Order Effects in a Dynamic Model of the Family

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Gugl; Linda Welling

    2008-01-01

    Birth order effects are found in empirical work, but lack theoretical foundations. Our new approach to modelling children provides this. Each child has the same genetic make-up and parents do not favour a child based on its birth order. Each child’s needs change as it grows, and births are sequential. At any point in time siblings are at different developmental stages, and the benefits of parental investment differ across these stages. Parental time investment in children lowers current and f...

  14. Born to be wild? The effect of birth order, families and schools on truancy

    OpenAIRE

    Denny, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    This paper models the probability of 15-year-old children missing school or being late. The paper sets out to uncover the effects of family background and birth order on attendance. Looking at birth order effects allows one to test Sulloway’s “Born to Rebel” hypothesis that older siblings are more compliant than their younger siblings. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for Germany, Korea, Ireland, Mexico, Russia and the United States, the evidence here ...

  15. Do birth order and family size matter for intergenerational income mobility? Evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies of intergenerational income mobility have not considered potential birth-order or family-size effects in the estimated income elasticity. This paper uses a large sample of individuals born between 1962 and 1964; income elasticities with respect to the father’s income are estimated for individuals in different birth-order positions for a given family size. This paper presents results based on labor income and total income for sons and daughters separately. The elasticity tends...

  16. Effects of birth order and sibling sex composition on human capital investment in children in India

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Momoe

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of birth order and sibling sex composition on human capital investment in children in India using the Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS). Endogeneity of fertility is addressed using instruments and controlling for household fixed effects. Family size effect is also distinguished from the sibling sex composition effect. Previous literature has often failed to take endogeneity into account and shows a negative birth order effect for girls in India. Once endoge...

  17. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Sundquist Jan; Thomsen Hauke; Weires Marianne; Bevier Melanie; Hemminki Kari

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. Methods We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeco...

  18. Do birth order and family size matter for intergenerational income mobility?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Lena U.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies of intergenerational income mobility have not considered potential birth- order or family-size effects in the estimated income elasticity. This paper uses a large sample of individuals born between 1962 and 1964; income elasticities with respect to parents? incomes are estimated for individuals with different birth-order positions and family sizes. Results based on labor income and total income for sons and daughters are reported separately. The elasticity...

  19. Explaining the birth order effect: The role of prenatal and early childhood investments

    OpenAIRE

    Jee-Yeon K. Lehmann; Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana; Vidal-Fernández, Marian

    2012-01-01

    The critical role of prenatal and early childhood conditions on adult outcomes has been the focus of a rich body of research. In this paper, we examine various pre- and postnatal investments as possible sources behind the "birth order effect" – significant differences in the educational and labor market outcomes across children of varying birth orders. Taking advantage of a rich set of information on in utero and early childhood conditions in the Children of the NLSY79, we find that, within t...

  20. Birth Order and its Effect on the Attainment of The Eagle Scout Status

    OpenAIRE

    Moesser, Kevin Randy

    1980-01-01

    The effects of birth order on achievement have been under investigation continually resulting in reported prominence of first born children in various areas of achievement. The purpose of this study was to provide further investigation into the effects of birth order on the achievement hypothesis using the attainment of the Eagle Scout Award as the dependent variable. Five hypotheses were formulated from a review of literature which included: (1) boys in the first born position are more likel...

  1. The Long-term Impact of Birth Order on Health and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Kieron

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the long-term impact of birth order on health, and educational attainment. Swedish register data is used to link individuals to their siblings, thereby allowing members of the sibling group to be compared to one another. This thesis consists of an introductory chapter summarizing empirical research on the relationship between birth order and educational attainment, intelligence, health, and personality, as well the theoretical frameworks that have been developed ...

  2. How Do Children Behave Regarding Their Birth Order in Dental Setting?

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Ghaderi; Soleiman Fijan; Shahram Hamedani

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child’s behavior in dental setting. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental...

  3. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  4. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  5. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. PMID:26996222

  6. Birth order, family size, and the risk of cancer in young and middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    K. Hemminki; Mutanen, P

    2001-01-01

    We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the effects of birth order and family size on the risk of common cancers among offspring born over the period 1958–96. Some 1.38 million offspring up to age 55 years with 50.6 million person-years were included. Poisson regression analysis included age at diagnosis, birth cohort, socio-economic status and region of residence as other explanatory variables. The only significant associations were an increasing risk for breast cancer by birth...

  7. Birth order and mortality in two ethno-linguistic groups: Register-based evidence from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. PMID:27100213

  8. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.

  9. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender. PMID:22707916

  10. Associations of scores on the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory and the Kern Lifestyle Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Campbell, L; Stewart, A

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the relations among psychological birth order, actual birth order, and lifestyle. The study also further examined the convergent validity of the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory. This inventory and Kern's Lifestyle Scale were administered to 126 individuals in a southeastern urban university. The several analyses of variance and canonical correlation analysis (1) supported a stronger relationship between psychological birth order and lifestyle than between actual birth order and lifestyle, (2) identified differential relationships between particular birth-order positions and lifestyle scales that were predicted and in accord with Adlerian theory, and (3) further supported the validity of the inventory. The results reaffirmed the lifestyle pattern and birth-order characterizations of Adlerian theory.

  11. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under

  12. Does time since immigration modify neighborhood deprivation gradients in preterm birth? A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo Luis; Frank, John William; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard Henry

    2011-10-01

    Immigrants' health is jointly influenced by their pre- and post-migration exposures, but how these two influences operate with increasing duration of residence has not been well-researched. We aimed to examine how the influence of maternal country of birth and neighborhood deprivation effects, if any, change over time since migration and how neighborhood effects among immigrants compare with those observed in the Canadian-born population. Birth data from Ontario hospital records (2002-2007) were linked with an official Canadian immigration database (1985-2000). The outcome measure was preterm birth. Neighborhoods were ranked according to a neighborhood deprivation index developed for Canadian urban areas and collapsed into tertiles of approximately equal size. Time since immigration was measured from the date of arrival to Canada to the date of delivery, ranging from 1 to 22 years. We used cross-classified random effect models to simultaneously account for the membership of births (N = 83,233) to urban neighborhoods (N = 1,801) and maternal countries of birth (N = 168). There were no differences in preterm birth between neighborhood deprivation tertiles among immigrants with less than 15 years of residence. Among immigrants with 15 years of stay or more, the adjusted absolute risk difference (ARD%, 95% confidence interval) between high-deprived (tertile 3) and low-deprived (tertile 1) neighborhoods was 1.86 (0.68, 2.98), while the ARD% observed among the Canadian-born (N = 314,237) was 1.34 (1.11, 1.57). Time since migration modifies the neighborhood deprivation gradient in preterm birth among immigrants living in Ontario cities. Immigrants reached the level of inequalities in preterm birth observed at the neighborhood level among the Canadian-born after 14 years of stay, but neighborhoods did not influence preterm birth among more recent immigrants, for whom the maternal country of birth was more predictive of preterm birth. PMID:21503816

  13. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  14. METABOLIC AND BEHAVIORAL PARAMETERS IN NEWBORN PIGLETS IN RELATION TO BIRTH ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment had 2 phases:During the first phase 19 sows were monitored during farrowing; the piglets were numbered according to birth order, they were weighed and there were recorded the time each piglet was born and when it first suckled. There was calculated the time from the beginning of the farrowing until the time each piglet was born (TNPP and the time from birth until the first suckle (TPS. A statistical correlation was established between these parameters.During the second experimental phase, for 49 piglets from 5 sows were determined: birth weight, TPS, glycemia at birth (G0 and after the first suckle (G1, rectal temperature at birth (T0 and after the first suckles (T1. This data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Respecting the birth order, TPS is shorter for piglets born last (p<0.05. Average TPS was 23.04±2.49 minutes; during this time glycemia rises from 58.35 mg% to 64.35 mg% and rectal temperature drops from 38.58°C to 37.35°C. T0 is positively correlated with G0 (p<0.01 with G1 (p<0.01 and T1 (p<0.01. G0 is highly correlated to G1 (r=0.8855; p=0.

  15. A multilevel approach to the relationship between birth order and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichman, Aaron L; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; MacCallum, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    Many studies show relationships between birth order and intelligence but use cross-sectional designs or manifest other threats to internal validity. Multilevel analyses with a control variable show that when these threats are removed, two major results emerge: (a) birth order has no significant influence on children's intelligence and (b) earlier reported birth order effects on intelligence are attributable to factors that vary between, not within, families. Analyses on 7- to 8 - and 13- to 14-year-old children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth support these conclusions. When hierarchical data structures, age variance of children, and within-family versus between-family variance sources are taken into account, previous research is seen in a new light.

  16. Analysis of the Relationship Between Schizophrenia and the Birth Order of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazami Godarzi, Ali; Kianpoor, Fatemeh; Zarra Nezhad, Maryam

    This study aims at investigating the relationship between the birth order and schizophrenia. The research is conducted based on case studies carried out in Roozbeh Hospital of Tehran. Among the patients bedridden in this hospital during 2003-2004, 200 schizophrenics were selected through random sampling. This research was conducted in a field work fashion using information recording file which was based on the available documents. Results suggested that the distribution of schizophrenia among the children of a family differs in terms of their birth order. The risk of schizophrenia is relatively greater in case of either the first male or the last female children. Overall, it can be claimed that there is a significant relationship between birth order and schizophrenia. The results also showed that among the studied sample, none belonged to single-child families. Besides, the number of first-and last-child schizophrenia was equally the highest among the subjects of the research.

  17. Association between order of birth and chronic malnutrition of children: a study of nationally representative Bangladeshi sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the net effect of birth order on child nutritional status in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2011 (BDHS). Analyses were restricted to 4,120 surviving, lastborn singleton children who were younger than 36 months at the time of the survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between birth order and child nutritional status. Results indicate 38.1% children are stunted and 8.2% children are fifth or higher order birth. Order of birth is one of the significant predictors of child being stunted. Third order, fourth order, and fifth or higher order children are 24%, 30%, and 72%, respectively, more likely to be stunted after adjusting for all other variables. Besides birth order, results also indicate that child age, size at birth, birth intention, maternal education, maternal body mass index, wealth index, place of residence and mass media access exert strong influences over child malnutrition. Reducing birth rates which limit number of births and birth order as well may reduce child malnutrition in Bangladesh. PMID:26958818

  18. Factors Affecting Spatial Test Performance: Sex, Handedness, Birth Order, and Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Roland B.

    Four factors have been reported in the literature as being related to spatial test performance. This study investigated the main and interaction effects of sex, handedness, birth order, and experience on three different types of spatial performance; surface development, object rotation, and coordination of viewpoints. A total of 217 undergraduate…

  19. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir;

    2011-01-01

    The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous...

  20. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  1. Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug P Vanderlaan

    Full Text Available In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect. In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768. Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.

  2. The Effects of Birth Order on Personality Traits and Feelings of Academic Sibling Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Julia; Reddy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The influence of birth order on personality and sibling rivalry is controversial; little research has been conducted into academic sibling rivalry, and none into the connection with personality traits. This study considers the interaction of all three factors. Firstborns (N=22) and lastborns (N=24) completed online personality tests and an…

  3. Direct and Indirect Effects of Birth Order on Personality and Identity: Support for the Null Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Harbke, Colin R.; Papini, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed that birth order affects psychosocial outcomes through differential investment from parent to child and differences in the degree of identification from child to parent. The authors conducted this study to test these 2 models. Despite the use of statistical and methodological procedures to increase sensitivity and reduce…

  4. Personality, birth order and attachment styles as related to various types of jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else), p

  5. Born to learn or born to win? Birth order effects on achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart

  6. Relationships Between Father's Age, Birth Order, Family Size, and Need Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni; Richman, Charles L.

    Several hypotheses regarding the determinants of need achievement were examined. In addition to predicting sex differences, the study predicted that father's age would be inversely related to need achievement. In addition, the effects of family size and birth order on achievement motivation were compared. Subjects were 1,092 undergraduates (785…

  7. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  8. Seasonal, litter size and birth order effects on farrowing intervals and stillbirth rate in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number of piglets weaned is affected by the farrowing process through its impact primarily on stillbirth rate (SR). The effects of season and birth order on the farrowing process and SR are not well characterized. To examine these relationships, farrowing was recorded in first parity gilts of ou...

  9. Gender Differences in Intrahousehold Schooling Outcomes: The Role of Sibling Characteristics and Birth-Order Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Dancer, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an "age-appropriate level…

  10. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  11. Birth Order and Hand Preference in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implications for Pathological Models of Handedness in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Dahl, Jeremy F.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of birth order on hand preference was assessed in a sample of 154 captive-born chimpanzees. Subjects were classified as first, middle, or latter born using 2 classification criteria based on their birth order. Hand preference was measured using a task that elicited coordinated bimanual actions. Significant birth-order effects were found for both classification criteria, with first- and latter-born subjects exhibiting a lesser degree of right-handedness compared with middle-born sub...

  12. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis...... at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR¿=¿0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P¿=¿0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I(2)¿=¿67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed...

  13. Birth order effects on the separation process in young adults: an evolutionary and dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Hermel, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzes the differential contribution of a familial or social focus in imaginative ideation (the personal fable and imagined audience mental constructs) to the separation-individuation process of firstborn, middleborn, and lastborn children. A total of 160 young adults were divided into 3 groups by birth order. Participants' separation-individuation process was evaluated by the Psychological Separation Inventory, and results were cross-validated by the Pathology of Separation-Individuation Inventory. The Imaginative Ideation Inventory tested the relative dominance of the familial and social environments in participants' mental constructs. The findings showed that middleborn children had attained more advanced separation and were lower in family-focused ideation and higher in nonfamilial social ideation. However, the familial and not the social ideation explained the variance in the separation process in all the groups. The findings offer new insights into the effects of birth order on separation and individuation in adolescents and young adults.

  14. Birth order effects on the separation process in young adults: an evolutionary and dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Hermel, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzes the differential contribution of a familial or social focus in imaginative ideation (the personal fable and imagined audience mental constructs) to the separation-individuation process of firstborn, middleborn, and lastborn children. A total of 160 young adults were divided into 3 groups by birth order. Participants' separation-individuation process was evaluated by the Psychological Separation Inventory, and results were cross-validated by the Pathology of Separation-Individuation Inventory. The Imaginative Ideation Inventory tested the relative dominance of the familial and social environments in participants' mental constructs. The findings showed that middleborn children had attained more advanced separation and were lower in family-focused ideation and higher in nonfamilial social ideation. However, the familial and not the social ideation explained the variance in the separation process in all the groups. The findings offer new insights into the effects of birth order on separation and individuation in adolescents and young adults. PMID:21977689

  15. The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children's education

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J Devereux; Black, Sandra E; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade-off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich data set on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. We find a negative correlation between family size and children's education, but when we include indicators for birt...

  16. The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Childrens Education

    OpenAIRE

    Black, S.; Paul Devereux; Kjell Salvanes

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. While we find a negative correlation between family size and children's education, when we include indicators for bir...

  17. How Do Children Behave Regarding Their Birth Order in Dental Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Ghaderi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child’s behavior in dental setting. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental setting. Materials and Method: A total of 158 children with at least one primary mandibular molar needing class I restoration were selected. Children were classified based on the ordinal position; first, middle, or last child as well as single child. A blinded examiner recorded the pain perception of children during injection based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Sound, Eye and Movement (SEM scale. To assess the child's anxiety, the questionnaire known as “Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule” (CFSS-DS was employed. Results: The results showed that single children were significantly less cooperative and more anxious than the other children (p<0.001. The middle children were significantly more cooperative in comparison with the other child's position (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Single child may behave less cooperatively in dental setting. The order of child birth must also be considered in prediction of child’s behavior for behavioral management.

  18. Does neighborhood deprivation modify the effect of preterm birth on children's first grade academic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer L; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Williams, Bryan L; Kramer, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Children's cognitive development and academic performance are linked to both fetal and early childhood factors, including preterm birth and family socioeconomic status. We evaluated whether the relationship between preterm birth (PTB) and first grade standardized test performance among Georgia public school students was modified by neighborhood deprivation in early childhood. The Georgia Birth to School cohort followed 327,698 children born in Georgia from 1998 to 2002 through to end-of-year first grade standardized tests. Binomial and log-binomial generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk differences and risk ratios for the associations of both PTB and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index for the census tract in which each child's mother resided at the time of birth with test failure (versus passing). The presence of additive and multiplicative interaction was assessed. PTB was strongly associated with test failure, with increasing risk for earlier gestational ages. There was positive additive interaction between PTB and neighborhood deprivation. The main effect of PTB versus term birth increased risk of mathematics failure: 15.9% (95%CI: 13.3-18.5%) for early, 5.0% (95% CI: 4.1-5.9%) for moderate, and 1.3% (95%CI: 0.9-1.7%) for late preterm. Each 1 standard deviation increase in neighborhood deprivation was associated with 0.6% increased risk of mathematics failure. For children exposed to both PTB and higher neighborhood deprivation, test failure was 4.8%, 1.5%, and 0.8% greater than the sum of two main effects for early, moderate, and late PTB, respectively. Results were similar, but slightly attenuated, for reading and English/language arts. Our results suggest that PTB and neighborhood deprivation additively interact to produce greater risk among doubly exposed children than would be predicted from the sum of the effects of the two exposures. Understanding socioeconomic disparities in the effect of PTB on academic outcomes at school entry is

  19. Association between order of birth and chronic malnutrition of children: a study of nationally representative Bangladeshi sample

    OpenAIRE

    Mosfequr Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the net effect of birth order on child nutritional status in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2011 (BDHS). Analyses were restricted to 4,120 surviving, lastborn singleton children who were younger than 36 months at the time of the survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between birth order and child nutritional status. Results indicate 38.1% children are stunted and 8.2% children are fifth or higher order ...

  20. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: “Children of 1997” (n = 8,327). Results Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Conclusions Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk. PMID:27088360

  1. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ki Kwok

    Full Text Available Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally.We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327.Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.23, -0.14, lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04, greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14 and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14, but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11, adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996, but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15, but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11, at 13 years, but similar blood pressure.Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  2. Child Work and Schooling in Bangladesh: The Role of Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Khanam, Rasheda; Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur

    2005-01-01

    Using data from Bangladesh, this paper examines how the birth order of a child influences parental decisions to place children in one of the four activities – ‘study only’, ‘study and work’, ‘neither work nor study’ and ‘work only’. The results from the multinomial logit model show that being a first-born child increases the probability of working as the prime activity or at least combining school with work rather than schooling only. The results confirm that later-born children are more li...

  3. Effect of Sims modified position over the rotation and foetus progress down on women on their first birth with epidural anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rodríguez Ferrer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of epidural anaesthesia during birth process has made that both second stage of labour time and foetus expulsion time has increased. This has made that we will look for another position to favour the foetus progress down the birth canal so that time of the second stage of labour will decrease.The most usual positions on our country are the Sims and Semi-fowler ones, and the obstetric position, which is generally used when foetus is in III or IV level and birth is going to take place.After the hospital redesigning, our hospital bought some new articled beds which may be transformed into birthing bed, and some of the midwives that work there started to use this Sims position with the modification that this kind of bed permit, consisting on lifting one of the women legs. Woman is collocated lying on her side with one of her legs parallel to the other, but one of them is lift, avoiding the forced knees separation, being the woman firm and secure during all second stage of labour and expulsion period, using the squatting bar to help her when pushing. Therefore, an experimental study has being designed in order to know whether Sims modified position reduce the second stage of labour time, and also to know if this position favours the foetus rotation and progress down the birth canal.Women will be randomly divided into two groups, the control group and the experimental group.

  4. Effect of birth order on neonatal morbidity and mortality among very low birthweight twins: a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Shinwell, E; Blickstein, I.; Lusky, A; Reichman, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of birth order on the risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), chronic lung disease (CLD), adverse neurological findings, and death in very low birthweight (VLBW; < 1500 g) twins.

  5. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Separation and Crowding on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)

  6. Born to be wild? The effect of birth order, families and schools on truancy (Version 3.2)

    OpenAIRE

    Denny, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    This paper models the probability of 15-year-old children missing school or being late. The paper sets out to uncover the effects of family background and birth order on attendance. Looking at birth order effects allows one to test Sulloway’s “Born to Rebel” hypothesis that older siblings are more compliant than their younger siblings. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for Germany, Korea, Ireland, Mexico, Russia and the United States, the evidence here ...

  7. Born to be wild? The effect of birth order, families and schools on truancy (Version 4.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Denny, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    This paper models the probability of 15-year-old children missing school or being late. The paper sets out to uncover the effects of family background and birth order on attendance. Looking at birth order effects allows one to test Sulloway’s “Born to Rebel” hypothesis that older siblings are more compliant than their younger siblings. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for Germany, Korea, Ireland, Mexico, Russia and the United States, the evidence he...

  8. Association of Birth Order with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Young Adulthood: A Study of One Million Swedish Men

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Jelenkovic; Karri Silventoinen; Per Tynelius; Mikko Myrskylä; Finn Rasmussen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. Methods: BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscript...

  9. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiai Hirotaka; Shirasawa Takako; Ohtsu Tadahiro; Nishimura Rimei; Morimoto Aya; Obuchi Ritsuko; Hoshino Hiromi; Tajima Naoko; Kokaze Akatsuki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older s...

  10. Birth order dependent growth cone segregation determines synaptic layer identity in the Drosophila visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhishek; Ertekin, Deniz; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The precise recognition of appropriate synaptic partner neurons is a critical step during neural circuit assembly. However, little is known about the developmental context in which recognition specificity is important to establish synaptic contacts. We show that in the Drosophila visual system, sequential segregation of photoreceptor afferents, reflecting their birth order, lead to differential positioning of their growth cones in the early target region. By combining loss- and gain-of-function analyses we demonstrate that relative differences in the expression of the transcription factor Sequoia regulate R cell growth cone segregation. This initial growth cone positioning is consolidated via cell-adhesion molecule Capricious in R8 axons. Further, we show that the initial growth cone positioning determines synaptic layer selection through proximity-based axon-target interactions. Taken together, we demonstrate that birth order dependent pre-patterning of afferent growth cones is an essential pre-requisite for the identification of synaptic partner neurons during visual map formation in Drosophila. PMID:26987017

  11. Middleborns disadvantaged? Testing birth-order effects on fitness in pre-industrial Finns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Faurie

    Full Text Available Parental investment is a limited resource for which offspring compete in order to increase their own survival and reproductive success. However, parents might be selected to influence the outcome of sibling competition through differential investment. While evidence for this is widespread in egg-laying species, whether or not this may also be the case in viviparous species is more difficult to determine. We use pre-industrial Finns as our model system and an equal investment model as our null hypothesis, which predicts that (all else being equal middleborns should be disadvantaged through competition. We found no overall evidence to suggest that middleborns in a family are disadvantaged in terms of their survival, age at first reproduction or lifetime reproductive success. However, when considering birth-order only among same-sexed siblings, first-, middle- and lastborn sons significantly differed in the number of offspring they were able to rear to adulthood, although there was no similar effect among females. Middleborn sons appeared to produce significantly less offspring than first- or lastborn sons, but they did not significantly differ from lastborn sons in the number of offspring reared to adulthood. Our results thus show that taking sex differences into account is important when modelling birth-order effects. We found clear evidence of firstborn sons being advantaged over other sons in the family, and over firstborn daughters. Therefore, our results suggest that parents invest differentially in their offspring in order to both preferentially favour particular offspring or reduce offspring inequalities arising from sibling competition.

  12. Middleborns disadvantaged? Testing birth-order effects on fitness in pre-industrial Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurie, Charlotte; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi

    2009-01-01

    Parental investment is a limited resource for which offspring compete in order to increase their own survival and reproductive success. However, parents might be selected to influence the outcome of sibling competition through differential investment. While evidence for this is widespread in egg-laying species, whether or not this may also be the case in viviparous species is more difficult to determine. We use pre-industrial Finns as our model system and an equal investment model as our null hypothesis, which predicts that (all else being equal) middleborns should be disadvantaged through competition. We found no overall evidence to suggest that middleborns in a family are disadvantaged in terms of their survival, age at first reproduction or lifetime reproductive success. However, when considering birth-order only among same-sexed siblings, first-, middle- and lastborn sons significantly differed in the number of offspring they were able to rear to adulthood, although there was no similar effect among females. Middleborn sons appeared to produce significantly less offspring than first- or lastborn sons, but they did not significantly differ from lastborn sons in the number of offspring reared to adulthood. Our results thus show that taking sex differences into account is important when modelling birth-order effects. We found clear evidence of firstborn sons being advantaged over other sons in the family, and over firstborn daughters. Therefore, our results suggest that parents invest differentially in their offspring in order to both preferentially favour particular offspring or reduce offspring inequalities arising from sibling competition. PMID:19492096

  13. Biological and sociological interpretations of age-adjustment in studies of higher order birth rates

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Keiding; Mette Gerster

    2008-01-01

    Several studies of the effect of education on second or third birth rates (e.g. Hoem et al. (2001)) have used the concept of relative age at previous birth (B.Hoem (1996)). B.Hoem's idea was to focus on the social meaning of age at previous birth. We broaden the discussion by considering other interpretations of the explanatory power of the age at previous birth, particularly via known trends in biological fecundity. A mathematical analysis of the approach reveals side effects that have not b...

  14. Birth Order: An examination of its relationship with the Big Five personality theory and Trait Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, E

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the concept of birth order and its relationship with both the Big Five and trait emotional intelligence (EI). These relationships are examined through a series of studies, each differing in sample size and methodology. The hypotheses in this thesis are largely based on the work of Frank Sulloway and his influential book, Born to Rebel. Chapter 3 presents a set of meta-analyses on the relationships between birth order and the Big Five. Results suggest that there is no rela...

  15. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children’s record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother’s occupation, Mother’s education, child’s gender, Mother’s age, place of residence, wealth index, mother’s anaemia level, pr...

  16. Biological and sociological interpretations of age-adjustment in studies of higher order birth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Keiding

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of the effect of education on second or third birth rates (e.g. Hoem et al. (2001 have used the concept of relative age at previous birth (B.Hoem (1996. B.Hoem's idea was to focus on the social meaning of age at previous birth. We broaden the discussion by considering other interpretations of the explanatory power of the age at previous birth, particularly via known trends in biological fecundity. A mathematical analysis of the approach reveals side effects that have not been taken sufficiently into account. Our recommendation is not to use the relative age approach without supplementing it with the more traditional approach which includes the actual age at previous birth.

  17. Birth order and the dominance aspect of extraversion : Are firstborns more extraverted, in the sense of being dominant, than laterborns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study set out to examine the relationship between birth order and the dominance facet of extraversion in a community sample of around 1500 participants. In contrast, to Sulloway's (1995) predictions, the present study, using a between-family design, found firstborns to be less extraverte

  18. Using Family Systems and Birth Order Dynamics as the Basis for a College Career Decision-Making Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Richard W.; Mims, Grace Ann

    1992-01-01

    Describes a college career planning course that uses family systems, birth order, and sibling dynamics as its foundation. Outlines lecture, assignment, and small-group counseling segments of the course. Contends family system and Adlerian ideas introduce and unify this college career planning course. (Author/ABL)

  19. Birth Order and Sibling Gender Ratio of a Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is not clear whether sibling’s gender ratio is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study examines whether inattentiveness severity and hyperactivity/impulsivity severity are associated with birth order of children with ADHD.Method: Participants are a clinical sample of 173 children and adolescents with ADHD and 43 ones without ADHD. Diagnoses were made using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders forth edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR, diagnostic criteria according to face-to-face interview with the children and their parents. ADHD DSM-IV checklist was used to measure inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores.Results: The association of birth order and diagnosis of ADHD was not statistically significant after adjusting for covariate factors. The gender ratio of siblings is not associated with ADHD.Conclusion: Birth order and siblings gender ratio are independent of ADHD diagnosis. The results of this study support the fact that genetic factors rather than environmental factor of birth order is associated with ADHD. Moreover, contrary to autism, the current results do not suggest the androgen theory for ADHD.

  20. The Impact of Birth Order on Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes from Parents to Adolescent Sons: The Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…

  1. The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Children's Education. CEE DP 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the…

  2. Does time since immigration modify neighborhood deprivation gradients in preterm birth?:A multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Urquia, Marcelo Luis; Frank, John William; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard Henry

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants’ health is jointly influenced by their pre- and post-migration exposures, but how these two influences operate with increasing duration of residence has not been well-researched. We aimed to examine how the influence of maternal country of birth and neighborhood deprivation effects, if any, change over time since migration and how neighborhood effects among immigrants compare with those observed in the Canadian-born population. Birth data from Ontario hospital records (2002–2007) w...

  3. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14 and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16 significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend P for trend  Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.

  4. CHEBYSHEV APPROXIMATION OF THE SECOND KIND OF MODIFIED BESSEL FUNCTION OF ORDER ZERO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璟; 周哲玮

    2004-01-01

    The second kind of modified Bessel function of order zero is the solutions of many problems in engineering. Modified Bessel equation is transformed by exponential transformation and expanded by J. P. Boyd' s rational Chebyshev basis.

  5. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socio-economic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahly, Darren L; Adair, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that lower birth order amplifies the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult males from a lower-income, developing country context. Design The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is an ongoing community-based, observational study of a one year birth cohort (1983). Subjects 970 young adult males, mean age 21.5 y (2005). Measurements Central adiposity measured by waist circumference; birth order; perinatal...

  6. Sibling Variation and Family Language Policy: The Role of Birth Order in the Spanish Proficiency and First Names of Second-Generation Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Maryann

    2013-01-01

    The effects of birth order have been debated in many disciplines and have been shown to be important for a number of outcomes. However, studies examining the significance of birth order in language development and practices, particularly with regard to minority languages, are few. This article reports on two sets of data collected among Spanish…

  7. Perfil de natimortalidade de acordo com ordem de nascimento, peso e sexo de leitões Stillbirth pattern according to birth order, birth weight, and gender of piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Borges

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram acompanhados 575 partos para avaliar a influência da ordem de nascimento, do sexo e do peso dos leitões na ocorrência de natimortos. Dos 7061 leitões, 90,2%, 6,0% e 3,8% nasceram vivos, natimortos ou mumificados, respectivamente. O percentual de partos com natimortos foi 44,5%. Partos com dois ou mais natimortos foram responsáveis por 63,1% das perdas por natimortalidade, embora tenham sido responsáveis por 17,2% das leitegadas. O percentual de natimortos aumentou com a ordem de nascimento; a maior taxa de natimortos, 21,7%, ocorreu a partir da 14ª ordem. A taxa de natimortalidade foi de 3,6% e 10,1% nos leitões de primeira a nona e de 10ª a 13ª ordem, respectivamente. Em leitões com até 500g a taxa de natimortos foi de 52,1%, mais alta que a de leitões mais pesados. Em leitões com 501 a 1200g foi de 10,1%, maior que entre os com mais de 1200g (4,0%. Não houve efeito de sexo dos leitões na ocorrência de natimortos, que foi de 6,2% e 5,8% para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. A natimortalidade é maior entre os leitões com baixo peso ou com ordem de nascimento elevada.To examine the influence of birth order, gender, and birth weight of piglets on stillbirth, records of 575 farrowings were analyzed. Out of 7,061 piglets, 90.2%, 6.0%, and 3.8% were born alive, stillborns and mummified, respectively. The percentage of farrowings with stillborns was 44.5%. Farrowings with two or more stillborns accounted for 63.1% of losses, although they produced 17.2% of the litters. Stillbirth rate increased with the increase of the birth order. Piglets born from the 14th order onward had the highest stillbirth rate (21.7%. Piglets born from the 1st to the 9th and from the 10th to the 13th order had stillbirth rates of 3.6% and 10.1%, respectively. For piglets weighting up to 500g, the stillbirth rate was 52.1%, which was higher than that recorded for heavier piglets. Piglets weighting from 501 to 1,200g had a stillbirth rate of 10

  8. Birth order, individual sex and sex of competitors determine the outcome of conflict among siblings over parental care

    OpenAIRE

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Caprioli, Manuela; Saino, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Success in competition for limiting parental resources depends on the interplay between parental decisions over allocation of care and offspring traits. Birth order, individual sex and sex of competing siblings are major candidates as determinants of success in sib–sib competition, but experimental studies focusing on the combined effect of these factors on parent–offspring communication and within-brood competitive dynamics are rare. Here, we assessed individual food intake and body mass gai...

  9. Birth Order and Sibling Gender Ratio of a Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Marzie Abotorabi-Zarchi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Ali Firoozabadi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It is not clear whether sibling’s gender ratio is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examines whether inattentiveness severity and hyperactivity/impulsivity severity are associated with birth order of children with ADHD.Method: Participants are a clinical sample of 173 children and adolescents with ADHD and 43 ones without ADHD. Diagnoses were made using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders forth edition-Text Revision (DSM-I...

  10. Maternal Behavior by Birth Order in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Increased Investment by First-Time Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Margaret A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Goodall, Jane; Murray, Carson M

    2014-08-01

    Parental investment theory predicts that maternal resources are finite and allocated among offspring based on factors including maternal age and condition, and offspring sex and parity. Among humans, firstborn children are often considered to have an advantage and receive greater investment than their younger siblings. However, conflicting evidence for this "firstborn advantage" between modern and hunter-gatherer societies raises questions about the evolutionary history of differential parental investment and birth order. In contrast to humans, most non-human primate firstborns belong to young, inexperienced mothers and exhibit higher mortality than laterborns. In this study, we investigated differences in maternal investment and offspring outcomes based on birth order (firstborn vs. later-born) among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodyte schweinfurthii). During the critical first year of life, primiparous mothers nursed, groomed, and played with their infants more than did multiparous mothers. Furthermore, this pattern of increased investment in firstborns appeared to be compensatory, as probability of survival did not differ by birth order. Our study did not find evidence for a firstborn advantage as observed in modern humans but does suggest that unlike many other primates, differences in maternal behavior help afford chimpanzee first-borns an equal chance of survival. PMID:25328164

  11. Preventive education and birth order as co-determinants of IQ in disadvantaged 5-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boat, B W; Campbell, F A; Ramey, C T

    1986-01-01

    The effects of preventive education and birth order on IQ scores of 95 economically disadvantaged children at risk for retarded intellectual development were studied. Experimental first- and later-born children participated from birth in a 5-year programme of systematic educational intervention. An equal number of children served as controls and received no systematic intervention. First-borns prevailed as the brighter children in both the educational treatment group and the control group when Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) full scale and verbal IQ scores were compared. Furthermore, mothers of first-borns (70% of whom were only-born at age 5) achieved significantly higher WAIS scores than did mothers of later-born children. Results suggest that later-born disadvantaged children are at greatest risk for developmental retardation. PMID:3955795

  12. A modified multi-reference second order perturbation theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new scheme with extended model space is proposed to improve the calculation of multi-reference second order perturbation theory (MRPT2). The new scheme preserves the concise code structure of the original program, and avoids intruder states in constructions of the potential energy surface, which is confirmed by a series of comparable calculations. The new MRPT2 program is an available tool for the research of molecular excited states and electronic spectrum.

  13. 48 CFR 13.302-3 - Obtaining contractor acceptance and modifying purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance and modifying purchase orders. 13.302-3 Section 13.302-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 13.302-3 Obtaining contractor acceptance and modifying purchase orders....

  14. 48 CFR 1313.302-3 - Obtaining contractor acceptance and modifying purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance and modifying purchase orders. 1313.302-3 Section 1313.302-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisitions Methods 1313.302-3 Obtaining contractor acceptance and modifying purchase orders....

  15. Child Home Care Allowance: Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pajunen, Anni

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I study the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 19-44 in Finland. I use register data from the Finnish Census Panel (FCP) on 254 465 women who had a second or third child during 1993 to 2007. I apply discrete-time event-history analysis to examine whether women using the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of three have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing – ...

  16. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence.

  17. Children's experiences of the repositioning of their psychological birth order in a reconstituted family / Lizelle van Jaarsveld.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Jaarsveld, Lizelle

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore and describe children’s experiences of the repositioning of their psychological birth order in a reconstituted family. The aim of this study is also to contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon to aid the parents of these children as well as professionals working with such families. The systems theory was used as the meta-theory of this study. Gestalt field theory formed the connection between the systems theory and Adlerian theory, to port...

  18. 77 FR 36302 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Confirmatory Order Modifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Confirmatory Order Modifying License... of 10 CFR part 72, Subpart K at the Yankee Nuclear Power Station. The facility is located at the... Facility Operating License for Yankee Nuclear Power Station must be modified to include provisions...

  19. 怀孕年龄与胎次对出生缺陷的影响分析%The Impact of Age of Pregnancy and Birth Order on Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 李骅; 米红

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 5782 cases of patients from the Attached of Obstetrical and Gynecological Hospital of Zhejiang University , the paper analyzes the impacts of pregnant age and birth order on the fetal defect rate as well as impacts of the fetal defect on the population quality at the policy of two-children for all families. It is found that the pregnant age lower than 19 and older than 35 can cause the increase of fetal defect rate , while the birth order impact the birth defect rate in different ways , the higher the birth order is , for those mothers younger than 24 , the higher rate of birth defect and for the mothers aged 25-44 there is no increase of birth defect rate for their second and third child birth but with a relatively higher birth defects for their fourth child birth. It seems that the birth defect rate of second child have no negative impacts on population quality even after the permit of second child birth for all families in future.%本研究通过抽取浙江大学医学院附属妇产科医院某病区5782个病例(736例患病),从出生缺陷的角度,通过对妇女怀孕年龄及胎次与胎儿畸形患病率的关系对开放二胎政策之后的人口质量的影响进行分析,发现孕妇年龄过低(19岁以下)与过高(35岁以上)均会导致出生缺陷率提高;而胎次的影响比较复杂,对于24岁以下的年龄段来说,胎次越高,患病率越高,而对于25-44岁的孕妇来说,除了第4胎及以上的患病率较高,第2、3胎的患病率没有明显的差别。因此,放开二胎将不会对人口质量产生显著影响。

  20. The Impact of Age of Pregnancy and Birth Order on Birth Defects%怀孕年龄与胎次对出生缺陷的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 李骅; 米红

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 5782 cases of patients from the Attached of Obstetrical and Gynecological Hospital of Zhejiang University , the paper analyzes the impacts of pregnant age and birth order on the fetal defect rate as well as impacts of the fetal defect on the population quality at the policy of two-children for all families. It is found that the pregnant age lower than 19 and older than 35 can cause the increase of fetal defect rate , while the birth order impact the birth defect rate in different ways , the higher the birth order is , for those mothers younger than 24 , the higher rate of birth defect and for the mothers aged 25-44 there is no increase of birth defect rate for their second and third child birth but with a relatively higher birth defects for their fourth child birth. It seems that the birth defect rate of second child have no negative impacts on population quality even after the permit of second child birth for all families in future.%本研究通过抽取浙江大学医学院附属妇产科医院某病区5782个病例(736例患病),从出生缺陷的角度,通过对妇女怀孕年龄及胎次与胎儿畸形患病率的关系对开放二胎政策之后的人口质量的影响进行分析,发现孕妇年龄过低(19岁以下)与过高(35岁以上)均会导致出生缺陷率提高;而胎次的影响比较复杂,对于24岁以下的年龄段来说,胎次越高,患病率越高,而对于25-44岁的孕妇来说,除了第4胎及以上的患病率较高,第2、3胎的患病率没有明显的差别。因此,放开二胎将不会对人口质量产生显著影响。

  1. Later-borns Don't Give Up: The Temporary Effects of Birth Order on European Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    The existing empirical evidence on the effects of birth order on wages does not distinguish between temporary and permanent effects. Using data from 11 European countries for males born between 1935 and 1956, we show that firstborns enjoy on average a 13.7 % premium in their entry wage compared with later-borns. This advantage, however, is short-lived and disappears 10 years after labor market entry. Although firstborns start with a better job, partially because of their higher education, later-borns quickly catch up by switching earlier and more frequently to better-paying jobs. We argue that a key factor driving our findings is that later-borns have lower risk aversion than firstborns. PMID:26884377

  2. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hawken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  3. Birthweight, parental age, birth order and breast cancer risk in African-American and white women: a population-based case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Newman, Beth; Millikan, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Much recent work has focused on hypotheses that very early life exposures influence adult cancer risk. For breast cancer it has been hypothesized that high in utero estrogen exposure may increase risk. Methods We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study of incident breast cancer in North Carolina, to examine associations for three possible surrogates of high prenatal estrogen exposure: weight at birth, maternal age, and birth order. W...

  4. Modified projective synchronization of a fractional-order hyperchaotic system with a single driving variable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Zhang Yong-Lei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the modified projective synchronization (MPS) of a fractional-order hyperchaotic system is investigated.We design the response system corresponding to the drive system on the basis of projective synchronization theory,and determine the sufficient condition for the synchronization of the drive system and the response system based on fractional-order stability theory.The MPS of a fractional-order hyperchaotic system is achieved by transmitting a single variable.This scheme reduces the information transmission in order to achieve the synchronization,and extends the applicable scope of MPS.Numerical simulations further demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  5. Gender and birth order as parenting moderators / A influência do gênero e ordem de nascimento sobre as práticas educativas parentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.

  6. Birth order and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, A. P.

    1971-01-01

    It was found that (a) later borns from two-child families were more external than those from larger families; (b) later borns were more external than only children or firstborns; (c) only children and firstborns were more socially responsible than later borns; and (d) firstborns were more rigid than only-child and later-born Ss. (Author)

  7. 75 FR 4877 - In the Matter of Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all... Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology (BGNR) (Licensee) is the holder of medical License No. 52-25542-01, issued by the...

  8. Effects of gender difference and birth order on perceived parenting styles, measured by the EMBU scale, in Japanese two-sibling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, T; Uehara, T; Kadowaki, M; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppforstran (EMBU) scaling and gender, birth order and parents' gender was previously investigated in a large volunteer sample; significant interactions among the variables were found. In the present study, 730 Japanese volunteers with one sibling were used as subjects in order to control the number of siblings: the effect of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order on the perceived parenting style was examined. Based on gender and birth orders, 730 subjects were grouped into the following categories: (i) male with a younger brother; (ii) male with a younger sister; (iii) male with an older brother; (iv) male with an older sister; (v) female with a younger brother; (vi) female with a younger sister; (vii) female with an older brother; and (viii) female with an older sister. One-way ANOVA was performed with each EMBU subscale used as a dependent variable and these eight groups as independent variables. The scores for rejection and emotional warmth of father were influenced significantly by the pattern of siblings (Pchildren strongly experienced parenting style as more rejecting than others, and female children (elder sisters with brother, or younger sisters with sister) recognized parenting style as more caring and demonstrated more warmth than others. The results confirmed a significant interaction of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order of perceived parental rearing behavior.

  9. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game.

  10. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game. PMID:20435800

  11. A modified natural cycle results in higher live birth rate in vitrified-thawed embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yichun; Fan, Hongfang; Styer, Aaron K; Xiao, Zhiying; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jianrui; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Xingling; Zhang, Zhan

    2016-10-01

    There is no consensus regimen for the optimal endometrial preparation for cryopreservation and vitrified-thawed embryo transfer cycles. This is largely caused by the lack of sufficient investigation and analyses on the respective pregnancy and perinatal outcomes by different regimens. This study aimed to compare both pregnancy and perinatal outcomes between the modified natural and artificial cycles in vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation. A total of 1,482 vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer cycles were reviewed including 427 modified natural cycles (NC), 132 ovulation induction cycles (OC), 794 artificial cycles (AC), and 129 GnRH agonist artificial cycles (GAC). The primary outcome that was evaluated was live birth rate. The NC regimen demonstrated a higher rate of ongoing pregnancy (43.8% vs. 30.2%, P = 0.002) and a lower rate of late abortion (2.8% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.003) than the GAC regimen as well as a higher implantation rate (31.9% vs. 27.1%, P = 0.008) and live birth rate (43.1% vs. 34.1%, P = 0.002) than the AC regimen. A significantly higher peak endometrial thickness before transfer was observed in patients using the NC and GAC regimens (10.0 ± 1.7, 9.9 ± 2.4) compared to the AC regimens (9.2 ± 1.5, P = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the NC protocol was associated with a higher live birth rate. There were no significant differences in rates of pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality, birth defects, mean birth weight, and other perinatal outcomes among the regimens. Modified natural cycle endometrial preparation regimen for vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer is associated with superior live birth pregnancy outcomes compared to artificial cycles. Future studies are warranted to investigate the underlying biologic mechanisms of these findings. Abbreviations ART: assisted reproductive technology; BMI: body mass index; FET: frozen-thawed embryo transfer; HCG: human chorionic

  12. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  13. Electrochemical synthesis of highly ordered polypyrrole on copper modified aluminium substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddaramanna, Ashoka [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l’Aluminium, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Quebec G7H2B1 (Canada); Saleema, N. [Aluminum Technology Centre, National Research Council of Canada, University East, Saguenay, Quebec G7H8C3 (Canada); Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l’Aluminium, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Quebec G7H2B1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Fabrication of highly ordered conducting polymers on metal surfaces has received a significant interest owing to their potential applications in organic electronic devices. In this context, we have developed a simple method for the synthesis of highly ordered polypyrrole (PPy) on copper modified aluminium surfaces via electrochemical polymerization process. A series of characteristic peaks of PPy evidenced on the infrared spectra of these surfaces confirm the formation of PPy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of PPy deposited on copper modified aluminium surfaces also confirmed the deposition of PPy as a sharp and intense peak at 2θ angle of 23° attributable to PPy is observed while this peak is absent on PPy deposited on as-received aluminium surfaces. An atomic model of the interface of PPy/Cu has been presented based on the inter-atomic distance of copper–copper of (1 0 0) plane and the inter-monomer distance of PPy, to describe the ordering of PPy on Cu modified Al surfaces.

  14. High Weak Order Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Modified Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulle, Assyr

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Inspired by recent advances in the theory of modified differential equations, we propose a new methodology for constructing numerical integrators with high weak order for the time integration of stochastic differential equations. This approach is illustrated with the constructions of new methods of weak order two, in particular, semi-implicit integrators well suited for stiff (meansquare stable) stochastic problems, and implicit integrators that exactly conserve all quadratic first integrals of a stochastic dynamical system. Numerical examples confirm the theoretical results and show the versatility of our methodology.

  15. Dynamic bifurcation of a modified Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with higher-order nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qiong-Wei; Tang Jia-Shi

    2011-01-01

    Under the periodic boundary condition,dynamic bifurcation and stability in the modified Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with a higher-order nonlinearity p(ux)Puxx are investigated by using the centre manifold reduction procedure.The result shows that as the control parameter crosses a critical value,the system undergoes a bifurcation from the trivial solution to produce a cycle consisting of locally asymptotically stable equilibrium points. Furthermore,for cases in which the distances to the bifurcation points are small enough,one-order approximations to the bifurcation solutions are obtained.

  16. The dynamic specification of the modified pecking order theory: Its relevance to Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elena Bontempi

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes an empirical model for the modified pecking order theory (MPO) in which both trade-off (TO) and pecking order (PO) models are nested. The MPO model is specified as an error-correction mechanism and applied to a vast panel data-set. Unlike previously estimated financial models, it avoids a number of problems: the mis-specification of dynamics, the approximation of the target leverage using the historical mean, the constrained estimation of the free cash flow components in a...

  17. The Cortisol Awakening Response for Modified Method for Higher Order Logical Relationship Using Different Mean Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Senthil Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the free cortisol response to waking, believed to be genetically influenced, would be elevated in a significant percent age of cases, regard less of the afternoon Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST value based on high-order fuzzy logical relationships. First, the proposed method fuzzifies the historical data into fuzzy sets to form high-order fuzzy logical relationships. Then, it calculates the value of the variable between the subscripts of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of high-order fuzzy logical relationships. Finally, it chooses a modified high-order fuzzy logical relationships group to forecast the free cortisol response to walking and the short day time profile using various mean techniques like, Arithmetic Mean, Geometric Mean, Heronian Mean, Root Mean Square and Harmonic Mean.

  18. Chemically Modified Ordered Mesoporous Carbon/Polyaniline Composites for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ling-bin; ZHANG Jing; CAI Jian-jun; YANG Zhen-sheng; LUO Yong-chun; KANG Long

    2011-01-01

    Chemically modified ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 materials were prepared by means of an easy wet-oxidative method in 2 mol/L nitric acid aqueous solution. A large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups were introduced onto the CMK-3 surface. Modified CMK-3(m-CMK-3) and aniline monomer were polymerized via an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method. Morphological characterizations of m-CMK-3/PANI (polyaniline) composites were carried out via field emission scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Their electrochemical properties were investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The m-CMK-3/PANI composites have excellent properties in capacitance, and the highest specific capacitance(SC) value was up to 489 F/g, suggesting their potential application in the electrode material for electrochemical capacitors.

  19. An Approach to Differential Geometry of Fractional Order via Modified Riemann-Liouville Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy JUMARIE

    2012-01-01

    In order to cope with some difficulties due to the fact that the derivative of a constant is not zero with the commonly accepted Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative,one (Jumarie)has proposed recently an alternative referred to as (local) modified Riemann-Liouville definition,which directly,provides a Taylor's series of fractional order for non differentiable functions.We examine here in which way this calculus can be used as a framework for a differential geometry of fractional order.One will examine successively implicit function,manifold,length of curves,radius of curvature,Christoffel coefficients,velocity,acceleration.One outlines the application of this framework to Lagrange optimization in mechanics,and one concludes with some considerations on a possible fractional extension of the pseudo-geodesic of thespecial relativity and of the Lorentz transformation.

  20. A modified higher order Godunov’s scheme for stiff source conservative hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Francesco; Colella, Phillip

    2007-06-01

    We present an efficient second-order accurate scheme to treat stiff source terms within the framework of higher order Godunov’s methods. We employ Duhamel’s formula to devise a modified predictor step which accounts for the effects of stiff source terms on the conservative fluxes and recovers the correct isothermal behavior in the limit of an infinite cooling/reaction rate. Source term effects on the conservative quantities are fully accounted for by means of a one-step, second-order accurate semi-implicit corrector scheme based on the deferred correction method of Dutt et al. We demonstrate the accurate, stable and convergent results of the proposed method through a set of benchmark problems for a variety of stiffness conditions and source types.

  1. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with BCG vaccine at birth may be modified by subsequent DTP vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria;

    2009-01-01

    Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP......) vaccinations had modified the effect of VAS at birth. VAS was associated with a weak tendency for decreased mortality as long as BCG was the most recent vaccination, the mortality rate ratio being 0.86 (0.48-1.54); 0.82 (0.32-2.08) in girls and 0.89 (0.43-1.88) in boys. However, after DTP vaccination VAS...... at birth was associated with increased mortality in girls (2.19 (1.09-4.38)), whereas no difference was seen for boys (0.90 (0.44-1.82)) (p=0.08 for equal effect of VAS in the two sexes if DTP is the last vaccine). The explanation for the lack of beneficial effect in our setting may have been that VAS...

  2. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich;

    2016-01-01

    Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied...... programing may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings....

  3. A Modified Higher Order Godunov's Scheme for Stiff Source Conservative Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Miniati, F; Colella, Phillip; Miniati, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    Hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms appear in the study of a variety of physical systems. Early work showed that the use of formally second-order accurate semi-implicit methods could lead to a substantial loss of accuracy, due to inconsistencies between the flux calculation without sources and the limiting equilibrium behavior of the gas. In this paper we present an efficient second order accurate scheme to treat stiff source terms within the framework of higher order Godunov's methods. We employ Duhamel's formula to devise a modified predictor step which accounts for the effects of stiff source terms on the conservative fluxes and recovers the correct isothermal behavior in the limit of an infinite cooling/reaction rate. Source term effects on the conservative quantities are fully accounted for by means of a one-step, second order accurate semi-implicit corrector scheme based on the deferred correction method of Dutt et. al. We demostrate the accurate, stable and convergent results of the pr...

  4. 山西省食管癌患者出生顺序研究%Study on the birth order of patients with esophagus cancer in Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩斐; 范亚峰; 王国平; 丁悌; 李建民; 苏文; 高泽锋; 韩小友

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between esophagus cancer patients and both environmental and genetic factors,through analyzing the data on birth orders from esophagus cancer patients of Shanxi province.Methods Both Greenwood and Haldane methods on birth order were used to study the 1101 cases with esophagus cancer from Shanxi province.All the patients had received surgery and were diagnosed,by pathological evidence.First certificates of the patients were confirmed through the standard genetic epidemiologic investigation.Birth order was investigated on probands of the 1101 cases with esophagus cancer and their 44 siblings.Results Results form the Greenwood method showed that there was a tendency for cases with esophagus cancer in birth orders First to Third.However,the Haldane method showed that the results were quite different between actual value and the average theory value of 6A (6A(actual value)=17 118,(X)6A(average theory value) =19 290,X=∣6A-(X)6A∣/√V6A =7.63,X > 2) which suggested that the birth order had some effects on the occurrence of esophagus cancer.In addition,the actual value of 6A was lower than the theoretic average value,and the parents at younger productive age or baby at the first birth was easy to develop esophagus cancer.Conclusion Esophagus cancer was related with the birth order,especially at early order,which was not consistent with the national reports on esophagus cancer.Results from this study suggested that there were certain effects of environmental risk factors on esophagus cancer patients.%目的 分析山西省食管癌患者的出生顺序,探讨环境因素、遗传因素与食管癌的关系.方法 采用Greenwood和Haldane的出生顺序方法,以山西省肿瘤医院1101例住院食管癌手术患者为先证者进行遗传流行病学调查,并对1101例先证者及44例食管癌患病同胞进行出生顺序研究.结果 Greenwood法分析结果显示,食管癌患者较多发生在出生顺序1~3

  5. 3D elastic wave modeling using modified high‐order time stepping schemes with improved stability conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    We present two Lax‐Wendroff type high‐order time stepping schemes and apply them to solving the 3D elastic wave equation. The proposed schemes have the same format as the Taylor series expansion based schemes, only with modified temporal extrapolation coefficients. We demonstrate by both theoretical analysis and numerical examples that the modified schemes significantly improve the stability conditions.

  6. Reduced-order model based feedback control of the modified Hasegawa-Wakatani model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in flow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then, a model-based feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators. Finally, a linear quadratic Gaussian controller which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.

  7. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein, E-mail: mohammadnezhad@cc.iut.ac.ir; Dinari, Mohammad, E-mail: dinari@cc.iut.ac.ir; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of mesoporous carbon, FDU-15, was modified by 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. • Nanocomposites of PMMA and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization. • XRD shows that modified mesoporous FDU-15 has an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. • TEM and SEM images confirm the presence of large pores and ordered mesostructure. • Mechanical data indicated improvement in the tensile strength and modulus. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA.

  8. Characterizing trends in HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Australia by birth cohorts: results from a modified back-projection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wand Handan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We set out to estimate historical trends in HIV incidence in Australian men who have sex with men with respect to age at infection and birth cohort. Methods A modified back-projection technique is applied to data from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance System in Australia, including "newly diagnosed HIV infections", "newly acquired HIV infections" and "AIDS diagnoses", to estimate trends in HIV incidence over both calendar time and age at infection. Results Our results demonstrate that since 2000, there has been an increase in new HIV infections in Australian men who have sex with men across all age groups. The estimated mean age at infection increased from ~35 years in 2000 to ~37 years in 2007. When the epidemic peaked in the mid 1980s, the majority of the infections (56% occurred among men aged 30 years and younger; 30% occurred in ages 31 to 40 years; and only ~14% of them were attributed to the group who were older than 40 years of age. In 2007, the proportion of infections occurring in persons 40 years or older doubled to 31% compared to the mid 1980s, while the proportion of infections attributed to the group younger than 30 years of age decreased to 36%. Conclusion The distribution of HIV incidence for birth cohorts by infection year suggests that the HIV epidemic continues to affect older homosexual men as much as, if not more than, younger men. The results are useful for evaluating the impact of the epidemic across successive birth cohorts and study trends among the age groups most at risk.

  9. 大学生出生次序、自尊与人际关系%The Birth Order,Self -esteem and Interpersonal Relationship of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓红

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the differences between the birth order and relationships in considering the self -esteem acts as a personality factor.We have chosen 300 students in Zhengzhou University to investigate by using the self -esteem scale and interpersonal relationships assessment scale.The results show that there are not obvious differences in self -esteem in dif-ferent birth orders,including the differences between only one or non -only -child student.The extent of troubled relation-ships and its communication and interpersonal relationship factors between only one or non -only -child student is not signifi-cant,but it is significant between the students in different birth orders.%目的:结合自尊这一人格因素探讨不同出生次序的大学生人际关系之间的差异。方法:采用自尊量表、人际关系综合诊断量表对郑州大学300名大学生进行测查。结果:独生与非独生、非独生子女中不同出生次序的大学生自尊水平差异不显著。独生与非独生子女之间的人际交往困扰总分及各因子分之间差异不显著,在非独生子女中,不同出生次序大学生在与人交谈困扰因子、人际交往困扰因子及人际关系困扰总分上差异显著。

  10. 大学生出生次序、自尊与人际关系%The Birth Order,Self -esteem and Interpersonal Relationship of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓红

    2015-01-01

    目的:结合自尊这一人格因素探讨不同出生次序的大学生人际关系之间的差异。方法:采用自尊量表、人际关系综合诊断量表对郑州大学300名大学生进行测查。结果:独生与非独生、非独生子女中不同出生次序的大学生自尊水平差异不显著。独生与非独生子女之间的人际交往困扰总分及各因子分之间差异不显著,在非独生子女中,不同出生次序大学生在与人交谈困扰因子、人际交往困扰因子及人际关系困扰总分上差异显著。%This paper aims to explore the differences between the birth order and relationships in considering the self -esteem acts as a personality factor.We have chosen 300 students in Zhengzhou University to investigate by using the self -esteem scale and interpersonal relationships assessment scale.The results show that there are not obvious differences in self -esteem in dif-ferent birth orders,including the differences between only one or non -only -child student.The extent of troubled relation-ships and its communication and interpersonal relationship factors between only one or non -only -child student is not signifi-cant,but it is significant between the students in different birth orders.

  11. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  12. Selective Voltammetric Determination of Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid at Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Modified Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN,Yan-Li; JIA,Neng-Qin; WANG,Zhi-Yong; SHEN,He-Bai

    2008-01-01

    A novel chemically modified electrode was fabricated by immobilizing ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)onto a glassy carbon (GC) electrode.The electrocatalytic behavior of the OMC modified electrode towards the oxidation of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was studied.Compared to a glassy carbon electrode,the OMC modified electrode showed a faster electron transfer rate and reduced the overpotentials greatly.Furthermore,the OMC modified electrode resolved the overlapping voltammetric responses of UA and AA into two well-defined voltammetric peaks with peak separation of ca.0.38 V.All results show that the OMC modified electrode has a good electrocatalytic ability to UA and AA,and has an excellent response towards UA even in the presence of high concentration AA.

  13. Holographic dark energy models and higher order generalizations in dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqua, Antonio [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); Chattopadhyay, Surajit [Bengal Pailan Park, Pailan College of Management and Technology, Kolkata (India)

    2015-02-01

    Dark energy models are here investigated and studied in the framework of the Chern-Simons modified gravity model. We bring into focus the holographic dark energy model with Granda-Oliveros cut-off, the modified holographic Ricci dark energy model and a model with higher derivatives of the Hubble parameter. The relevant expressions of the scale factor a(t) for a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe are derived and studied, and, in this context, the evolution of the scale factor is shown to be similar to the one displayed by the modified Chaplygin gas in two of the above models. (orig.)

  14. Births: Final Data for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Osterman, Michelle J K; Curtin, Sally C; Matthews, T J

    2015-12-01

    This report presents 2014 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence and birth rates by age and race of father also are shown. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. PMID:26727629

  15. Birth order and memories of traumatic and family experiences in Greek patients with borderline personality disorder versus patients with other personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanolaki, Hara; Spyropoulou, Areti C; Iliadou, Aggeliki; Vousoura, Eleni; Vondikaki, Stamatia; Pantazis, Nikos; Vaslamatzis, Grigoris

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of recalled traumatic experiences, perceived parental rearing styles, and family parameters on the occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) versus other personality disorders (other-PDs). A total of 88 adult outpatients with personality disorders completed the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, which measures perceptions regarding parental rearing. Results indicated that incidence of traumatic childhood experiences was higher among those in the BPD group compared to those in the other-PD group. Firstborns were less likely to carry a diagnosis of BPD over other-PDs. Also, significantly more BPD compared to other-PD patients reported being the father's favorite child over siblings. Results suggest that traumatic experiences, birth order, and family interactions in the presence of siblings seem to differentially affect the formation of borderline diagnosis compared to other-PDs. Limitations and clinical implications of the study are discussed in detail.

  16. A influência do gênero e ordem de nascimento sobre as práticas educativas parentais Gender and birth order as parenting moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o gênero e a ordem de nascimento como variáveis moderadoras das práticas educativas parentais e da percepção da preferência parental a partir do ponto de vista dos filhos. Participaram da pesquisa 322 adolescentes entre 13 e 17 anos. Foram utilizados dois instrumentos para a coleta de dados: Inventário de Estilos Parentais (IEP e um questionário desenvolvido pelos autores. Os dados foram analisados através da estatística não-paramétrica (Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. Através da análise dos resultados, constatou-se que: (a o gênero dos filhos interfere significativamente nos índices de estilo parental; (b as primogênitas apresentaram significativamente maior risco de sofrer com as práticas parentais negativas e (c a percepção da preferência parental é influenciada pelo gênero e ordem de nascimento dos filhos.This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.

  17. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  18. 基于二孩政策的活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量关系研究%Relationship between birth order of live neonates and premature and low birth weight:a cross-sectional study due to the two-child policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计德永; 王君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量的关系,为提高人口出生质量提供参考。方法选取2013年在某市妇幼保健院分娩的所有单胎活产儿为研究对象,资料收集于新生儿出生医学信息登记系统。结果活产儿出生顺序在1~8之间(1.4±0.6),出生顺序为1占65.9%(4055/6151),出生顺序为2占29.8%(1835/6151),出生顺序为3及以上占4.2%(261/6151)。出生顺序为1、2、3及以上的活产儿的早产检出率分别为8.2%、14.1%和27.2%(趋势χ2=113.620, P<0.05),低出生体质量检出率分别为6.2%、11.1%和26.8%(趋势χ2=132.228, P<0.05)。控制产妇年龄、文化程度及户口所在地后多因素分析显示,出生顺序为2、3及以上的活产儿出现早产的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.546倍和3.186倍,出现低出生体质量的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.991倍和5.530倍。结论高出生顺序为早产及低出生体质量发生的高危因素。%Objective To explore the relationship between birth order and premature, low birth weight among live neonates in order to provide the basis for improving birth quality. Methods All live neonates of single birth were selected from this hospital in 2013, and the data were collected from Medical Birth Register. Results The number of birth order was 1~8 (1. 4 ± 0. 6), the proportion of first birth or-der was 65. 9% (4 055/6 151), second birth order was 29. 8% (1 835/6 151), and third or more birth order was 4. 2% (261/6 151). The prevalence rate of premature birth was 8. 2% in first birth order, 14. 1% in second birth and 27. 2% in third or more birth (χ2 =113. 620, P<0. 05), and the prevalence rate of low birth weight was 6. 2 in first birth order, 11. 1% in second birth and 26. 8% in third or more birth (χ2 =132. 228, P<0. 05). The factors of maternal age, educational level and residence were controlled and multivariate analysis showed that, the risk of premature

  19. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... in which they give birth. Do you want music and low lighting? How about the freedom to ...

  20. Home Births in the United States, 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Home Births in the United States, 1990–2009 Recommend ... Keywords: birth certificates, out-of-hospital birth U.S. home births increased by 29% from 2004 to 2009. ...

  1. A Modified Higher Order Godunov's Scheme for Stiff Source Conservative Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Miniati, Francesco; Colella, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    Hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms appear in the study of a variety of physical systems. Early work showed that the use of formally second-order accurate semi-implicit methods could lead to a substantial loss of accuracy, due to inconsistencies between the flux calculation without sources and the limiting equilibrium behavior of the gas. In this paper we present an efficient second order accurate scheme to treat stiff source terms within the framework of higher order Godunov...

  2. Maternal age, birth order and other early-life factors: a family-level approach to exploring exceptional survival. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research|Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2013 11|

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Alain; Bourbeau, Robert; Jarry, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides increasing empirical support for the idea that early-life experiences can greatly shape someone’s future health and longevity. Besides shared early-life conditions, within-family variation in maternal age at time of childbirth and birth order have been found to be related to later-life survival. In this study, we examine whether there is a persisting effect of maternal age and birth order on survival to age 104 when both variables are considered and adjusted for season...

  3. The Neglected Birth Order: Middleborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Jeannie S.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the self-esteem of middleborns compared with firstborns and lastborns. Studied the number, spacing, and sex of siblings of the middleborn. Data were obtained from a national sample of over 2,200 adolescent males. Results suggested that middleborns have a significantly lower self-esteem than firstborns and lastborns. (Author)

  4. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional-order nonlinear equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAPLAN MELIKE; BEKIR AHMET

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear fractional differential equations are encountered in various fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, engineering and in numerous other applications. Exact solutions of these equations play a crucial role in the proper understanding of the qualitative features of many phenomena and processes in various areas of natural science. Thus, many effective and powerful methods have been established and improved. In this study, we establish exact solutions of the time fractional biological population model equation and nonlinearfractional Klein–Gordon equation by using the modified simple equation method.

  5. Modified homotopy perturbation method: Application to quadratic Riccati differential equation of fractional order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odibat, Zaid [Prince Abdullah Bin Ghazi Faculty of Science and IT, Al-Balqa' Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan)], E-mail: odibat@bau.edu.jo; Momani, Shaher [Department of Mathematics, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak (Jordan)], E-mail: shahermm@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, a modification of He's homotopy perturbation method is presented. The new modification extends the application of the method to solve nonlinear differential equations of fractional order. In this method, which does not require a small parameter in an equation, a homotopy with an imbedding parameter p element of [0, 1] is constructed. The proposed algorithm is applied to the quadratic Riccati differential equation of fractional order. The results reveal that the method is very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear differential equations of fractional order.

  6. Assessment of higher order cognitive skills in undergraduate education: modified essay or multiple choice questions? Research paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Edward J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs. MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. Methods An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Results Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Conclusion Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.

  7. 77 FR 24538 - Fukushima-Related Orders Modifying Licenses; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Pursuant to delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR..., published in the Federal Register on March 19, 2012 (77 FR 16,098); and (2) an immediately effective order... in the Federal Register on March 19, 2012 (77 FR 16,082). The Board is comprised of the...

  8. 出生次序对青少年心理健康的影响%The Effects of Birth Order on Adolescent Mental Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚文进; 方欣; 陆绮君; 黎建斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨不同出生次序对青少年心理健康的影响.方法 采用中学生心理健康量表(MHT)调查了广州市207名青少年,并使用单因素方差分析和多重比较探讨不同出生次序对青少年心理健康各维度的影响.结果 不同出生次序的青少年在孤独倾向、自责倾向、身体症状和冲动倾向4个心理健康维度上差异显著(F=8.233,35.559;P<0.01和F=2.731,2.668;P<0.05).进一步多重比较结果表明,独生子女孤独倾向显著高于其他组,长子自责倾向显著高于其他组(LSD检验,P<0.01);次子身体症状明显高于长子组和独生子女组,幼子和独生子女冲动倾向显著高于次子组(LSD检验,P<0.05).结论 不同的出生次序青少年心理健康状况差异明显,学校应该有的放矢,关注不同群体青少年的心理薄弱方面.%Objective To explore the effect of birth order on mental health development of adolescents. Methods A total of 207 adolescents in Guangzhou were investigated with MHT. Results There were significant differences in loneliness , self -blame tendencies, physical symptoms and impulsive tendencies(F=8. 233.35. 559,P<0. 01,F=2. 731,2. 668;P<0. 05)among different order of adolescent. All in,the only-child' lonely was significantly higher than other groups,the self-blame of the eldest son was significantly higher than other groups(LSD-test ,P<0. 01) (the physical symptoms of the second son was significantly higher than the eldest son and only child (LSD-test,P<0. 05)sthe lastest son and the only-child impulsive tendencies were significantly higher than the second son (LSD-test, P<0. 05). Conclusion Different birth order differences in adolescent mental health significantly, the school should be targeted to different groups concerned about the psychological areas of weakness.

  9. Modified Current Differencing Unit and its Application for Electronically Reconfigurable Simple First-order Transfer Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTNER, R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified current differencing unit (MCDU and its simple filtering application are introduced in this paper. Modification of the well-known current differencing unit consists in weighted difference of both input currents controlled by adjustable current gain, controllable intrinsic resistance of both current input terminals, and availability of additional voltage terminal(s. Definition of MCDU therefore requires four adjustable parameters (B1, B2, Rp, Rn. A presented active element offers and combines benefits of electronically controllable current conveyor of second generation and current differencing unit and allows synthesis of interesting adjustable applications, which are not available by classical approaches based on simple elements. MCDU brings variability of the transfer function into the structure. It provides several transfer types without necessity of input or output node change by simple electronic tuning. A presented structure represents so-called reconnection-less reconfigurable current-mode filter for realization of all-pass, inverting high-pass, low-pass and direct transfer response. Behavioral model of the MCDU was prepared and carefully tested in filtering application. Spice simulations and measurements confirmed theoretical assumptions.

  10. Electrochemical properties of modified highly ordered pyrolytic graphite by using ambient plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jun; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Jeong, HaeKyung

    2016-01-01

    Surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is reformed by using ambient plasma. The HOPG film shows various pore structures after the plasma treatment, indicating improved electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications because of the increase of the surface area. We also compare water effect on the film during the plasma treatment. Water might protect HOPG surface from the plasma and provide oxygen functional groups onto it, resulting in lower infected pores and higher impedance compared with them of HOPG film without water. Ambient plasma, therefore, could be considered as an economic and effective method for sample reformations.

  11. Symmetry Reductions, Integrability and Solitary Wave Solutions to High-Order Modified Boussinesq Equations with Damping Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN ZhenYa; XIE FuDing; ZHANG HongQing

    2001-01-01

    Both the direct method due to Clarkson and Kruskal and the improved direct method due to Lou are extended to reduce the high-order modified Boussinesq equation with the damping term (HMBEDT) arising in the general Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. As a result, several types of similarity reductions are obtained. It is easy to show that the nonlinear wave equation is not integrable under the sense of AblowRz's conjecture from the reduction results obtained. In addition, kink-shaped solitary wave solutions, which are of important physical significance, are found for HMBEDT based on the obtained reduction equation.``

  12. Modified economic order quantity (EOQ model for items with imperfect quality: Game-theoretical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Elyasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decade, studying the economic order quantity (EOQ models with imperfect quality has appealed to many researchers. Only few papers are published discussing EOQ models with imperfect items in a supply chain. In this paper, a two-echelon decentralized supply chain consisting of a manufacture and a supplier that both face just in time (JIT inventory problem is considered. It is sought to find the optimal number of the shipments and the quantity of each shipment in a way that minimizes the both manufacturer’s and the supplier’s cost functions. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first paper that deals with imperfect items in a decentralized supply chain. Thereby, three different game theoretical solution approaches consisting of two non-cooperative games and a cooperative game are proposed. Comparing the results of three different scenarios with those of the centralized model, the conclusions are drawn to obtain the best approach.

  13. Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.

    2013-01-28

    In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modi ed Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in ow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then a modelbased feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR). Finally, a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) controller, which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.

  14. Do Induced Abortions Affect the First Birth Probability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie-Louise H; Stage, Louise; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.;

    and methods: The data are obtained by linking several national public registers in Denmark, using the unique personal identification number. Initially, a logistic regression analysis is employed in order to model the first birth probability in a given year. Secondly, the long-term effect of an induced......Objective: The focus of this paper is to study, on a national basis, how the event of an induced abortion modifies the transition to first birth for Danish women aged 20-39 years in the period 1982-2001, taking into account also educational level, family situation, and urbanisation. Data...... abortion is examined by cumulative first birth probabilities, derived from a life table analysis. Main findings and conclusion: Previous abortions increased the first birth probability, though this effect was almost entirely confined to single women. For cohabiting and married women, previous abortions had...

  15. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    2001-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by obs

  16. Modified Inverse First Order Reliability Method (I-FORM) for Predicting Extreme Sea States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-09-01

    Environmental contours describing extreme sea states are generated as the input for numerical or physical model simulation s as a part of the stand ard current practice for designing marine structure s to survive extreme sea states. Such environmental contours are characterized by combinations of significant wave height ( ) and energy period ( ) values calculated for a given recurrence interval using a set of data based on hindcast simulations or buoy observations over a sufficient period of record. The use of the inverse first - order reliability method (IFORM) i s standard design practice for generating environmental contours. In this paper, the traditional appli cation of the IFORM to generating environmental contours representing extreme sea states is described in detail and its merits and drawbacks are assessed. The application of additional methods for analyzing sea state data including the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data under consideration is proposed. A reexamination of the components of the IFORM application to the problem at hand including the use of new distribution fitting techniques are shown to contribute to the development of more accurate a nd reasonable representations of extreme sea states for use in survivability analysis for marine struc tures. Keywords: In verse FORM, Principal Component Analysis , Environmental Contours, Extreme Sea State Characteri zation, Wave Energy Converters

  17. A Family of Modified Even Order Bernoulli-Type Multiquadric Quasi-Interpolants with Any Degree Polynomial Reproduction Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Wu

    2014-01-01

    shifts of the function f(x(x∈ℝ to approximate the derivatives of f(x, we propose a family of modified even order Bernoulli-type multiquadric quasi-interpolants which do not require the derivatives of the function approximated at each node and can satisfy any degree polynomial reproduction property. Error estimate indicates that our operators could provide the desired precision by choosing a suitable shape-preserving parameter c and a nonnegative integer m. Numerical comparisons show that this technique provides a higher degree of accuracy. Finally, applying our operators to the fitting of discrete solutions of initial value problems, we find that our method has smaller errors than the Runge-Kutta method of order 4 and Wang et al.’s quasi-interpolation scheme.

  18. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors, and social, personal, and economic characteristics. Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing ... My last baby was born early. Is there anything I can do in this pregnancy to keep ...

  19. Introduction: Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Imogen

    2009-01-01

    We are all born. Hannah Arendt suggests that the absence of this primary fact from histories of thought represents a significant lacuna in political and philosophical traditions. For Arendt natality, the capacity to begin, is the foundational fact of all thought, all politics and all action. Without some fundmental understanding of the place of birth, there can, she suggests, be no social change, no human future. Arendt’s insistence on thinking birth as the basis for politics is radical in th...

  20. Periviable birth: Interim update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  1. Determination of 4-aminophenol using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a three-dimensionally ordered macroporous film of polycysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) film of polycysteine (poly-Cys) was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to result in a sensor for 4-aminophenol. The new electrode was used to study the behavior of 4-aminophenol by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. In comparison to a bare GCE and a GCE modified with poly-Cys without using template, this electrode displays a larger peak current which may be attributed to the structure of poly-Cys and the large surface area of the macroporous structure. The anodic peak current at a working voltage of 195 mV is linearly related to the concentration of 4-aminophenol in two concentration intervals: 0.02 to 20 μM and 20 to 200 μM, respectively. The detection limit is 8 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of 4-aminophenol in spiked water samples. (author)

  2. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Cristian; Mattmann, Matías; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián; Valenzuela, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Corral, Camila

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  3. Tangential velocity corrections to a second-order Coulomb-modified eikonal model for heavy-ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the tangential velocity corrections to the second-order Coulomb-modified eikonal model at the distance of closest approach. It has been applied to elastic angular distributions of the 16O+16O system at Elab=350 and 480 MeV. The calculated results with tangential velocity show better agreements with the experimental data compared to those with asymptotic velocity. The Fraunhofer oscillations observed in the elastic angular distributions can be explained by the strong interference between the near- and the far-side amplitudes. Airy structures can be shown by reducing the effective imaginary potential strength. It is found that the Airy minimum is more visible as the effective imaginary potential strength is reduced. Deep real potentials associated with rather weak imaginary ones are found to be essential to describe the refractive 16O+16O elastic scatterings at Elab=350 and 480 MeV. (author)

  4. Defying birth defects through diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Crider, Krista S.; Lynn B. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    The risk of certain birth defects can be modified by maternal diet. A high-fat maternal mouse diet has recently been reported to substantially increase the penetrance of birth defects known to be associated with a deficiency of transcription factor Cited2 as well as induce cleft palate. These effects were associated with a more than twofold reduction in embryonic expression of Pitx2c. This investigation suggests the need to further explore this provocative gene-diet interaction in human studies.

  5. Modified Projective Synchronization between Different Fractional-Order Systems Based on Open-Plus-Closed-Loop Control and Its Application in Image Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjuan Liu; Zhiliang Zhu; Hai Yu; Qian Zhu

    2014-01-01

    A new general and systematic coupling scheme is developed to achieve the modified projective synchronization (MPS) of different fractional-order systems under parameter mismatch via the Open-Plus-Closed-Loop (OPCL) control. Based on the stability theorem of linear fractional-order systems, some sufficient conditions for MPS are proposed. Two groups of numerical simulations on the incommensurate fraction-order system and commensurate fraction-order system are presented to justify the theoretic...

  6. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  7. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  8. Age-associated DNA methylation changes in immune genes, histone modifiers and chromatin remodeling factors within 5 years after birth in human blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Reinius, Lovisa E; Vitezic, Morana;

    2015-01-01

    the dynamics of DNA methylation. Serial blood samples were collected at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after birth in ten healthy girls born in Finland and participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. RESULTS......: After filtering for the presence of polymorphisms and cell-lineage-specific signatures, 794 CpG sites showed significant DNA methylation differences as a function of age in all children (41.6% age-methylated and 58.4% age-demethylated, Bonferroni-corrected P value ... performing DNA methylation studies in children....

  9. Missing Girls in India: Infanticide, Feticide and Made-to-Order Pregnancies? Insights from Hospital-Based Sex-Ratio-at-Birth over the Last Century

    OpenAIRE

    Mohit Sahni; Neeraj Verma; Narula, D.; Raji Mathew Varghese; V Sreenivas; Puliyel, Jacob M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are 44 million missing women in India. Gender bias; neglect of girls, infanticides and feticides are responsible. The sex ratio at birth can be used to examine the influence of antenatal sex selection on the sex ratio. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 321,991 deliveries at one hospital over 11 decades were utilized. The middle year in each decade was taken as representative of the decade. Data from 33,524 deliveries were then analyzed. Data for each decade was combined wi...

  10. 49 CFR 1503.659 - Petition to reconsider or modify a final decision and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal. 1503.659 Section 1503.659 Transportation Other... Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.659 Petition to reconsider or modify a final decision and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal. (a) General. Any party may petition the TSA decision maker...

  11. n阶变型Bessel函数两个定理的证明%Proof of Two Theorem Composed of n Order Modified Bessel Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝新华

    2011-01-01

    Base on the properties of the modified Bessel function, we proof the orthogonality of functions systems of two n order modified Bessel functions, give the expression of their lengths.%利用n阶变型Bessel函数的相关性质,证明了由n阶变型Bessel函数组成的两个函数系具有正交性,并给出了长度表达式。

  12. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  13. Personality and birth order in monozygotic twins adopted apart: a test of Sulloway's theory; Research Reviews: twin births and cancer risk in mothers, male sexual dysfunction, twin study of ultimatum game behavior; Human Interest: 'The Land of Twins', twin-like reunion-I, twin-like reunion-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2008-02-01

    A brief overview of Sulloway's (1996) theory of birth order and personality is presented. A reared apart twin approach for testing his personality findings regarding openness to experience and conscientiousness in first borns and later borns is described. This is followed by summaries of three recent twin studies. The topics include cancer risk in mother of twins, sexual dysfunction in males and responder behavior during ultimatum games. This article concludes with a discussion of twinning rates and rituals among the Yoruba of western Nigeria, and descriptions of two unusual reunions between siblings and twins.

  14. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  15. Missing girls in India: infanticide, feticide and made-to-order pregnancies? Insights from hospital-based sex-ratio-at-birth over the last century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Sahni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are 44 million missing women in India. Gender bias; neglect of girls, infanticides and feticides are responsible. The sex ratio at birth can be used to examine the influence of antenatal sex selection on the sex ratio. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 321,991 deliveries at one hospital over 11 decades were utilized. The middle year in each decade was taken as representative of the decade. Data from 33,524 deliveries were then analyzed. Data for each decade was combined with that of previous decades and compared to the data of subsequent decades to look for any change in the trend. Sex ratio in the second children against sex of the first child was studied separately. RESULTS: The mean sex ratio for the 110 years examined was 910 girls to 1000 boys (95% CI; 891 to 930. The sex ratio dropped significantly from 935 (CI: 905 to 967 before 1979, to 892 (CI: 868 to 918 after 1980 (P = 0.04. The sex ratio in the second child was significantly lower if the first child was a girl [716 (CI: 672 to 762] (P<0.001. On the other hand, there was an excess of girls born to mothers whose first child was boy [1140 girls per 1000 boys (CI: 1072 to 1212 P<0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: The sex ratio fell significantly after 1980 when ultra sound machines for antenatal sex determination became available. The sex ratio in second children if the first was a girl was even lower. Sex selective abortions after antenatal sex determination are thus implicated. However data on second children especially the excess of girls born to mothers who have a previous boy seen in the decade before the advent of antenatal ultra sound machines, suggests that other means of sex selection are also used.

  16. Meal frequencies modify the effect of common genetic variants on body mass index in adolescents of the northern Finland birth cohort 1986.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jääskeläinen

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that meal frequencies influence the risk of obesity in children and adolescents. It has also been shown that multiple genetic loci predispose to obesity already in youth. However, it is unknown whether meal frequencies could modulate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the risk of obesity. We examined the effect of two meal patterns on weekdays -5 meals including breakfast (regular and ≤ 4 meals with or without breakfast (meal skipping - on the genetic susceptibility to increased body mass index (BMI in Finnish adolescents. Eight variants representing 8 early-life obesity-susceptibility loci, including FTO and MC4R, were genotyped in 2215 boys and 2449 girls aged 16 years from the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated for each individual by summing the number of BMI-increasing alleles across the 8 loci. Weight and height were measured and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Among meal skippers, the difference in BMI between high-GRS and low-GRS (<8 and ≥ 8 BMI-increasing alleles groups was 0.90 (95% CI 0.63,1.17 kg/m(2, whereas in regular eaters, this difference was 0.32 (95% CI 0.06,0.57 kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.003. The effect of each MC4R rs17782313 risk allele on BMI in meal skippers (0.47 [95% CI 0.22,0.73] kg/m(2 was nearly three-fold compared with regular eaters (0.18 [95% CI -0.06,0.41] kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.016. Further, the per-allele effect of the FTO rs1421085 was 0.24 (95% CI 0.05,0.42 kg/m(2 in regular eaters and 0.46 (95% CI 0.27,0.66 kg/m(2 in meal skippers but the interaction between FTO genotype and meal frequencies on BMI was significant only in boys (p interaction = 0.015. In summary, the regular five-meal pattern attenuated the increasing effect of common SNPs on BMI in adolescents. Considering the epidemic of obesity in youth, the promotion of regular eating may have

  17. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  18. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  19. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  20. Modified Projective Synchronization between Different Fractional-Order Systems Based on Open-Plus-Closed-Loop Control and Its Application in Image Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjuan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new general and systematic coupling scheme is developed to achieve the modified projective synchronization (MPS of different fractional-order systems under parameter mismatch via the Open-Plus-Closed-Loop (OPCL control. Based on the stability theorem of linear fractional-order systems, some sufficient conditions for MPS are proposed. Two groups of numerical simulations on the incommensurate fraction-order system and commensurate fraction-order system are presented to justify the theoretical analysis. Due to the unpredictability of the scale factors and the use of fractional-order systems, the chaotic data from the MPS is selected to encrypt a plain image to obtain higher security. Simulation results show that our method is efficient with a large key space, high sensitivity to encryption keys, resistance to attack of differential attacks, and statistical analysis.

  1. Higher-order approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators by modified He's homotopy methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, A [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Pascual, C [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, E [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y AnatomIa, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Neipp, C [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Belendez, T [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate higher-order analytical approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators. The He's homotopy perturbation method is modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution before introducing this solution in the second-order linear differential equation, and so on. We find this modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes, and the excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. The approximate formulae obtained show excellent agreement with the exact solutions, and are valid for small as well as large amplitudes of oscillation, including the limiting cases of amplitude approaching zero and infinity. For the relativistic oscillator, only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions with a maximal relative error for the approximate frequency of less than 1.6% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude, while this relative error is 0.65% for two iterations with two harmonics and as low as 0.18% when three harmonics are considered in the second approximation. For the Duffing-harmonic oscillator the relative error is as low as 0.078% when the second approximation is considered. Comparison of the result obtained using this method with those obtained by the harmonic balance methods reveals that the former is very effective and convenient.

  2. First order phase transition in a modified Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model with self-oscillating reactant coverages

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, I; Mukherjee, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we study the effect of oscillatory kinetics due to surface reconstructions on Ziff-Gulari-Barshad (ZGB) model discontinuous phase transition. To investigate the transition, we do extensive finite size scaling analysis. It is found that the discontinuous transition still exists. On inclusion of desorption in the model, the order-parameter probability distribution broadens but remains bimodal. That is, the first-order phase transition becomes weaker with i...

  3. Application of a modified He's homotopy perturbation method to obtain higher-order approximations of an x{sup 1/3} force nonlinear oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es; Pascual, C.; Gallego, S.; Ortuno, M.; Neipp, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2007-11-26

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method (HHPM) is used to calculate the periodic solutions of a conservative nonlinear oscillator for which the elastic force term is proportional to x{sup 1/3}. The He's homotopy perturbation method is modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution before introducing this solution in the second-order linear differential equation, and so on. We find this modified HHPM works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes, and the excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. Only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions with a maximal relative error for the approximate frequency of less than 0.6% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude, while this relative error is 0.17% for the second iteration and as low as 0.024% when the third approximation is considered. Comparison of the result obtained using this method with those obtained by different harmonic balance methods reveals that the former is very effective and convenient.

  4. The role of birth order in outcomes of renal transplantation from siblings%出生顺序对同胞兄弟姐妹间活体肾移植预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶正胜; 宋涂润; 曾东扬; 黄中力; 王显丁; 林涛

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨同胞兄弟姐妹间活体肾移植时,供、受者的出生顺序对肾移植预后产生的影响.方法 回顾性分析2006年1月到2013年7月227例同胞兄弟姐妹间肾移植的临床资料.根据供、受者的出生顺序,将受者分为两组:(1)长供幼组:104例,供者均为受者的同胞哥哥或姐姐;(2)幼供长组:123例,供者均为受者的同胞弟弟或妹妹.结果 随访期间,有4例受者发生移植肾功能丧失,2例受者死亡.受者和移植肾术后5年总体存活率分别为98%和95%.在校正人口统计学方面的混杂因素的影响后,与长供幼组相比,幼供长组受者的死亡未校正的移植肾功能丧失的风险更高(HR=2.77,95%可信区间为0.23~33.00),但两组受者间的差异无统计学意义(P=0.42);幼供长组受者的死亡校正移植肾功能丧失的风险更高(HR=10.79,95%可信区间为0.30~389.43),但两组受者间的差异无统计学意义(P<0.05).大部分受者首次排斥反应发生在术后2个月内,术后3年内未发生排斥反应的受者比例为86%.同胞活体肾移植供、受者的出生顺序对肾移植排斥反应无明显影响(HR=1.266,95%可信区间为0.391~4.103,P=0.694).结论 在同胞兄弟姐妹间活体肾移植中,供、受者的出生顺序可能并不影响肾移植的临床结局.%Objective To investigate the effect of birth order on outcomes of renal transplantation from siblings.Method We conducted a retrospective study to examine the immune effect exerted by birth order in kidney transplantation between siblings.227 kidney transplants were included and we stratified the cohort by birth order,old to young parings (group A,104 pairs) and young to old pairings (group B,123 pairs),using old to young parings as reference group.Result During the follow-up period,4 recipients suffered graft failure and 2 died.The survival rate of recipients and grafts was 98% and 95%,respectively.After adjusting the effect of confounding

  5. Introducing surface-modified ordered mesoporous carbon as a promising sorbent for extraction of N-nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashgari, Maryam; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-11-01

    The extraction and pre-concentration of N-nitrosamines (NAs) before their determination are mainly achieved by carbonaceous sorbents. However, the non-polar or relatively less polar NAs are strongly absorbed on the carbonaceous surface of the sorbent, leading to low extraction recoveries. In the present study, for the first time, CMK-3 and surfacemodified CMK-3 (O-CMK-3) were used to extract NAs from water. The CMK-3 surface was modified by oxidative treatment and different carboxylic groups were attached to create a hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance on the inert surface of the carbonaceous sorbent. The proposed sorbents were compared with 10 different kinds of commercial carbonaceous sorbents for the micro-solid phase extraction of eight NAs possessing a wide range of polarities. The best extraction results for both polar and non-polar NAs were obtained using O-CMK-3. Specifically, significant enhancements in the extraction of the nonpolar NAs were observed. For instance, extraction of up to 27.67 and 2.32 times greater were observed for N-nitrosodiphenylamine, and N-nitrosodimethylamine respectively, when O-CMK-3 was used instead of coconut charcoal sorbent. PMID:27451033

  6. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998.......Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  7. A New Method Based On Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm In Order To Solve Nonlinear Large Scale Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Baziar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to handle large scale problems this study has used shuffled frog leaping algorithm. This algorithm is an optimization method based on natural memetics that uses a new two-phase modification to it to have a better search in the problem space. The suggested algorithm is evaluated by comparing to some well known algorithms using several benchmark optimization problems. The simulation results have clearly shown the superiority of this algorithm over other well-known methods in the area.

  8. Reaction rate reconstruction from biomass concentration measurement in bioreactors using modified second-order sliding mode algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Battista, Hernán; Picó, Jesús; Garelli, Fabricio; Navarro, José Luis

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of unknown signals in bioreactors using sliding observers. Particular attention is drawn to estimate the specific growth rate of microorganisms from measurement of biomass concentration. In a recent article, notions of high-order sliding modes have been used to derive a growth rate observer for batch processes. In this paper we generalize and refine these preliminary results. We develop a new observer with a different error structure to cope with other types of processes. Furthermore, we show that these observers are equivalent, under coordinate transformations and time scaling, to the classical super-twisting differentiator algorithm, thus inheriting all its distinctive features. The new observers' family achieves convergence to time-varying unknown signals in finite time, and presents the best attainable estimation error order in the presence of noise. In addition, the observers are robust to modeling and parameter uncertainties since they are based on minimal assumptions on bioprocess dynamics. In addition, they have interesting applications in fault detection and monitoring. The observers performance in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors is assessed by experimental data obtained from the fermentation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on glucose.

  9. Birth Order on Personality Characteristics and Mental Health of College Students Empirical Study%出生顺序对大学生人格及心理健康的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳苹; 李玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Students of birth order on personality and mental health status. Methods: This study examined 11,183 students in a university in Guangzhou in the birth order of their personality characteristics and mental health. Conclusion: in terms of personality. the most outgoing child, second son of the second, the eldest son of the most introverted (F=9.215,P<0.01) ; on the neuroticism factor, most vulnerable to anxiety and tension eldest son, second son of the second, the most stable one-child emotional(F=3.194, P<0.05); the second, the most stable one-child emotional; the second son of the highest cover, that is most vulnerable to the impact of social desirability, and child to cover the lowest (F=7.545,P<0.01).ln mental health, the highest level of child mental health, the eldest son, second son and youngest son among the mental health there were no significant differences (F=7.575 , P<0.05) .%目的:了解出生顺序对大学生人格及心理健康的影响状况.方法:调查广州某高校11183名大学生的出生顺序,分析其对人格特征和心理健康的影响.结果:在人格特征方面,独生子女最为外向;长子最为内向(F=9.215,P<0.01),次子次之;在神经质因子上,长子最易焦虑与紧张,次子次之,独生子女情绪最稳定(F=3.194,P<0.05);次子的掩饰性最高,即最容易受社会赞许性的影响,而独生子女掩饰性最低(F=7.545,P<0.01);在心理健康方面,独生子女的心理健康水平最高,长子、次子和幼子的心理健康3者之间没有显著性差异(F=7.575,P<0.05).

  10. Kinetic Model of Biogas Yield Production from Vinasse at Various Initial pH: Comparison between Modified Gompertz Model and First Order Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment using anaerobic digestion can convert organic materials of vinasse into biogas. The purpose of this study was modeling kinetic of biogas production using modified Gompertz model and first order kinetic model at variation of initial pH. Substrates were consisted of two kinds of compositions, which were vinasse+rumen (VR and vinasse+rumen+urea (VRU. Initial pH in each substrate was 6, 7 and 8. Degradation process was done in 30 days using batch anaerobic digesters at room temperature. Both, at VR and VRU, initial pH of 7 generated the more total biogas than the others two (initial pH of 6 and 8. Biogas formed at substrate of VRU was more than that at substrate of VR. The best condition was substrate of VRU and initial pH of 7. At best condition, kinetic constants of biogas production model using modified Gompertz were ym (biogas production potential = 6.49 mL/g VS; U (maximum biogas production rate = 1.24 mL/g VS. day; &lambda (minimum time to produce biogas = 1.79 days. Whereas kinetic constants of biogas production model using first order kinetic were ym (biogas production potential = 6.78 mL/g VS; k (biogas production rate = 0.176 /day. The difference between the predicted and measured biogas yield (fitting error was higher with the first-order kinetic model (1.54-7.50% than with the modified Gompertz model (0.76-3.14%.

  11. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  12. Ceria modified three-dimensionally ordered macro-porous Pt/TiO2 catalysts for water-gas shift reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hao; ZHANG Yuan; LIU Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensionally ordered macro-porous(3DOM) TiO2 and ceria-modified 3DOM TiO2 supported platinum catalysts were pre-pared with template and impregnation methods, and the resultant samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray dif-fractometer(XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy(HRTEM) and texture programmed reduction(TPR) techniques. The catalytic performances over the platinum-based catalysts were investigated for water-gas shift (WGS) reaction in a wide temperature range macro-porous catalyst, owing to the macro-porous structure favoring mass uansfer. Addition of ceria into 3DOM Pt/TiO2 led to improvement of catalytic activity. TPR and HRTEM results showed that the interaction existed between ceria and titanium oxide and addition of ceria promoted the reducibility of platinum oxide and TiO2 on the interface of platinum and TiO2 particles, which contributed to high activity of the ceria modi-fied catalysts. The results indicated that ceria-modified 3DOM Pt/TiO2 was a promising candidate of fuel cell oriented WGS catalyst.

  13. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: The effect of pore size on CO{sub 2} capture performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin; Yao, Manli [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Catalysis Materials, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Hu, Xin [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Hu, Gengshen, E-mail: gshu@zjnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Catalysis Materials, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Lu, Jiqing; Luo, Mengfei [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Catalysis Materials, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Fan, Maohong, E-mail: mfan@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Larger pore size could decrease the mass transfer resistance and increase the interaction between CO{sub 2} and TEPA. • The CO{sub 2} uptakes of sorbents were enhanced in the presence of moisture. • The sorbents are stable and regenerable under test conditions. - Abstract: The objective of current research is to investigate the effect of pore size of mesoporous silica supports on the CO{sub 2} capture performance of solid amine sorbents. Two ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with different pore sizes (5.6 nm and 7.6 nm) were synthesized as tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) supports. A serious of techniques, such as physical adsorption, infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to characterize the solid amine sorbents. The CO{sub 2} capture performances of the sorbents were evaluated using breakthrough method with a fixed-bed reactor equipped with an online mass spectrometer. The experimental results indicate that the pore size has significant influence on CO{sub 2} capture performance. Larger pore size could decrease the mass transfer resistance and increase the interaction between CO{sub 2} and TEPA. Therefore, OMS-7.6 is better than OMS-5.6 as amine support. The highest CO{sub 2} sorption capacities achieved with OMS-7.6 with 50 wt% TEPA loading (OMS-7.6-50) in the absence and presence of moisture are 3.45 mmol/g and 4.28 mmol/g, respectively, under the conditions of 10.0% CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture at 75 °C. Cyclic CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption experiments indicate that the solid amine sorbents are fairly stable and regenerable.

  14. Order-disorder correlation on local structure and photo-electrical properties of La3+ ion modified BZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Ganguly, M.; Rout, S. K.; Sinha, T. P.

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth lanthanum (La) doped barium zirconate titanate, Ba1 - x La2 x/3Zr0.3Ti0.7O3 (BLZT) ceramics, with x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 were prepared using solid state reaction route. Structural characterizations of the materials were done by using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement technique employed to investigate the details of the crystal structure revealed a single phase cubic perovskite structure for all the compositions, belonging to the space group Pm-3m. Raman spectroscopy was used to probe the order-disorder correlation in local symmetry and it was verified that the presence of disorder in cubic structure is increased due to La3+ ion substitution at A-site. In addition, the signature of relaxor behavior and diffuse types of phase transition can be detected by monitoring the relative intensity of Raman features. Room temperature photo-electronic properties were investigated by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Heterovalent doping (La3+) is accompanied by creation of ionic defects to maintain the charge neutrality; as a result the intermediate energy levels are formed within the band gap. These intermediate energy levels play a significant role in electronic band transitions in higher La concentration, x ≥ 0.08; enhancing the self-trapping mechanism leads to slightly decreasing in band gap values and shifting the PL emission spectra towards violet-blue regions. The temperature dependence of the dielectric constant was investigated and relaxor type of phase transition was observed in the material. The degree of relaxor behavior was enhanced with increase in La3+ ion concentration.

  15. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... 100% effective method of birth control. LEARN MORE IUD An IUD is a T-shaped device that ...

  16. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtekar Shyam; Kulkarni Madhav; Sadavarte Vaishali; Ashtekar Ratna

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight b...

  17. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  18. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  19. Avaliação da idade materna, paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal para fissura lábio-palatina Maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval evaluation for cleft lip-palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fissuras do lábio e/ou palato representam as anomalias congênitas craniofaciais mais comuns. OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco ambientais em pacientes com fissuras lábio-palatinas não-sindrômicas, em um Serviço de Minas Gerais. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo caso-controle, avaliando 100 crianças com fissuras e 100 crianças sem alterações clínicas. As dimensões de análise (idade, cor de pele, sexo, classificação das fissuras, idade materna e paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal foram obtidas a partir de um questionário, sendo posteriormente construído banco de dados e as análises realizadas pelo programa SPSS 17.0. Os resultados foram analisados com risco relativo para cada variável, para estimar odds ratios com intervalo de confiança de 95% seguido de análise bivariada e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Entre as 200 crianças, 54% foram do sexo masculino e 46% do feminino. Com relação à cor da pele, houve predomínio de parda, branca e preta, respectivamente. Entre os tipos de fissuras, as mais comuns foram as fissuras lábio-palatinas (54%, seguidas pela fissura labial (30% e fissura palatina (16%. CONCLUSÃO: Embora com uma população limitada, verificou-se associação entre idade materna e risco aumentado para fissuras lábio-palatinas, porém idade paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal não foram significantes.Cleft lip and palate (CL/P are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. AIM: To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval, obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the

  20. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  1. Births: Preliminary Data for 2011. National Vital Statistics Reports. Volume 61, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E.; Martin, Joyce A.; Ventura, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This report presents preliminary data for 2011 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods: Data in this report are based on approximately 100…

  2. A Childbirth Educator Speaks Out for Increased Advocacy for Normal Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Upon noting that, over the years, normal birth has become less and less a cultural norm in the United States (where cesarean births now approach 30%), a childbirth educator speaks out to say it is time for normal-birth advocates to organize in order to increase efforts at social marketing of normal birth as a cultural norm.

  3. Adolescent Births 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — http://tinyurl.com/AdolescentBirthRatesMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfRepeatBirthsMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfBirthsInHighPoverty. This dataset contains...

  4. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  5. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  6. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  7. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  8. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... there is a problem with a baby's body chemistry, it is called a metabolic birth defect. Metabolic ...

  9. Emmetropisation following preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K J; McCulloch, D L; Shepherd, A.J.; Wilkinson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Even in the absence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), premature birth signals increased risk for abnormal refractive development. The present study examined the relation between clinical risk factors and refractive development among preterm infants without ROP.

  10. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 717-933-9743 Accredited since January 2016 100 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ...

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... later if you prefer. Now let me turn things over to the obstetrician performing the delivery to ...

  12. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  13. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  14. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after delivery. And that's over here so that mom can hear the baby and the baby will ... So we don't encourage elective first-time moms having a cesarean birth. 00:09:12 LEAH ...

  15. THE TREND OF BIRTH RATE AND SOME FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH FERTILITY IN WEST AZERBAIJAN, IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    A.Nadim; Sh. Salarilak

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine the exact birth rate and also percent of birth - orders in all births in the province of west Azerbaijan, all centres of birth registration in the province were asked to fill a questionnaire at the time of issuing identity document for children. In the questionnaire, parents were asked to mention the place of birth, sex and birth order of the children and also the occupation and education of the mother and the father. This study was carried out in 1996. During this year ...

  16. The partial-birth stratagem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy. PMID:12348556

  17. The relationship between early life modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity, ethnicity and body mass index at age 3 years: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Fairley, Lesley; Santorelli, Gillian; Debbie A Lawlor; Bryant, Maria; Bhopal, Raj; Petherick, Emily S.; Sahota, Pinki; Greenwood, Darren C; Hill, Andrew J.; Cameron, Noel; Ball, Helen; Barber, Sally; Wright, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Many modifiable risk factors in early infancy have been shown to be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. These risk factors have not been studied within children of South Asian origin in the UK. The aims of this paper are to describe differences in the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity between children of White British and Pakistani origin and investigate the association between these risk factors and childhood BMI measured at age 3 years. We ...

  18. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  19. The Life-Changing Significance of Normal Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Humenick, Sharron S.

    2006-01-01

    Many do not fully understand the lifelong, significant benefits of a well-supported, normal birth. In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education reviews research that supports the life-changing advantages of a normal birthing experience. Further scientific study is encouraged in order to enhance previous, evidence-based data that demonstrate the positive outcomes of normal birth for women and their families. The editor also describes the contents of this journal issue, whic...

  20. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  1. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  2. LucKi Birth Cohort Study: rationale and design

    OpenAIRE

    de Korte-de Boer, Dianne; Mommers, Monique; Creemers, Huub MH; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans JM; Gielkens-Sijstermans, Cindy ML; Jaminon, Mariëlle; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Schayck, Onno CP; Thijs, Carel; Jansen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Infancy and childhood are characterized by rapid growth and development, which largely determine health status and well-being across the lifespan. Identification of modifiable risk factors and prognostic factors in critical periods of life will contribute to the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies. The LucKi Birth Cohort Study was designed and started in 2006 to follow children from birth into adulthood on a wide range of determinants, disorders, and dis...

  3. [Evaluation of the quality of birth registration data in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, R J

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of the quality of data published in "Estatisticas do Registro Civil, 1974-79" (Vital Registration Statistics, 1974-79) concerning children ever born in Brazil and its states is presented. Qualitative analysis of these variables is included: time period between date of birth and date of registration, mother's permanent place of birth, type of delivery, sex, and mother's age at time of delivery. (author's modified)

  4. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorde...

  5. Calls to a home birth helpline: empowerment in childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, R; Kitzinger, C

    2005-01-01

    In the UK a woman has the right to decide to give birth at home, irrespective of whether she is expecting her first or a subsequent child and of any perceived ‘risk’ factors. However, the rate of home births in the UK is very low (around 2%), varies widely across the country and many women do not know how to arrange midwifery cover. The Home Birth helpline is a UK-based voluntary organisation offering support and information for women planning a home birth. In order to gain direct access to t...

  6. Birth injuries to the epiphyseal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A birth injury in the vicinity of a joint might lead to a fracture through the epiphyseal cartilage. The criteria for diagnosing such a fracture at radiography are considered and the continued remodelling of the bone demonstrated. The history of 2 cases with late diagnosis and serious long-term sequelae are described, in order to emphasize the necessity of early radiography. (Auth.)

  7. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  8. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available CESAREAN SECTION SHAWNEE MISSION MEDICAL CENTER MERRIAM, KANSAS March 13, 2008 00:00:09 ANNOUNCER: Tonight you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. Over the next hour, ...

  9. [The EU law on genetically modified organisms: the European Commission changes the strategy in order to allow, restrict, or prohibit its culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vaqué, Luis

    2010-01-01

    On July 13 2010, the European Commission adopted a series of measures which outline a new approach on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) cultivation in the Member States. This proposal, which still retains the basis of the existing science-based GMO authorisation system, will be implemented through: a Communication from the Commission, explaining the new approach on the freedom for Member States to decide on the cultivation of genetically modified crops; the "Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2001/18/EC as regards the possibility for the Member States to restrict or prohibit the cultivation of GMOs in their territory"; and a new "European Commission Recommendation (2010/C 200/01) of 13 July 2010 on guidelines for the development of national co-existence measures to avoid the unintended presence of GMOs in conventional and organic crops".

  10. 婴儿出生史相关因素与儿童急性白血病发病风险的Meta分析%Effects of birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery on childhood acute leukemia risk: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国斌; 沙霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between birth order,maternal abortion and mode of delivery and childhood acute leukemia risk.Method Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies up to March 2013 using the search terms " childhood leukemia"," acute lymphoblastic leukemia"," acute myeloid leukemia"," birth order"," abortion "," miscarriage ","cesarean","birth characteristics" and "prenatal risk factor".Data from cohort and case-control studies were analyzed using the Stata software.Result Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis according to the selection criteria.No significant associations were identified for birth order and mode of delivery (birth order =2:OR =0.97,95% CI:0.89-1.05 ; birth order =3:OR =1.00,95% CI:0.91-1.11 ; birth order ≥4:OR =1.02,95% CI:0.87-1.20; mode of delivery:OR =1.05,95% CI:0.96-1.15).However,there was a significant association between maternal abortion and childhood acute leukemia risk (spontaneous abortion:OR =1.21,95% CI:1.05-1.41 ; induced abortion:OR =1.23,95% CI:1.07-1.43).Furthermore,the stratified analysis by disease subtypes showed that spontaneous and induced abortions were significantly associated with the risks of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (OR =1.71,95% CI:1.09-2.70) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (OR =1.23,95% CI:1.05-1.42),respectively.Conclusion This meta-analysis revealed that maternal abortion might contribute to the childhood acute leukemia risk.%目的 综合评价患儿出生顺序、孕妇流产史及分娩方式与儿童急性白血病发病风险之间的关系.方法 在PubMed、Google学术搜索、中国知网(CNKI)、万方数据库中以“childhoodleukemia"、“acute lymphoblastic leukemia"、“acute myeloid leukemia"、“birth order"、“abortion”、“miscarriage”、“caesarean”、“birth characteristics”、“prenatal risk factor”或其对应的中文词目为检索词,收集2013年3月前有关患儿出生顺序

  11. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. van Os; A.J.E.M. van Dam

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a l

  12. Determination of picomolar silver concentrations by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode modified with phenylthiourea-functionalized high ordered nanoporous silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study introduces the design of an anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) method for the silver ion determination at a carbon paste electrode (CPE), chemically modified with phenylthiourea-nanoporous silica gel (Tu-SBA-15-CPE). The electroanalytical pro includes two steps: preconcentration of metal ions at an electrode surface, followed by quantification of the accumulated species by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric methods. Factors affecting the performance of the anodic stripping were investigated, including the modifier quantity in the paste, the electrolyte concentrations, the solution pH and the accumulation potential or time. The most sensitive and reliable electrode contained 10% Tu-SBA-15 and 90% carbon paste. The accumulation potential and time were set at, -200 mV and 300 s, respectively, and the scan rate at 50 mV s-1 in the scan range of -200 to 700 mV. The resulting electrode demonstrated a linear response over range of silver ion concentration of 8.0-80 pmol/L with detection limit (S/N = 3) of 5 pmol/L. The prepared electrodes were used for the silver determination in sea and tap water samples and very good recovery results were obtained. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments and independent analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  13. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......-SIGHT were compared on 12 term newborns delivered by elective caesarean section. During the 10 min following umbilical cord clamping, cStO2 was measured simultaneously with the neonatal sensors from each device. Repeated measurements were taken the following day. RESULTS: Three and 8 min after clamping......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  14. EVALUATION OF UNSAFE BIRTHS AND POSTPARTUM HOME CARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ERGIN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that mother/child deaths can be prevented by having safe births and taking routine postnatal home care. The aim of this study is to evaluate safety of births and postnatal home care visits of mothers having 0-11 month babies in the Center of Aydin. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to study a group of 806 mothers. Multistage sampling method was used. Health stations was taken as cluster units. One rural-one urban health station from ten health-centers was selected by random sampling method. Safety of births, type of births, complications after births, home visits by health personel at postpartum period were asked. Results: Unsafe births was 6,0% in Aydin. It was found that family income, mother?s age/occupation/educational level, social security, number of children, father?s occupation/educational level and household size, effects the safety of births. 59,9% of women were visited by widwives at the postpartum period and mean number of visits were 2,0 ±1,7. At this period 9,4% of women had complications, and these complications were two times greater at unsafe births. Conclusion: Although Aydin is in the west part of Turkey, unsafe births and inadequate postpartum home visits are seen. In order to prevent these problems, health centers must take more active role. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 321-329

  15. THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY OF INDUSTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Ignatyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the stages of the birth and development of the industry markets theory were defined in order to have a full picture of its current goals, objectives and areas of study.

  16. Teen Smoking and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    MaryBeth Walker; Erdal Tekin; Sally Wallace

    2007-01-01

    In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimat...

  17. Rural Birth Order and Gender Influence on Intergenerational Time Transfer Motivation in Anhui Province%农村孩次和性别对代际时间转移动机的影响——以安徽省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周律; 陈功; 徐铭蔚; 王佳

    2012-01-01

    在美国等西方国家,代际时间转移动机是公共转移项目和政策的关键决定因素。然而,在中国文化中,这一概念相对比较新颖。目前尚无子女的孩次、性别与中国农村老年人代际时间转移之间影响的研究。本文旨在从农村地区父母的角度,按子女的性别和孩次,探究时间转移的动机。本研究的数据为2009年从中国安徽省巢湖地区收集。研究结果显示从父母的视角分析,子女的孩次对代际时间转移动机有显著的影响,而子女性别的影响不显著。此外,本文讨论了对政府政策和未来研究的启示。%In the United States and other Western countries, the intergenerational transfer motivation is a key determinant of public transfer programs and policies. However, in Chinese culture, the concept is relatively new. Currently there is less research about rural birth order and gender influence on intergenerational time transfer in China. This article analyzed intergenerational time transfer motivation by the birth order and gender in perspective of rural parents. In this study, the data collected from Chaohu, Anhui Province, China in 2009. The results showed that from the perspective of parents, their children's birth order have a significant impact on intergenerational transfer motivation and children's gender had no significant effect. In addition, the article discusses the revelation of government policy and future research.

  18. A causal analysis of birth weight in the offspring of monozygotic twins.

    OpenAIRE

    Nance, W E; Kramer, A A; Corey, L A; Winter, P.M; Eaves, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Data were collected on the birth weights of 1,694 offspring of 385 sets of twins including 108 male and 131 female monozygotic pairs. To resolve the influence of birth order from the genetic, environmental, and maternal effects on birth weight, we analyzed the full-sib and maternal and paternal half-sib correlation matrices for birth orders one to five using a causal model that assumed each live-born child had an influence on the weight of the subsequent birth. Prenatal maternal influences ex...

  19. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order analysis of Fe- and FeO-modified Graphene-nano-ribbon: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, PB 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies LMPHE-URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Jabar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies LMPHE-URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies LMPHE-URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco)

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic properties of Fe- and FeO-modified Graphene-nano-ribbon: C{sub 32}H{sub 2}Fe{sub 2} and C{sub 32}H{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 2} are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility with different values of exchange interactions, zero crystal field and zero magnetic field are established. The transition temperature is deduced for different values of exchange interactions. The internal energy, magnetization with a fixed value of exchange interactions, zero crystal field and external magnetic field are given. The magnetization versus the exchange interaction with different values of temperature, different values of crystal field and external magnetic field of are obtained. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been deduced. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of C{sub 32}H{sub 2}Fe{sub 2} and C{sub 32}H{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 2} are studied by MCS. • The transition temperature of C{sub 32}H{sub 2}Fe{sub 2} and C{sub 32}H{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 2} is deduced. • The magnetic hysteresis cycles are deduced for two graphene nano-ribbon.

  20. Enhanced magnetization with unusual low temperature magnetic ordering behaviour and spin reorientation in holmium-modified multiferroic BiFeO3 perovskite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmium-doped Bi1−xHoxFeO3 (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.10) perovskite ceramics were synthesized by a rapid liquid phase quenching process. The structural analysis performed using x-ray diffraction suggested phase formation with distorted rhombohedral structure in all the synthesized ceramic samples. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the distorted perovskite structure with R3c symmetry. Optical studies showed characteristic bending vibrations of O − Fe − O, Fe − O stretching and visible range PL emissions in modified BiFeO3 ceramics. Ferromagnetic characteristics were shown by all the holmium-doped samples at room temperature and 5 K. Very high saturation magnetization (at 7 T), four to six times higher at 5 K than at 300 K, is observed for holmium-doped ceramic samples. A complex temperature dependence of magnetization behaviour is observed for holmium-doped samples, which is indicative of a spin reorientation in doped ceramics. (paper)

  1. Enhanced magnetization with unusual low temperature magnetic ordering behaviour and spin reorientation in holmium-modified multiferroic BiFeO3 perovskite ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hemant; Yadav, K. L.

    2015-05-01

    Holmium-doped Bi1-xHoxFeO3 (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.10) perovskite ceramics were synthesized by a rapid liquid phase quenching process. The structural analysis performed using x-ray diffraction suggested phase formation with distorted rhombohedral structure in all the synthesized ceramic samples. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the distorted perovskite structure with R3c symmetry. Optical studies showed characteristic bending vibrations of O - Fe - O, Fe - O stretching and visible range PL emissions in modified BiFeO3 ceramics. Ferromagnetic characteristics were shown by all the holmium-doped samples at room temperature and 5 K. Very high saturation magnetization (at 7 T), four to six times higher at 5 K than at 300 K, is observed for holmium-doped ceramic samples. A complex temperature dependence of magnetization behaviour is observed for holmium-doped samples, which is indicative of a spin reorientation in doped ceramics.

  2. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  3. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  4. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  5. Left behind by birth month

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  6. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated i...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks....... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  7. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  8. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  9. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Highly Ordered SBA-15 Nanocomposites Modified with Fe2O3 and Co3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the unique order mesopores, mesoporous SBA-15 could be used as the carrier of the magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles in the frame and the mesopores lead to the exchange-coupling interaction or other interactions, which could improve the magnetic properties of SBA-15 nanocomposites. Mesoporous Fe/SBA-15 had been prepared via in situ anchoring Fe2O3 into the frame and the micropores of SBA-15 using the sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Co3O4 nanoparticles had been impregnated into the mesopores of Fe/SBA-15 to form mesoporous Fe/SBA-15-Co3O4 nanocomposites. XRD, HRTEM, VSM, and N2 physisorption isotherms were used to characterize the mesostructure and magnetic properties of the SBA-15 nanocomposites, and all results indicated that the Fe2O3 nanoparticles presented into the frame and micropores, while the Co3O4 nanoparticles existed inside the mesopores of Fe/SBA-15. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of SBA-15 could be conveniently adjusted by the Fe2O3 and Co3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Fe/SBA-15 exhibited ferromagnetic properties, while the impregnation of Co3O4 nanoparticles greatly improved the coercivity with a value of 1424.6 Oe, which was much higher than that of Fe/SBA-15.

  10. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  11. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  12. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  14. What to include in your birth plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - birth plan ... Birth plans are guides that parents-to-be make to help their health care providers best support them during ... things to consider before you make a birth plan. This is a great time to learn about ...

  15. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > ... Before Birth Print A A A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a ...

  16. Reference birthweight range for multiple birth neonates in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Noriko

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reference range for the birthweight of multiple births neonates is necessary for the assessment for intrauterine growth. Methods Pairs of multiple births were identified by birthplace, the ages of the parents, gestational age, and the year and month of birth. We studied a total of 32,232 livebirth-livebirth pairs of twins, 1894 triplet live births, and 206 quadruplet live births. Results The median birthweight of males, taking gestational age into account, was ca. 0.05 kg–0.1 kg heavier than that of females. Compared to singleton neonates, the median birthweight of twins was ca. 0.15 kg smaller at the gestational age of 34 weeks, increasing to ca. 0.5 kg at 42 weeks of gestation. As for birth order, the mean birthweight of the first-born twin was heavier than that of the second-born. The standard deviation of birthweight was larger for second-born twins. The birthweight of twins from multiparous mothers was greater than those from primiparous mothers. The median birthweight according to gestational age was found to be the greatest in twins, lower in triplets and the lowest in quadruplets. In triplets, the 50th percentile was 0.08 kg heavier in boys than for girls. Conclusion Our results can be used for assessment of birthweight of multiple births in Japan.

  17. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  18. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  19. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo Leal Maria; da Silva Antônio Augusto; Dias Marcos Augusto; da Gama Silvana Granado; Rattner Daphne; Moreira Maria; Filha Mariza Miranda; Domingues RosaMariaSoaresMadeira; Pereira Ana Paula; Torres Jacqueline; Bittencourt Sonia Duarte; D’orsi Eleonora; Cunha Antonio JLA; Leite Alvaro Jorge; Cavalcante Rejane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods ...

  20. 多阶矩阵组合LDA及其在人脸识别中的应用%Modified LDA based on linear combination of k-order matrices and its application to face recogniton.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠宝; 王士同

    2011-01-01

    Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA) is one of the most popular linear classification techniques for feature extraction,but when dealing with face recognition, it will meet two problems:small sample size and rank limitation. In order to solve these two problems,this paper presents a modified LDA based on linear combination of k-order matrices-MLDA.MLDA redefines within-class scatter matrix Sw in order to make the traditional Fisher criterion get much more suitable to other situations. Experiments on different face databases verify the effectiveness of MLDA.%线性判别分析(LDA)是一种普遍用于特征提取的线性分类方法.但将 LDA 直接用于人脸识别会遇到小样本问题和秩限制问题.为了解决以上问题,提出一种基于多阶矩阵组合的 LDA 算法--MLDA.该算法重新定义了传统 LDA 中的类内离散度矩阵S,使传统 Fisher 准则具有更好的健壮性和适应性.若干人脸数据库上的比较实验证明了 MLDA 有效性.

  1. Birth Order, Age-Spacing, IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    1980-01-01

    Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)

  2. Birth Order Effects on Holland Type, Occupational Interests, and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Grotti, Shannon D.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael

    This investigation examined in two different samples, whether only children differ significantly from firstborn and later-born children in terms of their vocational personality type as described in Holland's RIASEC model, occupational interests, and work values. Literature on family configuration and vocational behavior is reviewed, and current…

  3. Birth Order, Gender and Affiliation in Various Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Shaul

    1981-01-01

    Administered two questionnaires to 800 Israeli subjects which examine the affiliation need in four groups of situations. No differences were found between first and later-borns in their tendency to associate with others. Results showed significant interaction between sex and specific situational factors. (Author/RC)

  4. Birth order and fratricide: an evaluation of Sulloway's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marleau, Jacques D

    2005-01-01

    Sulloway (1996) suggested that older siblings were more likely to be fratricidal than younger ones. Our data, based on 113 case studies found in the psychiatric, psychological and criminological literature since 1959, confirms his hypothesis. In 72 out of the 92 cases (78%) where age could be determined, the aggressor was older than the victim. The same held true even when the age of aggressor, sex of aggressor and victim, presence or not of a blood tie, and presence of one or more victims are taken into account. Surprisingly, most of the aggressors in our sample were under the age of 18 years. Also, first-borns were more often the aggressor than the victim. This result seems to confirm the Adlerian theory of dethronement. Some suggestions and hypotheses are advanced for future research to improve our understanding of this phenomenon.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE BIRTH RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVU MIHAELA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.

  6. 改良 HEL PERR 程序预防肩难产致新生儿产伤及对产妇身心状况的影响%The modified HELPERR procedures to prevent the shoulder dystocia and neonatal birth and impact on the physical and mental status of pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the modified HELPERR procedures to prevent the shoulder dystocia and neonatal birth and impact on the physical and mental status of pregnant women ,and for high risk parturient shoulder dystocia optimization scheme of evidence-based data accumulation .Methods A retrospective analysis of 175 cases of maternal shoulder dystocia in our hospital in 2010 January ~2011 year in July obstetrics were set as control group ,take ,conventional HELPERR pro‐gram development of midwifery delivery ;184 cases of shoulder selects my courtyard in 2013 January ~2014 year in July ob‐stetrics from dystocia maternal ,set as study group ,to adopt a modified HELPERR procedure applied to the whole process of vaginal delivery .Recorded the incidence of two groups of neonatal and maternal complications ,and two groups were com‐pared with the incidence of postpartum depression and satisfaction .Results The study group of asphyxia ,skeletal injury , injury of brachial plexus nerve and sternocleidomastoid hematoma incidence was lower than the control group ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05) .Research group of postpartum hemorrhage ,injury of birth canal ,puerperal infection and the incidence of pubic symphysis separation were lower than the control group ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05) .Research group of puerperal depression incidence rate of 4 .3% ,lower than the 12 .0% in the control group ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05) .Research on the satisfaction degree of group was 97 .3% ,higher than 83 . 4% in the control group ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05) .Conclusion The modified HELPERR proce‐dure can reduce the shoulder dystocia and neonatal birth and maternal complications incidence rate ,but also can improve ma‐ternal psychological comfort ,reduce the incidence of postpartum depression ,achieved satisfactory clinical results .%目的:探讨改良 HELPERR程序预防肩

  7. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  8. Birth and death of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars is summarized, giving emphasis to the phenomena related with their formation (birth) and their late stages (death). We also remark the basic physical concepts that regulate stellar evolution

  9. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  10. Birth in an Ordinary Instant

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Our daily lives are a series of ordinary moments and unnoticed thresholds—times that define us in ways we often do not give much attention. While we consider childbirth to be one of life's extra-ordinary events, the hours of labor and birth need not be dramatic (or traumatic) ones. I describe a quiet, well-supported birth in the Netherlands that is cause for celebration of the beauty of an ordinary instant that can define and enrich the human experience.

  11. Birth defects, causal attributions, and ethnicity in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amy P; Royle, Marjorie; Scheuerle, Angela E; Carmichael, Suzan L; Moffitt, Karen; Ramadhani, Tunu

    2014-10-01

    In order to translate research findings into effective prevention strategies, it is important to understand people's beliefs about the causes of poor health outcomes. However, with the exception of knowledge and beliefs about folic acid supplementation, little is known regarding women's causal attributions women regarding birth defects. We employed Attribution Theory constructs to analyze open-text interview responses from 2,672 control mothers in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study who gave birth in 1997-2005. Common themes included use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and medications during pregnancy. Stress and emotional upset were also suggested as possible causes of birth defects. Genetic- and heredity-related responses were more likely to be mentioned by Asian/Pacific Islander women compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic women were less likely to suggest several specific possible teratogens, such as paint, pesticides, or other chemicals, but were more likely to suggest events occurring during childbirth. Differences also emerged among ethnic groups for theoretical constructs, although most responses were categorized as controllable, changeable over time, and with an internal locus of causality. PMID:24682893

  12. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  13. 基于改进的有序子集的SAGE算法在PET图像重建中的应用%Application of SAGE algorithm in PET image reconstruction using modified ordered subsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宏擎; 舒华忠; 周健; 罗立民

    2005-01-01

    A new method that uses a modified ordered subsets (MOS) algorithm to improve the convergence rate of space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm for positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction is proposed.In the MOS-SAGE algorithm,the number of projections and the access order of the subsets are modified in order to improve the quality of the reconstructed images and accelerate the convergence speed.The number of projections in a subset increases as follows:2,4,8,16,32 and 64.This sequence means that the high frequency component is recovered first and the low frequency component is recovered in the succeeding iteration steps.In addition,the neighboring subsets are separated as much as possible so that the correlation of projections can be decreased and the convergences can be speeded up.The application of the proposed method to simulated and real images shows that the MOS-SAGE algorithm has better performance than the SAGE algorithm and the OSEM algorithm in convergence and image quality.%提出了一种利用修改的有序子集(MOS)方法改进空间交替广义期望最大(SAGE)算法收敛性的方法.新的可变有序子集算法(MOS-SAGE)通过修改投影数据的数目和子集的排列循序加速收敛速度.其中每一个子集中的投影数目按2,4,8,16,32,64来排列以便重建算法首先恢复高频部分信息,然后重建低频部分信息.另外新算法还使相邻子集尽可能分离以减少投影间的相关性,达到加速收敛的效果.实验中,运用MOS-SAGE算法对计算机仿真的PET投影数据和实际的临床数据进行重建.几种误差分析结果表明,MOS-SAGE算法的收敛性能比SAGE算法和有序子集期望最大算法(OSEM)要快,重建后的图像更接近仿真用的模板图像.

  14. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where...

  15. Water Birth at Home: Two Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Angha, Amanda M.; Scaer, Roberta M.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, a grandmother, with a long history as an author and activist for normal birth, and her daughter, a new mother, offer their unique experiences of a water birth at home, attended by family members and midwives. Their unique perspectives demonstrate the trust in the normal birth process that is possible for every birth.

  16. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in developing countries. The lack of progress in the decline of births in younger women <18 years of age underscores the need for more attention to ensure that quality contraceptive methods are available to adolescent

  17. [Proportional hazards model of birth intervals among marriage cohorts since the 1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, K

    1987-01-01

    With a view to investigating the possibility of an attitudinal change towards the timing of 1st and 2nd births, proportional hazards model analysis of the 1st and 2nd birth intervals and univariate life table analysis were both carried out. Results showed that love matches and conjugal families immediately after marriage are accompanied by a longer 1st birth interval than others, even after controlling for other independent variables. Marriage cohort analysis also shows a net effect on the relative risk of having a 1st birth. Marriage cohorts since the mid-1960s demonstrate a shorter 1st birth interval than the 1961-63 cohort. With regard to the 2nd birth interval, longer 1st birth intervals, arranged marriages, conjugal families immediately following marriage, and higher ages at 1st marriage of women tended to provoke a longer 2nd birth interval. There is no interaction between the 1st birth interval and marriage cohort. Once other independent variables were controlled, with the exception of the marriage cohorts of the early 1970s, the authors found no effect of marriage cohort on the relative risk of having a 2nd birth. This suggests that an attitudinal change towards the timing of births in this period was mainly restricted to that of a 1st birth. Fluctuations in the 2nd birth interval during the 1970-72 marriage cohort were scrutinized in detail. As a result, the authors found that conjugal families after marriage, wives with low educational status, women with husbands in white collar professions, women with white collar fathers, and wives with high age at 1st marriage who married during 1970-72 and had a 1st birth interval during 1972-74 suffered most from the pronounced rise in the 2nd birth interval. This might be due to the relatively high sensitivity to a change in socioeconomic status; the oil crisis occurring around the time of marriage and 1st birth induced a delay in the 2nd birth. The unanimous decrease in the 2nd birth interval among the 1973

  18. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  19. Are environmental pollutants risk factors for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to air pollutants and low birth weight in a medium-sized city. An ecological study was performed, using live birth data from São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil. The environmental data were obtained from the São Paul State Environmental Agency. The study included full-term newborns whose mothers were 20 to 34 years of age and had at least a complete high school education, seven or more prenatal visits, singleton pregnancy, and vaginal delivery, in order to minimize potential confounding from these variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of each pollutant. Low birth weight was defined as less than 2,500g. The sample included a total of 2,529 data from 2001 that met the inclusion criteria (25.6% of the total. We identified 99 newborns (3.95% of the sample with low birth weight, and the pollutants sulfur dioxide and ozone were associated with low birth weight. The final model was À(x = -1.79 + 1.30 (SO2 + 1.26 (O3. Thus, sulfur dioxide and ozone were identified as risk factors for low birth weight in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil.

  20. Home Birth: The Wave of the Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    A childbirth educator expresses frustration with a medical system that does not work for women or for many maternity care providers. She suggests out-of-hospital birth as an alternative. This column explores the safety of home birth, women's experiences of home birth, and the issues related to home birth once again being the standard. Childbirth educators are encouraged to present home birth as a viable choice.

  1. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers.......Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...

  2. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  3. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  4. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  5. Team training for safer birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women.

  6. New Families of Modified Two-Step Chebyshev-Halley Methods with Sixth-Order Convergence%几类改进的新的两步六阶Chebyshev-Halley方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田亚芳; 周素静; 王霞

    2012-01-01

    利用权函数法,给出非线性方程求根的Chebyshev-Halley方法的几类改进方法,证明方法六阶收敛到单根.Chebyshev-Halley方法的效率指数为1.442,改进后的两步方法的效率指数为1.565.最后给出数值试验,且与牛顿法,Chebyshev-Halley 方法及其它已知的方程求根方法做了比较.结果表明方法具有一定的优越性.%Applying the method of weight functions, new families of improvements of Chebyshev-Halley methods are given. The convergence property is proved and the present methods converge to the simple roots with sixth-order. The efficiency index of Chebyshev-Halley methods is 1.442 and the modified two-step Chebyshev-Halley methods' is 1.565. In the end , numerical tests are given and the present methods are compared with Newton's method, Chebyshev-Halley methods and other known root-finding methods. The results show that the proposed methods have some more advantages than other methods.

  7. Birth weight and the dynamics of early cognitive and behavioural development

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bono, Emilia; Ermisch, John

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the impact of birth weight on children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. In order to deal with the endogeneity of birth weight we use an estimator based on the eliminant method. When coupled with ordinary least squares, this estimator allows us to bound the effects of birth weight. The results show that birth weight has significant but very small effects on male cognitive development at age 3 and on female cognitive a...

  8. Bio-social and environmental factors of premature births and stillbirths in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnelli, A; Zannella, F

    1981-01-01

    An examination of a number of biological and social aspects of infant survival in Italy is presented, with particular reference to regional differences in premature births and stillbirths. Factors examined include birth order, mother's age, mother's educational background, father's occupation, and the economic, hygienic, and health care conditions of the province of residence. Data are for 1974-1975. (summary in FRE, ITA)

  9. 76 FR 6650 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Birth of the Modern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Birth of the Modern: Style and... authority vested in me by the Act of October 19, 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047... ``Birth of the Modern: Style and Identity in Vienna 1900,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  10. 75 FR 21384 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Birth of Impressionism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Birth of Impressionism: Masterpieces... Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (112 Stat. 2681... 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Birth...

  11. Influence of Parental Overweight on the Association of Birth Weight and Fat Distribution Later in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the association between birth weight and fat distribution in childhood is modified by parental overweight. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 728 Danish children aged 8-10 and 14-16 years. The main outcomes were waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, subscapular ......: The association between birth weight and fat distribution seems to be influenced by parental overweight. Lower birth weights are associated with central adiposity among offspring of overweight parents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  12. Nonhomogeneous birth and death models for epidemic outbreak data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, generalized nonlinear models are proposed in order to incorporate the following considerations in modeling an epidemic disease outbreak statistically. (1) The dependence of the data is handled with a nonhomogeneous death or a nonhomogeneous birth process. (2) The first stage of the ou

  13. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  14. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-03-01

    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing.

  15. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  16. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  17. The Airway Microbiome at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  18. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  19. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G;

    2008-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  20. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy during pregnancy, and giving your baby a healthy start in life will help you to have peace of mind. Before pregnancy » During pregnancy » To learn about CDC’s work to help prevent birth defects, visit our Research and Tracking page. Related Links Disability and Health ...

  1. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  2. Intertwining and commutation relations for birth-death processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chafai, Djalil

    2010-01-01

    Given a birth-death process on N with semigroup P_t and a discrete gradient D depending on a positive weight u, we establish intertwining relations of the form D P_t = Q_t D, where Q_t is the Feynman-Kac semigroup with potential V_u of another birth-death process. We provide applications when V_u is positive and uniformly bounded from below, including Lipschitz contraction and Wasserstein curvature, various functional inequalities, and stochastic orderings. The proofs are remarkably simple and rely on interpolation, commutation, and convexity.

  3. Birth of a closed universe, and the anthropogenic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scenario is proposed for the evolution of the universe, starting with the quantum birth of a closed world at a minimum in the self-consistent de Sitter cosmological solution with vacuum polarization. The closure of the universe and the permanently supercritical value of its density follow directly from a single condition: that quantum birth take place. The perturbations must be small in order that the de Sitter phase may be sufficiently prolonged to ensure a protracted Friedmann plasma-matter expansion. Thus a universe having the properties we observe may in fact have been singled out by the anthropogenic principle

  4. Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Malawi: Bayesian Geo-Additive Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ngwira

    Full Text Available Studies on factors of low birth weight in Malawi have neglected the flexible approach of using smooth functions for some covariates in models. Such flexible approach reveals detailed relationship of covariates with the response. The study aimed at investigating risk factors of low birth weight in Malawi by assuming a flexible approach for continuous covariates and geographical random effect. A Bayesian geo-additive model for birth weight in kilograms and size of the child at birth (less than average or average and higher with district as a spatial effect using the 2010 Malawi demographic and health survey data was adopted. A Gaussian model for birth weight in kilograms and a binary logistic model for the binary outcome (size of child at birth were fitted. Continuous covariates were modelled by the penalized (p splines and spatial effects were smoothed by the two dimensional p-spline. The study found that child birth order, mother weight and height are significant predictors of birth weight. Secondary education for mother, birth order categories 2-3 and 4-5, wealth index of richer family and mother height were significant predictors of child size at birth. The area associated with low birth weight was Chitipa and areas with increased risk to less than average size at birth were Chitipa and Mchinji. The study found support for the flexible modelling of some covariates that clearly have nonlinear influences. Nevertheless there is no strong support for inclusion of geographical spatial analysis. The spatial patterns though point to the influence of omitted variables with some spatial structure or possibly epidemiological processes that account for this spatial structure and the maps generated could be used for targeting development efforts at a glance.

  5. The ideology and politics of birth control in inter-war England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J

    1979-01-01

    examine why the official response was so limited and the implications this had for the relationship of women to welfare policy. When the government took the first steps toward granting access to birth control information, it did so on health grounds. No further liberalization of the law occurred and the argument that all women had the right of access to birth control information in order to space and limit the number of births was ignored. The population scare outweighted the case for birth control as a maternal and a racial measure by the mid 1930s.

  6. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  7. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  8. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between pregnancies > Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth E-mail to ... talk to other women like me who are thinking about pregnancy after having a premature baby? Visit ...

  9. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  10. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  11. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  12. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. PMID:22375565

  13. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP ) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study wa...

  14. Quality of newborn care at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, AJ; Marchant, T

    2014-01-01

    Quality of care can be measured by seeing if skilled birth attendants use simple approaches to save lives. Skilled birth attendants range from trained community health workers to nurses, doctors and midwives. Findings from three low-income settings show quality of care for the newborn is low even when a skilled birth attendant is at the mother’s side during birth. Source: 2012 Baseline survey data, the IDEAS project, based at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Funded by the...

  15. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth.

  16. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.; Snyder, Nancy O., Comp.

    Between 1986 and 1991 the teen birth rate rose by nearly one-fourth, although very small declines were evident in 1992 and 1993. This decline was concentrated among older teens; the number of births to adolescents aged 17 and younger continued to rise. The percentage of teen births that occurred outside of marriage rose to 72%. In 1991, the most…

  17. Birth-death processes and associated polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van Erik A.

    2003-01-01

    We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis

  18. Modeling The Effects of Mother’s Age at First Birth on Child Health at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-01-01

    This study models the impact of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth in Cameroon. The objectives are: (1) investigate the implication of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth; (2) examine the impact of mother’s age groups on birth weight, and (3) suggest economic policies to ameliorate the mother’s age – child health relationship. We make used of the control function approach to determine the relationship between mother’s age at first birth and birth...

  19. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when it was at its historic peak of 51.8 per 1,000. The percentage of all births ... 45.3 46.0 47.5 49.9 51.8 51.8 50.3 47.2 46.0 44.7 ... 26.3 78.0 102.9 86.3 51.8 23.3 2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,610.5 0.8 ...

  20. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; Kane Low, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to maternal and neonatal outcomes of planned home birth, and discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities regarding planned home birth. PMID:25914559

  1. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  2. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way. PMID:24873114

  3. Generation and control of multi-scroll chaotic attractors in fractional order systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is twofold: on one hand we demonstrate the generation of multi-scroll attractors in fractional order chaotic systems. Then, we design state feedback controllers to eliminate chaos from the system trajectories. It is demonstrated that modifying the underlying nonlinearity of the fractional chaotic system results in the birth of multiple chaotic attractors, thus forming the so called multi-scroll attractors. The presence of chaotic behavior is evidenced by a positive largest Lyapunov exponent computed for the output time series. We investigate generation and control of multi-scroll attractors in two different models, both of which are fractional order and chaotic: an electronic oscillator, and a mechanical 'jerk' model. The current findings extend previously reported results on generation of n-scroll attractors from the domain of integer order to the domain of fractional order chaotic systems, and addresses the issue of controlling such chaotic behaviors. Our investigations are validated through numerical simulations

  4. Body size at birth is associated with food and nutrient intake in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia-Maria Perälä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose birth weight and length were recorded. Preterm births were excluded. During a clinical study, diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the associations. Intake of fruits and berries was 13.26 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 25.96 higher per 1 kg/m(3 increase in ponderal index (PI at birth, and 83.16 g (95% CI: 17.76, 148.56 higher per 1 kg higher birth weight. One unit higher PI at birth was associated with 0.14% of energy (E% lower intake of fat (95% CI: -0.26, -0.03 and 0.18 E% higher intake of carbohydrates (95% CI: 0.04, 0.32 as well as 0.08 E% higher sucrose (95% CI: 0.00, 0.15, 0.05 E% higher fructose (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09, and 0.18 g higher fiber (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34 intake in adulthood. Similar associations were observed between birth weight and macronutrient intake. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal growth may modify later life food and macronutrient intake. Altered dietary habits could potentially explain an increased risk of chronic disease in individuals born with small body size.

  5. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Preterm and growth restricted infants may have developmental delays or deviant organ function related to the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Since both organ systems are hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile colic, a condition characterized...... by excessive crying during the first months of life, impaired fetal growth and preterm birth may be risk factors for infantile colic. Objectives To investigate the association between gestational age, birth weight, and infantile colic. Methods We used maternal interviews from the Danish National Birth Cohort...... (1996 to 2002) conducted at gestational week 17 and at six months post partum. We included 62 761 live-born singletons with complete information on birth weight, gestational age, and crying symptoms recorded at six months of age. Infantile colic was defined according to Wessel's modified criteria...

  6. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Bhatia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no, controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05. The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  7. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Multimedia

    Rodgers, L

    2001-01-01

    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  8. The domestication of human birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Stefanović

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the burial places of newborns at the prehistoric site at Lepenski Vir (Serbia revealed the possibility that deliveries took place inside houses that were heated. Warm houses provided a thermally stable environment which, in turn, could solve the problem of thermoregulation, that is critical for the survival of babies. In this study it is shown that the creation of these good conditions for giving birth could have been an important step in human evolution that could have led to a demographic expansion.

  9. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    and infant health) of a variety of exposures during pregnancy, as well as examples showing different methodological approaches in design and analyses of the studies, are presented. RESEARCH TOPICS: The exposures of interest include alcohol drinking, coffee intake, smoking, use of nicotine substitutes......, physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has...

  10. Kinetic Behavior of Aggregation-Exchange Growth Process with Catalyzed-Birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN An-Jia; CHEN Yu; LIN Zhen-Quan; KE Jian-Hong

    2007-01-01

    We propose an aggregation model of a two-species system to mimic the growth of cities' population and assets,in which irreversible coagulation reactions and exchange reactions occur between any two aggregates of the same species,and the monomer-birth reactions of one species occur by the catalysis of the other species.In the case with population-catalyzed birth of assets,the rate kernel of an asset aggregate Bκ of size k grows to become an aggregate Bκ+ 1through a monomer-birth catalyzed by a population aggregate Aj of size j is J(k,j) = Jkjλ.And in mutually catalyzed birth model,the birth rate kernels of population and assets are H(k,j) = Hkjη and J(k,j) = Jkjλ,respectively.The kinetics of the system is investigated based on the mean-field theory.In the model of population-catalyzed birth of assets,the long-time asymptotic behavior of the assets aggregate size distribution obeys the conventional or modified scaling form.In mutually catalyzed birth system,the asymptotic behaviors of population and assets obey the conventional scaling form in the case ofη =λ= 0,and they obey the modified scalingform in the case of η = 0,λ= 1.In the case of η = λ = 1,the total mass of population aggregates and that of asset aggregates both grow much faster than those in population-catalyzed birth of assets model,and they approaches to infinite values in finite time.

  11. Relationship between Periodontal Diseases and Preterm Birth: Recent Epidemiological and Biological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Huck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For ten years, the incidence of preterm birth does not decrease in developed countries despite the promotion of public health programs. Many risk factors have been identified including ethnicity, age, tobacco, and infection. However, almost 50% of preterm birth causes remain unknown. The periodontal diseases are highly prevalent inflammatory and infectious diseases of tooth supporting tissues leading to an oral disability. They influence negatively general health worsening cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Periodontal diseases have been also suspected to increase the rate of preterm birth, but data remain contradictory. The objective of this review is to present the principal results of epidemiological, biological, and interventional studies on the link between periodontal diseases and preterm birth. The conclusions of this work underline the importance for the physician/obstetrician to identify women at risk for preterm birth and to address these patients to dentist for periodontal examination and treatment in order to limit adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Levels and Correlates of Non-Adherence to WHO Recommended Inter-Birth Intervals in Rufiji, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Exavery Amon; Mrema Sigilbert; Shamte Amri; Bietsch Kristin; Mosha Dominic; Mbaruku Godfrey; Masanja Honorati

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Poorly spaced pregnancies have been documented worldwide to result in adverse maternal and child health outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum inter-birth interval of 33 months between two consecutive live births in order to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. However, birth spacing practices in many developing countries, including Tanzania, remain scantly addressed. Methods Longitudinal data collected in the Rufiji He...

  13. Evaluation of very low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu Gebeşçe; Haşim Uslu; Esengül Keleş; Mehmet Demirdöven; Alparslan Tonbul; Bülent Baştürk; Hamza Yazgan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Neonates with birth weights below 1500 g who were cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit of Fatih University Hospital were retrospectively examined in order to define their rates of morbidity and mortality.Methods: This study was conducted on 72 premature infants divided into two groups: those with birth weights below 1000 g(31 infants) and those above 1001 g(41 infants). Data on these infants were recorded and statistically evaluated. Birth weights ranged from 670 g to 1500...

  14. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  15. Characteristics and risk factors of preterm births in a tertiary center in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butali, Azeez; Ezeaka, Chinyere; Ekhaguere, Osayame; Weathers, Nancy; Ladd, Jenna; Fajolu, Iretiola; Esezobor, Christopher; Makwe, Christian; Odusanya, Bukola; Anorlu, Rose; Adeyemo, Wasiu; Iroha, Edna; Egri-Okwaji, Mathias; Adejumo, Prisca; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Abiodun, Moses; Badejoko, Bolaji; Ryckman, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth is a dire complication of pregnancy that poses huge long-term medical and financial burdens for affected children, their families, and the health care system. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics associated with preterm births at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria from 2011 to 2013. Methods We obtained Information from 5,561 maternal, fetal/neonatal and obstetric records from the labor ward. We excluded delivery at less than 22 weeks (0.25%), post-term birth at ≥42 weeks gestation (1.3%), and unknown gestation (1.4%). Additionally, we excluded records of multiple births (5.4%) and stillbirths (8.3%) leaving 4,691 records of singleton live-births for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed comparing preterm birth (22-36 weeks gestation) to term birth (37-41 weeks gestation). Multiple variable models adjusting for maternal age, parity, fetal position, delivery method and booking status were also evaluated. Multinomial regression was used to identify characteristics associated with preterm birth (PTB) defined as early PTB (22-31 weeks gestation), moderate PTB (32-34 weeks gestation), late PTB (35-36 weeks gestation), compared to term birth (37-41 completed weeks gestation). Results From our data, 16.8% of the singleton live-birth deliveries were preterm (HIV were at a significantly decreased risk for PTB (OR = 0.70). Sixteen percent of women in this cohort were not registered for antenatal care in LUTH. These non-registered subjects had significantly greater odds of all categories of PTB, including early (odds ratio (OR) = 20.8), moderate (OR = 8.68), and late (OR = 2.15). Conclusion PTB and risks for PTB remain high in Nigeria. We recommend that any high risk pregnancy should be referred to a tertiary center for prenatal care in order to significantly reduce adverse birth outcomes such as PTBs.

  16. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Zielinski,1 Kelly Ackerson,2 Lisa Kane Low1,3,4 1School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Bronson School of Nursing, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Women’s Studies Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to

  17. The rising home birth trend in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan Aliyev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years home birth rates are increased in the whole world, mainly in the United States (US. Between 2004-2012, non-hospital births increasing rate is 89% in the US. Home birth increased especially among the married, non-Hispanic, over 35 years of age, multipar and singleton pregnancies. However the high rate of cesarean birth did not increase in recent years in the US, now it has been stable at 32%. It is reported that the stability of the cesarean rate is related to rising rate of home birth. In this mini review, the rising rate of home birth and its consequences in the US were discussed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1669-1671

  18. Cesarean Birth: A Journey in Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago seems like yesterday: a time of immense socioeconomic changes, explosion of an "Internet" computer concept, and identification of human immunodeficiency virus. Like all events of the past, transformations in obstetrics developed over time. Cesarean birth can be better understood in a broader context when one considers how the art of obstetric practice has evolved. Cesarean birth progressed from delivering a fetus perimortem or postmortem to a time of operative births that simultaneously juggle a woman's safety, satisfaction, and freedom of choice concerning birth options. Thirty years of increasing cesarean birth rates have prompted government agencies, national organizations, state-level perinatal collaborative groups, and experts to address these rates and the impact on maternal-child health and healthcare systems. The purpose of this article is to explain cesarean birth's remarkable impact on obstetrics by reviewing key historical periods, current advances, and upcoming trends. PMID:27465462

  19. FAVORED ZODIAC FOR CELEBRITY BIRTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M. Adel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To find any favored zodiac sign for celebrity births, a sample of 100 celebrities were randomly selected from people of different walks of life. The sample contained politicians, natural scientists, social scientists, Authors of literary works, social workers, humanitarian workers, business personnel, sports icons, singers, actors, actresses, etc. etc. from history and from the current time. The zodiac signs for the celebrities were found from their known dates of births. In the analysis of data, zodiac signs and the number of celebrities were represented as the independent x and the dependent y variables, respectively. For academic interests for the 9th grade high school juniors (at the time of the project performance, the co-authors of this article, as well as for the potentially illustrative uses in high school mathematics textbooks, bar and scatter plots were made, the line of best-fit and the equation of the line were found, probabilities of occurrences of celebrities for each of the zodiac signs were calculated and the correlation coefficients between the variables were determined for the sample. It was found that the zodiac Aquarius has the largest number of celebrities in the sample and that the two variables are moderately correlated. The sample sizes which were increased to 200 and then 300. By including another 100 more celebrities to find if the trend remains unchanged. In all the three cases, Aquarius turned out to be the zodiac when most of the celebrities are born.

  20. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar B Bangal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  1. Uso do índice de Kotelchuck modificado na avaliação da assistência pré-natal e sua relação com as características maternas e o peso do recém-nascido no Município do Rio de Janeiro Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O índice de Kotelchuck (IK foi modificado e utilizado para avaliar a assistência pré-natal prestada no Município do Rio de Janeiro - Brasil, em uma amostra de 9920 puérperas de parto único. Regressões multivariadas logística ordinal (RMLO e linear (RML foram utilizadas para estimar a importância de fatores demográficos, psicossociais e obstétricos no IK modificado e seus efeitos no peso ao nascer (PN, respectivamente. Apenas 38,5% das parturientes do Município do Rio de Janeiro foram classificadas como de cuidado pré-natal adequado ou intensivo. Após ajustamento por outros preditores, mantiveram-se como variáveis explicativas do IK: o nível de instrução, viver com o pai do RN, tentar abortar, diabetes, satisfação com a gravidez, cor da pele, paridade, idade e local de residência. O PN associou-se com o IK modificado, mesmo após o controle de variáveis sociodemográficas, comportamentais e biológicas. A utilização adequada da assistência pré-natal no Município do Rio de Janeiro contribuiu na prevenção do PN e as mães que menos utilizaram os serviços pré-natais têm piores condições socioeducacionais, de apoio familiar e de risco obstétrico.The Kotelchuck index (KI was modified and used to evaluate prenatal care provided in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in a sample of 9,920 post-partum women following singleton deliveries. Ordinal logistic regression (OLR and multivariate linear regression (LMR were used to estimate the importance of demographic, psychosocial, and obstetric factors for modified KI and the effects on birth weight (BW, respectively. Only 38.5% of the sample was classified as having received adequate or intensive prenatal care. After adjusting for other predictors, the explanatory variables for KI were: mother's schooling, living with the newborn's father, attempted abortion, diabetes mellitus, satisfaction with pregnancy, skin color, parity, age, and place of residence. BW was associated

  2. Consolidating birth-death and death-birth processes in structured populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Zukewich

    Full Text Available Network models extend evolutionary game theory to settings with spatial or social structure and have provided key insights on the mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation. However, network models have also proven sensitive to seemingly small details of the model architecture. Here we investigate two popular biologically motivated models of evolution in finite populations: Death-Birth (DB and Birth-Death (BD processes. In both cases reproduction is proportional to fitness and death is random; the only difference is the order of the two events at each time step. Although superficially similar, under DB cooperation may be favoured in structured populations, while under BD it never is. This is especially troubling as natural populations do not follow a strict one birth then one death regimen (or vice versa; such constraints are introduced to make models more tractable. Whether structure can promote the evolution of cooperation should not hinge on a simplifying assumption. Here, we propose a mixed rule where in each time step DB is used with probability δ and BD is used with probability 1-δ. We derive the conditions for selection favouring cooperation under the mixed rule for all social dilemmas. We find that the only qualitatively different outcome occurs when using just BD (δ = 0. This case admits a natural interpretation in terms of kin competition counterbalancing the effect of kin selection. Finally we show that, for any mixed BD-DB update and under weak selection, cooperation is never inhibited by population structure for any social dilemma, including the Snowdrift Game.

  3. Consolidating birth-death and death-birth processes in structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukewich, Joshua; Kurella, Venu; Doebeli, Michael; Hauert, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Network models extend evolutionary game theory to settings with spatial or social structure and have provided key insights on the mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation. However, network models have also proven sensitive to seemingly small details of the model architecture. Here we investigate two popular biologically motivated models of evolution in finite populations: Death-Birth (DB) and Birth-Death (BD) processes. In both cases reproduction is proportional to fitness and death is random; the only difference is the order of the two events at each time step. Although superficially similar, under DB cooperation may be favoured in structured populations, while under BD it never is. This is especially troubling as natural populations do not follow a strict one birth then one death regimen (or vice versa); such constraints are introduced to make models more tractable. Whether structure can promote the evolution of cooperation should not hinge on a simplifying assumption. Here, we propose a mixed rule where in each time step DB is used with probability δ and BD is used with probability 1-δ. We derive the conditions for selection favouring cooperation under the mixed rule for all social dilemmas. We find that the only qualitatively different outcome occurs when using just BD (δ = 0). This case admits a natural interpretation in terms of kin competition counterbalancing the effect of kin selection. Finally we show that, for any mixed BD-DB update and under weak selection, cooperation is never inhibited by population structure for any social dilemma, including the Snowdrift Game. PMID:23382931

  4. Stressful life events, social health issues and low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort: challenges and opportunities in antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland Georgina A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investment in strategies to promote 'a healthy start to life' has been identified as having the greatest potential to reduce health inequalities across the life course. The aim of this study was to examine social determinants of low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort and consider implications for health policy and health care systems. Methods Population-based survey distributed by hospitals and home birth practitioners to >8000 women six months after childbirth in two states of Australia. Participants were women who gave birth to a liveborn infant in Victoria and South Australia in September/October 2007. Main outcome measures included stressful life events and social health issues, perceived discrimination in health care settings, infant birthweight. Results 4,366/8468 (52% of eligible women returned completed surveys. Two-thirds (2912/4352 reported one or more stressful life events or social health issues during pregnancy. Women reporting three or more social health issues (18%, 768/4352 were significantly more likely to have a low birthweight infant ( Conclusions There is a window of opportunity in antenatal care to implement targeted preventive interventions addressing potentially modifiable risk factors for poor maternal and infant outcomes. Developing the evidence base and infrastructure necessary in order for antenatal services to respond effectively to the social circumstances of women's lives is long overdue.

  5. Fear causes tears - Perineal injuries in home birth settings. A Swedish interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brink Åsa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perineal injury is a serious complication of vaginal delivery that has a severe impact on the quality of life of healthy women. The prevalence of perineal injuries among women who give birth in hospital has increased over the last decade, while it is lower among women who give birth at home. The aim of this study was to describe the practice of midwives in home birth settings with the focus on the occurrence of perineal injuries. Methods Twenty midwives who had assisted home births for between one and 29 years were interviewed using an interview guide. The midwives also had experience of working in a hospital delivery ward. All the interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was used. Results The overall theme was "No rushing and tearing about", describing the midwives' focus on the natural process taking its time. The subcategories 1 preparing for the birth; 2 going along with the physiological process; 3 creating a sense of security; 4 the critical moment and 5 midwifery skills illuminate the management of labor as experienced by the midwives when assisting births at home. Conclusions Midwives who assist women who give birth at home take many things into account in order to minimize the risk of complications during birth. Protection of the woman's perineum is an act of awareness that is not limited to the actual moment of the pushing phase but starts earlier, along with the communication between the midwife and the woman.

  6. Low Birth Weight Causes Survey in Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eghbalian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth inte...

  7. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; ZHI Qi-Jun; ZHANG Xiao-ping; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qurit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth.

  8. Estimation for general birth-death processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Forrest W.; Minin, Vladimir N.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Birth-death processes (BDPs) are continuous-time Markov chains that track the number of “particles” in a system over time. While widely used in population biology, genetics and ecology, statistical inference of the instantaneous particle birth and death rates remains largely limited to restrictive linear BDPs in which per-particle birth and death rates are constant. Researchers often observe the number of particles at discrete times, necessitating data augmentation procedures such as expectat...

  9. Introducing Midwifery-led Birth Centres to Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Mattison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ontario, maternal health systems are changing, with an increasing variety of childbirth options being offered to low-risk pregnant women. Midwifery became a regulated profession in the province in 1994: providing primary care throughout pregnancy, labour and for up to six weeks postpartum. Currently there are three midwifery-led birth centres operating in Ontario, two of which opened in early 2014. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MoHLTC has launched these new birth centres in order to offer women more choice in health care provider and birth setting. This shift is representative of the MoHLTC’s push to move services out of hospitals and into community-based settings. While the birth centre initiative is in its early stages and a formal program evaluation is needed, it has the potential, if scaled up, to decrease the need for hospital beds as well as reduce health care costs through more appropriate care for low-risk pregnancies, leading to fewer interventions.

  10. Word Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The way constituents are ordered in a linguistic expression is determined by general principles and language specific rules. This article is mostly concerned with general ordering principles and the three main linguistic categories that are relevant for constituent order research: formal, functio...

  11. Birth size and breast cancer risk: re-analysis of individual participant data from 32 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel dos Santos Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth size, perhaps a proxy for prenatal environment, might be a correlate of subsequent breast cancer risk, but findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. We re-analysed individual participant data from published and unpublished studies to obtain more precise estimates of the magnitude and shape of the birth size-breast cancer association. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies were identified through computer-assisted and manual searches, and personal communication with investigators. Individual participant data from 32 studies, comprising 22,058 breast cancer cases, were obtained. Random effect models were used, if appropriate, to combine study-specific estimates of effect. Birth weight was positively associated with breast cancer risk in studies based on birth records (pooled relative risk [RR] per one standard deviation [SD] [= 0.5 kg] increment in birth weight: 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.09 and parental recall when the participants were children (1.02; 95% CI 0.99-1.05, but not in those based on adult self-reports, or maternal recall during the woman's adulthood (0.98; 95% CI 0.95-1.01 (p for heterogeneity between data sources = 0.003. Relative to women who weighed 3.000-3.499 kg, the risk was 0.96 (CI 0.80-1.16 in those who weighed or = 4.000 kg (p for linear trend = 0.001 in birth record data. Birth length and head circumference from birth records were also positively associated with breast cancer risk (pooled RR per one SD increment: 1.06 [95% CI 1.03-1.10] and 1.09 [95% CI 1.03-1.15], respectively. Simultaneous adjustment for these three birth size variables showed that length was the strongest independent predictor of risk. The birth size effects did not appear to be confounded or mediated by established breast cancer risk factors and were not modified by age or menopausal status. The cumulative incidence of breast cancer per 100 women by age 80 y in the study populations was estimated to be 10

  12. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  13. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  14. Why Give Birth in Health Facility? Users' and Providers' Accounts of Poor Quality of Birth Care in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, half of all pregnant women access a health facility for delivery. The proportion receiving skilled care at birth is even lower. In order to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, the government has set out to increase health facility deliveries by skilled care. The aim of this study was to describe the weaknesses in the provision of acceptable and adequate quality care through the accounts of women who have suffered obstetric fistula, nurse-midwives at both BEmOC and...

  15. Neonatal outcomes after preterm birth by mothers’ health insurance status at birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsdóttir Kristjana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. Methods The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32–36 weeks gestation from Western Australia during 1998–2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time until establishment of unassisted breathing (>1 minute, neonatal resuscitation (endotracheal intubation or external cardiac massage and admission to a neonatal special care unit. Results Compared with infants of privately insured women, infants of publicly insured women were more likely to receive a low Apgar score (ARR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.06-6.52 and take longer to establish unassisted breathing (ARR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, yet, they were less likely to be admitted to a special care unit (ARR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.80-0.87. No significant differences were evident in neonatal resuscitation between the groups (ARR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54-2.67. Conclusions The underlying reasons for the lower rate of special care admissions in infants of publicly insured women compared with privately insured women despite the higher rate of low Apgar scores is yet to be determined. Future research is

  16. Modified Ureterosigmoidostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To introduce an operation procedure and evaluate the coutinence diversion results of the modified ureterosigmoidostomy after radical cystectomy. Methods Fourteen cases of bladder cancer or prostate carcinoma were operated on with modified Sigma pouch from Feb, 1998 to Dec, 1999. A longitudinal incision about 25 cm on the sigmoid uall was done to form a low pressure pouch. The vertex of the new pouch was fixed to sacrum. Both ends of ureters were anastomosed side to side and to form a big nipple and inserted into the top of pouch for 2 to 3 centimeters. Results It took about sixty five minutes to create a new low pressure pouch after radical cystectomy. Early complication of was found in two cases postoperatively, and cured with temporary colonostomy. Hydronephrosis and hypokalemia in one patient were cured by percutaneous anterograde ureter dilatation with balloon and oral replacement of potassium salt. All patients displayed urinary continence. No symptomatic renal infection or hypercholoraemic acidosis occurred. Conclusion Modified ureterosigmoidostomy is a safe procedure of urinary diversion and provides a big volume, low intravesical pressure pouch. The patients are free from the troublesome urine-bag, intermittert catheterization , and upper urinary tracts are protected effectively. The quality of life is satisfied.

  17. Modified Ureterosigmoidostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To introduce an operation procedure and evaluate the coutinence diversion results of the modified ureterosigmoidostomy after radical cystectomy. Methods Fourteen cases of bladder cancer or prostate carcinoma were operated on with modified Sigma pouch from Feb, 1998 to Dec, 1999. A longitudinal incision about 25 cm on the sigmoid uall was done to form a low pressure pouch. The vertex of the new pouch was fixed to sacrum. Both ends of ureters were anastomosed side to side and to form a big nipple and inserted into the top of pouch for 2 to 3 centimeters. Results It took about sixty five minutes to create a new low pressure pouch after radical cystectomy. Early complication of was found in two cases postoperatively, and cured with temporary colonostomy. Hydronephrosis and hypokalemia in one patient were cured by percutaneous anterograde ureter dilatation with balloon and oral replacement of potassium salt. A~ patients displayed urinary continence. No symptomatic renal infection or hypercholoraemic acidosis occurred. Conclusion Modified ureterosigmoidostomy is a safe procedure of urinary diversion and provides a big volume, low intravesical pressure pouch. The patients are free from the troublesome urine-bag, intermittert catheterization , and upper urinary tracts are protected effectively. The quality of life is satisfied.

  18. Saving Lives at Birth : The Impact of Home Births on Infant Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.; Trandafir, M.; van Ewijk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogene

  19. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill;

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  20. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  1. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

    2005-04-19

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  2. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  3. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Dahlui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child 5 years before the interview and aged 15–49 years who were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey conducted. The birth weight of the infants was recorded from written records from the hospital cards or the mothers’ recall. Results: The prevalence of LBW in this study was 7.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an adjusted significant odds ratio for mothers from North West region (aOR 10.67; 95% CI [5.83–19.5], twin pregnancy (aOR 5.11; 95% CI [3.11–8.39], primiparous mother (aOR 2.08; 95% CI [1.15–3.77], maternal weight of less than 70 kg (aOR 1.92; 95% CI [1.32–2.78], and manual paternal employment (aOR 1.91; 95% CI [1.08–3.37]. Conclusions: The risk factors for LBW identified in this study are modifiable. In order to reduce this menace in Nigeria, holistic approaches such as health education, maternal nutrition, improvement in socio-economic indices, and increasing the quality and quantity of the antenatal care services are of paramount importance.

  4. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  5. Catholics vs. Protestants - Birth and Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July......Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July...

  6. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...

  7. Witnessing a Natural, Safe, and Healthy Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses her experience witnessing a natural, safe, and healthy home birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  8. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partners (Namerow, Kalmuss, & Cushman, 1997). A few birth parents report being overprotective of their subsequent children because they are afraid of repeating the This material may be freely reproduced and distributed. However, when ... Birth Parents https://www.childwelfare.gov experience of separation and ...

  9. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharie, Gabriela; Antonia POPESCU; BLAGA, LIGIA; Melinda MATYAS

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations...

  10. Duality-based calculations for transition probabilities in birth-death processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transition probabilities in birth-death processes are fomulated via the corresponding dual birth-death processes. In order to obtain the corresponding dual processes, the Doi-Peliti formalism is employed. Conventional numerical evaluation enables us to obtain the transition probabilities from a fixed initial state; on the other hand, the duality relation gives us a useful method to calculate the transition probabilities to a fixed final state. Furthermore, it is clarified that the transition ...

  11. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil;

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...

  12. The piglet&apos;s behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencová V.; Mlyneková L.; Mlynek J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  13. Can low birth weight be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S S

    1985-01-01

    In the US low birth weight is the major factor associated with the death of infants in the 1st 4 weeks of life. Over the 1st 1/2 of the century, infant mortality declined from about 100 to about 30 deaths/1000 live births. But most of this decline has been attributed to decreases in the rate of postneonatal mortality (deaths from 28 days to the 1st birthday). Declines in low-birth-weight rates have been concentrated among babies whose mothers are at lowest risk. Low-birth-weight infants who do survive face increased risk of a range of childhood illnesses and developmental problems. The problem of low birth weight is also important for economic reasons. More than US$1.5 billion is spent annually on neonatal intensive care services in the US. Teenage mothers, blacks, and women of low socioeconomic status are at high risk of having a baby of low birth weight. Pregnancy intervals of shorter than 6 months, a variety of chronic illnesses, multiple pregnancies, smoking, and failure to obtain, or delay in initiating, prenatal care also increase the risk that a woman will have a low-birth-weight baby. The Institute of Medicine committee has outlined an approach to the prevention of low birth weight that emphasizes 5 principal points: 1) pre-pregnancy identification of high risk women with more and improved counseling, health education, and family planning services; 2) increase the availability and quality of early prenatal care; 3) strengthen and expand the content of prenatal services; 4) mount a public information campaign aimed at preventing low-birth-weight; 5) research. If these measures are implemented, it has been estimated that US$41 million can be saved each year from the US$188 million the government spends annually for the care of low-birth-weight babies. The federal government must take a leadership role if these measures are to be successful. PMID:3842660

  14. Preterm and Very Preterm Births by County 2010-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains percent preterm and very preterm live births by maternal county of residence. Preterm births are all lives births less than 37 weeks of...

  15. Births By Age of Mother, 1960-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is for California live births by age of mother, for years 1960-2013. The live birth counts per age bracket represent the live births to California...

  16. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  17. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  18. Brazilian multicenter study on prevalence of preterm birth and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinsburg Ruth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of preterm birth remains a complex public health condition. It is considered the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, resulting in a high likelihood of sequelae in surviving children. With variable incidence in several countries, it has grown markedly in the last decades. In Brazil, however, there are still difficulties to estimate its real occurrence. Therefore, it is essential to establish the prevalence and causes of this condition in order to propose prevention actions. This study intend to collect information from hospitals nationwide on the prevalence of preterm births, their associated socioeconomic and environmental factors, diagnostic and treatment methods resulting from causes such as spontaneous preterm labor, prelabor rupture of membranes, and therapeutic preterm birth, as well as neonatal results. Methods/Design This proposal is a multicenter cross-sectional study plus a nested case-control study, to be implemented in 27 reference obstetric centers in several regions of Brazil (North: 1; Northeast: 10; Central-west: 1; Southeast: 13; South: 2. For the cross sectional component, the participating centers should perform, during a period of six months, a prospective surveillance of all patients hospitalized to give birth, in order to identify preterm birth cases and their main causes. In the first three months of the study, an analysis of the factors associated with preterm birth will also be carried out, comparing women who have preterm birth with those who deliver at term. For the prevalence study, 37,000 births will be evaluated (at term and preterm, corresponding to approximately half the deliveries of all participating centers in 12 months. For the case-control study component, the estimated sample size is 1,055 women in each group (cases and controls. The total number of preterm births estimated to be followed in both components of the study is around 3,600. Data will be collected

  19. Trends in birth prevalence of cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P O; Cooke, T.; Rosenbloom, I; Cooke, R W

    1987-01-01

    A register of children with cerebral palsy born in the period 1966-77 to mothers resident in the Mersey region was compiled from several different data sources. There were 685 cases, with a male:female ratio of 1.4:1. The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy ranged from 1.18 to 1.97 per 1000 live births each year, with a mean of 1.51 per 1000 live births. There was no discernible trend in overall prevalence, but there was a highly significant upward trend in the prevalence of cerebral palsy amo...

  20. Alcohol use, conception time, and birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    Predictors of birth weight and birth length were studied using sociodemographic data collected from 2259 women who resided in Funen County, Denmark, and delivered a healthy child during the period 1978-9 at Odense University Hospital. Low birth weight was significantly related to tobacco use in the year of delivery (p less than 0.01), alcohol use during the same period (p less than 0.05), and a delay in conception of over six months (p less than 0.01). Smoking history and a delay in conceptio...

  1. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... with GA gestational weeks 32-40. Finally, after adjusting for GA......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...

  2. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  3. Women's perceptions of caesarean birth: a Roy international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aber, Cynthia; Haussler, Susan; Weiss, Marianne; Myers, Sheila Taylor; Hall, Jaye L; Waters, V Lynn; King, Charlette; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu; Rantanen, Anja; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Newton, Jennifer; Silva, Virginia

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this Roy adaptation model-based multi-site international mixed method study was to examine the relations of type of caesarean birth (unplanned/planned), number of caesarean births (primary/repeat), and preparation for caesarean birth to women's perceptions of and responses to caesarean birth. The sample included 488 women from the United States (n = 253), Finland (n = 213), and Australia (n = 22). Path analysis revealed direct effects for type of and preparation for caesarean birth on responses to caesarean birth, and an indirect effect for preparation on responses to caesarean birth through perception of birth the experience.

  4. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  5. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: → Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. → An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. → Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  6. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background and aim: Infantile colic is characterised by crying bouts in a healthy infant during the first months. Smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight (BW) have been previously identified as risk factors for infantile colic. Nicotine acts as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect...... the intrauterine central nervous system development, while low BW and premature birth have both been related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We investigated the association between intrauterine nicotine exposure, BW, gestational age (GA) and infantile colic in a large cohort study. Materials and methods......: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The study on nicotine exposure included 63,128 infants and the study on BW and GA included 62, 785 infants with complete data. Infantile colic was defined according to the modified Wessel’s criteria based on maternal interview 6 months postpartum...

  7. College Students' Cognition of Genetically Modified Foods

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Guoxia; YANG, Yuzhen; CHEN, Lipei

    2013-01-01

    In order to have knowledge about the college students' awareness and acceptance of genetically modified foods and their attitudes toward the identification of genetically modified foods and the government's regulation, we conduct a questionnaire survey of 150 college students' cognition of genetically modified foods in North College Town of Zhengzhou City. The results show that the college students have a certain understanding of genetically modified foods, but the cognition level is low; ele...

  8. Transfer to hospital in planned home births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about the safety of homebirths, especially in women transferred to hospital during or after labour. The scope of transfer in planned home births has not been assessed in a systematic review. This review aimed to describe the proportions and indications for transfer from...... home to hospital during or after labour in planned home births. METHODS: The databases Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl, Svemed+, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the MeSH term "home childbirth". Inclusion criteria were as follows: the study population was women who chose planned home birth...... at the onset of labour; the studies were from Western countries; the birth attendant was an authorised midwife or medical doctor; the studies were published in 1985 or later, with data not older than from 1980; and data on transfer from home to hospital were described. Of the 3366 titles identified, 83 full...

  9. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  10. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  11. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  12. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  13. Birth and Evolution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Faucher-Giguere, C A

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the birth and evolution of Galactic isolated radio pulsars. We begin by estimating their birth space velocity distribution from proper motion measurements of Brisken et al. (2002, 2003). We find no evidence for multimodality of the distribution and favor one in which the absolute one-dimensional velocity components are exponentially distributed and with a three-dimensional mean velocity of 380^{+40}_{-60} km s^-1. We then proceed with a Monte Carlo-based population synthesis, modelling the birth properties of the pulsars, their time evolution, and their detection in the Parkes and Swinburne Multibeam surveys. We present a population model that appears generally consistent with the observations. Our results suggest that pulsars are born in the spiral arms, with a Galactocentric radial distribution that is well described by the functional form proposed by Yusifov & Kucuk (2004), in which the pulsar surface density peaks at radius ~3 kpc. The birth spin period distribution extends to several h...

  14. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  15. From Hospital Deliveries to Home Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Woude, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Working in a busy labor/delivery unit gave me insight into the care that my Lamaze childbirth education students would encounter. I was troubled by the number of interventions taking place. The interventions interfered with a woman's ability to work with her labor; some interventions were actually creating problems or even crises. My experiences at this hospital motivated me to become involved with home birth, restoring my belief that birth is a normal process.

  16. Birth-death processes on trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider birth-death processes on a tree T and we are interested when it is regular, recurrent and ergodic (strongly, exponentially). By constructing two corresponding birth death processes on Z+, we obtain computable conditions sufficient or necessary for that (in many cases, these two conditions coincide). With the help of these constructions, we give explicit upper and lower bounds for the Dirichlet eigenvalue λ0. At last, some examples are investigated to justify our results.

  17. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  18. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi′an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Soc...

  19. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Min; Ping, Zhiguang; Zhang, Shuiping; He, Yuying; Dong, Rui; Guo, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi’an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003–2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Social ...

  20. Low birth weight and health expenditures from birth to late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hummer, Michael; Lehner, Thomas; Gerald J. Pruckner

    2012-01-01

    Using administrative panel data of health insurants, we estimate the effects of low birth weight on health service utilization among children and young adults between birth and 21 years old. To account for time-invariant heterogeneity of mothers, we use sibling fixed- effects estimation. We find that low birth weight strongly increases subsequent health expenditures and that the effect is particularly pronounced in the first year of life. Starting in compulsory schooling, we observe a shift i...