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Sample records for birth order modifies

  1. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  2. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  3. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...

  4. Birth order and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L; Williams, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in four subject groups. Subject groups were participants in (1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N = 4401), (2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N = 1959), (3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N = 1344), and (4) Israeli Defense Force Pre-recruitment Candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N = 888,277). The main outcome was odds ratios (OR) for myopia in first-born versus non-first-born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. Adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); and IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first-born versus fourth- or higher-born comparison than for the first-born versus second/third-born comparison (p 4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism.

  5. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Birth Order and the Aviator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-17

    research on birth order. His book, Family Constellation , has been the basis for many subsequent studies. Toman states, ’We proceed from the assumption...patterns would do well to familiarize themselves with chapter 16 of Walter Toman’s Family Constellation . Procedures for conducting this type of

  7. Eczema, birth order, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ann Maree; Crouch, Simon; Lightfoot, Tracy; Ansell, Pat; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve

    2008-05-15

    The association between infections occurring in the first 2 years of life and development of eczema was investigated in 1,782 control children from a national population-based case-control study in the United Kingdom conducted over the period 1991-1996. Dates of eczema and infectious diagnoses were ascertained from contemporaneously collected primary care records. Children diagnosed with eczema before the age of 2 years had more prior clinically diagnosed infections recorded than did children without eczema (rate ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). The difference in infection rates between children with and without eczema was apparent from birth and throughout the first 2 years of life. As expected, compared with children of second or higher birth order, those firstborn were at increased risk of eczema (p = 0.020); however, the relation between eczema and prior infection was evident only among children of second or higher birth order and not among firstborn children (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.59, and rate ratio = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.20, respectively). The authors' results are consistent with the notion that the association between birth order and eczema is unlikely to be attributable to variations in early infectious exposure.

  8. Risk Attitudes and Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...

  9. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  10. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  11. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  12. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  13. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  14. Birth order and health of newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Molitor, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    We examine birth order differences in health of newborns and follow the children throughout childhood using high-quality administrative data on individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 2010. Family fixed effects models show a positive and robust effect of birth order on health at birth......; firstborn children are less healthy at birth. During earlier pregnancies, women are more likely to smoke, receive more prenatal care, and are more likely to suffer a medical pregnancy complication, suggesting worse maternal health. We further show that the health disadvantage of firstborns persists...

  15. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  16. Birth Order and Perceived Birth Order of Chemically Dependent and Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kristie G.; Newlon, Betty J.

    Birth order as it relates to family constellation is one of the principle concepts of Adlerian theory, and has implications for the understanding of chemical addiction. Adler premised that it was the individual's interpretation of his/her birth circumstances that was more important than sequential birth order. This study examined whether…

  17. Systemic sclerosis, birth order and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul A J; Lester, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    A recent study identified increasing birth order to be a risk factor for the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This finding supports the theory that transplacental microchimerism may be a key pathological event in the initiation of SSc. We investigated the relationship between birth order and parity and the age of onset of SSc in South Australia. A retrospective analysis of patient data in the South Australian Scleroderma Register was performed. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire. Control data was collected prospectively using a similar questionnaire. The relationship between birth order, family size or parity and risk of subsequent development of SSc was analyzed by mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and eighty-seven index probands were identified and compared with 457 controls. Controls were well matched for gender, but not for age. No statistically significant relationship was identified between SSc and birth order, parity in females, family size, age at first pregnancy in females or gender of first child in parous females. Our data suggests that parity, age at first pregnancy and the gender of the first child are not relevant factors in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSc. Birth order and family size in both genders also appears irrelevant. These results argue against microchimerism as being relevant in the pathogenesis of SSc and add further support to the theory that stochastic events may be important in the etiopathogenesis of SSc. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition in young adulthood: the modifying role of offspring sex and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Koupil, Ilona; Byberg, Liisa

    2017-12-01

    To investigate if the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring's body composition in late adolescence and young adulthood varies by offspring birth order and sex. Family cohort study, with data from registers, questionnaires and physical examinations. The main outcome under study was offspring body composition (percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage lean mass (%LM)) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Uppsala, Sweden. Two hundred and twenty-six siblings (first-born v. second-born; average age 19 and 21 years) and their mothers. In multivariable linear regression models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with daughter's %FM, with stronger estimates for first-born (β=0·97, 95 % CI 0·14, 1·80) v. second-born daughters (β=0·64, 95 % CI 0·08, 1·20). Mother's BMI before her first pregnancy was associated with her second-born daughter's body composition (β=1·05, 95 % CI 0·31, 1·79 (%FM)) Similar results albeit in the opposite direction were observed for %LM. No significant associations were found between pre-pregnancy BMI and %FM (β=0·59, 95 % CI-0·27, 1·44 first-born; β=-0·13, 95 % CI-0·77, 0·52 second-born) or %LM (β=-0·54, 95 % CI-1·37, 0·28 first-born; β=0·11, 95 % CI-0·52, 0·74 second-born) for sons. A higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher offspring %FM and lower offspring %LM in late adolescence and young adulthood, with stronger associations for first-born daughters. Preventing obesity at the start of women's reproductive life might reduce the risk of obesity in her offspring, particularly for daughters.

  19. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  20. Birth order in a contemporary sample of gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, D W; Blanchard, R; Zucker, K J

    2000-08-01

    The birth order of a contemporary North American sample of 97 gay men was quantified using Slater's Index. For the 84 probands with at least one sibling, the results showed a late mean birth order compared with the expected value of .50. Additional birth order indices derived from Slater's Index suggested that the mean later birth order was accounted for more strongly by the proband's number of older brothers than by his number of older sisters. The present findings constitute a replication of a series of recent studies and add to the growing body of evidence that birth order is a reliable correlate of sexual orientation in males.

  1. Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L; Kee, Hiau Joo

    2006-01-01

    We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their children'...

  2. Birth order and postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Jones, Ian; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2014-05-01

    Primiparity is a well-established and significant risk factor for postpartum psychosis and especially bipolar affective disorders. However, no studies have, to our knowledge, quantified the risk of psychiatric disorders after the first, second, or subsequent births. The overall aim of the present study was to study the risk of first-time psychiatric episodes requiring inpatient treatment after the birth of the first, second, or third child. A cohort comprising 750,127 women was defined using information from Danish population registries. Women were followed individually from the date of birth of their first, second, or third child through the following 12 months over the period 1970-2011. The outcome of interest was defined as first-time admissions to a psychiatric hospital with any type of psychiatric disorder. Women who had a first psychiatric episode which required inpatient treatment after their first (n = 1,327), second (n = 735), or third (n = 238) delivery were included. The highest risk was found in primiparous mothers 10-19 days postpartum [relative risk (RR) = 8.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.89-10.85]. After the second birth, the highest risk was at 60-89 days postpartum (RR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.52-2.65), and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The effect of primiparity was strongest for bipolar disorders. Primiparity is a significant risk factor for experiencing a first-time episode with a psychiatric disorder, especially bipolar disorders. A second birth was associated with a smaller risk, and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The risk of postpartum episodes after the second delivery increased with increasing inter-pregnancy intervals, a result which warrants further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order…

  4. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years...... of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer...... statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited...

  5. Epilepsia e ordem de nascimento Epilepsy and birth order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sandler

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante o método de Greenwood-Yule e o teste estatístico mais sensível de que se dispõe atualmente, o x² de Halperin, foi testada a possível associação entre a prevalência de epilepsia e a ordem de nascimento de 238 pacientes. Estes pacientes foram obtidos em dois hospitais de São Paulo, na tentativa de se controlar sua classe social; tratava-se de epilépticos com variados transtornos psiquiátricos. Concluiu-se por uma associação estatisticamente significante entre a doença e a ordem de nascimento dos 238 pacientes, com uma sobre-representação nos primeiros e nos últimos nascidos.This paper deals with birth order and epilepsy. The Greenwood-Yule's method was applied, with the most powerful statistical test available, Halperin's modified chi-square. The authors concluded that there is a consistent positive association between this illness prevalence and birth order of the patients, being first and last born over-represented, irrespective of their sibship size. The data were obtained in two psychiatric hospitals in the city of São Paulo, being social class factor qualitatively controlled. All the 238 patients studied suffered a wide range of psychiatric symptoms.

  6. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  7. Intelligence and birth order in boys and girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Beem, A.L.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Bartels, M.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. Intelligence, 35, 503-514

  8. Can Knowledge of Client Birth Order Bias Clinical Judgment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Allan E.

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians (N = 308) responded to identical counseling vignettes of a male client that differed only in the client's stated birth order. Clinicians developed different impressions about the client and his family experiences that corresponded with the prototypical descriptions of persons from 1 of 4 birth orders (i.e., first, middle, youngest, and…

  9. Brief Report: Asperger's Syndrome and Sibling Birth Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karmen; Zimmerman, Andrew; Bauman, Margaret; Ferrone, Christine; Venter, Jacob; Spybrook, Jessaca; Henry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Prior investigations suggest that birth order position may be associated with the risk for developing a pervasive developmental disorder. This retrospective chart review examined the birth order status of 29 psychiatrically-referred patients with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Eighty-six percent of the subjects were first born. The finding was…

  10. Birth order and sport participation | Potgieter | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between birth order and sport participation in terms of the inherent dangers associated with different sport codes. Data collected from 1310 sport science students over a period of more than 15 years failed to support the popular birth-order hypothesis. Keywords: ...

  11. Intelligence and Birth Order in Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Beijsterveld, T. C. E. M.; Beem, A. L.; Hoekstra, R. A.; Polderman, T. J. C.; Bartels, M.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. "Intelligence," 35, 503-514] to be negative. Subjects in this…

  12. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential

  13. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human

  14. Birth order and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily C

    2014-01-01

    To compare the birth order of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD) with population norms. 83 PTSD patients and 104 AD control patients from a psychiatric trauma clinic were diagnosed according to DCR-10 guidelines. A family history was taken as to number of siblings, and their birth order. We compared the distribution of birth order for each patient group against birth order distributions expected by chance for the same years of birth using UK population-level birth order from the Office for National Statistics. Psychiatric patients with PTSD were more likely to be from a large family, specifically to be the fifth child or later (OR 4.78, p birth order between AD patients and the general population. People with PTSD are more likely to be the youngest children from large families than expected from a random sample of people born in the same years. This association with birth order was not found for another psychiatric diagnosis AD from the same clinic. We discuss possible psychosocial and biological causes, and implications for further research.

  15. Maternal Age at Child Birth, Birth Order, and Suicide at a Young Age: A Sibling Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars Johan; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967–1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families wit...

  16. Birth Order and Educational Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Boden, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between birth order and later educational outcomes in a birth cohort of more than 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of twenty-five. Being later born was associated with gaining fewer educational qualifications at secondary level and beyond. The use of nested models to control for the confounding…

  17. CHANGES IN SEX RATIO AT BIRTH IN CHINA: A DECOMPOSITION BY BIRTH ORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yu, Qun; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2017-11-01

    The long-term high sex ratio at birth (SRB) is a serious issue in China. In this study, changes in SRB were decomposed into variations in SRB by birth order and compositional changes in female births by birth order. With SRB data from China's surveys and censuses, and SRB data from South Korea's vital registration and censuses from 1980-2015, the trend and decomposition results in SRB were compared between China and South Korea, and the decomposition results for urban and rural SRBs, and for provinces, are presented. In both China and South Korea the rise in the SRB was driven by a rise in the SRB at all birth orders, which was only partly counteracted by the change in the distribution of births by order. The overall rise in the SRB ended when there was a decline in the SRB at second birth or above in South Korea. In China the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders increased more for the rural population than for the urban population before 2000, resulting in a higher total SRB for rural than urban population. After 2000, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders lowered the total SRB for the rural population, whereas the effect of compositional change increased the total SRB, leading to a very slight rise in the total SRB for the rural population. At the province level, there was no spatial autocorrelation for the changes in total SRB by province, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders or the effect of compositional change. The effect of variations in SRB by birth order accounted for the majority of changes in total SRB in most provinces.

  18. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  19. Ordered Delinquency: The “Effects” of Birth Order On Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born to rebel hypothesis I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of both between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  20. Examining the effects of birth order on personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2015-11-17

    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain.

  1. Birth order and paediatric allergic disease: A nationwide longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Yorifuji, T; Fujii, Y; Yashiro, M; Okada, A; Ikeda, M; Doi, H; Tsukahara, H

    2018-05-01

    Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments, where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects post-natal environment. However, longitudinal studies are limited on this subject. This study sought to elucidate the relationships between birth order and allergic disease. From a nationwide longitudinal study that followed children born in 2001 (n = 47 015), we selected doctors' visits for 3 types of allergic disease-bronchial asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis-from infancy to 12 years of age and conducted binomial log-linear regression analysis to evaluate the associations between birth order and these diseases. We adjusted for the child and parental factors and estimated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. The associations between birth order and bronchial asthma were diverse; later birth order increased the risk in early childhood, but decreased the risks during school age. For example, the adjusted RR comparing third-born or higher and first-born children was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) between 30 and 42 months of age, but was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89) between 10 and 11 years. Later birth order was generally protective for food allergy but increased the risk of atopic dermatitis. The influence of birth order depended on the type of allergic disease and the childhood period. Childhood is unique in terms of physical and immunological development, and the immune response to the post-natal environment in childhood appears to be heterogeneous. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Maternal age at child birth, birth order, and suicide at a young age: a sibling comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967-1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families with 2 or more children in which one died from suicide. Altogether, 3,005 suicides occurred over a mean follow-up period of 15 years; 2,458 of these suicides occurred among 6,741 siblings within families of 2 or more siblings. Among siblings, a higher position in the birth order was positively associated with risk; each increase in birth order was associated with a 46% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.66) higher risk of suicide. For each 10-year increase in maternal age at child birth, the offspring's suicide risk was reduced by 57% (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.62). Our study suggests that confounding due to familial factors is not likely to explain the associations of birth order and maternal age at child birth with suicide risk.

  3. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  4. Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tychele Turner

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.

  5. Birth order--a risk factor for dental trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käch, Matthias; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Many character traits are influenced by birth order with greatest differences between first and lastborns. To investigate the influence of birth order on the risk of dental trauma. Five hundred mothers in Switzerland were interviewed personally regarding dental trauma in their children. Inclusion criteria were a family size of at least two children. Data of 1282 children were collected. Thirty-two percent of the children had sustained one or more dental trauma before the age of 16 (57% male, 43% female). In children who had sustained dental trauma twice, the gender ratio moved to 68% male and 32% female (P = 0.003). Regarding birth order, lastborns sustained more second dental traumas. Relative risk of second dental trauma was 2.1 times higher in lastborns than in firstborns (P = 0.02). Moreover, certain character traits in children are influenced by birth order. According to their mothers, lastborns were more curious, less calm and less deliberate than firstborns (P Birth order is a risk factor for sustaining dental trauma twice. Character traits of lastborns (curious, not calm/deliberate and aggressive) could be reasons for higher risk of dental trauma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. BIRTH ORDER, STAGE OF INFANCY AND INFANT MORTALITY IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S K; Ram, Bali; Singh, Abhishek; Yadav, Awdhesh

    2017-10-02

    Using data from India's National Family Health Survey, 2005-06 (NFHS-3), this article examines the patterns of relationship between birth order and infant mortality. The analysis controls for a number of variables, including mother's characteristics such as age at the time of survey, current place of residence (urban/rural), years of schooling, religion, caste, and child's sex and birth weight. A modest J-shaped relationship between birth order of children and their risk of dying in the neonatal period is found, suggesting that although both first- and last-born children are at a significantly greater risk of dying compared with those in the middle, last-borns (i.e. fourth and higher order births) are at the worst risk. However, in the post-neonatal period first-borns are not as vulnerable, but the risk increases steadily with the addition of successive births and last-borns are at much greater risk, even worse than those in the neonatal period. Although the strength of relationship between birth order and mortality is attenuated after the potential confounders are taken into account, the relationship between the two variables remains curvilinear in the neonatal period and direct in the post-neonatal period. There are marked differences in these patterns by the child's sex. While female children are less prone to the risk of dying in the neonatal period in comparison with male children, the converse is true in the post-neonatal period. Female children not only run higher risks of dying in the post-neonatal period, but also become progressively more vulnerable with an increase in birth order.

  7. Birth order, sibship size, and risk for germ-cell testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Akre, Olof; Lambe, Mats; Granath, Fredrik; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders

    2004-05-01

    Several studies have reported an inverse association between birth order and testicular cancer risk, but estimates vary greatly and the biologic mechanism underlying the association is not established. We have evaluated the effect of birth order, sibship size, and the combined effect of these 2 variables in relation to risk for testicular cancer in a large, nested case-control study. Specifically, we compared 3051 patients with germ-cell testicular cancer (diagnosed between 1958 and 1998 and identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry) with 9007 population control subjects. Using record linkage with the Multi-Generation Register and the Census, we obtained information on number, order, and sex of the subjects' siblings, parental age, and paternal socioeconomic status. Both birth order and sibship size had an inverse and monotonically decreasing association with testicular cancer risk after adjusting for parental age, paternal socioeconomic status, and twin status. The associations were modified by subjects' cohort of birth and were not present among those born after 1959. The odds ratio for having at least 3 siblings, compared with none, was 0.63 (95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.75) among subjects born before 1960. Stratified analyses showed that birth order and number of younger siblings had a similar inverse association with the risk for testicular cancer. Sibship size, and not only birth order, is associated with testicular cancer risk. This suggests a higher prevalence of parental subfertility among patients with testicular cancer.

  8. Predictors of third and Higher order births in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate (TFR reflecting population growth is closely related to higher order parity progression. Many Indian states reached replacement level of TFR, but still states constituting nearly 40% population are with TFR ≥ 3. The predictors are the desire of son’s, poor contraceptives practices, younger age at marriage, child loss and shorter birth spacing. Objective: This analysis assessed the degree of relation of 3rd and higher order parity progression with the above mentioned predictors. Material and Methods: State/Union Territories wise proportions of women: progressing to ≥3 births, more sons desire, birth spacing <24 months, adopting modern contraception and median marriage age <18 years along with infant mortality rate (IMR were taken from NFHS-III report. Correlation matrix and stepwise forward multiple regression carried. Significance was seen at 5%. Results: Hindi speaking states constituting 38.92% nation population recorded TFR ≥3. Positive correlation of mothers progressing ≥ 3 births was highest (0.746 with those desiring more sons followed by IMR (0.445; while maximum negative correlation with those practicing modern contraceptives (-0.565 followed by median age at marriage (-0.391. Multiple regression analysis in order identified desire of more sons, practicing modern contraception and shorter birth spacing as the significant predictors and jointly explained 77.9% of the total variation with gain of 15.5% by adding modern contraceptive practice and 8.3% by adding shorter birth spacing. Conclusions: Desire of more sons appeared the most important predictor to progress ≥3 births that is governed by society culture and educational attainment, require attitudinal change. Further, mothers need motivation to practice both spacing and terminal methods once family is complete.

  9. Earliest Recollections and Birth Order: Two Adlerian Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Les

    1992-01-01

    Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…

  10. Higher Order Multiple Births in Nigeria: Experiences, Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher Order Multiple Births in Nigeria: Experiences, Challenges and. Neonatal Outcomes in a Private Health Facility. B Ezenwa, O Oseni, P Akintan1, P Aligwekwe, B Chukwukelu2, O Fashola3, A Ogunmokun3, O Odukoya3. Original Article. Departments of Paediatrics,. 2Obstetrics and Gynaecology and 3Family Medicine,.

  11. Birth Order and the Language Experience of Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the language experience of second-generation immigrant Korean American school-age children (4-18 years) by surveying their parents. Reports responses to a small portion of the questionnaire that specifically addressed the issue of birth order. (Author/VWL)

  12. Birth Order and Intelligence: Together Again for the Last Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Cleveland, H. Harrington; van den Oord, Edwin; Rowe, David C.

    2001-01-01

    The authors respond to critiques of their investigation of whether birth order reliably contributes to variance in intelligence, concluding that little in the critiques challenges the original position that cross-sectional data are suspect as evidence for within-family trends in intelligence. When looking inside families and directly comparing the…

  13. The role of birth order in substance related disorders | Mukangi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was guided by two objectives. The first objective was to investigate which of the ordinal birth orders (one's chronological position with in their family of origin) was over represented within patients receiving treatment for addiction at a drugs rehabilitation centre. The second objective was to investigate whether ...

  14. Perinatal mortality in second- vs firstborn twins: a matter of birth size or birth order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Zhang, Jun; Klebanoff, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Second-born twins on average weigh less than first-born twins and have been reported at an elevated risk of perinatal mortality. Whether the risk differences depend on their relative birth size is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of birth order with perinatal mortality by birth order-specific weight difference in twin pregnancies. In a retrospective cohort study of 258,800 twin pregnancies without reported congenital anomalies using the US matched multiple birth data 1995-2000 (the available largest multiple birth dataset), conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death adjusted for fetus-specific characteristics (sex, presentation, and birthweight for gestational age). Comparing second vs first twins, the risks of perinatal death were similar if they had similar birthweights (within 5%) and were increasingly higher if second twins weighed progressively less (adjusted ORs were 1.37, 1.90, and 3.94 if weighed 5.0-14.9%, 15.0-24.9%, and ≥25.0% less, respectively), and progressively lower if they weighed increasingly more (adjusted ORs were 0.67, 0.63, and 0.36 if weighed 5.0-14.9%, 15.0-24.9%, and ≥25.0% more, respectively) (all P birth size. Vaginal delivery at term is associated with a substantially greater risk of perinatal mortality in second twins. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Healthy(?), wealthy, and wise: Birth order and adult health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E; Devereux, Paul J; Salvanes, Kjell G

    2016-12-01

    While recent research has found that birth order affects outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence for effects on health is more limited. This paper uses a large Norwegian dataset to focus on the relationship between birth order and a range of health and health-related behaviors, outcomes not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Interestingly, we find complicated effects of birth order. First-borns are more likely to be overweight, to be obese, and to have high blood pressure and high triglycerides. For example, compared to fifth-borns, first-borns are about 5% points more likely to be obese and 7% points more likely to have high blood pressure. So, unlike education or earnings, there is no clear first-born advantage in health. However, first-borns are about 13% points less likely to smoke daily than fifth-borns and are more likely to report good physical and mental health. Later-borns also score lower on well-being with fifth-borns being about 9% points less likely than first-borns to report that they are happy. Our findings are generally monotonic with middle-borns having outcomes that are intermediate between first- and fifth-borns. We find that these effects are largely unaffected by conditioning on education and earnings, suggesting that these are not the only important pathways to health differentials by birth order. When we explore possible mechanisms, we find that early maternal investment may play a role in birth order effects on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Social and Academic Consequences of Birth Order: Real, Artifactual, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…

  17. Parent-Child Quality Time: Does Birth Order Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that a first-born child receives 20-30 more minutes of quality time each day with his or her parent than a second-born child of the same age from a similar family. The birth-order difference results from parents giving roughly equal time to each child at any point in time while the amount of…

  18. Learning word order at birth: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Gervain, Judit

    2017-06-01

    In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants' ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1) and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2). We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Learning word order at birth: A NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Benavides-Varela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants’ ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1 and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2. We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth.

  20. Birth order and male homosexuality: extension of Slater's index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M B; Blanchard, R

    1998-08-01

    Homosexual men tend to be later-born children. Slater's index, the ratio of older sibs to all sibs, is consistently higher for male homosexuals than for comparable heterosexuals. According to some explanations of this tendency, homosexual men are later born with respect to their brothers and later born with respect to their sisters only secondarily and less strongly. We show that if sisters have no direct bearing on a brother's sexual orientation and brothers do, then [formula: see text] On the other hand, if sisters have the same bearing on a brother's sexual orientation as male sibs do, then [formula: see text] These ratios are calculated and compared in nine samples of homosexual men and nine corresponding samples of control heterosexuals. The first equation holds for homosexual men, and the second equation holds for heterosexual men. The late birth order of homosexual men is sex specific. What matters is a boy's birth order relative to his brothers only. This effect may have its origins in an immune reaction or in behavioral contagion.

  1. Appraising Birth Order in Career Assessment: Linkages to Holland's and Super's Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hartung, Paul J.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Study 1 (n=159) found significant differences in vocational personality types, interests, and values depending on birth order. Study 2 (n=119) found significant differences in occupational interests by birth order. Both results support Alfred Adler's theory that birth order determines aspects of vocational behavior. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  2. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men. NBER Working Paper No. 13237

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and…

  3. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  4. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevier, Melanie; Weires, Marianne; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer

  5. Effect modification by parental education on the associations of birth order and gender with learning achievement in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-C J; Wang, W-L; Sung, Y-T; Wang, Y-C; Su, S-Y; Li, C-Y

    2013-11-01

    A child's gender and ordinal position within a family have varied implications on his or her personality and cognitive development. However, little is known about whether or not parental educational level may moderate the effects of birth order and gender. Basic Competence Test (BCT) scores of 290,588 young adolescents aged 15-16 years in Taiwan were analysed. Parental educational level was calculated as the highest educational attainment of the subjects' parents. The multiple linear regression model was used to assess the modification effects of parental educational levels on the associations of interest. After controlling for covariates, we noted a clear inverse relationship between birth order and BCT scores in Mandarin, Mathematics and Science. Additionally, boys had significantly lower mean scores in Mandarin, but had significantly higher mean scores in both Mathematics and Science. We also found the significant interactive effects of birth order, gender and parental educational attainment on BCT scores, in which the birth order and gender effects were more evident in higher-educated families than in lower-educated ones. This large cohort study confirmed that both birth order and gender may pose independent influences on BCT scores; moreover, such influences are significantly modified by parental educational attainment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis from five US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G; Mueller, Beth A; Carozza, Susan E; Chow, Eric J; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas and Washington. We included 17,672 cases confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size, which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  7. Birth order and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in multiplex families from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Coghill, Anna E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Kelly J; Niwa, Shelley; Brotzman, Michelle; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hildesheim, Allan

    2016-12-01

    A small proportion of individuals infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) develop nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Timing of initial exposure could alter immunological responses to primary EBV infection and explain variation in cancer risk later in life. We measured early life family structure as a proxy for the timing of primary EBV infection to examine whether earlier age at infection alters NPC risk. We utilized data from 480 NPC cases and 1,291 unaffected siblings from Taiwanese NPC multiplex families (≥ 2 family members with NPC, N = 2,921). Information on birth order within the family was derived from questionnaires. We utilized logistic regression models to examine the association between birth order and NPC, accounting for correlations between relatives. Within these high-risk families, older siblings had an elevated risk of NPC. Compared with being a first-born child, the risk (95% CIs) of NPC associated with a birth order of two, three, four and five or more was 1.00 (0.71, 1.40), 0.88 (0.62, 1.24), 0.74 (0.53, 1.05) and 0.60 (0.43, 0.82), respectively (P for trend = 0.002). We observed no associations between NPC risk and the number of younger siblings or cumulative infant-years exposure. These associations were not modified by underlying genetic predisposition or family size. We observed that early life family structure was important for NPC risk in NPC multiplex families, with older siblings having a greater risk of disease. Future studies focusing on more direct measures of the immune response to EBV in early childhood could elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.

  8. The effects of birth order and birth interval on the phenotypic expression of autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren A Martin

    Full Text Available A rise in the prevalence of diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in several studies in recent years. While this rise in ASD prevalence is at least partially related to increased awareness and broadened diagnostic criteria, the role of environmental factors cannot be ruled out, especially considering that the cause of most cases of ASD remains unknown. The study of families with multiple affected children can provide clues about ASD etiology. While the majority of research on ASD multiplex families has focused on identifying genetic anomalies that may underlie the disorder, the study of symptom severity across ASD birth order may provide evidence for environmental factors in ASD. We compared social and cognitive measures of behavior between over 300 first and second affected siblings within multiplex autism families obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset. Measures included nonverbal IQ assessed with the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, verbal IQ assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and autism severity assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS, an instrument established as a quantitative measure of autism. The results indicated that females were more severely impacted by ASD than males, especially first affected siblings. When first and second affected siblings were compared, significant declines in nonverbal and verbal IQ scores were observed. In addition, SRS results demonstrated a significant increase in autism severity between first and second affected siblings consistent with an overall decline in function as indicated by the IQ data. These results remained significant after controlling for the age and sex of the siblings. Surprisingly, the SRS scores were found to only be significant when the age difference between siblings was less than 2 years. These results suggest that some cases of ASD are influenced by a dosage effect involving unknown epigenetic

  9. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    OpenAIRE

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were...

  10. Review and theory of handedness, birth order, and homosexuality in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Research has repeatedly shown that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This phenomenon has been called the fraternal birth order effect. The most highly developed explanation of this phenomenon is the maternal immune hypothesis, which proposes that the fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunisation of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male foetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of anti-male antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male foetus. Recent studies indicate that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in right-handed males but not in non-right-handed males. The present article explores how the maternal immune hypothesis might be extended or modified to account for the apparent interaction of older brothers and handedness. Two possibilities are considered: (1) non-right-handed foetuses are insensitive to the presence of maternal anti-male antibodies, and (2) mothers of non-right-handed foetuses do not produce anti-male antibodies.

  11. Birth Order and Participation in School Sports and Other Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Lopez, Elizabeth; Averett, Susan L.; Argys, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Argys, L.M., Rees, D.I., Averett S.L., & Witoonchart, B. (2006). Birth order and risky adolescent behavior. "Economic Inquiry", 44(2), 215-233 demonstrated that a strong link exists between birth order and adolescent risky behavior. Using data on 10th graders from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we extend the work of Argys et…

  12. Birth Order and Child Cognitive Outcomes: An Exploration of the Parental Time Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Chiara; See, Sarah Grace

    2016-01-01

    Higher birth order positions are associated with poorer outcomes due to smaller shares of resources received within the household. Using a sample of Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement children, we investigate if the negative birth order effect we find in cognitive outcomes is due to unequal allocation of mother and father…

  13. What Causes Birth Order-Intelligence Patterns? The Admixture Hypothesis, Revived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2001-01-01

    Describes why birth order interests both parents and researchers, discussing what really causes apparent birth order effects on intelligence, examining problems with using cross-sectional intelligence data, and noting how to move beyond cross-sectional inferences. Explains the admixture hypothesis, which finds that family size is much more…

  14. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  15. Birth Order, Educational Attainment, and Earnings: An Investigation Using the PSID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    We examine the implications of being early in the birth order, and whether a pattern exists within large families of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order. Unlike other studies using U.S. data, we go beyond grade for age and look at racial differences. Drawing from OLS and fixed effects estimations, we find that being…

  16. Impact of Birth Order on Procrastination among College Students in Eldoret Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Chege Kimani

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the impact of birth order on procrastination among college students in Eldoret town. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: (1) to find out the prevalence of procrastination among college students in Eldoret town, (2) to find out the relationship between birth order on procrastination among college…

  17. Twin birth order, birthweight and birthweight discordance: any relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka A.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely believed that in twin pairs, at birth, the first-born weigh more than the second-born but this concept has been challenged. Objective: To assess the truthfulness of this common concept that first-born twins are usually heavier than their second-born siblings at birth. Methods: In a series of 104 sets of live-born twins, the birth weights of first-born twins were compared with those of their second-born siblings, after controlling for gender. Their intra-pair birthweight differences were determined and twin pairs whose birthweight difference was 15% or more were designated as discordant. Results: Twin I was heavier than Twin II in 61.5% of cases while Twin II was heavier than Twin I in 28.9% of cases. Twins I and II had equal birthweights in 9.6% of cases. Comparing the mean birthweight of the first-born-male twin with that of second-born- male twin, it was 2515+427g (95% Confidence Interval, CI=2402-2628 versus 2432 +435g (95% CI=2321-2543 p>0.05. The mean birthweight of first-born-female twin was 2326+445g (95% CI=2214-2439 while that of the second-born-female twin was 2325+501g (95% CI=2197-2453 p>0.05. When the birthweight difference exceeded 750g, the probability that Twin I will be heavier than Twin II was 83.3% (5 of 6. Conclusion: Although the first-born twin was more often heavier than their second-born siblings, either could weigh more or less at birth. The larger the birthweight difference between growth-discordant twin pair, the greater the probability that the heavier twin would be delivered first

  18. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  19. Respiratory morbidity in twins by birth order, gestational age and mode of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Tul, Natasa; Lasic, Mateja; Bregar, Andreja Trojner; Verdenik, Ivan; Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between respiratory morbidity in twins by gestational age, birth order and mode of delivery. All twin deliveries at birth order and to the mode of delivery. In contrast, RDS was more frequent among the second born twins in the vaginal birth groups born at 30-36 weeks [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5 for 33-36 weeks and 30-32 weeks, respectively], whereas this trend was seen in the cesarean birth groups born earlier (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.0 for 28-29 weeks). Cesarean delivery significantly increased the frequency of RDS in twin A as well as in twin B compared with vaginal birth, but only at gestational ages birth order have a gestational age dependent effect on the incidence of RDS.

  20. Complexities of sibling analysis when exposures and outcomes change with time and birth order

    OpenAIRE

    Sudan, M; Kheifets, LI; Arah, OA; Divan, HA; Olsen, J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were included. We examined differences in exposures and behavioral problems between siblings and non-siblings and by birth order and birth year. We estimated associations between cell phone exposures and b...

  1. Gender Nonconformity and Birth Order in Relation to Anal Sex Role Among Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2018-05-01

    Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.

  2. Birth order and physical fitness in early adulthood: evidence from Swedish military conscription data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler’s theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler’s birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) A...

  4. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong?s ?Children of 1997? Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored re...

  5. Separate influences of birth order and gravidity/parity on the development of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Tonya; del Junco, Deborah J; Arnett, Frank C; Assassi, Shervin; Tan, Filemon K; McNearney, Terry; Fischbach, Michael; Perry, Marilyn; Mayes, Maureen D

    2010-03-01

    Birth order has been valuable in revealing the role of environmental influences on the risk of developing certain diseases such as allergy and atopy. In addition, pregnancy has profound effects on the immune system such as short-term effects that permit fetal survival as well as longer-term effects that could influence late-onset diseases. In order to better evaluate these influences, we studied the association of birth order and gravidity/parity as risk factors for systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Data regarding SSc cases and their unaffected sibling controls were obtained from the Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository. The case-sibling design was used to minimize confounding due to differences in age, race, ethnicity, or calendar time. The gravidity/parity analysis was based on sibships with at least one SSc-affected and one unaffected sister. Birth order was examined in 974 sibships, comparing SSc cases (n = 987) with their unaffected siblings (n = 3,088). The risk of scleroderma increased with increasing birth order (odds ratio [OR] 1.25, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-1.50 for birth order 2-5; OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.57-3.15 for birth order 6-9; and OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.68-7.45 for birth order 10-15). Gravidity/parity was analyzed in 168 sibships (256 unaffected sisters, 172 SSc cases). We found an association between a history of one or more pregnancies and SSc (OR 2.8). Birth order and pregnancy were independently associated with a higher risk of developing SSc. These findings suggest that immune development in early childhood and/or pregnancy-associated events, including but not limited to microchimerism, plays a role in SSc susceptibility.

  6. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of triplets or higher-order extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Vohr, Betty R; Wrage, Lisa; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J; Walsh, Michele C; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2011-03-01

    Extremely low birth weight twins have a higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than singletons. Higher-order extremely low birth weight multiple births may have an even higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Extremely low birth weight (birth weight 401-1000 g) multiple births born in participating centers of the Neonatal Research Network between 1996 and 2005 were assessed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined by the presence of 1 or more of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy; mental developmental index score or psychomotor developmental index score less than 70; severe bilateral deafness; or blindness. Infants who died within 12 hours of birth were excluded. Maternal and infant demographic and clinical variables were compared among singleton, twin, and triplet or higher-order infants. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the association between singletons, twins, and triplet or higher-order multiples and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for confounding variables that may affect death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Our cohort consisted of 8296 singleton, 2164 twin, and 521 triplet or higher-order infants. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was increased in triplets or higher-order multiples when compared with singletons (adjusted odds ratio: 1.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.24]), and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27 [95% confidence: 0.95-1.71]). Triplet or higher-order births are associated with an increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age when compared with extremely low birth weight singleton infants, and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins.

  7. How Do Children Behave Regarding Their Birth Order in Dental Setting?

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Ghaderi; Soleiman Fijan; Shahram Hamedani

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child’s behavior in dental setting. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental...

  8. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adj OR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  9. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  10. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby

    2013-02-14

    The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams

  11. Does cardiorespiratory fitness modify the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adult life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Aoyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. METHODS: The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females aged 20-64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject's or his/her mother's memory. RESULTS: The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.141, p = 0.003, even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = -0.148, p = 0.001, although VO2max (β = -0.376, p<0.001 was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual's low birth weight.

  12. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  13. Birth order and mortality in two ethno-linguistic groups: Register-based evidence from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of gender, birth order, and other correlates on childhood mortality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, M K; Hao, H; Wang, F

    1995-01-01

    Using data from the 1988 Two-Per-Thousand Survey of Fertility and Birth Control, this paper examines the effects of gender, birth order, and other correlates of childhood mortality in China. Controlling for family-level factors, childhood mortality is found to be associated with the child's gender and birth order. Among firstborn children the difference between male and female childhood mortality is not statistically significant, but among others, female children between ages 1 and 5 experience higher mortality than male children. Childhood mortality is slightly higher for children who have older brothers only than for those who have older sisters only, and it is highest for those who have both older brothers and sisters. Other factors affecting childhood mortality in China include mortality of older siblings, birth interval, urban/rural residence, mother's level of education, and mother's occupation. All interactive effects between gender and family-level characteristics are found to be statistically insignificant.

  15. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.

  16. The development of a consensus statement on normal physiologic birth: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cheyney, Melissa; Lawlor, Mary; Myers, Suzy; Schuiling, Kerri; Tanner, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing consensus on a definition of, and best practices for, normal physiologic birth in the United States. Evidence supports the use of physiologic birth practices, yet a working definition of this term has been elusive. We began by convening a task force of 21 individuals from 3 midwifery organizations and various childbirth advocacy and consumer groups. A modified Delphi approach was utilized to achieve consensus around 2 research questions: 1) What is normal physiologic birth? and 2) What practices most effectively support its achievement? Answers to these questions were collected anonymously from task force members during multiple phases that included a preliminary briefing, an initial face-to-face roundtable, 9 iterative Delphi rounds, and reciprocal feedback from a wider audience of stakeholders at national and international conferences. Content analysis identified specific statements and concepts in the first Delphi round, which were subsequently ranked in following rounds. An initial draft was constructed based on the priorities that emerged and presented for feedback to peers and childbirth advocates whose comments were incorporated into the final document. Four key themes were identified from our initial questions; these provided the framework for the document: 1) definitions of normal physiologic birth, 2) mechanisms and outcomes of normal physiologic birth, 3) factors that influence normal physiologic birth, and 4) recommendations for increasing normal physiologic birth. These areas comprised the final sections in the multi-organizational consensus statement. The modified Delphi approach we employed allowed for the development of a consensus statement that will serve as a template for education, practice, and future research in maternity care. The completion of this statement marks the beginning of a project to promote systemic changes that support normal physiologic birth, and thus, have the potential to

  17. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.

  18. Complexities of sibling analysis when exposures and outcomes change with time and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka I; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Divan, Hozefa A; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were included. We examined differences in exposures and behavioral problems between siblings and non-siblings and by birth order and birth year. We estimated associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems while accounting for the random family effect among siblings. The association of behavioral problems with both prenatal and postnatal exposure differed between siblings (odds ratio (OR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-1.66) and non-siblings (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.36-1.74) and within siblings by birth order; the association was strongest for first-born siblings (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.86-3.42) and negative for later-born siblings (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.31-1.25), which may be because of increases in cell phone use with later birth year. Sibling analysis can be a powerful tool for (partially) accounting for confounding by invariant unmeasured within-family factors, but it cannot account for uncontrolled confounding by varying family-level factors, such as those that vary with time and birth order.

  19. Probing Birth-Order Effects on Narrow Traits Using Specification-Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2017-12-01

    The idea that birth-order position has a lasting impact on personality has been discussed for the past 100 years. Recent large-scale studies have indicated that birth-order effects on the Big Five personality traits are negligible. In the current study, we examined a variety of more narrow personality traits in a large representative sample ( n = 6,500-10,500 in between-family analyses; n = 900-1,200 in within-family analyses). We used specification-curve analysis to assess evidence for birth-order effects across a range of models implementing defensible yet arbitrary analytical decisions (e.g., whether to control for age effects or to exclude participants on the basis of sibling spacing). Although specification-curve analysis clearly confirmed the previously reported birth-order effect on intellect, we found no meaningful effects on life satisfaction, locus of control, interpersonal trust, reciprocity, risk taking, patience, impulsivity, or political orientation. The lack of meaningful birth-order effects on self-reports of personality was not limited to broad traits but also held for more narrowly defined characteristics.

  20. Aberrant clones: Birth order generates life history diversity in Greater Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejbel, Hebah S; Simons, Andrew M

    2018-02-01

    Environmental unpredictability is known to result in the evolution of bet-hedging traits. Variable dormancy enhances survival through harsh conditions, and is widely cited as a diversification bet-hedging trait. The floating aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed), provides an opportunity to study diversification because although partially reliable seasonal cues exist, its growing season is subject to an unpredictable and literally "hard" termination when the surface water freezes, and overwinter survival depends on a switch from production of normal daughter fronds to production of dense, sinking "turions" prior to freeze-over. The problem for S. polyrhiza is that diversified dormancy behavior must be generated among clonally produced, genetically identical offspring. Variation in phenology has been observed in the field, but its sources are unknown. Here, we investigate sources of phenological variation in turion production , and test the hypothesis that diversification in turion phenology is generated within genetic lineages through effects of parental birth order. As expected, phenotypic plasticity to temperature is expressed along a thermal gradient; more interestingly, parental birth order was found to have a significant and strong effect on turion phenology: Turions are produced earlier by late birth-order parents. These results hold regardless of whether turion phenology is measured as first turion birth order, time to first turion, or turion frequency. This study addresses a question of current interest on potential mechanisms generating diversification, and suggests that consistent phenotypic differences across birth orders generate life history variation.

  1. Birth order and hospitalization for alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko; Tynelius, Per; Berglind, Daniel; Rasmussen, Finn

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that birth order is an important predictor of later life health as well as socioeconomic attainment. In this study, we examine the relationship between birth order and hospitalization for alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. We study the relationship between birth order and hospitalization related to alcohol and narcotics use before and after the age of 20 using Swedish register data for cohorts born 1987-1994. We apply Cox proportional hazard models and use sibling fixed effects, eliminating confounding by factors shared by the siblings. Before age 20 we find that later born siblings are hospitalized for alcohol use at a higher rate than first-borns, and there is a monotonic increase in the hazard of hospitalization with increasing birth order. Second-borns are hospitalized at a rate 47% higher than first-borns, and third-borns at a rate 65% higher. Similar patterns are observed for hospitalization for narcotics use. After age 20 the pattern is similar, but the association is weaker. These patterns are consistent across various sibling group sizes. Later born siblings are more likely to be hospitalized for both alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. These birth order effects are substantial in size, and larger than the estimated sex differences for the risk of hospitalization related to alcohol and drug use before age 20, and previous estimates for socioeconomic status differences in alcohol and drug abuse. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  3. Family size, birth order, and intelligence in a large South American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velandia, W; Grandon, G M; Page, E B

    1978-01-01

    The confluence theory, which hypothesizes a relationship between intellectual development birth order, and family size, was examined in a colombian study of more than 36,000 college applicants. The results of the study did not support the confluence theory. The confluence theory states that the intellectual development of a child is related to average mental age of the members of his family at the time of his birth. The mental age of the parents is always assigned a value of 30 and siblings are given scores equivalent to their chronological age at the birth of the subject. Therefore, the average mental age of family members for a 1st born child is 30, or 60 divided by 2. If a subject is born into a family consisting of 2 parents and a 6-year old sibling, the average mental age of family members tends, therefore, to decrease with each birth order. The hypothesis derived from the confluence theory states that there is a positive relationship between average mental age of a subject's family and the subject's performance on intelligence tests. In the Colombian study, data on family size, birth order and socioeconomic status was derived from college application forms. Intelligence test scores for each subject was obtained from college entrance exams. The mental age of each applicant's family at the time of the applicant's birth was calculated. Multiple correlation analysis and path analysis were used to assess the relationship. Results were 1) the test scores of subjects from families with 2,3,4, and 5 children were higher than test scores of the 1st born subjects; 2) the rank order of intelligence by family size was 3,4,5,2,6,1 instead of the hypothesized 1,2,3,4,5,6; and 3) only 1% of the variability in test scores was explained by the variables of birth order and family size. Further analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was a far more powerful explanatory variable than family size.

  4. Associations of scores on the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory and the Kern Lifestyle Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Campbell, L; Stewart, A

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the relations among psychological birth order, actual birth order, and lifestyle. The study also further examined the convergent validity of the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory. This inventory and Kern's Lifestyle Scale were administered to 126 individuals in a southeastern urban university. The several analyses of variance and canonical correlation analysis (1) supported a stronger relationship between psychological birth order and lifestyle than between actual birth order and lifestyle, (2) identified differential relationships between particular birth-order positions and lifestyle scales that were predicted and in accord with Adlerian theory, and (3) further supported the validity of the inventory. The results reaffirmed the lifestyle pattern and birth-order characterizations of Adlerian theory.

  5. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under

  6. METABOLIC AND BEHAVIORAL PARAMETERS IN NEWBORN PIGLETS IN RELATION TO BIRTH ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment had 2 phases:During the first phase 19 sows were monitored during farrowing; the piglets were numbered according to birth order, they were weighed and there were recorded the time each piglet was born and when it first suckled. There was calculated the time from the beginning of the farrowing until the time each piglet was born (TNPP and the time from birth until the first suckle (TPS. A statistical correlation was established between these parameters.During the second experimental phase, for 49 piglets from 5 sows were determined: birth weight, TPS, glycemia at birth (G0 and after the first suckle (G1, rectal temperature at birth (T0 and after the first suckles (T1. This data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Respecting the birth order, TPS is shorter for piglets born last (p<0.05. Average TPS was 23.04±2.49 minutes; during this time glycemia rises from 58.35 mg% to 64.35 mg% and rectal temperature drops from 38.58°C to 37.35°C. T0 is positively correlated with G0 (p<0.01 with G1 (p<0.01 and T1 (p<0.01. G0 is highly correlated to G1 (r=0.8855; p=0.

  7. Role of Educational Exposure in the Association Between Myopia and Birth Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Williams, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    Visual impairment due to myopia is an important public health issue. A prior analysis of population-based cohorts aged 15 to 22 years recruited from the United Kingdom and Israel suggested myopia and high myopia were approximately 10% more common in first-born compared with later-born children. To examine whether myopia was associated with birth order in an earlier generation than studied previously and, if so, whether the association was attenuated after adjusting for education exposure, as predicted by the hypothesis that the education of children with later birth orders is less intense. Cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants recruited from 2006 to 2010. Analysis was restricted to participants aged 40 to 69 years who had a vision assessment, self-reported white ethnicity, and no history of eye disorders (N = 89,120). Myopia and high myopia were defined as autorefraction of -0.75 diopters (D) or less and -6.00 D or less, respectively. Birth order and information on potential confounders including highest educational qualification ascertained using a structured questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for myopia and high myopia by birth order, using logistic regression and adjusting for age and sex (model 1) or age, sex, and highest educational qualification (model 2). In model 1 (no adjustment for education), birth order was associated with both myopia and high myopia (eg, comparing first- vs second-born individuals; OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P = 1.40E-11 and OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11-1.30; P = 3.60E-06 for myopia and high myopia, respectively). The risk for myopia became progressively lower for later birth orders, suggesting a dose response. In model 2 (after adjusting for education), the effect sizes were attenuated by approximately 25% (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12; P = 1.30E-06 and OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25; P = 4.60E-04 for myopia and high myopia, respectively) and the apparent dose response was abolished. These data suggest that the

  8. Sibling Sex Ratio and Birth Order in Early-Onset Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.; Blanchard, Ray; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2011-01-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands’ position (e.g., first-born, middle-born, last-born) within their sibships. Fraternal birth order refers to their position among male siblings only. Such research was extended in this study to a large group of early-onset gender dysphor...

  9. Association between order of birth and chronic malnutrition of children: a study of nationally representative Bangladeshi sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the net effect of birth order on child nutritional status in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2011 (BDHS). Analyses were restricted to 4,120 surviving, lastborn singleton children who were younger than 36 months at the time of the survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between birth order and child nutritional status. Results indicate 38.1% children are stunted and 8.2% children are fifth or higher order birth. Order of birth is one of the significant predictors of child being stunted. Third order, fourth order, and fifth or higher order children are 24%, 30%, and 72%, respectively, more likely to be stunted after adjusting for all other variables. Besides birth order, results also indicate that child age, size at birth, birth intention, maternal education, maternal body mass index, wealth index, place of residence and mass media access exert strong influences over child malnutrition. Reducing birth rates which limit number of births and birth order as well may reduce child malnutrition in Bangladesh.

  10. The Effects of Birth Order on Personality Traits and Feelings of Academic Sibling Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Julia; Reddy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The influence of birth order on personality and sibling rivalry is controversial; little research has been conducted into academic sibling rivalry, and none into the connection with personality traits. This study considers the interaction of all three factors. Firstborns (N=22) and lastborns (N=24) completed online personality tests and an…

  11. Socio-Economic Status And Birth-Order As Correlates Of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated socio-economic status and birth-order as correlates of women spiritual help-seeking behavior. Five hundred women help-seekers were sampled from 10 spiritual houses within Ibadan metropolis. Their age ranged between 17-70 years. Fifty percent (50 %,) i.e. 250 of the total sample were singles; ...

  12. Gender Differences in Intrahousehold Schooling Outcomes: The Role of Sibling Characteristics and Birth-Order Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Dancer, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an…

  13. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  14. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir

    2011-01-01

    The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous...

  15. Direct and Indirect Effects of Birth Order on Personality and Identity: Support for the Null Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Harbke, Colin R.; Papini, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed that birth order affects psychosocial outcomes through differential investment from parent to child and differences in the degree of identification from child to parent. The authors conducted this study to test these 2 models. Despite the use of statistical and methodological procedures to increase sensitivity and reduce…

  16. Kin and birth order effects on male child mortality: three East Asian populations, 1716-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z

    2017-03-01

    Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.

  17. Sibling Sex Ratio and Birth Order in Early-Onset Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.E.E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blanchard, R.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2012-01-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands' position (e.g., first-born,

  18. Personality, birth order and attachment styles as related to various types of jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else),

  19. Born to learn or born to win? Birth order effects on achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart

  20. The Effect of Birth Order and Sex on Perceptions of the Sibling Relationship among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele; Beaudoin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined demographic factors (e.g., parental marital status) as well as sex and birth order effects on emerging adults' views of their sibling relationships. One hundred sixty-seven participants completed a demographic and sibling relationship questionnaire designed for the purposes of this study. Factors of the sibling…

  1. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  2. Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…

  3. Relationship of birth order and the marketing-related variable of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanek, J E; Claxton, R P; Zemanek, W H

    2000-04-01

    The relationship between the birth order and materialism scores was investigated using materialism conceptualized as a consumer value. Data were collected from 275 alumni of a major southwestern university. The analysis indicated that first-borns in this sample scored significantly lower on materialism than younger siblings.

  4. Fraternal birth order and ratio of heterosexual/homosexual feelings in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, Nathaniel; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Stevens, Carol; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Buhrich, Neil; Vollmer-Conna, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the 2-3% of persons who identify as homosexual found men but not women had more older brothers than persons who identify as heterosexual. The present study investigated the birth order in the approximately 20% of men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings, few of whom identify as homosexual. The number of older brothers and sisters was investigated in seven cohorts: 319 male twins; and 49, 54, and 61 female and 66, 116, and 50 male medical students. Both women and men who anonymously reported homosexual feelings had a greater mean number of older brothers and sisters than did those who reported no homosexual feelings. The difference was stronger in relation to brothers than sisters. The birth order effect was not related to the strength of the subjects' degree of homosexual compared with heterosexual feelings. Its presence in women could not be accounted for by the widely accepted hypothesis that the birth order effect is due to a maternal immune reaction provoked only by male fetuses. The lack of relationship between the strength of the effect and degree of homosexual feelings in the men and women suggests the influence of birth order on homosexual feelings was not due to a biological, but a social process in the subjects studied. Investigating the neglected significant percentage of predominantly heterosexual men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings may aid in understanding the factors influencing sexual orientation, and identity.

  5. Self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and birth order as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and birth order as predictors of academic performance among secondary school students in Kajola Local Government ... standardized scales and the data obtained was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Multiple Regression Statistical analysis of SPSS.

  6. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of ...

  7. BIRTH ORDER AND ANDROPHILIC MALE-TO-FEMALE TRANSSEXUALISM IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Zucker, Kenneth J; Massuda, Raffael; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Borba, André Oliveira; Costa, Angelo Bradelli; Schneider, Maiko Abel; Mueller, Andressa; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; Da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has indicated that biological older brothers increase the odds of androphilia in males. This finding has been termed the fraternal birth order effect. The maternal immune hypothesis suggests that this effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens involved in fetal male brain masculinization. Exposure to these antigens, as a result of carrying earlier-born sons, is hypothesized to produce maternal immune responses towards later-born sons, thus leading to female-typical neural development of brain regions underlying sexual orientation. Because this hypothesis posits mechanisms that have the potential to be active in any situation where a mother gestates repeated male fetuses, a key prediction is that the fraternal birth order effect should be observable in diverse populations. The present study assessed the association between sexual orientation and birth order in androphilic male-to-female transsexuals in Brazil, a previously unexamined population. Male-to-female transsexuals who reported attraction to males were recruited from a specialty gender identity service in southern Brazil (n=118) and a comparison group of gynephilic non-transsexual men (n=143) was recruited at the same hospital. Logistic regression showed that the transsexual group had significantly more older brothers and other siblings. These effects were independent of one another and consistent with previous studies of birth order and male sexual orientation. The presence of the fraternal birth order effect in the present sample provides further evidence of the ubiquity of this effect and, therefore, lends support to the maternal immune hypothesis as an explanation of androphilic sexual orientation in some male-to-female transsexuals.

  8. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis...... at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR¿=¿0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P¿=¿0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I(2)¿=¿67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed...

  9. Supplementary analyses regarding Langevin, Langevin, and Curnoe's (2007) findings on fraternal birth order in homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2007-08-01

    A recent article by Langevin, Langevin, and Curnoe (2007) reported mixed results regarding the fraternal birth order effect, that is, the repeatedly observed finding that older brothers correlate with homosexuality in later-born males. Using a fraternal birth order index computed as older brothers minus younger brothers, Langevin et al. found that the "homoerotic" probands were born later among their brothers than were the "heteroerotic" probands in their full sample (N = 1194) and in their subsample over age 19 (N = 1122), but not in their subsample over age 31 (N = 698) or in their subsample with mothers over age 46 at the proband's birth (N = 727). The present writer concluded that the results obtained with the larger samples are more reliable, based on analyses demonstrating that (1) the larger samples are unlikely to be seriously affected by incomplete sibships, and (2) the smaller samples have poor statistical power. A separate analysis, based on an approximate reconstruction of Langevin et al.'s raw data, indicated that their heteroerotic probands reported a ratio of 104 older brothers per 100 older sisters, which is close to the normative population value of 106, whereas their homoerotic probands reported a ratio of 137, indicating a statistically significant excess of older brothers. These results suggest that Langevin et al.'s data showed significant evidence of a fraternal birth order effect and that their data were consistent with previous studies of this phenomenon.

  10. Birth order and suicide in adulthood: evidence from Swedish population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-06-15

    Each year, almost 1 million people die from suicide, which is among the leading causes of death in young people. We studied how birth order was associated with suicide and other main causes of death. A follow-up study based on the Swedish population register was conducted for sibling groups born from 1932 to 1980 who were observed during the period 1981-2002. Focus was on the within-family variation in suicide risk, meaning that we studied sibling groups that consisted of 2 or more children in which at least 1 died from suicide. These family-fixed effects analyses revealed that each increase in birth order was related to an 18% higher suicide risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.23, P = 0.000). The association was slightly lower among sibling groups born in 1932-1955 (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.21, P = 0.000) than among those born in 1967-1980 (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.57, P = 0.080). Further analyses suggested that the association between birth order and suicide was only modestly influenced by sex, birth spacing, size of the sibling group, own socioeconomic position, own marital status, and socioeconomic rank within the sibling group. Causes of death other than suicide and other external causes were not associated with birth order. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C L; Coeli, C M; Pinheiro, R S; Brandão, E R; Camargo, K R; Aguiar, F P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Birth Order and Injury-Related Infant Mortality in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Katherine A; Rossen, Lauren M; Thoma, Marie E; Warner, Margaret; Simon, Alan E

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of death during the first year of life due to injury, such as unintentional injury and homicide, by birth order in the U.S. Using national birth cohort-linked birth-infant death data (births, 2000-2010; deaths, 2000-2011), risks of infant mortality due to injury in second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth or later-born singleton infants were compared with first-born singleton infants. Risk ratios were estimated using log-binomial models adjusted for maternal age, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education. The statistical analyses were conducted in 2016. Approximately 40%, 32%, 16%, 7%, and 4% of singleton live births were first, second, third, fourth, and fifth or later born, respectively. From 2000 to 2011, a total of 15,866 infants died as a result of injury (approximately 1,442 deaths per year). Compared with first-born infants (2.9 deaths per 10,000 live births), second or later-born infants were at increased risk of infant mortality due to injury (second, 3.6 deaths; third, 4.2 deaths; fourth, 4.8 deaths; fifth or later, 6.4 deaths). The corresponding adjusted risk ratios were as follows: second, 1.84 (95% CI=1.76, 1.91); third, 2.42 (95% CI=2.30, 2.54); fourth, 2.96 (95% CI=2.77, 3.16); and fifth or later, 4.26 (95% CI=3.96, 4.57). Singleton infants born second or later were at increased risk of mortality due to injury during their first year of life in the U.S. This study's findings highlight the importance of investigating underlying mechanisms behind this increased risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. On the Mathematics of Fraternal Birth Order Effect and the Genetics of Homosexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Khovanova, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Mathematicians have always been attracted to the field of genetics. I am especially interested in the mathematical aspects of research on homosexuality. Certain studies show that male homosexuality may have a genetic component that is correlated with female fertility. Other studies show the existence of the fraternal birth order effect, that is the correlation of homosexuality with the number of older brothers. This paper is devoted to the mathematical aspects of how these two phenomena are i...

  14. Birth order and preschool children's cooperative abilities: A within-family analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Heather; Plamondon, André; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence for a laterborn sibling advantage in some social skills, although this has not been investigated in children's early capacities for cooperation. Using a within-family design, this study compared firstborn and laterborn (i.e., middle and youngest) siblings on their cooperative abilities when they were aged around 3 years. Further, the study investigated whether the association between children's birth order and cooperative abilities was dependent on the prosocial behaviour of other siblings in the home. The sample included 288 ethnically and sociodemographically diverse children clustered within 144 families. Cooperation was directly assessed using a problem-solving paradigm requiring two simultaneous and complementary actions of the child and adult tester to achieve a joint goal. Parents reported on the prosocial behaviour of up to four siblings in the home. Results of a multilevel analysis indicated that youngest children were more advanced in their cooperative abilities, compared to firstborn children, irrespective of their siblings' prosociality. Middle children, in contrast, were only advantaged over firstborn children if their siblings showed high levels of prosociality. The analysis accounted for a number of potential family-wide confounds, providing evidence that this is a child-specific effect related to birth order. Findings are discussed from a social constructivist perspective with an emphasis on the sibling relationship as a context for cooperative interactions that facilitate sociocognitive development. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There are individual differences in children's early capacities for cooperation. Children's early cooperation has not been considered in relation to birth order and/or sibling interaction quality. What does this study add? Youngest children are advantaged in their cooperation as compared to firstborn children. Middle children are also advantaged, but only if their

  15. How many gay men owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray; Paterson, Andrew D; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2002-02-01

    In men, sexual orientation correlates with the number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. However, this phenomenon, the fraternal birth order effect, accounts for the sexual orientation of only a proportion of gay men. To estimate the size of this proportion, we derived generalized forms of two epidemiological statistics, the attributable fraction and the population attributable fraction, which quantify the relationship between a condition and prior exposure to an agent that can cause it. In their common forms, these statistics are calculable only for 2 levels of exposure: exposed versus not-exposed. We developed a method applicable to agents with multiple levels of exposure--in this case, number of older brothers. This noniterative method, which requires the odds ratio from a prior logistic regression analysis, was then applied to a large contemporary sample of gay men. The results showed that roughly 1 gay man in 7 owes his sexual orientation to the fraternal birth order effect. They also showed that the effect of fraternal birth order would exceed all other causes of homosexuality in groups of gay men with 3 or more older brothers and would precisely equal all other causes in a theoretical group with 2.5 older brothers. Implications are suggested for the gay sib-pair linkage method of identifying genetic loci for homosexuality.

  16. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir; Bulsara, Max K; Cinek, Ondrej; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Svensson, Jannet; Goldacre, Michael J; Waldhoer, Thomas; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Gimeno, Suely Ga; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Roberts, Christine L; Parslow, Roger C; Wadsworth, Emma Jk; Chetwynd, Amanda; Brigis, Girts; Urbonaite, Brone; Sipetic, Sandra; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E; Stoyanov, Denka; Buschard, Karsten; Radon, Katja; Glatthaar, Christopher; Patterson, Chris C

    2011-04-01

    The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies. Relevant studies published before January 2010 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of studies provided individual patient data or conducted pre-specified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios (ORs), before and after adjustment for confounders, and investigate heterogeneity. Data were available for 6 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 11,955 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was no evidence of an association prior to adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for maternal age at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR = 0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P = 0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I² = 67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed that the association was stronger and more consistent in children birth order, particularly in children aged < 5 years. This finding could reflect increased exposure to infections in early life in later born children.

  17. Blind adolescents' birth order as a determinant of their perception of family functioning dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While other theoreticians of personality stressed only the influence of parents in early childhood, Adler paid particular attention to a psychological position of a child among brothers/sisters. There is some empirical evidence that birth order may influence vocational choice, characteristic style of interacting with others, affiliation, anxiety, perception of parents' authority, and even intellectual capabilities. Visual impairment of a family member affects a family system and a sibling subsystem in a specific way. The goal of the research was to determine whether birth order influences perception of dimensions of family functioning in families with a blind adolescent and in families with an adolescent of typical development. The sample included 32 blind (experimental group and 32 subjects of typical development (control group aged 14 to 26, who lived in complete families with two or three children and without serious personal, marrital or family problems. The groups were paired by sex, age, professional status and birth order of adolescents, number of children in the family, type of family (nuclear; extended and environment (rural; urban. A Questionnaire of socio-demographic information and a Questionnaire of situation and family relationships RADIR by Knežević were applied for data collection. First-borns made lower appraisals of each dimension of family functioning than second-born respondents. There were no statistically significant differences in the control group. Differences in the experimental group were statistically significant in the following dimensions: Activity, Democracy and Structuring time and activity. Thus, the results show that first-born child's 'dethronement' has more effect if it is associated with blindness. This can be explained by fact that it is more difficult for a blind first-born child to catch up with a second-born 'rival'.

  18. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.

  19. Association of birth order with cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adulthood: a study of one million Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (pbirth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.

  20. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Separation and Crowding on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)

  1. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327). Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  2. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ki Kwok

    Full Text Available Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally.We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327.Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.23, -0.14, lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04, greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14 and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14, but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11, adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996, but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15, but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11, at 13 years, but similar blood pressure.Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  3. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Jelenkovic, A.; Sund, R.; Sung, J.; Hopper, J.L.; Ooki, S.; Heikkilä, K.; Aaltonen, S.; Tarnoki, A.D.; Tarnoki, D.L.; Willemsen, G.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Saudino, K.J.; Cutler, T.L.; Nelson, T.L.; Whitfield, K.E.; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; He, M.; Ding, X.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sodemann, M.; Song, Y.M.; Yang, S.; Lee, K.; Jeong, H.U.; Knafo-Noam, A.; Mankuta, D.; Abramson, L.; Burt, S.A.; Klump, K.L.; Ordonana, J.R.; Sanchez-Romera, J.F.; Colodro-Conde, L.; Harris, J.R.; Brandt, I.; Sevenius Nilsen, T.; Craig, J.M.; Saffery, R.; Ji, F.; Ning, F.; Pang, Z.; Dubois, L.; Boivin, M.; Brendgen, M.; Dionne, G.; Vitaro, F.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dahl Aslan, A.K.; Tynelius, P.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Plomin, R.; Rebato, E.; Rose, R.J.; Goldberg, J.H.; Rasmussen, F.; Hur, Y.M.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kaprio, J.; Silventoinen, K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of

  4. Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R

    2001-09-01

    In men, sexual orientation correlates with an individual's number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. It has been hypothesized that this fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to Y-linked minor histocompatibility antigens (H-Y antigens) by each succeeding male fetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of such maternal immunization on the future sexual orientation of each succeeding male fetus. According to this hypothesis, anti-H-Y antibodies produced by the mother pass through the placental barrier to the fetus and affect aspects of sexual differentiation in the fetal brain. This explanation is consistent with a variety of evidence, including the apparent irrelevance of older sisters to the sexual orientation of later born males, the probable involvement of H-Y antigen in the development of sex-typical traits, and the detrimental effects of immunization of female mice to H-Y antigen on the reproductive performance of subsequent male offspring. The maternal immune hypothesis might also explain the recent finding that heterosexual males with older brothers weigh less at birth than heterosexual males with older sisters and homosexual males with older brothers weigh even less than heterosexual males with older brothers. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Norway and Denmark. Comments on pleiotropy and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Viggo; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Johannesen, Tom B; Ly, Bernt; Olsen, Jørgen H; Yuille, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the genetics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In 56 (7%) out of 800 CLL patients with concomitant malignant hematological disease, 51 families and 141 cases were ascertained. 106 cases (75%) of CLL, 27 cases (19%) of nonCLL and 8 cases (6%) of myeloproliferative disorders. Paternal disease was transmitted primarily to the youngest sons in the sibship while maternal disease was transmitted equally to all sibs, demonstrated by means of matrix conjugation and confirmed with Cox regression on parity and birth order (maternal-offspring combination: relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47 (0.89 - 2.43), p=0.12, compared with paternal-offspring combination: RR=3.25, 95% CI=(1.57-6.72), p<0.001). The B-cell expression in familial and sporadic CLL was indistinguishable. Parental genomic imprinting is pointed out as one possible mechanism behind this non-Mendelian genomic output.

  6. Siblings and Birth Order-Are They Important for the Occurrence of ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimelt, Charlotte; Wolff, Nicole; Hölling, Heike; Mogwitz, Sabine; Ehrlich, Stefan; Martini, Julia; Roessner, Veit

    2018-05-01

    The associations of birth order, number of siblings, and ADHD was examined. The analysis based on representative, epidemiological data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study ( N = 13,488). An increased risk for ADHD in firstborn versus youngest born children (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.09, 1.58]) and also versus children with no sibling (OR = 1.31, 95% CI [1.03, 1.68]) was revealed, while number of siblings was not associated with ADHD. Results remained stable after controlling for confounders. Firstborn children may receive simultaneously less parental resources and more responsibilities if younger siblings are born. This happens during the vulnerable developmental period of ADHD. In addition, due to higher levels of insecurity, parents are assumed to focus more on potential physical or psychological abnormities in their firstborn children. This may result in a diagnostic bias in firstborn children.

  7. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.

  8. Association of Birth Order with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Young Adulthood: A Study of One Million Swedish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. Methods BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1 065 710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Results Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (p<0.001) lower BMI than first-born, respectively. The association pattern differed among muscle strengths. After adjustment for BMI, first-born presented lower elbow flexion and hand grip strength than second-born (−5.9 N and −3.8 N, respectively, p<0.001). Knee extension strength was inversely related to birth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Conclusions Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood. PMID:23696817

  9. Association of birth order with cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adulthood: a study of one million Swedish men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Jelenkovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI, muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. METHODS: BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. RESULTS: Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (p<0.001 lower BMI than first-born, respectively. The association pattern differed among muscle strengths. After adjustment for BMI, first-born presented lower elbow flexion and hand grip strength than second-born (-5.9 N and -3.8 N, respectively, p<0.001. Knee extension strength was inversely related to birth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.

  10. Maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval evaluation for cleft lip-palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Cruz, Kaliany Wanessa da; Barros, Letízia Monteiro de; Silveira, Marise Fernandes; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval), obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the SPSS 17.0 software. The results were analyzed with the relative risk for each variable, in order to estimate the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval, followed by a bivariate and multivariate analysis. among 200 children, 54% were males and 46% were females. As far as skin color is concerned most were brown, white and black, respectively. Cleft palates were the most common fissures found (54%), followed by lip cleft (30%) and palate cleft (16%). although with a limited sample, we noticed an association between maternal age and an increased risk for cleft lip and palate; however, paternal age, pregnancy order and interpregnancy interval were not significant.

  11. [Effects of birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery on childhood acute leukemia risk: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guobin; Sha, Xia

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the associations between birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery and childhood acute leukemia risk. Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies up to March 2013 using the search terms "childhood leukemia", "acute lymphoblastic leukemia", "acute myeloid leukemia","birth order", "abortion", "miscarriage", "cesarean", "birth characteristics" and "prenatal risk factor". Data from cohort and case-control studies were analyzed using the Stata software. Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis according to the selection criteria. No significant associations were identified for birth order and mode of delivery (birth order = 2: OR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.89-1.05; birth order = 3: OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.91-1.11; birth order ≥ 4: OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.87-1.20; mode of delivery: OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.96-1.15). However, there was a significant association between maternal abortion and childhood acute leukemia risk (spontaneous abortion: OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.05-1.41; induced abortion: OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.07-1.43). Furthermore, the stratified analysis by disease subtypes showed that spontaneous and induced abortions were significantly associated with the risks of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (OR = 1.71, 95%CI: 1.09-2.70) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42), respectively. This meta-analysis revealed that maternal abortion might contribute to the childhood acute leukemia risk.

  12. 77 FR 24538 - Fukushima-Related Orders Modifying Licenses; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Reactor Licensees With Mark I and Mark II Containments: Order Modifying Licenses With Regard to Reliable... Holders of Construction Permits in Active or Deferred Status: Order Modifying Licenses With Regard To... issued to all operating boiling water reactor licensees with Mark I and Mark II Containments directing...

  13. Sexual orientation, fraternal birth order, and the maternal immune hypothesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Skorska, Malvina

    2011-04-01

    In 1996, psychologists Ray Blanchard and Anthony Bogaert found evidence that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This "fraternal birth order" (FBO) effect has been replicated numerous times, including in non-Western samples. More recently, strong evidence has been found that the FBO effect is of prenatal origin. Although there is no direct support for the exact prenatal mechanism, the most plausible explanation may be immunological in origin, i.e., a mother develops an immune reaction against a substance important in male fetal development during pregnancy, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestation. This immune effect is hypothesized to cause an alteration in (some) later born males' prenatal brain development. The target of the immune response may be molecules (i.e., Y-linked proteins) on the surface of male fetal brain cells, including in sites of the anterior hypothalamus, which has been linked to sexual orientation in other research. Antibodies might bind to these molecules and thus alter their role in typical sexual differentiation, leading some later born males to be attracted to men as opposed to women. Here we review evidence in favor of this hypothesis, including recent research showing that mothers of boys develop an immune response to one Y-linked protein (i.e., H-Y antigen; SMCY) important in male fetal development, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each additional boy to which a mother gives birth. We also discuss other Y-linked proteins that may be relevant if this hypothesis is correct. Finally, we discuss issues in testing the maternal immune hypothesis of FBO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Homosexuality, birth order, and evolution: toward an equilibrium reproductive economics of homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E M

    2000-02-01

    The survival of a human predisposition for homosexuality can be explained by sexual orientation being a polygenetic trait that is influenced by a number of genes. During development these shift male brain development in the female direction. Inheritance of several such alleles produces homosexuality. Single alleles make for greater sensitivity, empathy, tendermindedness, and kindness. These traits make heterosexual carriers of the genes better fathers and more attractive mates. There is a balanced polymorphism in which the feminizing effect of these alleles in heterosexuals offsets the adverse effects (on reproductive success) of these alleles' contribution to homosexuality. A similar effect probably occurs for genes that can produce lesbianism in females. The whole system survives because it serves to provide a high degree of variability among the personalities of offspring, providing the genotype with diversification and reducing competition among offspring for the same niches. An allele with a large effect can survive in these circumstances in males, but it is less likely to survive in females. The birth order effect on homosexuality is probably a by-product of a biological mechanism that shifts personalities more in the feminine direction in the later born sons, reducing the probability of these sons engaging in unproductive competition with each other.

  15. High birth weight modifies association between adolescent physical activity and cardiometabolic health in women and not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne, Thomas L; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nguyen, Thuan; Messer, Lynne C; Sacks, Rebecca M; Andrea, Sarah B; Boone-Heinonen, Janne

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that adverse prenatal development alters physiological response to physical activity, but longitudinal epidemiologic evidence is scant. This study tested the hypothesis that lower physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood is more strongly associated with later cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and diabetes or prediabetes (DM/PDM) in women and men who were born with high or low birth weight (HBW, LBW), compared to normal birth weight (NBW). We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study of US adolescents followed into adulthood (1994-2009). Using sex-stratified multivariable regression, 30-year CVD risk score (calculated using objective measures; n=12,775) and prevalent DM/PDM (n=15,138) at 24-32years of age were each modeled as a function of birth weight category, self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity frequency in adolescence (MVPA1) and young adulthood (MVPA3), and MVPA-birth weight interactions. Greater MVPA1 was associated with lower 30-year CVD risk score and DM/PDM risk in HBW women but not NBW or LBW women. Associations between MVPA1 and 30-year CVD risk or DM/PDM were not modified by HBW in men; or by LBW in women or men. Additionally, birth weight did not modify estimated effects of MVPA3. Findings suggest that frequent MVPA in adolescence may be a particularly important cardiometabolic risk reduction strategy in girls born HBW; however, we found no evidence that birth weight and MVPA interact in cardiometabolic disease risk in men, for MVPA in adulthood, or for LBW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 4877 - In the Matter of Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology (BGNR) (Licensee) is the holder of medical License No. 52-25542-01, issued by the U.S...

  17. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C; Lähteenmäki, P; Träger, C; Stokland, T; Grell, K; Gustafson, G; Kogner, P; Sehested, A; Schüz, J

    2010-05-25

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease. In a large case-control study nested in the populations of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland of 4.4 million children, we studied the association of birth order and seasonal variation of birth with subsequent risk for CNS tumours. We identified 3983 children from the national cancer registries, and information on exposure was obtained from the high-quality national administrative health registries. We investigated the association between childcare attendance during the first 2 years of life and the risk for CNS tumours in a subset of Danish children with CNS tumours, using information from the Danish Childcare database. We observed no association between birth order and risk of CNS tumours overall (odds ratio (OR) for second born or later born vs first born, 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10) or by histological subgroup, and children with CNS tumours did not show a seasonal variation of birth that was distinct from that of the background population. Childcare attendance compared with homecare showed a slightly increased OR (1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.86) for CNS tumours, with the highest risk observed in children attending a crèche. The strongest association was observed for embryonal CNS tumours. We found no effect of age at enrolment or duration of enrolment in childcare. These results do not support the hypothesis that the burden of exposure to infectious disease in early childhood has an important role in the aetiology of paediatric CNS tumours.

  18. The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Children's Education. CEE DP 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the…

  19. The Impact of Birth Order on Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes from Parents to Adolescent Sons: The Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…

  20. Birth order and the dominance aspect of extraversion : Are firstborns more extraverted, in the sense of being dominant, than laterborns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study set out to examine the relationship between birth order and the dominance facet of extraversion in a community sample of around 1500 participants. In contrast, to Sulloway's (1995) predictions, the present study, using a between-family design, found firstborns to be less

  1. The Effect of Birth Order on Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality in Very Preterm Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Dan, Elad; Shah, Jyotsna; Lee, Shoo; Shah, Prakesh S; Murphy, Kellie E

    2017-07-01

    Objective  This retrospective cohort study examined the effect of birth order on neonatal morbidity and mortality in very preterm twins. Study Design  Using 2005 to 2012 data from the Canadian Neonatal Network, very preterm twins born between 24 0/7 and 32 6/7 weeks of gestation were included. Odds of morbidity and mortality of second-born cotwins compared with first-born cotwins were examined by matched-pair analysis. Outcomes were neonatal death, severe brain injury (intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or 4 or persistent periventricular echogenicity), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (> stage 2), necrotizing enterocolitis (≥ stage 2), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Multivariable analysis was performed adjusting for confounders. Result  There were 6,636 twins (3,318 pairs) included with a mean gestational age (GA) of 28.9 weeks. A higher rate of small for GA occurred in second-born twins (10 vs. 6%). Mortality was significantly lower for second-born twins (4.3 vs. 5.3%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.95). RDS (66 vs. 60%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.29-1.52) and severe retinopathy (9 vs. 7%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.07-2.01) were significantly higher in second-born twins. Conclusion  Thus, while second-born twins had reduced odds of mortality, they also had increased odds of RDS and ROP. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Effect of sibling number in the household and birth order on prevalence of Helicobacter pylori: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Forman, David; Bailey, Alastair G; Goodman, Karen J; Axon, Anthony T R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired mainly in childhood, with studies demonstrating this is related to living conditions. Effects of sibling number and birth order on prevalence of infection have not been extensively studied. The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of adults, aged between 50 and 59 years, previously involved in a community-screening programme for H. pylori in Leeds and Bradford, UK. Prevalence of H. pylori was assessed at baseline with urea breath test. All individuals who were alive, and could be traced, were contacted by postal questionnaire in 2003 obtaining information on number of siblings and birth order. Data concerning childhood socioeconomic conditions were stored on file from the original study. 3928 (47%) of 8407 original participants provided data. Prevalence of infection increased according to sibling number (20% in those with none vs 63% with eight or more). Controlling for childhood socioeconomic conditions and birth order using multivariate logistic regression, infection odds were substantially increased with three siblings compared with none [odds ratio (OR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.15], and a gradient of effect continued up to eight or more siblings (OR 5.70; 95% CI 2.92-11.14). Odds of infection also increased substantially with birth order, but the positive gradient disappeared on adjustment for sibling number and childhood socioeconomic conditions. : In this cross section of UK adults, aged 50-59 years, sibling number in the household, but not birth order, was independently associated with prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  3. Maternal age at delivery and order of birth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Joanna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2006-04-01

    Parental age and birth order as risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus were investigated using data from the Regional Diabetic Center for Upper Silesia, Poland, in a population-based study of 398 children with type 1 DM aged 0-14 years born between 1979-1996. Noting differences in the proportions of children of different birth order between cases and controls, the data were stratified by birth order. For each stratum, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess risks related to the mother's age. The homogeneity of the odds ratios related to the mother's age between strata was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Risks related to mother's age and birth order were also estimated jointly by multivariable logistic regression. Decreased risk in later children compared with firstborns was noted. Increased maternal age was found to be a risk factor for type 1 DM. An increase in the mother's age by one year increases the risk of the child being affected by type 1 DM 1.07 times, and children born as the nth in the family are 1.59 times less exposed to the same risk than those born as the (n-1)th. Children of different birth order have different risks of being affected by type 1 DM. Increased maternal age at the time of delivery is a risk factor for type 1 DM in Upper Silesia, Poland. To avoid bias in estimating risks, the mother's age and child's sequence number should be analyzed jointly.

  4. Organizing population data into complex family pedigrees: application of a second-order data linkage to state birth defects registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shihfen; Mason, Craig A

    2004-09-01

    Researchers and health officials are increasingly using electronic linkage of large-scale health data systems as a tool for assembling a comprehensive picture of birth defects at a population level. Current linkage and database techniques are limited to first-order linkage--linking information on a single individual in one database with information on that same individual in another database. For example, while current strategies may indicate whether a child with a certain birth defect also has a specific metabolic disorder or risk factor, they are unable to readily determine whether he or she also has any siblings or other relatives with the same pattern. In contrast, the current manuscript proposes a second-order linkage--one that organizes data so that individual-level data can readily be organized into families or extended family pedigrees across an entire population. The ability to link and organize population data into family pedigrees can have significant, broad impact upon health research and service delivery. This can lead to large-scale analysis of genetic factors and, with the linking of environmental data, the potential for large-scale studies of gene-environment interactions. In addition, it expands the potential for epidemiological research by readily allowing the examination of familial effects upon population rates of birth defects, and provides valuable information that can assist in applied public health. An example of a second order database incorporating an electronic birth defects registry is presented. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. How optimal caseload midwifery can modify predictors for preterm birth in young women: Integrated findings from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J; Kildea, S; Stapleton, H

    2016-10-01

    to identify possible mechanisms by which caseload midwifery reduces preterm birth for young childbearing women. a mixed methods triangulation, convergence design was used to answer the research question 'How does the way maternity care is provided affect the health and well-being of young women and their babies?' The project generated quantitative and qualitative findings which were collected and analysed concurrently then separately analysed and published. The research design enabled integration of the quantitative and qualitative findings for further interpretation through a critical pragmatic lens. a tertiary maternity hospital in Australia providing care to approximately 500 pregnant young women (aged 21 years or less) each year. Three distinct models of care were offered: caseload midwifery, young women's clinic, and standard 'fragmented' care. a cohort study included data from 1971 young women and babies during 2008-2012. An ethnographic study included analysis of focus group interviews with four caseload midwives in the young women's midwifery group practice; as well as ten pregnant and postnatal young women receiving caseload midwifery care. integrated analysis of the quantitative and qualitative findings suggested particular features in the model of care which facilitated young women turning up for antenatal care (at an earlier gestation and more frequently) and buying in to the process (disclosing risks, engaging in self-care activities and accepting referrals for assistance). We conceptualised that Optimal Caseload Midwifery promotes Synergistic Health Engagement between midwife and the young woman. optimal Caseload Midwifery (which includes midwives with specific personal attributes and philosophical commitments, along with appropriate institutional infrastructure and support) facilitates midwives and young clients to develop trusting relationships and engage in maternity care. Health engagement can modify predictors for preterm birth that are common

  6. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Obuchi, Ritsuko; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-09-11

    Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9-10 years) in Ina Town during 1999-2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents' age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects' height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these

  7. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14 and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16 significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend P for trend  Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.

  8. 48 CFR 1313.302-3 - Obtaining contractor acceptance and modifying purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order modification is required, unless the contracting officer... acceptance and modifying purchase orders. 1313.302-3 Section 1313.302-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES...

  9. Birth order in homosexual versus heterosexual sex offenders against children, pubescents, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R; Bogaert, A F

    1998-12-01

    Homosexual men erotically attracted to physically mature partners typically have more older brothers than comparable heterosexual men. We investigated whether late fraternal birth positions also occur in homosexuals attracted to children or pubescents. Probands were 710 sex offenders from Gebhard et al.'s (1965) study of sexual offending. Homosexual offenders against adults and pubescents had later fraternal birth positions than heterosexual offenders against adults and pubescents, respectively; there was no difference between the homosexual and heterosexual offenders against children. Results provide some evidence that homosexuality in men attracted to immature males is etiologically related to homosexuality in men attracted to mature males.

  10. Birth order and number of siblings and their association with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Fernanda Oliveira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Schäfer, Antônio Augusto; Dahly, Darren Lawrence; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2018-02-01

    The effect of both birth order and number of siblings on overweight and/or obesity has not been determined. Birth order and sibsize have been mathematically coupled to overweight and/or obesity, but thus far their respective effects have been estimated separately. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of both birth order and number of siblings on the risk of overweight/obesity. The electronic databases MEDLINE, Social Science, SocINDEX, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Academic Search Complete were searched systematically. Titles and abstracts of 1698 records were examined. After 1504 records were excluded, 2 authors independently assessed the full text of all remaining papers (n = 194); disagreements were resolved by discussion. A standardized form for assessment of study quality and evidence synthesis was used to extract data from the included studies. Twenty studies were included in the systematic review, 14 of which were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed that lower (vs higher) birth order and smaller (vs greater) number of siblings were associated with overweight and/or obesity, with ORs of 1.47 (95%CI, 1.12-1.93) and 1.46 (95%CI, 1.17-1.84), respectively. However, among the 9 studies that attempted to separate the effects of birth order and number of siblings in the same analysis, a higher risk of overweight/obesity was consistently found among individuals without siblings than among those with 1 or more siblings, rather than among firstborns more generally. The results show that both lower birth order and lower number of siblings are associated with risk of overweight/obesity, which suggests that only children are at a slightly increased risk of overweight/obesity. PROSPERO registration number CRD42014015135. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Complexities of sibling analysis when exposures and outcomes change with time and birth order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka I.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Divan, Hozefa A.; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were

  12. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feij, Jan A,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same factor, are related to biologically based impulsive disorders, and have a common genetic basis. Questionnaire and biographical data obtained from 532 female and 479 male young adults (age between 18 and 30 years were analyzed using structural modeling. The results show that participants who experienced little parental care and much control were more likely to have high scores on disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. It appears that these family factors may partly explain the previously reported effects of birth order and family size on sensation seeking.

  13. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Feij, Jan A,; Taris, Toon W.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same fa...

  14. Sibling Variation and Family Language Policy: The Role of Birth Order in the Spanish Proficiency and First Names of Second-Generation Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Maryann

    2013-01-01

    The effects of birth order have been debated in many disciplines and have been shown to be important for a number of outcomes. However, studies examining the significance of birth order in language development and practices, particularly with regard to minority languages, are few. This article reports on two sets of data collected among Spanish…

  15. 48 CFR 213.302-3 - Obtaining contractor acceptance and modifying purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance and modifying purchase orders. 213.302-3 Section 213.302-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.302-3 Obtaining contractor acceptance...

  16. 48 CFR 13.302-3 - Obtaining contractor acceptance and modifying purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... undertakes performance, the contracting officer shall require written (see 2.101) acceptance of the purchase... acceptance and modifying purchase orders. 13.302-3 Section 13.302-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES...

  17. Algorithm 831: modified Bessel functions of imaginary order and positive argument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2004-01-01

    textabstract77 programs for the computation of modified Bessel functions of purely imaginary order are presented. The codes compute the functions Kia (x), Lia (x) and their derivatives for real a and positive x; these functions are independent solutions of the differential equation x2w'' + xw' + (a2

  18. Evaluation of Modified Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening Guidelines Using Birth Weight as the Sole Inclusion Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalam, Kakarla V.; Lin, Selina; Murthy, Ravi K.; Brar, Vikram S.; Gupta, Shailesh K.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine if birth weight (BW) alone can be the sole criterion for screening infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, observational case series, 208 infants were screened for ROP using the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) Guidelines (1997). Variables examined included gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), and a composite variable BWGA Index [(grams × weeks)/1000], which takes into consideration both the birth weight and gestational age of the infant. Infants were divided into two groups: Group 1, BW ≤1250 g, and Group 2, BW >1250 g. Multivariate analysis was performed to detect factors predictive of ROP. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the efficacy of screening using the BW, GA, and BWGA Index. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression with a P-value of 0.05 or less indicating statistical significance. Results: Varying stages of ROP were present in 116 of 416 eyes. Of the 105 eyes in Group 2, only 1 eye developed stage 1 ROP. Only Group 1 eyes developed stage 3 or higher ROP. The ROC curve for BW alone gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.797 (standard error [SE] = 0.0329, P premature infants at risk for ROP. PMID:21887076

  19. Fraternal Birth Order, Family Size, and Male Homosexuality: Meta-Analysis of Studies Spanning 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2018-01-01

    The fraternal birth order effect is the tendency for older brothers to increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This study compared the strength of the effect in subjects from small versus large families and in homosexual subjects with masculine versus feminine gender identities. Meta-analyses were conducted on 30 homosexual and 30 heterosexual groups from 26 studies, totaling 7140 homosexual and 12,837 heterosexual males. The magnitude of the fraternal birth order effect was measured with a novel variable, the Older Brothers Odds Ratio, computed as (homosexuals' older brothers ÷ homosexuals' other siblings) ÷ (heterosexuals' older brothers ÷ heterosexuals' other siblings), where other siblings = older sisters + younger brothers + younger sisters. An Older Brothers Odds Ratio of 1.00 represents no effect of sexual orientation; values over 1.00 are positive evidence for the fraternal birth order effect. Evidence for the reliability of the effect was consistent. The Older Brothers Odds Ratio was significantly >1.00 in 20 instances, >1.00 although not significantly in nine instances, and nonsignificantly <1.00 in 1 instance. The pooled Older Brothers Odds Ratio for all samples was 1.47, p < .00001. Subgroups analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in the 12 feminine or transgender homosexual groups than in the other 18 homosexual groups. There was no evidence that the magnitude of the effect differs according to family size.

  20. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-02

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Relation of Birth Order, Social Class, and Need Achievement to Independent Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhine, W. Ray

    1974-01-01

    This article reports an investigation in which the brith order, social class, and level of achievement arousal are the variables considered when fifth and sixth-grade girls make independent judgements in performing a set task. (JH)

  2. High Weak Order Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Modified Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulle, Assyr

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Inspired by recent advances in the theory of modified differential equations, we propose a new methodology for constructing numerical integrators with high weak order for the time integration of stochastic differential equations. This approach is illustrated with the constructions of new methods of weak order two, in particular, semi-implicit integrators well suited for stiff (meansquare stable) stochastic problems, and implicit integrators that exactly conserve all quadratic first integrals of a stochastic dynamical system. Numerical examples confirm the theoretical results and show the versatility of our methodology.

  3. Electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of polyoxometalate-ordered mesoporous carbon modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ming; Guo Liping; Lin Fanyun; Liu Haixia

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a convenient and efficient method for the functionalization of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) using polyoxometalate H 6 P 2 Mo 18 O 62 .xH 2 O (P 2 Mo 18 ). By the method, glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with P 2 Mo 18 which was immobilized on the channel surface of OMC was prepared and characterized for the first time. The large specific surface area and porous structure of the modified OMC particles result in high heteropolyacid loading, and the P 2 Mo 18 entrapped in this order matrix is stable. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to give insight into the intermolecular interaction between OMC and P 2 Mo 18 . The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was studied in detail, including pH-dependence, stability and so on. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry studies demonstrated that P 2 Mo 18 /OMC/GC electrode has high stability, fast response and good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of nitrite, bromate, idonate, and hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism of catalysis on P 2 Mo 18 /OMC/GC electrode was discussed. Moreover, the development of our approach for OMC functionalization suggests the potential applications in catalysis, molecular electronics and sensors

  4. Detecting and correcting for family size differences in the study of sexual orientation and fraternal birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The term "fraternal birth order effect" denotes a statistical relation most commonly expressed in one of two ways: Older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later born males or, alternatively, homosexual men tend to have more older brothers than do heterosexual men. The demonstrability of this effect depends partly on the adequate matching of the homosexual and heterosexual study groups with respect to mean family size. If the homosexual group has too many siblings, relative to the heterosexual group, the homosexual group will tend to show the expected excess of older brothers but may also show an excess of other sibling-types (most likely older sisters); if the homosexual group has too few siblings, it will tend not to show a difference in number of older brothers but instead may show a deficiency of other sibling-types (most likely younger brothers and younger sisters). In the first part of this article, these consequences are illustrated with deliberately mismatched groups selected from archived data sets. In the second part, two slightly different methods for transforming raw sibling data are presented. These are intended to produce family-size-corrected variables for each of the four original sibling parameters (older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters). Both versions are shown to render the fraternal birth order effect observable in the deliberately mismatched groups. In the third part of the article, fraternal birth order studies published in the last 5 years were surveyed for failures to find a statistically significant excess of older brothers for the homosexual group. Two such studies were found in the nine examined. In both cases, the collective findings for older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters suggested that the mean family size of the homosexual groups was smaller than that of the heterosexual comparison groups. Furthermore, the individual findings for the four classes of siblings resembled those

  5. Two efficient reliable methods for solving fractional fifth order modified Sawada–Kotera equation appearing in mathematical physics

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saha Ray; S. Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with two reliable efficient methods viz. tanh-sech method and modified Kudryashov method, which are used to solve time-fractional nonlinear evolution equation. For delineating the legitimacy of proposed methods, we employ it to the time-fractional fifth-order modified Sawada–Kotera equations. As a consequence, we effectively obtained more new exact solutions for time-fractional fifth-order modified Sawada–Kotera equation. We have also presented the numerical simulation...

  6. Fast analytic formulas for the modified Bessel functions of imaginary order for spectral line broadening calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poquerusse, A.; Alexiou, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this work we review the status of the standard line broadening theory for plasmas and fill in the existing gap, i.e., the partially overlapping case for ions lines, by deriving expressions as well as fast and accurate numerical approximations for the relevant functions, namely the modified Bessel function of imaginary order and its derivative with respect to argument. These functions also arise in the context of the theory of Coulomb excitation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Later-borns Don't Give Up: The Temporary Effects of Birth Order on European Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    The existing empirical evidence on the effects of birth order on wages does not distinguish between temporary and permanent effects. Using data from 11 European countries for males born between 1935 and 1956, we show that firstborns enjoy on average a 13.7% premium in their entry wage compared with later-borns. This advantage, however, is short-lived and disappears 10 years after labor market entry. Although firstborns start with a better job, partially because of their higher education, later-borns quickly catch up by switching earlier and more frequently to better-paying jobs. We argue that a key factor driving our findings is that later-borns have lower risk aversion than firstborns.

  8. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hawken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  9. Fraternal Birth Order and Extreme Right-Handedness as Predictors of Sexual Orientation and Gender Nonconformity in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Mariana; Rahman, Qazi

    2015-07-01

    The present study explored whether there were relationships between number of older brothers, handedness, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and sexual orientation in men. We used data from previous British studies conducted in our laboratory (N = 1,011 heterosexual men and 921 gay men). These men had completed measures of demographic variables, number and sex of siblings, CGN, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The results did not replicate the fraternal birth order effect. However, gay men had fewer "other siblings" than heterosexual men (even after controlling for the stopping-rule and family size). In a sub-sample (425 gay men and 478 heterosexual men) with data available on both sibling sex composition and handedness scores, gay men were found to show a significantly greater likelihood of extreme right-handedness and non-right-handedness compared to heterosexual men. There were no significant effects of sibling sex composition in this sub-sample. In a further sub-sample (N = 487) with data available on sibling sex composition, handedness, and CGN, we found that men with feminine scores on CGN were more extremely right-handed and had fewer other-siblings compared to masculine scoring men. Mediation analysis revealed that handedness was associated with sexual orientation directly and also indirectly through the mediating factor of CGN. We were unable to replicate the fraternal birth order effect in our archived dataset but there was evidence for a relationship among handedness, sexual orientation, and CGN. These data help narrow down the number of possible neurodevelopmental pathways leading to variations in male sexual orientation.

  10. Effects of birth order and maternal age on breast cancer risk: modification by whether women had been breast-fed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L; Hampton, John M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A

    2008-05-01

    Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and genetic hypotheses. Recent studies have also considered potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of women living in Wisconsin. Cases (n = 2016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002-2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (n = 1960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk-factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breast-fed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.72-0.96). In analyses restricted to breast-fed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (P = 0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breast-fed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (0.82-1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breast-fed women (for women with 3 or more older siblings compared with first-born women, OR = 0.58 [CI = 0.39-0.86]) but not among nonbreast-fed women (1.13 [0.81-1.57]). These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breast-feeding status in infancy.

  11. De Sitter and scaling solutions in a higher-order modified teleparallel theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos, E-mail: anpaliat@phys.uoa.gr [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    2017-08-01

    The existence and the stability conditions for some exact relativistic solutions of special interest are studied in a higher-order modified teleparallel gravitational theory. The theory with the use of a Lagrange multiplier is equivalent with that of General Relativity with a minimally coupled noncanonical field. The conditions for the existence of de Sitter solutions and ideal gas solutions in the case of vacuum are studied as also the stability criteria. Furthermore, in the presence of matter the behaviour of scaling solutions is given. Finally, we discuss the degrees of freedom of the field equations and we reduce the field equations in an algebraic equation, where in order to demonstrate our result we show how this noncanonical scalar field can reproduce the Hubble function of Λ-cosmology.

  12. Relationship of Cord Blood Immunoglobulin E and Maternal Immunoglobulin E with Birth Order and Maternal History of Allergy in Albanian Mother/Neonate Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Lumezi, Besa

    2017-10-15

    Previous studies reported that familial factors such as birth order and mothers atopy might influence cord blood levels and development of allergies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship of cord blood IgE and maternal IgE with birth order and mothers history of allergy in Albanian mother/neonate pairs. Study population represented 291 mother-infant pairs. Mothers were interviewed with a questionnaire for personal history of allergy and pregnancy history whereas serum IgE levels were determined using sandwich IRMA assay. The mean level of cIgE in neonates with detectable levels was 1.59 (n = 78). No significant difference in means of cIgE was found between first born and later born neonates (p = 0.232) and between neonates of mothers with a negative and positive history of allergy (p = 0.125). Also, no significant difference was found between means of mIgE by birth order, whereas there was a significant difference of mIgE between mothers with and without a history of allergy (p = 0.01). In a group of neonates with detectable cIgE levels, maternal IgE levels were moderately correlated with cIgE levels. Cord blood IgE is not affected by birth order and mothers history of allergy, whereas mothers IgE are affected by the history of allergy but not by birth order.

  13. Sibship size, birth order and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and infectious mononucleosis: a nationwide study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Fang, Fang; Chang, Ellen T; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ye, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    The aetiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains enigmatic in endemic and non-endemic areas. Early-life infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may predispose to NPC development, whereas delayed primary infection with EBV may cause infectious mononucleosis (IM). We used Swedish population and health registers to investigate whether potential indicators of early EBV infection, such as birth order, sibship size, maternal age and paternal age, are related to the subsequent risks for NPC and IM. We conducted two nested case-control studies, one for each health outcome, based on 251 NPC case patients, 11 314 IM case patients and five population control subjects per case matched by birth year and sex. We used conditional logistic regression modelling to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NPC and IM. The multivariate-adjusted ORs of developing NPC increased with number of siblings; the ORs associated with having one, two and three or more siblings, compared with none, were 1.59 (95% CI = 0.97, 2.62), 1.94 (95% CI = 1.17, 3.22), and 2.03 (95% CI = 1.23, 3.35), respectively (Ptrend = 0.006). This increased risk of NPC was explained mainly by having older rather than younger siblings. In contrast, lower risks of IM were observed among individuals with an increasing number of older siblings, younger siblings and total siblings. Early-life social environment, possibly related to EBV infection, contributes to NPC pathogenesis in non-endemic areas. This hypothesis is further supported by the clearly contrasting findings between NPC and IM. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  14. Birth order and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus: a case-control study in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Yusuke; Lemoine, Maud; Bottomley, Christian; Njai, Harr Freeya; Ndow, Gibril; Jatta, Abdoulie; Tamba, Saydiba; Bojang, Lamin; Taal, Makie; Nyan, Ousman; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark; Hall, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Early age at infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases the risk of chronic infection. Moreover, early HBV infection may further independently increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond its effect on chronicity. The distribution of birth order, a proxy for mode and timing of HBV transmission, was compared in The Gambia between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases recruited from hospitals (n = 72) and two HBsAg-positive control groups without HCC: population-based controls from a community HBV screening (n = 392) and hospital-based controls (n = 63). HCC risk decreased with increasing birth order in the population-based case-control analysis. Using first birth order as the reference, the odds ratios were 0.52 (95% CI: 0.20-1.36), 0.52 (0.17-1.56), 0.57 (0.16-2.05) and 0.14 (0.03-0.64) for second, third, fourth and greater than fourth birth order respectively (P = 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed in the hospital-based case-control comparison (P = 0.04). Compared to controls, HCC cases had earlier birth order, a proxy for young maternal age and maternal HBV viraemia at birth. This finding suggests that in chronic HBV carriers perinatal mother-to-infant transmission may increase HCC risk more than horizontal transmission. Providing HBV vaccine within 24 h of birth to interrupt perinatal transmission might reduce the incidence of HCC in The Gambia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Electrochemical determination of toxic ractopamine at an ordered mesoporous carbon modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Feng, Bo; Yang, Peng; Ding, Yonglan; Chen, Yi; Fei, Junjie

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor was developed to detect toxic ractopamine using ordered mesoporus carbon (OMC) modified glass carbon electrode (OMC/GCE). Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical behaviours of ractopamine on OMC/GCE. The results indicated that the OMC modified electrode can remarkably enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ractopamine with a great increase of peak current. The oxidation mechanism was studied and the results showed that the oxidation of ractopamine involved two protons and two electrons of its two phenolic hydroxyl groups. The signal for the determination of ractopamine was recorded using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and the optimisation for the experimental conditions was also conducted. The results showed that the response of the sensor to concentration of ractopamine displayed a linear correlation over a range from 0.085 μM to 8.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.06 μM, demonstrating favourable sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of ractopamine. Finally, the method was successfully applied for the determination of ractopamine in pork samples with satisfying recoveries in the range of 96.6-104.5% and excellent RSD of less than 5%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction and reconstruction of future and missing unobservable modified Weibull lifetime based on generalized order statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany E. Aly

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When a system consisting of independent components of the same type, some appropriate actions may be done as soon as a portion of them have failed. It is, therefore, important to be able to predict later failure times from earlier ones. One of the well-known failure distributions commonly used to model component life, is the modified Weibull distribution (MWD. In this paper, two pivotal quantities are proposed to construct prediction intervals for future unobservable lifetimes based on generalized order statistics (gos from MWD. Moreover, a pivotal quantity is developed to reconstruct missing observations at the beginning of experiment. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation studies are conducted and numerical computations are carried out to investigate the efficiency of presented results. Finally, two illustrative examples for real data sets are analyzed.

  17. 3D elastic wave modeling using modified high‐order time stepping schemes with improved stability conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    We present two Lax‐Wendroff type high‐order time stepping schemes and apply them to solving the 3D elastic wave equation. The proposed schemes have the same format as the Taylor series expansion based schemes, only with modified temporal extrapolation coefficients. We demonstrate by both theoretical analysis and numerical examples that the modified schemes significantly improve the stability conditions.

  18. Gender and birth order as parenting moderators / A influência do gênero e ordem de nascimento sobre as práticas educativas parentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.

  19. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein, E-mail: mohammadnezhad@cc.iut.ac.ir; Dinari, Mohammad, E-mail: dinari@cc.iut.ac.ir; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of mesoporous carbon, FDU-15, was modified by 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. • Nanocomposites of PMMA and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization. • XRD shows that modified mesoporous FDU-15 has an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. • TEM and SEM images confirm the presence of large pores and ordered mesostructure. • Mechanical data indicated improvement in the tensile strength and modulus. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA.

  20. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Dinari, Mohammad; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of mesoporous carbon, FDU-15, was modified by 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. • Nanocomposites of PMMA and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization. • XRD shows that modified mesoporous FDU-15 has an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. • TEM and SEM images confirm the presence of large pores and ordered mesostructure. • Mechanical data indicated improvement in the tensile strength and modulus. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA

  1. Does Birth Order and Academic Proficiency Influence Perfectionistic Self-presentation Among Undergraduate Engineering Students? A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Preeti Tabitha; Kumar, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfectionism is a multifaceted concept. It had both advantages and disadvantages. Perfectionistic traits have been associated with leadership and very intellectual people. The present study is an attempt to understand if engineering students possess perfectionistic orientation and whether it influences self-efficacy, social connectedness, and achievement motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study adopts a random sampling design to evaluate the presence of perfectionism as a personality trait among undergraduate engineering students (N = 320). Standardized inventories such as Almost Perfect Scale-Revised were administered first to identify perfectionists and second to differentiate the adaptive from the maladaptive perfectionists. Scheduled interviews were conducted with students to obtain information regarding birth order and family functioning. Results: Findings from the study reveal that there were a significant number of maladaptive perfectionists and that they experienced higher levels of personal and societal demands leading to a negative emotional well-being in comparison to the adaptive perfectionists. We also observed that first-born children were more likely to display a perfectionistic self-presentation and from scheduled interviews, we understood that paternal influences were stronger when it came to decision-making and display of conscientiousness. Conclusion: The study draws on important implications for helping students to understand perfectionism and to respond to demands of the family and societal subsystems in a positive and an adaptive manner. PMID:27833225

  2. Does Birth Order and Academic Proficiency Influence Perfectionistic Self-presentation Among Undergraduate Engineering Students? A Descriptive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Preeti Tabitha; Kumar, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Perfectionism is a multifaceted concept. It had both advantages and disadvantages. Perfectionistic traits have been associated with leadership and very intellectual people. The present study is an attempt to understand if engineering students possess perfectionistic orientation and whether it influences self-efficacy, social connectedness, and achievement motivation. The present study adopts a random sampling design to evaluate the presence of perfectionism as a personality trait among undergraduate engineering students ( N = 320). Standardized inventories such as Almost Perfect Scale-Revised were administered first to identify perfectionists and second to differentiate the adaptive from the maladaptive perfectionists. Scheduled interviews were conducted with students to obtain information regarding birth order and family functioning. Findings from the study reveal that there were a significant number of maladaptive perfectionists and that they experienced higher levels of personal and societal demands leading to a negative emotional well-being in comparison to the adaptive perfectionists. We also observed that first-born children were more likely to display a perfectionistic self-presentation and from scheduled interviews, we understood that paternal influences were stronger when it came to decision-making and display of conscientiousness. The study draws on important implications for helping students to understand perfectionism and to respond to demands of the family and societal subsystems in a positive and an adaptive manner.

  3. Modified Dual Second-order Generalized Integrator FLL for Frequency Estimation Under Various Grid Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpeshkumar Rohitbhai Patil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Proper synchronization of Distributed Generator with grid and its performance in grid-connected mode relies on fast and precise estimation of phase and amplitude of the fundamental component of grid voltage. However, the accuracy with which the frequency is estimated is dependent on the type of grid voltage abnormalities and structure of the phase-locked loop or frequency locked loop control schemes. Among various control schemes, second-order generalized integrator based frequency- locked loop (SOGI-FLL is reported to have the most promising performance. It tracks the frequency of grid voltage accurately even when grid voltage is characterized by sag, swell, harmonics, imbalance, frequency variations etc. However, estimated frequency contains low frequency oscillations in case when sensed grid-voltage has a dc offset. This paper presents a modified dual second-order generalized integrator frequency-locked loop (MDSOGI-FLL for three-phase systems to cope with the non-ideal three-phase grid voltages having all type of abnormalities including the dc offset. The complexity in control scheme is almost the same as the standard dual SOGI-FLL, but the performance is enhanced. Simulation results show that the proposed MDSOGI-FLL is effective under all abnormal grid voltage conditions. The results are validated experimentally to justify the superior performance of MDSOGI-FLL under adverse conditions.

  4. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Anders C; Ostry, Aleck; Chan, Hing Man; Arbour, Laura

    2016-07-16

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291). Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs) were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM 2.5 ) and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES), proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM 2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased levels of maternal smoking. Maternal smoking had a

  5. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders C. Erickson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Methods Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291. Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5 and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES, proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. Results A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased

  6. Divergent response profile in activated cord blood T cells from first-born child implies birth-order-associated in utero immune programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, M; Larsen, J M; Thysen, A H; Rasmussen, M A; Wolsk, H M; Bisgaard, H; Brix, S

    2016-03-01

    First-born children are at higher risk of developing a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of 'birth-order effects' on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. We studied the association between birth order and the functional response of stimulated cord blood T cells. Purified cord blood T cells were polyclonally activated with anti-CD3-/anti-CD28-coated beads in a subgroup of 28 children enrolled in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort. Expression levels of seven activation markers on helper and cytotoxic T cells as well as the percentage of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-10 was measured in the supernatants. IL-10 secretion (P = 0.007) and CD25 expression on CD4(+) helper T cells (P = 0.0003) in the activated cord blood T cells were selectively reduced in first-born children, while the percentage of circulating CD4(+) CD25(+) cord blood T cells was independent of birth order. First-born infants display a reduced anti-inflammatory profile in T cells at birth. This possible in utero 'birth-order' T-cell programming may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Birth Order and Achievement: A Study of the Effects of Family Constellation and Related Variables on the Achievement of Officer Students at the Naval Postgraduate School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, William J.; Murphy, Timothy A.

    The findings suggest that there may be no significant difference between the achievement of first-, only-, and last-born children. While middle-born children appeared to do less well in academic achievement, their occupational achievement did not differ significantly from the other birth-order groups. The findings suggest further that…

  8. Proportion of homosexual men who owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order: An estimate based on two national probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2004-01-01

    Homosexuality in men correlates with an individual's number of older brothers, greater numbers of older brothers being associated with a greater probability of homosexuality. There are reasons to believe that this relationship is causal rather than merely statistical, that is, that older brothers produce the increase in the probability of homosexuality for later-born males. It is possible, under this assumption, to estimate the proportion of homosexual men who can attribute their sexual orientation to their birth order among their brothers (fraternal birth order). This statistic, the population attributable fraction (PAF), was computed on the combined archival data of 2,256 heterosexual and 71 homosexual men examined in survey studies of sexual behavior in the UK and the USA. The PAF was 28.6%, with 95% confidence limits of 14.8% and 48.0%. These limits encompass the PAF of 15.1% previously estimated with a Canadian sample. The results indicate that the proportion of homosexual men whose sexual orientation is attributable to fraternal birth order constitutes a minority, but not a negligible minority, of all homosexual men. The fraternal birth order effect may reflect the progressive immunization of some mothers to Y-linked antigens by each succeeding male fetus, and the concomitantly increasing effects of antimale antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male fetus. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Dinari, Mohammad; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA.

  10. Multi-Objective Optimization for Pure Permanent-Magnet Undulator Magnets Ordering Using Modified Simulated Annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Nian; Li, Ge

    2004-01-01

    Undulator field errors influence the electron beam trajectories and lower the radiation quality. Angular deflection of electron beam is determined by first field integral, orbital displacement of electron beam is determined by second field integral and radiation quality can be evaluated by rms field error or phase error. Appropriate ordering of magnets can greatly reduce the errors. We apply a modified simulated annealing algorithm to this multi-objective optimization problem, taking first field integral, second field integral and rms field error as objective functions. Undulator with small field errors can be designed by this method within a reasonable calculation time even for the case of hundreds of magnets (first field integral reduced to 10-6T·m, second integral to 10-6T·m2 and rms field error to 0.01%). Thus, the field correction after assembling of undulator will be greatly simplified. This paper gives the optimizing process in detail and puts forward a new method to quickly calculate the rms field e...

  11. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  12. Maternal but not fetal FADS gene variants modify the association between maternal long-chain PUFA intake in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; van Dongen, Martien C J M; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P; Tan, Frans E S; Heinrich, Joachim; Thijs, Carel

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have shown a positive association between maternal fish intake in pregnancy and pregnancy duration and child birth weight (BW), probably due to fish n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). n-3 LC-PUFAs can also be synthesized endogenously, and their synthesis depends on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene encoding for FADS. We assessed the associations of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake in pregnancy with pregnancy duration and BW and investigated whether these associations are modified by maternal or fetal FADS SNP genotypes. We hypothesized that we would find stronger associations in minor allele homozygous mothers or fetuses due to their lower n-3 LC-PUFA endogenous synthesis and hence higher dependence on dietary supply. Data on maternal diet, pregnancy duration, and BW were available for 2622 mother-child pairs from the KOALA (Kind, Ouders en gezondheid: Aandacht voor Leefstijl en Aanleg) Birth Cohort Study. The rs174556 FADS SNP was genotyped in 1516 mothers and 1515 children. Associations and gene-diet interactions were tested with linear regression adjusting for potential confounders, including intake of other PUFAs. Women at the 75th percentile of DHA intake had 0.7-d longer pregnancies (P = 0.016) and 28-g heavier infants (P = 0.039) than did women at the 25th percentile of intake. Associations with arachidonic acid intake were of the same order but in the opposite direction. Mothers who were homozygous for the minor allele had 2-d shorter pregnancies (P = 0.035) and infants who were nearly 140 g lighter (P = 0.006) than did mothers who were major allele homozygotes. Post hoc analyses revealed that they had higher prepregnancy BMI (P = 0.020). Among the women homozygous for the minor allele, those at the 75th percentile of DHA intake had 226-g heavier infants than those at the 25th percentile of intake (P = 0.030), whereas DHA intake was not significantly

  13. Enhanced hydrogen production of PbTe-PbS/TNAs electrodes modified with ordered mesoporous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiyuan; Wang, Bin; Liu, Zhongqing

    2017-10-15

    PbTe-PbS/TiO 2 nanotube arrays (PbTe-PbS/TNAs) were synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) followed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Using Nafion as a binder, ordered mesoporous carbon was cast on these materials to generate the modified electrodes OMC/PbTe-PbS/TNAs. It was demonstrated that the electrode modification with OMC could enhance the charge transfer between the electrode surface and the electrolyte solution, improve the energy band bending of the electrode/electrolyte interface, increase the active electrochemical surface area of the electrode, and reduce the overpotential of the electrode reactions. Under ambient conditions, the short circuit current density (37.84mAcm - 2 ) and the active electrochemical surface area (29mFcm - 2 ) of the OMC/PbTe-PbS/TNAs electrode were 27.49% and 36.79% higher than that of PbTe-PbS/TNAs (29.68mAcm - 2 and 21.2mFcm - 2 ), respectively. A particularly important feature of the OMC modification is that the hot electron extraction capability of the PbTe-PbS/TNAs electrode remained in the new system to provide rapid enhancement of short circuit current density upon increasing temperature. The OMC/PbTe-PbS/TNAs electrode registered a hydrogen generation rate of 11mLcm 2 h - 1 , with an energy efficiency of 98.79% and a heat efficiency of 43.03% under cell voltage of 1.0V at 55°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Computation of the modified Bessel function of the third kind of imaginary orders: uniform Airy-type asymptotic expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe use of a uniform Airy-type asymptotic expansion for the computation of the modified Bessel functions of the third kind of imaginary orders ($K_{ia}(x)$) near the transition point $x=a$, is discussed. In [2], an algorithm for the evaluation of $K_{ia}(x)$ was presented, which made use

  15. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2016-01-01

    Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied...... programing may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings....

  16. Birth order and sibship composition as predictors of overweight or obesity among low-income 4- to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, R H; Miller, A L; Peterson, K E; Kaciroti, N; Rosenblum, K; Baylin, A; Lumeng, J C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of birth order and number and sex of siblings with overweight or obesity among 4- to 8-year-olds. This is a cross-sectional study involving 273 low-income mother-child dyads. Questionnaires and anthropometry were completed. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of birth order, having younger siblings, having older siblings, having at least one brother and having at least one sister with odds of overweight or obesity. Analyses were repeated to additionally include non-biological siblings. Models were adjusted for potential confounders and intermediate variables. Prevalence of child overweight or obesity was 42.5%. Adjusting for covariates, only children and youngest siblings had higher odds of overweight or obesity compared with oldest siblings (odds ratio [OR]: 4.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67, 10.46 and OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.41, 7.33, respectively). Having one or more younger siblings and having at least one brother were associated with lower odds (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.69 and OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.81, respectively). Including non-biological siblings did not meaningfully change the associations. Birth order and sibship composition are associated with overweight or obesity among 4- to 8-year-olds. Future studies identifying the underlying behavioural mechanism can help inform family-based intervention programmes. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. Possible association of first and high birth order of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 5853 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations Inc; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...; respectively. This Confirmatory Order is the result of an agreement reached during an ADR mediation session.... During that ADR mediation session, an agreement in principle was reached. This Confirmatory Order is the... commercial nuclear power plants in 2009. b. Conducted training for Entergy nuclear fleet personnel, including...

  19. Modified spin-wave theory with ordering vector optimization: frustrated bosons on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauke, Philipp [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Meditarranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Roscilde, Tommaso [Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d' Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Murg, Valentin; Ignacio Cirac, J; Schmied, Roman, E-mail: Philipp.Hauke@icfo.e [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Neel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator

  20. Modified spin-wave theory with ordering vector optimization: frustrated bosons on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Philipp; Roscilde, Tommaso; Murg, Valentin; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Schmied, Roman

    2010-05-01

    We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Néel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator instead

  1. Assessment of higher order cognitive skills in undergraduate education: modified essay or multiple choice questions? Research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Edward J; Devitt, Peter G

    2007-11-28

    Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.

  2. Assessment of higher order cognitive skills in undergraduate education: modified essay or multiple choice questions? Research paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Edward J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs. MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. Methods An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Results Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Conclusion Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.

  3. The association of birth order with later body mass index and blood pressure: a comparison between prospective cohort studies from the United Kingdom and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L D; Hallal, P C; Matijasevich, A; Wells, J C; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Lawlor, D A; Victora, C G; Smith, G D

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found greater adiposity and cardiovascular risk in first born children. The causality of this association is not clear. Examining the association in diverse populations may lead to improved insight. We examine the association between birth order and body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in the 2004 Pelotas cohort from southern Brazil and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) from Bristol, south-west England, restricting analysis to families with two children in order to remove confounding by family size. No consistent differences in BMI, SBP or DBP were observed comparing first and second born children. Within the Pelotas 2004 cohort, first born females were thinner, with lower SBP and DBP; for example, mean difference in SBP comparing first with second born was -0.979 (95% confidence interval -2.901 to 0.943). In ALSPAC, first born females had higher BMI, SBP and DBP. In both cohorts, associations tended to be in the opposite direction in males, although no statistical evidence for gender interactions was found. The findings do not support an association between birth order and BMI or blood pressure. Differences to previous studies may be explained by differences in populations and/or confounding by family size in previous studies.

  4. Birth order of twins and risk of perinatal death related to delivery in England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, 1994-2003: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon C S; Fleming, Kate M; White, Ian R

    2007-03-17

    To determine the effect of birth order on the risk of perinatal death in twin pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, 1994-2003. 1377 twin pregnancies with one intrapartum stillbirth or neonatal death from causes other than congenital abnormality and one surviving infant. The risk of perinatal death in the first and second twin estimated with conditional logistic regression. There was no association between birth order and the risk of death overall (odds ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.1). However, there was a highly significant interaction with gestational age (Pbirth order and the risk of death among infants born before 36 weeks' gestation but there was an increased risk of death among second twins born at term (2.3, 1.7 to 3.2, Pbirths, there was a trend (P=0.1) towards a greater risk of the second twin dying from anoxia among those delivered vaginally (4.1, 1.8 to 9.5) compared with those delivered by caesarean section (1.8, 0.9 to 3.6). In this cohort, compared with first twins, second twins born at term were at increased risk of perinatal death related to delivery. Vaginally delivered second twins had a fourfold risk of death caused by intrapartum anoxia.

  5. 78 FR 56745 - Bradley D. Bastow, D. O., South Haven, Michigan; Confirmatory Order Modifying License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... licensee will document a written Safety Culture Policy that applies to all persons (staff and contractors.... The Safety Culture Policy must iterate that any concerned individual can contact the NRC (provide.... Within 30 days of the date of the Order, the licensee will document a written Safety Culture Policy that...

  6. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    A long range ordered alloy composition is described consisting essentially of iron, nickel, cobalt, vanadium and a ductility enhancing metal, having the nominal composition (Fe, Ni,Co)/sub 3/(V,M) where M is the ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof. Effective amounts of creep property enhance elements selected from the group cerium, niobium and mixtures thereof sufficient to enhance creep properties in the resulting alloy without adversely affecting the fabrication of the alloy

  7. Ordered arrays of a defect-modified ferroelectric polymer for non-volatile memory with minimized energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Zhong; Chen, Xin; Guo, Xu; Cui, Yu-Shuang; Shen, Qun-Dong; Ge, Hai-Xiong

    2014-11-21

    Ferroelectric polymers are among the most promising materials for flexible electronic devices. Highly ordered arrays of the defect-modified ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) (poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene)) are fabricated by nanoimprint lithography for nonvolatile memory application. The defective CFE units reduce the coercive field to one-fifth of that of the un-modified P(VDF-TrFE), which can help minimize the energy consumption and extend the lifespan of the device. The nanoimprint process leads to preferable orientation of polymer chains and delicately controlled distribution of the defects, and thus a bi-stable polarization that makes the memory nonvolatile, as revealed by the pulsed polarization experiment.

  8. A Modified Jonckheere Test Statistic for Ordered Alternatives in Repeated Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Tül Kübra AKDUR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new test based on Jonckheere test [1] for  randomized blocks which have dependent observations within block is presented. A weighted sum for each block statistic rather than the unweighted sum proposed by Jonckheereis included. For Jonckheere type statistics, the main assumption is independency of observations within block. In the case of repeated measures design, the assumption of independence is violated. The weighted Jonckheere type statistic for the situation of dependence for different variance-covariance structure and the situation based on ordered alternative hypothesis structure of each block on the design is used. Also, the proposed statistic is compared to the existing test based on Jonckheere in terms of type I error rates by performing Monte Carlo simulation. For the strong correlations, circular bootstrap version of the proposed Jonckheere test provides lower rates of type I error.

  9. Modified Inverse First Order Reliability Method (I-FORM) for Predicting Extreme Sea States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-09-01

    Environmental contours describing extreme sea states are generated as the input for numerical or physical model simulation s as a part of the stand ard current practice for designing marine structure s to survive extreme sea states. Such environmental contours are characterized by combinations of significant wave height ( ) and energy period ( ) values calculated for a given recurrence interval using a set of data based on hindcast simulations or buoy observations over a sufficient period of record. The use of the inverse first - order reliability method (IFORM) i s standard design practice for generating environmental contours. In this paper, the traditional appli cation of the IFORM to generating environmental contours representing extreme sea states is described in detail and its merits and drawbacks are assessed. The application of additional methods for analyzing sea state data including the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data under consideration is proposed. A reexamination of the components of the IFORM application to the problem at hand including the use of new distribution fitting techniques are shown to contribute to the development of more accurate a nd reasonable representations of extreme sea states for use in survivability analysis for marine struc tures. Keywords: In verse FORM, Principal Component Analysis , Environmental Contours, Extreme Sea State Characteri zation, Wave Energy Converters

  10. Maternal iron metabolism gene variants modify umbilical cord blood lead levels by gene-environment interaction: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Mateusz P; Just, Allan C; Bellinger, David C; Jim, Rebecca; Hatley, Earl L; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O

    2014-10-06

    Given the relationship between iron metabolism and lead toxicokinetics, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in iron metabolism genes might modify maternal-fetal lead transfer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal and/or infant transferrin (TF) and hemochromatosis (HFE) gene missense variants modify the association between maternal blood lead (MBL) and umbilical cord blood lead (UCBL). We studied 476 mother-infant pairs whose archived blood specimens were genotyped for TF P570S, HFE H63D and HFE C282Y. MBL and UCBL were collected within 12 hours of delivery. Linear regression models were used to examine the association between log-transformed MBL and UCBL, examine for confounding and collinearity, and explore gene-environment interactions. The geometric mean MBL was 0.61 μg/dL (range 0.03, 3.2) and UCBL 0.42 (lead transfer among women with MBL 5 μg/dL. Maternal HFE C282Y gene variant status is associated with greater reductions in placental transfer of lead as MBL increases. The inclusion of gene-environment interaction in risk assessment models may improve efforts to safeguard vulnerable populations.

  11. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A at ordered mesoporous carbon modified nano-carbon ionic liquid paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Zhai, Xiurong; Liu, Xinsheng; Wang, Ling; Liu, Herong; Wang, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    A simple bisphenol A (BPA) sensor was successfully fabricated based on ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 modified nano-carbon ionic liquid paste electrode (CMK-3/nano-CILPE). The nanostructure of CMK-3 and the surface morphologies of modified electrodes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical properties of the fabricated electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fabricated sensor displayed excellent electroactivity towards bisphenol A using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Experimental conditions influencing the analytical performance of the modified electrode were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to BPA concentration in the range from 0.2 μM to 150 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N=3). This method was successfully used for determination of BPA leached from drinking bottle and plastic bag with good recoveries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: The effect of pore size on CO2 capture performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin; Yao, Manli; Hu, Xin; Hu, Gengshen; Lu, Jiqing; Luo, Mengfei; Fan, Maohong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Larger pore size could decrease the mass transfer resistance and increase the interaction between CO 2 and TEPA. • The CO 2 uptakes of sorbents were enhanced in the presence of moisture. • The sorbents are stable and regenerable under test conditions. - Abstract: The objective of current research is to investigate the effect of pore size of mesoporous silica supports on the CO 2 capture performance of solid amine sorbents. Two ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with different pore sizes (5.6 nm and 7.6 nm) were synthesized as tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) supports. A serious of techniques, such as physical adsorption, infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to characterize the solid amine sorbents. The CO 2 capture performances of the sorbents were evaluated using breakthrough method with a fixed-bed reactor equipped with an online mass spectrometer. The experimental results indicate that the pore size has significant influence on CO 2 capture performance. Larger pore size could decrease the mass transfer resistance and increase the interaction between CO 2 and TEPA. Therefore, OMS-7.6 is better than OMS-5.6 as amine support. The highest CO 2 sorption capacities achieved with OMS-7.6 with 50 wt% TEPA loading (OMS-7.6-50) in the absence and presence of moisture are 3.45 mmol/g and 4.28 mmol/g, respectively, under the conditions of 10.0% CO 2 /N 2 mixture at 75 °C. Cyclic CO 2 adsorption–desorption experiments indicate that the solid amine sorbents are fairly stable and regenerable

  13. Well-posedness and ill-posedness of the fifth-order modified KdV equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonsik Kwon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the initial value problem of the fifth-order modified KdV equation on the Sobolev spaces. $$displaylines{ partial_t u - partial_x^5u + c_1partial_x^3(u^3 + c_2upartial_x upartial_x^2 u + c_3uupartial_x^3 u =0cr u(x,0= u_0(x }$$ where $u:mathbb{R}imesmathbb{R} o mathbb{R} $ and $c_j$'s are real. We show the local well-posedness in $H^s(mathbb{R}$ for $sgeq 3/4$ via the contraction principle on $X^{s,b}$ space. Also, we show that the solution map from data to the solutions fails to be uniformly continuous below $H^{3/4}(mathbb{R}$. The counter example is obtained by approximating the fifth order mKdV equation by the cubic NLS equation.

  14. On the evaluation of modified Bessel functions of the second kind and fractional order for synchrotron radiation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutt, H.N.

    2003-01-01

    The modified Bessel functions of the second kind and fractional order K 1/3 (x) and K 2/3 (x) are of importance in the calculation of the frequency spectrum of synchrotron radiation. The parameter range of interest is typically 10 -6 x10. Recently, there has been particular interest in the generation of 'terahertz' radiation, which can be coherently enhanced by many orders of magnitude when the electron bunch length is shorter than the terahertz wavelength. This requires evaluation of the Bessel functions for small values of the argument. It is shown that the series commonly used to evaluate these functions has poor convergence properties under these conditions. An alternative series is derived which has much better convergence for x1

  15. The relationship of newborn adiposity to fetal growth outcome based on birth weight or the modified neonatal growth assessment score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Riggs, T; Koo, W; Deter, RL; Yeo, L; Romero, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives (1) Develop reference ranges of neonatal adiposity using air displacement plethysmography. (2) Use new reference ranges for neonatal adiposity to compare two different methods of evaluating neonatal nutritional status. Methods Three hundred and twenty-four normal neonates (35–41 weeks post-menstrual age) had body fat (%BF) and total fat mass (FM, g) measured using air displacement plethysmography shortly after delivery. Results were stratified for 92 of these neonates with corresponding fetal biometry using two methods for classifying nutritional status: (1) population-based weight percentiles; and (2) a modified neonatal growth assessment score (m3NGAS51). Results At the 50th percentile, &BF varied from 7.7% (35 weeks) to 11.8% (41 weeks), while the corresponding 50th percentiles for total FM were 186–436g. Among the subset of 92 neonates, no significant differences in adiposity were found between small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) groups using population-based weight standards. Classification of the same neonates using m3NGAS51 showed significant differences in mean %BF between corresponding groups. Conclusions Population-based weight criteria for neonatal nutritional status can lead to misclassification on the basis of adiposity. A neonatal growth assessment score, that considers the growth potential of several anatomic parameters, appears to more effectively classify under-and over-nourished newborns. PMID:22494346

  16. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  17. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  18. Trial of Labor After One Cesarean: Role of the Order and Number of Prior Vaginal Births on the Risk of Emergency Cesarean Delivery and Neonatal Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chiong Tan

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: In women who have had prior vaginal birth attempting a trial of labor after cesarean, a vaginal delivery before cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor for repeat cesarean. Women with two or more prior vaginal births have a similar risk for repeat cesarean and neonatal admission to women with only one prior vaginal birth.

  19. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  20. A influência do gênero e ordem de nascimento sobre as práticas educativas parentais Gender and birth order as parenting moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o gênero e a ordem de nascimento como variáveis moderadoras das práticas educativas parentais e da percepção da preferência parental a partir do ponto de vista dos filhos. Participaram da pesquisa 322 adolescentes entre 13 e 17 anos. Foram utilizados dois instrumentos para a coleta de dados: Inventário de Estilos Parentais (IEP e um questionário desenvolvido pelos autores. Os dados foram analisados através da estatística não-paramétrica (Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. Através da análise dos resultados, constatou-se que: (a o gênero dos filhos interfere significativamente nos índices de estilo parental; (b as primogênitas apresentaram significativamente maior risco de sofrer com as práticas parentais negativas e (c a percepção da preferência parental é influenciada pelo gênero e ordem de nascimento dos filhos.This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.

  1. Preparation of Cerium (III) 12-tungstophosphoric acid/ordered mesoporous carbon composite modified electrode and its electrocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Ndamanisha, Jean Chrysostome; Bai Jing; Guo Liping

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a novel structured Cerium (III) 12-tungstophosphoric acid (CePW)/ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) composite is synthesized. The characterization of the material by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical characterization shows that the novel CePW/OMC composite has improved properties based on the combination of CePW and OMC properties. CePW/OMC can be used to modify the glassy carbon (GC) electrode and the CePW/OMC/GC modified electrode shows an enhanced electrocatalytic activity. This property can be applied in the determination of some biomolecules. Especially, the detection and determination of the guanine (G) in the presence of adenine (A) is achieved. The catalytic current of G versus its concentration shows a good linearity with two good linear ranges from 4.0 x 10 -6 to 8.0 x 10 -5 M and from 8.0 x 10 -5 to 1.9 x 10 -3 M (correlation coefficient = 0.999 and 0.996) with a detection limit of 5.7 x 10 -9 M (S/N = 3). The linear range for adenine is 4.0 x 10 -6 -7.0 x 10 -4 M with a detection limit of 7.45 x 10 -8 M. With good stability and reproducibility, the present CePW/OMC/GC modified electrode should be a good model for constructing a novel and promising electrochemical sensing platform for further electrochemical detection of other biomolecules.

  2. Current practices in the prediction and prevention of preterm birth in patients with higher-order multiple gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily; Hunter, Tiffany; Okun, Nanette; Farine, Dan

    2015-05-01

    We sought to determine the interventions utilized by maternal-fetal medicine specialists in the prediction and prevention of preterm labor in higher-order multiple (HOM) gestations. Online questionnaires and email surveys were sent to all the maternal-fetal medicine specialists in Canada (n=122). Questionnaire items included interventions physicians routinely recommended for HOM gestations including: (1) bed rest; (2) cervical length measurement on transvaginal ultrasound; (3) corticosteroids use; (4) cerclage; and (5) tocolytic therapy. Response rate was 66% (81/122), with 68% of respondents in practice for >10 years. Of physicians, 91% did not routinely recommend bed rest (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7-97.2). In all, 82% (95% CI, 73.63-90.4%) recommended routine cervical length assessment with 32.3% (95% CI, 20.7-43.2) and 37.1% (95% CI, 25.3-48.6) of this group suggesting assessment at 16-18 and 19-21 weeks, respectively. Frequency of assessment varied from biweekly (53.3%; 95% CI, 40.9-65.0), to monthly (23.3%; 95% CI, 12.8-33.1), to a single measurement repeated only if abnormal (12.5%; 95% CI, 4.5-20.8). In all, 28% (95% CI, 18.2-37.8) recommended routine administration of corticosteroids for lung maturation. Timing of administration varied, with 24% initiating steroids between 24-26 weeks, 59% between 27-28 weeks, and 17% after 28 weeks. None reported routine cerclage placement. However, 71% (95% CI, 61.1-80.8) would perform cerclage based on history or ultrasound. Of respondents, 81% (95% CI, 72.4-89.5) would consider using tocolytic agents for threatened preterm labor including calcium channel blockers (94%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (5%), and nitroglycerin transdermal patch (24%). The variable practice guidelines and paucity of data for management of HOM pregnancy places the onus on individual practitioners to develop their own management schemes. This results in heterogeneous management, which is based on conflicting international

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical performance of nitrogen-modified Pt–Fe alloy nanoparticles supported on ordered mesoporous carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Feng-Sheng [National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (China); Liu, Shou-Heng, E-mail: shliu@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Environmental Engineering (China); Kuo, Chung-Wen [National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    A method has been demonstrated to synthesize nitrogen-modified Pt–Fe alloyed nanoparticles (9.2–11.3 nm) supported on ordered mesoporous carbon (Pt{sub x}Fe{sub 100−x}N/OMC), which is fabricated by a conventional wet chemical synthesis of Pt–Fe alloyed nanoparticles and followed by carbonization of the nanoparticles with tetraethylenepentamine as nitrogen chelating agent. Among these electrocatalysts, the Pt{sub 30}Fe{sub 70}N/OMC has highly catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with significantly enhanced methanol tolerance as well. Combining the results from X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, it can be observed that Pt metal in the Pt{sub 30}Fe{sub 70}N/OMC is present in the outer shell of Pt–Fe alloys with face-centered cubic crystalline structure. By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the nitrogen-modified Pt surface of Pt{sub 30}Fe{sub 70}N/OMC exhibits significant selectivity toward the ORR in the presence of methanol. This enhancement of methanol tolerance could be attributed to the inhibition of methanol adsorption resulting from the modification of the Pt surface with nitrogen.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical performance of nitrogen-modified Pt–Fe alloy nanoparticles supported on ordered mesoporous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feng-Sheng; Liu, Shou-Heng; Kuo, Chung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    A method has been demonstrated to synthesize nitrogen-modified Pt–Fe alloyed nanoparticles (9.2–11.3 nm) supported on ordered mesoporous carbon (Pt x Fe 100−x N/OMC), which is fabricated by a conventional wet chemical synthesis of Pt–Fe alloyed nanoparticles and followed by carbonization of the nanoparticles with tetraethylenepentamine as nitrogen chelating agent. Among these electrocatalysts, the Pt 30 Fe 70 N/OMC has highly catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with significantly enhanced methanol tolerance as well. Combining the results from X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, it can be observed that Pt metal in the Pt 30 Fe 70 N/OMC is present in the outer shell of Pt–Fe alloys with face-centered cubic crystalline structure. By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the nitrogen-modified Pt surface of Pt 30 Fe 70 N/OMC exhibits significant selectivity toward the ORR in the presence of methanol. This enhancement of methanol tolerance could be attributed to the inhibition of methanol adsorption resulting from the modification of the Pt surface with nitrogen.

  5. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Cristian; Mattmann, Matías; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián; Valenzuela, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Corral, Camila

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  6. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at ... and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected ...

  7. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarrubias, Cristian; Mattmann, Matías; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián; Valenzuela, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Corral, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabrication of a coating for osseointegration of titanium implant is presented. • The coating consists of nanoporous silica loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles. • Coating accelerates the in vitro formation of apatite in simulated body fluid. • Coating promotes the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. • Coating accelerates the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant. - Abstract: The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol–gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  9. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias, Cristian, E-mail: ccovarrubias@odontologia.uchile.cl [Laboratory of Nanobiomaterials, Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Mattmann, Matías [Laboratory of Nanobiomaterials, Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Von Marttens, Alfredo [Department of Prosthesis, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián [Laboratory of Cell Therapy, ICBM, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile (Chile); Valenzuela, Francisco [Laboratory of Nanobiomaterials, Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Juan Pablo [Laboratory of Cell Biology, INTA, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Corral, Camila [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabrication of a coating for osseointegration of titanium implant is presented. • The coating consists of nanoporous silica loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles. • Coating accelerates the in vitro formation of apatite in simulated body fluid. • Coating promotes the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. • Coating accelerates the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant. - Abstract: The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol–gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  10. The intergenerational transmission of fertility in contemporary Denmark: the effects of number of siblings (full and half), birth order, and whether male or female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M; Knudsen, L B

    2002-11-01

    Using the Danish Fertility Database, we investigate intergenerational fertility transmission, including the relationship between the number of children born to those aged 25 and 26 years in 1994 and the number of their full sibs and half-sibs. We find that the fertility behaviour of parents and their children is positively correlated, and that half-sibs and full sibs have broadly similar effects. We do not find, in this complete national population, the strong birth order effects reported in some earlier studies. Nor do we find evidence of a weakening of intergenerational fertility transmission over time, perhaps because the greater flexibility of lifestyles in this post-transitional phase provides the extended social space within which intergenerational continuities can manifest themselves. We show that members of large families are over-represented in subsequent generations - that they have far more kin than those from smaller families - and that intergenerational continuities in fertility behaviour play a substantial role in keeping fertility higher than it would be in the absence of such transmission.

  11. Cornlike Ordered Mesoporous Silicon Particles Modified by Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Layer for the Application of Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing; Ma, Bingjie; Deng, Xinglan; Li, Wangwu; Wu, Zhenyu; Shu, Hongbo; Wang, Xianyou

    2017-09-27

    The cornlike ordered mesoporous silicon (OM-Si) particles modified by the nitrogen-doped carbon layer (OM-Si@NC) are successfully fabricated and used as the anode of lithium-ion battery (LIBs). The influences of the N-doped carbon layer on the structure and electrochemical properties of the OM-Si@NC composite are detailedly investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and charge/discharge tests. The results reveal that the amorphous N-doped carbon layer can offer the abundant conductive pathways for fast lithium ion transportation and electron transfer, which not only leads to a high specific capacity under high ampere density but also serves as a structural barrier maintaining the whole integrity and settling the mechanical breaking due to the huge volume changes of Si host. Therefore, the as-synthesized OM-Si@NC composite exhibits a high original discharge capacity of 2548 mA h g -1 under 0.2 A g -1 as well as a large reversible capacity of 1336 mA h g -1 under 1 A g -1 after 200 circles. The OM-Si@NC composite prepared by a relatively simple and feasible synthesis method shows excellent electrochemical performances and turns out to be promising for the application of high power LIBs.

  12. CRE Solvability, Nonlocal Symmetry and Exact Interaction Solutions of the Fifth-Order Modified Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Guang; Qiu, De-Qin; Yu, Bo

    2017-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the fifth-order modified Korteweg-de Vries (fmKdV) equation. It is proved that the fmKdV equation is consistent Riccati expansion (CRE) solvable. Three special form of soliton-cnoidal wave interaction solutions are discussed analytically and shown graphically. Furthermore, based on the consistent tanh expansion (CTE) method, the nonlocal symmetry related to the consistent tanh expansion (CTE) is investigated, we also give the relationship between this kind of nonlocal symmetry and the residual symmetry which can be obtained with the truncated Painlevé method. We further study the spectral function symmetry and derive the Lax pair of the fmKdV equation. The residual symmetry can be localized to the Lie point symmetry of an enlarged system and the corresponding finite transformation group is computed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11505090, and Research Award Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province under Grant No. BS2015SF009

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  14. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  15. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women can choose from many different types of birth control methods. These include, in order of most effective to least effective at preventing pregnancy: Female and male sterilization (female tubal ligation or occlusion, male vasectomy) — Birth control that prevents pregnancy for the rest of ...

  16. Modifying effects of maternal Hb concentration on infant birth weight in women receiving prenatal iron-containing supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Mei, Zuguo; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Jianmeng; Serdula, Mary K

    2016-02-28

    Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe-folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006-2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95% CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95% CI 21·98, 193·28) g (PHb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation.

  17. Simple numerical evaluation of modified Bessel functions Ksub(ν)(x) of fractional order and the integral ∫sup(infinitely)sub(x)Ksub(ν)(eta)d eta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostroun, V.O.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical expressions for the angular and spectral distributions of synchrotron radiation involve modified Bessel functions of fractional order and the integral ∫sup(infinitely)sub(x)Ksub(ν)(eta)d eta. A simple series expression for these quantities which can be evaluated numerically with hand-held programmable calculators is presented. (orig.)

  18. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  19. Uniform surface-to-line integral reduction of physical optics for curved surfaces by modified edge representation with higher-order correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Pengfei; Ando, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    The modified edge representation is one of the equivalent edge currents approximation methods for calculating the physical optics surface radiation integrals in diffraction analysis. The Stokes' theorem is used in the derivation of the modified edge representation from the physical optics for the planar scatterer case, which implies that the surface integral is rigorously reduced into the line integral of the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents, defined in terms of the local shape of the edge. On the contrary, for curved surfaces, the results of radiation integrals depend upon the global shape of the scatterer. The physical optics surface integral consists of two components, from the inner stationary phase point and the edge. The modified edge representation is defined independently from the orientation of the actual edge, and therefore, it could be available not only at the edge but also at the arbitrary points on the scatterer except the stationary phase point where the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents becomes infinite. If stationary phase point exists inside the illuminated region, the physical optics surface integration is reduced into two kinds of the modified edge representation line integrations, along the edge and infinitesimally small integration around the inner stationary phase point, the former and the latter give the diffraction and reflection components, respectively. The accuracy of the latter has been discussed for the curved surfaces and published. This paper focuses on the errors of the former and discusses its correction. It has been numerically observed that the modified edge representation works well for the physical optics diffraction in flat and concave surfaces; errors appear especially for the observer near the reflection shadow boundary if the frequency is low for the convex scatterer. This paper gives the explicit expression of the higher-order correction for the modified edge representation.

  20. Modified Projective Synchronization between Different Fractional-Order Systems Based on Open-Plus-Closed-Loop Control and Its Application in Image Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjuan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new general and systematic coupling scheme is developed to achieve the modified projective synchronization (MPS of different fractional-order systems under parameter mismatch via the Open-Plus-Closed-Loop (OPCL control. Based on the stability theorem of linear fractional-order systems, some sufficient conditions for MPS are proposed. Two groups of numerical simulations on the incommensurate fraction-order system and commensurate fraction-order system are presented to justify the theoretical analysis. Due to the unpredictability of the scale factors and the use of fractional-order systems, the chaotic data from the MPS is selected to encrypt a plain image to obtain higher security. Simulation results show that our method is efficient with a large key space, high sensitivity to encryption keys, resistance to attack of differential attacks, and statistical analysis.

  1. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with BCG vaccine at birth may be modified by subsequent DTP vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP...

  2. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Considering Fertility Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be possible, the delivery of triplets or higher order births usually requires cesarean section, with some risk to ... Reproductive Medicine, Patient Information Series. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Twins, Triplets, & Higher Order Multiples. 2004. Current Practices and Controversies in Assisted ...

  3. Do Induced Abortions Affect the First Birth Probability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie-Louise H; Stage, Louise; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    and methods: The data are obtained by linking several national public registers in Denmark, using the unique personal identification number. Initially, a logistic regression analysis is employed in order to model the first birth probability in a given year. Secondly, the long-term effect of an induced......Objective: The focus of this paper is to study, on a national basis, how the event of an induced abortion modifies the transition to first birth for Danish women aged 20-39 years in the period 1982-2001, taking into account also educational level, family situation, and urbanisation. Data...... abortion is examined by cumulative first birth probabilities, derived from a life table analysis. Main findings and conclusion: Previous abortions increased the first birth probability, though this effect was almost entirely confined to single women. For cohabiting and married women, previous abortions had...

  4. Maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 coding regions modify the impact of prenatal supplementation with DHA on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Rzehak, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D; Garcia Feregrino, Raquel; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Demmelmair, Hans; Romieu, Isabelle; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Koletzko, Berthold; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2016-04-01

    Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene affect the activity and efficiency of enzymes that are responsible for the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into their long-chain active form. A high prevalence of SNPs that are associated with slow PUFA conversion has been described in Hispanic populations. We assessed the heterogeneity of the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on birth weight across selected FADS SNPs in a sample of Mexican women and their offspring. We obtained information on the maternal genotype from stored blood samples of 654 women who received supplementation with 400 mg DHA/d or a placebo from weeks 18 to 22 of gestation through delivery as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We selected 4 tag SNPs (rs174455, rs174556, rs174602, and rs498793) in the FADS region for analysis. We used an ANOVA to test for the heterogeneity of the effect on birth weight across each of the 4 SNPs. The mean ± SD birth weight was 3210 ± 470 g, and the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) was -0.24 ± 1.00. There were no intention-to-treat differences in birth weights. We showed significant heterogeneity by SNP rs174602 (P= 0.02); offspring of carriers of alleles TT and TC in the intervention group were heavier than those in the placebo group (WAZ: -0.13 ± 0.14 and -0.20 ± 0.08 compared with -0.55 ± 0.15 and -0.39 ± 0.09, respectively); there were no significant differences in offspring of rs174602 CC homozygotes (WAZ: -0.26 ± 0.09 in the intervention group compared with -0.04 ± 0.09 in the placebo group). We showed no significant heterogeneity across the other 3 FADS SNPs. Differential responses to prenatal DHA supplementation on the basis of the genetic makeup of target populations could explain the mixed evidence of the impact of DHA supplementation on birth weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. © 2016

  5. 75 FR 31484 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Modify...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... exchange, including NYSE Arca. Attracting order flow is an essential part of NYSE Arca's competitive... published estimated trading percentages in NMS Stocks in its Concept Release on Equity Market Structure. See...); State Oil Co. v. Khan, 522 U.S. 3 (1997); Northern Pacific Railway Co. v. U.S., 356 U.S. 1 (1958). \\23...

  6. 76 FR 36157 - In the Matter of Alaska Industrial X-Ray, Inc., Anchorage, AK; Confirmatory Order Modifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... professional mediator, arranged through Cornell University's Institute on Conflict Resolution. ADR is a process... Confirmatory Order is the result of an agreement reached during an alternative dispute resolution (ADR... following: Pursuant to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Enforcement's Alternative Dispute...

  7. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  8. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  9. Reaction rate reconstruction from biomass concentration measurement in bioreactors using modified second-order sliding mode algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Battista, Hernán; Picó, Jesús; Garelli, Fabricio; Navarro, José Luis

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of unknown signals in bioreactors using sliding observers. Particular attention is drawn to estimate the specific growth rate of microorganisms from measurement of biomass concentration. In a recent article, notions of high-order sliding modes have been used to derive a growth rate observer for batch processes. In this paper we generalize and refine these preliminary results. We develop a new observer with a different error structure to cope with other types of processes. Furthermore, we show that these observers are equivalent, under coordinate transformations and time scaling, to the classical super-twisting differentiator algorithm, thus inheriting all its distinctive features. The new observers' family achieves convergence to time-varying unknown signals in finite time, and presents the best attainable estimation error order in the presence of noise. In addition, the observers are robust to modeling and parameter uncertainties since they are based on minimal assumptions on bioprocess dynamics. In addition, they have interesting applications in fault detection and monitoring. The observers performance in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors is assessed by experimental data obtained from the fermentation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on glucose.

  10. The possibility of modifying the elements of the bearing assembly with nanoparticles in order to reduce the friction coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, P.; Mironovs, V.; Vasilyeva, E.; Breki, A.; Tolochko, O.

    2017-10-01

    Recent study considers the tribological characteristics of the sintered bushings used in the connecting nodes brake lever system of railway cars. Particular attention is paid sleeves low content of alloying elements. Bushings had been prepared by powder metallurgy route by using low alloyed powders of Fe-Cu-C system. Porosity after sintering was about 20%. Generally, before using material was impregnated by industrial mineral oil in order to improve friction condition. In the recent study we use new lubricating compositions for impregnating in sintered bodies. Such compositions consist of basic mineral oil with addition of 4 wt.% of layered tungsten dichalcogenides (WS2 and WSe2) nanoparticles, which were ultrasonically dispersed. Tungsten disulphide nanoparticles have spherical shape with the diameter of 30-50 nm, and diselenide nanoparticles have a flat shape with the mean dimensions of 5x70 nm. Tribological testing of the product was provided. Sintered bushings impregnated with commercial oil and suspension of nanoparticles were tested in the spinning friction conditions in the couple with bearing steel at the load of 210 N and spinning rate of 200 rpm. The friction test in couple with steel exhibited the value of friction moment to be about 2 times less as compared with commercial oil. The additions of tungsten disulphide nanoparticles also significantly decrease oscillations the friction torque.

  11. Age-associated DNA methylation changes in immune genes, histone modifiers and chromatin remodeling factors within 5 years after birth in human blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Reinius, Lovisa E; Vitezic, Morana

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related changes in DNA methylation occurring in blood leukocytes during early childhood may reflect epigenetic maturation. We hypothesized that some of these changes involve gene networks of critical relevance in leukocyte biology and conducted a prospective study to elucidate...... the dynamics of DNA methylation. Serial blood samples were collected at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after birth in ten healthy girls born in Finland and participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. RESULTS......: After filtering for the presence of polymorphisms and cell-lineage-specific signatures, 794 CpG sites showed significant DNA methylation differences as a function of age in all children (41.6% age-methylated and 58.4% age-demethylated, Bonferroni-corrected P value

  12. Modifiers of the effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on stillbirth, birth outcomes, and infant mortality: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 17 randomised trials in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily R; Shankar, Anuraj H; Wu, Lee S-F; Aboud, Said; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Ali, Hasmot; Agustina, Rina; Arifeen, Shams; Ashorn, Per; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Christian, Parul; Devakumar, Delanjathan; Dewey, Kathryn G; Friis, Henrik; Gomo, Exnevia; Gupta, Piyush; Kæstel, Pernille; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lanou, Hermann; Maleta, Kenneth; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Msamanga, Gernard; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Rivera, Juan A; Rizvi, Arjumand; Sachdev, H P S; Urassa, Willy; West, Keith P; Zagre, Noel; Zeng, Lingxia; Zhu, Zhonghai; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Sudfeld, Christopher R

    2017-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common among women in low-income and middle-income countries. Data from randomised trials suggest that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation decreases the risk of low birthweight and potentially improves other infant health outcomes. However, heterogeneity across studies suggests influence from effect modifiers. We aimed to identify individual-level modifiers of the effect of multiple micronutrient supplements on stillbirth, birth outcomes, and infant mortality in low-income and middle-income countries. This two-stage meta-analysis of individual patient included data from 17 randomised controlled trials done in 14 low-income and middle-income countries, which compared multiple micronutrient supplements containing iron-folic acid versus iron-folic acid alone in 112 953 pregnant women. We generated study-specific estimates and pooled subgroup estimates using fixed-effects models and assessed heterogeneity between subgroups with the χ 2 test for heterogeneity. We did sensitivity analyses using random-effects models, stratifying by iron-folic acid dose, and exploring individual study effect. Multiple micronutrient supplements containing iron-folic acid provided significantly greater reductions in neonatal mortality for female neonates compared with male neonates than did iron-folic acid supplementation alone (RR 0·85, 95% CI 0·75-0·96 vs 1·06, 0·95-1·17; p value for interaction 0·007). Multiple micronutrient supplements resulted in greater reductions in low birthweight (RR 0·81, 95% CI 0·74-0·89; p value for interaction 0·049), small-for-gestational-age births (0·92, 0·87-0·97; p=0·03), and 6-month mortality (0·71, 0·60-0·86; p=0·04) in anaemic pregnant women (haemoglobin supplements also had a greater effect on preterm births among underweight pregnant women (BMI supplements before 20 weeks gestation provided greater reductions in preterm birth (RR 0·89, 95% CI 0·85-0·93; p=0·03). Generally, the

  13. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  14. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  15. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  16. Simulation of Streamflow in a Discontinuous Permafrost Environment Using a Modified First-order, Nonlinear Rainfall-runoff Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, W. R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    The sub-arctic environment can be characterized by being located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Although the distribution of permafrost in this region is specific, it dominates the response of many of the hydrologic processes including stream flow, soil moisture dynamics, and water storage processes. In areas underlain by permafrost, ice-rich conditions at the permafrost table inhibit surface water percolation to the deep subsurface soils, resulting in an increased runoff generation generation during precipitation events, decreased baseflow between precipitation events, and relatively wetter soils compared to permafrost-free areas. Over the course of a summer season, the thawing of the active layer (the thin soil layer about the permafrost that seasonally freezes and thaws) increases the potential water holding capacity of the soil, resulting in a decreasing surface water contribution during precipitation events and a steadily increasing baseflow contribution between precipitation events. Simulation of stream flow in this region is challenging due to the rapidly changing thermal (permafrost versus non-permafrost, active layer development) and hydraulic (hydraulic conductivity and soil storage capacity) conditions in both time and space (x, y, and z-dimensions). Many of the factors that have a control on both permafrost distribution and the thawing/freezing of active layer (such as soil material, soil moisture, and ice content) are not easily quantified at scales beyond the point measurement. In this study, these issues are addressed through streamflow analysis - the only hydrologic process that is easily measured at the basin scale. Following the general procedure outlined in Kirchner (2008), a simple rainfall-runoff model was applied to three small head-water basins of varying permafrost coverage. A simple, first-order, non-linear differential equation that describes the storage-discharge relationship were derived from three years of stream flow data

  17. Audit of Caesarean Section Births in Small Private Maternity Homes: Analysis of 15-Year Data Applying the Modified Robson Criteria, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnurkar, Kishore B; Mahale, Arun R

    2016-10-01

    To audit the data of caesarean sections carried out in single-handed-run small private hospitals on the basis of the modified Robson criteria (Canada), to know the changing trends of caesarean sections over a considerable duration of time (15 years) in private sector, and to focus on a particular group out of the classification of caesarean section in the efforts to reduce the caesarean section rate. It is a retrospective observational study of 7342 caesarean section cases carried out in different small private maternity hospitals over a period of 15 years. The data analysed by applying the modified Robson criteria (Canada) and the changing trends were studied in the view of reducing caesarean section rate. Statistically significant increasing trend was observed in groups of both primary and repeat caesarean section cases done before the onset of labour in the last 5 years. Auditing the data of caesarean sections on the basis of the modified Robson criteria (Canada) is a better way of classification as compared to Ten Group Classification System (TGCS). The change in trends is seen only in the last 5 years, which suggests that there is shift in attitude of the obstetricians of small private hospitals in performing caesarean sections before onset of labour than performing it after the onset of labour. Our analysis suggests the obstetricians from small private hospitals to target groups 2B, 4B and 5C.

  18. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  19. Ethyl group as matrix modifier and inducer of ordered domains in hybrid xerogels synthesised in acidic media using ethyltriethoxysilane (ETEOS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Xabier; Moriones, Paula; Echeverría, Jesús C.; Luquin, Asunción; Laguna, Mariano; Garrido, Julián J.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid silica xerogels favourably combine the properties of organic and inorganic components in one material; consequently these materials are useful for multiple applications. The versatility and mild synthetic conditions provided by the sol-gel process are ideal for the synthesis of hybrid materials. The specific aims of this study were to synthesise hybrid xerogels in acidic media using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ethyltriethoxysilane (ETEOS) as silica precursors, and to assess the role of the ethyl group as a matrix modifier and inducer of ordered domains in xerogels. All xerogels were synthesised at pH 4.5, at 60 °C, with 1:4.75:5.5 TEOS:EtOH:H 2 O molar ratio. Gelation time exponentially increased with the ETEOS molar ratio. Incorporation of the ethyl groups into the structure of xerogels reduced cross-linking, increased the average siloxane bond length, and promoted the formation of ordered domains. As a result, a transition from Q n to T n signals detected in the 29 Si NMR spectra, the Si–O structural band in the FTIR spectra shifted to lower wavelength, and a new peak in the XRD pattern at 2θ < 10° appeared in the XRD patterns. Mass spectroscopy detected fragments with high numbers of silicon atoms and a polymeric distribution. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hybrid xerogels were synthesised for ETEOS/TEOS mixtures up to 80% ETEOS. • The gelification time exponentially increased with ETEOS content. • FTIR, XRD and MAS NMR demonstrated the presence of ethyl groups into xerogels. • For ETEOS contents ≤30%, ethyl group acted as matrix modifier. • For ETEOS contents ≥30%, ethyl groups induced the formation of ordered domains

  20. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    birth weight data. This study was carried out to determine recall of birth weight and delivery complications among mothers in Unguja West District of Zanzibar. Methods: .... Considering confidence level of 95% and response rate of 90%, the ... delivery, delivery complications, child's birth date, birth's order and birth weight.

  1. Meal frequencies modify the effect of common genetic variants on body mass index in adolescents of the northern Finland birth cohort 1986.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jääskeläinen

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that meal frequencies influence the risk of obesity in children and adolescents. It has also been shown that multiple genetic loci predispose to obesity already in youth. However, it is unknown whether meal frequencies could modulate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the risk of obesity. We examined the effect of two meal patterns on weekdays -5 meals including breakfast (regular and ≤ 4 meals with or without breakfast (meal skipping - on the genetic susceptibility to increased body mass index (BMI in Finnish adolescents. Eight variants representing 8 early-life obesity-susceptibility loci, including FTO and MC4R, were genotyped in 2215 boys and 2449 girls aged 16 years from the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated for each individual by summing the number of BMI-increasing alleles across the 8 loci. Weight and height were measured and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Among meal skippers, the difference in BMI between high-GRS and low-GRS (<8 and ≥ 8 BMI-increasing alleles groups was 0.90 (95% CI 0.63,1.17 kg/m(2, whereas in regular eaters, this difference was 0.32 (95% CI 0.06,0.57 kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.003. The effect of each MC4R rs17782313 risk allele on BMI in meal skippers (0.47 [95% CI 0.22,0.73] kg/m(2 was nearly three-fold compared with regular eaters (0.18 [95% CI -0.06,0.41] kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.016. Further, the per-allele effect of the FTO rs1421085 was 0.24 (95% CI 0.05,0.42 kg/m(2 in regular eaters and 0.46 (95% CI 0.27,0.66 kg/m(2 in meal skippers but the interaction between FTO genotype and meal frequencies on BMI was significant only in boys (p interaction = 0.015. In summary, the regular five-meal pattern attenuated the increasing effect of common SNPs on BMI in adolescents. Considering the epidemic of obesity in youth, the promotion of regular eating may have

  2. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  3. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  4. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing. (Afr J Reprod Health 2015; 19[1]: 14-24). Keywords: birth ..... 25-38 months (reference), 39-59 months, and > 60 months. Figures presented are Relative Risk Ratio of birth interval category relative to 25-38 months, associated 95% Confidence Intervals,.

  5. The use of laminin modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds loaded with laminin-binding ciliary neurotrophic factor for sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiani; Sun, Changkai; Zhao, Hui; Xiao, Zhifeng; Chen, Bing; Gao, Jian; Zheng, Tiezheng; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Jingyu; Dai, Jianwu

    2011-06-01

    Nerve conduit provides a promising strategy for nerve injury repair in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, simply bridging the transected nerve with an empty conduit is hard to satisfy functional recovery. The regenerated axons may disperse during regeneration in the empty lumen, limiting the functional recovery. Our previous work had reported that linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) could be used as a nerve guidance material. Here we cross-linked LOCS fibers with laminin which was a major component of the extracellular matrix in nervous system. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. But the lack of efficient CNTF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. To retain CNTF on the scaffold, a laminin binding domain (LBD) was fused to the N-terminal of CNTF. Compared with NAT-CNTF, LBD-CNTF exhibited specific laminin-binding ability and comparable neurotrophic bioactivity. We combined LBD-CNTF with the laminin modified LOCS fibers to construct a double-functional bio-scaffold. The functional scaffold was filled in silicon conduit and tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Results showed that this functional biomaterial could guide the axon growth, retain more CNTF on the scaffolds and enhance the nerve regeneration as well as functional recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Birth rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkin, R

    1980-06-01

    Despite the marked decline in Singapore's crude birth rate from 42.7/1000 population to 22.1/1000 population from 1957 to 1970, the government adopted a policy of sterilization by coercion with the passage in 1970 of the Voluntary Sterilisation Act. Although sterilization is supposedly voluntary, various regulations make it extremely difficult for couples who wish to retain their fertility. Couples under 40 years of age with more than 2 children must agree to accept sterilization or their children are assigned to a low priority category in regard to primary school admittance. An individual who wishes to marry a non-Singaporean cannot obtain a marriage application unless one of the parties to the marriage agrees to have a sterilization after the birth of their 2nd child. Singapore, with a population density of almost 4000/square kilometer, needs to be concerned about population growth; however, since the population had for the most part already adopted a 2 child family norm, these coercive policies appear to be blatantly excessive.

  7. Substituent effect on the oxidation peak potentials of phenol derivatives at ordered mesoporous carbons modified electrode and its application in determination of acidity coefficients (pKa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Lang, Qiaolin; Zeng, Lingxing; Li, Tie; Wei, Mingdeng; Liu, Aihua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between the electrochemical characteristics and the structure of a series of substituted phenol derivatives with electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups were studied by voltammetry using ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) (OMCs/GCE). p-Nitrophenol (p-NP) and p-methylphenol were selected as models of electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups, respectively, to illustrate the electrochemical behavior and reaction mechanism of substituted phenols. Voltammetric study showed that the oxidation peak potential (E pa ) of substituted phenols with an electron-withdrawing group was systematically higher than that of substituted phenols with an electron-donating group. That is, the direct electrochemical oxidation of substituted phenol with an electron-withdrawing group is more difficult than that of substituted phenol with an electron-donating group. The E pa value shifted negatively with the increase of pKa for both p-substituted phenols and o-substituted phenols with the equations of pKa = −6.986 E pa + 13.261 (for p-substituted phenols) and pKa = −7.929 E pa + 13.831 (for o-substituted phenols). Thus, a simple and novel method was proposed for the precise prediction of the pKa of substituted phenols by determining E pa values with voltammetry at OMCs/GCE, which matched fairly with the results calculated from Hammett's constants. Thus, the present work may provide additional strategy to determine pKa values and investigate possible mechanisms of some organic reactions. In addition, by making use of the substituent effect, different p-substituted phenols (or o-substituted phenols) can be well separated and identified at OMCs/GCE by voltametry, which may find possible applications in simultaneous detection of p-substituted phenols (or o-substituted phenols)

  8. Congenital Anomalies among Live Births

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Rosa Vázquez Martínez; Cristobal Jorge Torres González; Alina Luisa Díaz Dueñas; Grisel Torres Vázquez; Dariel Diaz Díaz; Rafael de la Rosa López

    2014-01-01

    Background: congenital anomalies contribute significantly to mortality during early stages of life; they are the leading cause of infant death in developed countries.Objective: to determine the characteristics of congenital anomalies among live births. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos in 2012. Thirty-seven women who had live-born neonates with congenital anomalies were studied. The variables analyzed were: parental age, skin color, order of birth, famil...

  9. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  10. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 582 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or ...

  11. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrative Staff Donate Contact MENU CLOSE back Accredited Birth Centers You are here: Home Accredited Birth Centers ... not CABC-accredited. How do you find a birth center here? Skip Instructions! Get to the Map… ...

  12. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of ...

  13. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... health problems new moms may have after giving birth? Chances are that you’ll be healthy after ...

  14. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  15. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R

    2014-10-30

    Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing ...

  17. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of enteral feeds in the first days of their life in order to prevent NEC. Uhing reported that preterm infants ... where: SS = required sample size; Z = 95% confidence interval. (standard value of 1.96); P ... The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been.

  18. [The EU law on genetically modified organisms: the European Commission changes the strategy in order to allow, restrict, or prohibit its culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vaqué, Luis

    2010-01-01

    On July 13 2010, the European Commission adopted a series of measures which outline a new approach on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) cultivation in the Member States. This proposal, which still retains the basis of the existing science-based GMO authorisation system, will be implemented through: a Communication from the Commission, explaining the new approach on the freedom for Member States to decide on the cultivation of genetically modified crops; the "Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2001/18/EC as regards the possibility for the Member States to restrict or prohibit the cultivation of GMOs in their territory"; and a new "European Commission Recommendation (2010/C 200/01) of 13 July 2010 on guidelines for the development of national co-existence measures to avoid the unintended presence of GMOs in conventional and organic crops".

  19. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  20. Economic influences on birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, J

    1988-11-01

    A researcher uses an econometric analysis to test his theory that economic developments influence birth rates in post World War II in Great Britain. The base of the analysis consists of a group of equilibrium relationships examining the levels of conditional birth rates (at each birth order and each mother's age) and the levels of economic variables, e.g., ratio of women's hourly wage after taxes. The leading cause of a decrease in births, especially after 1974, was an increase in women's net wages in comparison to men's net wages. Additional evidence suggested that higher women's wages increase the cost of an additional child by raising missed earnings, and this higher opportunity cost reduces the chance of another birth. On the other hand, if men's earnings are higher, couples have more children and at a young age. Further, the higher the real house prices the more likely women are to postpone starting a family and, in the case of 20-24 year old women, these high prices also deter them from having a 2nd child. Higher house prices do not affect higher order births, however. When all other things are equal, women from larger families have a tendency to begin having children in their 30s and produce smaller families than those women from smaller families. Large child allowances encourage 3rd-4th births and early motherhood. To increase fertility to replacement level over the long term, the current level of child allowances would have to double costing about 5 billion British pounds or 1.5% of the gross domestic product.

  1. Avaliação da idade materna, paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal para fissura lábio-palatina Maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval evaluation for cleft lip-palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fissuras do lábio e/ou palato representam as anomalias congênitas craniofaciais mais comuns. OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco ambientais em pacientes com fissuras lábio-palatinas não-sindrômicas, em um Serviço de Minas Gerais. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo caso-controle, avaliando 100 crianças com fissuras e 100 crianças sem alterações clínicas. As dimensões de análise (idade, cor de pele, sexo, classificação das fissuras, idade materna e paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal foram obtidas a partir de um questionário, sendo posteriormente construído banco de dados e as análises realizadas pelo programa SPSS 17.0. Os resultados foram analisados com risco relativo para cada variável, para estimar odds ratios com intervalo de confiança de 95% seguido de análise bivariada e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Entre as 200 crianças, 54% foram do sexo masculino e 46% do feminino. Com relação à cor da pele, houve predomínio de parda, branca e preta, respectivamente. Entre os tipos de fissuras, as mais comuns foram as fissuras lábio-palatinas (54%, seguidas pela fissura labial (30% e fissura palatina (16%. CONCLUSÃO: Embora com uma população limitada, verificou-se associação entre idade materna e risco aumentado para fissuras lábio-palatinas, porém idade paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal não foram significantes.Cleft lip and palate (CL/P are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. AIM: To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval, obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the

  2. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  3. Effect of maternal age on facility-based delivery: analysis of first-order births in 34 countries of sub-Saharan Africa using demographic and health survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Catherine L; Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona

    2018-04-13

    Increasing access to skilled birth attendance, usually via childbirth in health facilities, is a key intervention to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Yet, in some countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the uptake is Health Surveys from 34 sub-Saharan African countries were used to assess women's delivery locations. 72 772 women having their first birth in the 5 years preceding the surveys were included in the analysis. Proportions and 95% CIs of facility-based deliveries were estimated overall and by country. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of facility-based delivery for different maternal age groups (15-19, 20-24 and ≥25 years) for a pooled sample of all countries. 59.9% of women had a facility-based delivery for their first birth (95% CI 58.6 to 61.2), ranging from 19.4% in Chad to 96.6% in Rwanda. Compared with women aged 15-19 years, the adjusted odds of having a facility-based delivery for those aged 20-24 was 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5, psub-Saharan Africa. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from taking birth control pills include: Blood clots Heart attack High blood pressure Stroke Birth control pills without estrogen are much less likely to cause these problems. The risk is higher for women ...

  5. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  6. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ...

  7. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...

  8. Evalution of DNA extraction methods in order to monitor genetically modified materials in soy foodstuffs and feeds commercialised in Turkey by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Baykut, Aykut; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most important biotech crops, widely used as an ingredient in both foodstuffs and feed. DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified (GM) materials in soya-containing food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All extraction methods performed well for the majority of soya foods and feed products analysed. However, the most successful method varied between different products; the Foodproof, Genespin and the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) methods each produced the highest DNA yield and purity for different soya foodstuffs and feeds. Of the samples tested, 20% were positive for the presence of at least two GM elements (35S/NOS) while 11% contained an additional GM element (35S/NOS/FMV). Of the tested products, animal feeds showed a larger prevalence of GM material (50%) than the soya-containing foodstuffs (13%). The best performing extraction methods proved to be the Foodproof, Genespin and CTAB methods for soya-containing food and feed products. The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM soybean in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of soy-containing food and feed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Cranial birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de

  10. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  11. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's in this article? What Is ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of ...

  12. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a ...

  13. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  14. Original Research Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and birth order of child were the significant confounders factors in our adjusted models. Conclusions. We observed reduced birth weight in children whose mothers used high pollution fuels suggesting a negative effect of maternal exposure to biomass fuels on birth weight of the child. However, this reduction was not ...

  15. Impact of nuclear power plant construction relative to decommissioning fossil fuel plants in order to reduce CO2 emissions using a modified Nordhaus Vensim DICE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, A.; Colpetzer, J.

    2014-01-01

    The current levels of CO 2 emissions and high levels accumulating in the atmosphere have climate scientists concerned. The Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy Model or 'DICE' is a model that is used to simulate climate change and evaluate factors to address global warming. The model was developed by Nordhaus and collaborators. The DICE model uses current economic and environmental data to predict potential climate change as a result of an increase in CO 2 in the atmosphere. The authors recreated the Fiddaman DICE model using Vensim and modified it to evaluate the use of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as a means to counter climate change, as characterize by temperature increases in the atmosphere and oceans and the associated cost of damages. The amount of GHG emissions from a NPP are about 6% per MWe, as that from a fossil-fueled power plant (FFPP). Based on this fact, a model was developed to simulate construction of NPPs with subsequent decommissioning of FFPPs with an equivalent power output. The study looked at extended periods into the future; that is, up to year 2300. Based on the results produced from this study it can be concluded that using NPPs in the U.S. to address climate change will provide a small benefit, but ultimately will not be enough to reduce CO 2 emissions nor atmospheric CO 2 to mitigate global warming. The amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere is predicted to be 1055 parts per million even in the best case scenario by year 2300. This far exceeds the often quoted 350 ppm concentration. The results may have policy ramifications as well as significance with respect to the seriousness of continuing increase in CO 2 concentration. The paper will discuss results and implications. (author)

  16. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  17. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...

  18. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  19. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both......Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...

  20. Births resulting from assisted reproductive technology: comparing birth certificate and National ART Surveillance System Data, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Marie E; Boulet, Sheree; Martin, Joyce A; Kissin, Dmitry

    2014-12-10

    This report compares data on births resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures from 2011 birth certificates with data from the 2011 National ART Surveillance System (NASS) among the subset of jurisdictions that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate as of January 1, 2011, with information on ART. Birth certificate data are based on 100% of births registered in 27 states and the District of Columbia. NASS data included all ART cycles initiated in 2010 or 2011 for which a live birth in 2011 was reported. The same reporting area was used for both data sources and represents 67% of all births in the United States in 2011. A ratio was computed by dividing the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures for NASS data by the percentage for birth certificate data. A ratio of 1.0 represents equivalent levels of reporting. Because this reporting area is not a random sample of births, the results are not generalizable to the United States as a whole. Overall, the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures was 2.06 times higher for NASS data (1.44%) compared with birth certificate data (0.70%). The ratio for each jurisdiction varied from 1.04 for Utah and Wisconsin to 7.50 for Florida. Higher-risk groups had more consistent reporting. between data sources [e.g., triplet or higher-order multiples (1.36) compared with singletons (2.11)]. Births resulting from ART procedures appear to be underreported on the birth certificate; however, the magnitude of underreporting varied by jurisdiction and maternal-infant health characteristics.

  1. Birth Defects in the Newborn Population: Race and Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Egbe

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This is a comprehensive description of racial differences in the risk of birth defects in the United States. Observed racial differences in the risk of birth defects may be related to genetic susceptibilities, to cultural or social differences that could modify exposures, or to the many potential combinations between susceptibilities and exposures.

  2. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Highly Ordered SBA-15 Nanocomposites Modified with Fe2O3 and Co3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the unique order mesopores, mesoporous SBA-15 could be used as the carrier of the magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles in the frame and the mesopores lead to the exchange-coupling interaction or other interactions, which could improve the magnetic properties of SBA-15 nanocomposites. Mesoporous Fe/SBA-15 had been prepared via in situ anchoring Fe2O3 into the frame and the micropores of SBA-15 using the sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Co3O4 nanoparticles had been impregnated into the mesopores of Fe/SBA-15 to form mesoporous Fe/SBA-15-Co3O4 nanocomposites. XRD, HRTEM, VSM, and N2 physisorption isotherms were used to characterize the mesostructure and magnetic properties of the SBA-15 nanocomposites, and all results indicated that the Fe2O3 nanoparticles presented into the frame and micropores, while the Co3O4 nanoparticles existed inside the mesopores of Fe/SBA-15. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of SBA-15 could be conveniently adjusted by the Fe2O3 and Co3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Fe/SBA-15 exhibited ferromagnetic properties, while the impregnation of Co3O4 nanoparticles greatly improved the coercivity with a value of 1424.6 Oe, which was much higher than that of Fe/SBA-15.

  3. Maternal air pollution exposure and preterm birth in Wuxi, China: Effect modification by maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Jiang, Panhua; Dong, Tianyu; Ding, Xinliang; Chen, Ting; Villanger, Gro Dehli; Aase, Heidi; Huang, Lu; Xia, Yankai

    2018-08-15

    Numerous studies have investigated prenatal air pollution and shown that air pollutants have adverse effect on birth outcomes. However, which trimester was the most sensitive and whether the effect was related to maternal age is still ambiguous. This study aims to explore the association between maternal air pollution exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, and if this relationship is modified by maternal age. In this retrospective cohort study, we examine the causal relationship of prenatal exposure to air pollutants including particulate matters, which are less than 10 µm (PM 10 ), and ozone (O 3 ), which is one of the gaseous pollutants, on preterm birth by gestational age. A total of 6693 pregnant women were recruited from Wuxi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital. The participants were dichotomized into child-bearing age group ( = 35 years old) in order to analyze the effect modification by maternal age. Logistic and linear regression models were performed to assess the risk for preterm birth (gestational age air pollution exposure. With adjustment for covariates, the highest level of PM 10 exposure significantly increased the risk of preterm birth by 1.42-fold (95% CI: 1.10, 1.85) compared those with the lowest level in the second trimester. Trimester-specific PM 10 exposure was positively associated with gestational age, whereas O 3 exposure was associated with gestational age in the early pregnancy. When stratified by maternal age, PM 10 exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only in the advanced age group during pregnancy (OR:2.15, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.07). The results suggested that PM 10 exposure associated with preterm birth was modified by advanced maternal age (OR interaction = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.91, P interaction = 0.032). Prenatal air pollution exposure would increase risk of preterm birth and reduced gestational age. Thus, more attention should be paid to the effects of ambient air pollution

  4. Epidemiology of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    effect on mothers' age at first birth (p < 0.001), the number of children born within the five years of the survey (p<0.001), and the total number of ... approach that compares reported numbers of births for settlers and non-settlers in ... 1Department of Geography, Sonoma State University, USA. 2. Department of Epidemiology ...

  6. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 ... Labor and Birth (FAQ087) Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy (FAQ170) Patient Education ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  7. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  8. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  9. Ordered Modified Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization Revised

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štuller, Július

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 63, 1/3 (1995), s. 221-227 ISSN 0377-0427. [Modelling' 94. Prague, 29.08.1994-02.09.1994] Keywords : Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization * MGS algorithms * linear algebra Impact factor: 0.373, year: 1995

  10. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  11. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Sadavarte, Vaishali S; Ashtekar, Ratna S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg) over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby’s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades. PMID:20922101

  12. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Mahony, Rhona; Malone, Fergal D

    2011-07-01

    To establish the level of birth weight discordance at which perinatal morbidity increases in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancy. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1,028 unselected twin pairs recruited over a 2-year period. Participants underwent two weekly ultrasonographic surveillance from 24 weeks of gestation with surveillance of monochorionic twins two-weekly from 16 weeks. Analysis using Cox proportional hazards compared a composite measure of perinatal morbidity (including any of the following: mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or sepsis) at different degrees of birth weight discordance with adjustment for chorionicity, gestational age, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, birth order, gender, and growth restriction. Perinatal outcome data were recorded for 977 patients (100%) who continued the study with both fetuses alive beyond 24 weeks, including 14 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Adjusting for gestation at delivery, twin order, gender, and growth restriction, perinatal mortality, individual morbidity, and composite perinatal morbidity were all seen to increase with birth weight discordance exceeding 18% for dichorionic pairs (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.9, Pbirth weights were appropriate for gestational age. : The threshold for birth weight discordance established by this prospective study is 18% both for dichorionic twin pairs and for monochorionic twins without twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This threshold is considerably lower than that defined by many retrospective series as pathologic. We suggest that an anticipated difference of 18% in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring.

  13. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  14. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  15. Pregnant women's choice of birthing hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lou, Stina; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    and they relied extensively on their own or peers' experiences. Travel distance played a role, but some women were willing to incur longer travel times to give birth at a specialized hospital in order to try to reduce the risks (in case of unexpected events). The women associated the presence of specialized......OBJECTIVE: To investigate pregnant women's decision making in relation to their choice of birthing hospital and, in particular, their priorities regarding hospital characteristics. METHODS: The focus of this study was the choice of birthing hospital among pregnant women. A qualitative interview...... services and staff that were more qualified and experienced with increased safety. Other priorities included continuity of care (i.e., being seen by the same midwife) as well as service availability, which in this case referred to the possibility of a water birth and postnatal hoteling services...

  16. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  17. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  18. Birthing postures and birth canal lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-05-01

    This study was performed to assess the differences in the birth canal lacerations following the lateral and fours posture deliveries compared with those following the supine posture deliveries. We examined the birth canal lacerations of our "low risk" pregnant women under the midwife-led delivery care at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between April 2006 and March 2015. There were 3826, 1754 and 719 women who delivered with supine, lateral and fours postures. The rate of no laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.630, 95% CI 0.56-0.71, p < 0.01); however, the incidence of perineal laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.856, 95% CI 0.76-0.90, p < 0.01). The incidence of perineal laceration of third- or fourth-degree in the women who delivered with fours posture was significant higher than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.2-4.2, p < 0.01). The current results may be to help for self-determination of birthing postures in prenatal women.

  19. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  20. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  1. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... discuss birth control methods with one’s sexual partner. General methods of contraception include: Barrier —physically interferes with ...

  2. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, ...

  3. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... and effective method of birth control. Most young women who use the patch have no side effects. ...

  4. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  5. The joy at birth: an interpretive hermeneutic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Susan; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Deb

    2014-04-01

    this literature review examines the experience of joy at birth and what that joy means. The premise is that the whole of the birthing experience has not been fully explicated in the literature and that something of significance remains unexplored and unspoken. It is argued that a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to reviewing literature provides unique insights and leads to deeper understandings about birth and the experience of joy that attunes at that moment. the philosophical underpinnings informed by Heidegger and Gadamer are central to this review and therefore the process of reviewing literature hermeneutically is described. Heideggerian phenomenology is used as the method to ask the questions of the literature in order that concealed and hidden experiences of joy at birth are made visible where they are gleaned from the literature. A hermeneutic lens is used to uncover relationships within the phenomenon of joy at birth and meaning. although a vast birth literature was reviewed joy at birth was often ignored, hidden or covered over. Reviewing the literature on relationships, professional presence, place of birth, birth satisfaction studies and birth as peak and spiritual experience provides glimpses of the phenomenon 'joy at birth'. it is argued that joy at birth remains largely neglected as a phenomenon worthy of consideration. Plausible interpretations are presented that suggest that joy at birth points to something significant and meaningful. Spiritual and sacred meaning is alluded to in the papers reviewed yet the majority of papers that investigate birth leave this meaning unspoken. The review highlights a need for further thinking and questioning about birth that would direct on-going investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  7. Birth Territory: a theory for midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny Anne

    2006-07-01

    The theory of Birth Territory describes, explains and predicts the relationships between the environment of the individual birth room, issues of power and control, and the way the woman experiences labour physiologically and emotionally. The theory was synthesised inductively from empirical data generated by the authors in their roles as midwives and researchers. It takes a critical post-structural feminist perspective and expands on some of the ideas of Michel Foucault. Theory synthesis was also informed by current research about the embodied self and the authors' scholarship in the fields of midwifery, human biology, sociology and psychology. In order to demonstrate the significance of the theory, it is applied to two clinical stories that both occur in hospital but are otherwise different. This analysis supports the central proposition that when midwives use 'midwifery guardianship' to create and maintain the ideal Birth Territory then the woman is most likely to give birth naturally, be satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post-birth period. These benefits together with the reduction in medical interventions also benefit the baby. In addition, a positive Birth Territory is posited to have a broader impact on the woman's partner, family and society in general.

  8. The impact of postpartum contraception on reducing preterm birth: findings from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria I; Chang, Richard; Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    2015-11-01

    Family planning is recommended as a strategy to prevent adverse birth outcomes. The potential contribution of postpartum contraceptive coverage to reducing rates of preterm birth is unknown. In this study, we examine the impact of contraceptive coverage and use within 18 months of a birth on preventing preterm birth in a Californian cohort. We identified records for second or higher-order births among women from California's 2011 Birth Statistical Master File and their prior births from earlier Birth Statistical Master Files. To identify women who received contraceptive services from publicly funded programs, we applied a probabilistic linking methodology to match birth files with enrollment records for women with Medi-Cal or Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment Program (PACT) claims. The length of contraceptive coverage was determined through applying an algorithm based on the specified method and the quantity dispensed. Preterm birth was defined as a birth occurring birth using subcategories defined by the World Health Organization: extremely preterm (birth and control for key covariates. The cohort consisted of 111,948 women who were seen at least once by a Medi-Cal or Family PACT provider within 18 months of delivery. Of the cohort, 9.75% had a preterm birth. Contraceptive coverage was found to be protective against preterm birth. For every month of contraceptive coverage, odds of a preterm birth confidence interval, 0.986-0.993). Improving postpartum contraceptive use has the potential to reduce preterm births. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  10. Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism modifies the relationship between body mass index and affective symptoms through the life course: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Richards, Marcus; Wong, Andrew; Hardy, Rebecca

    2018-03-13

    Although bi-directional relationships between high body mass index (BMI) and affective symptoms have been found, no study has investigated the relationships across the life course. There has also been little exploration of whether the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with affective symptoms and/or modifies the relationship between BMI and affective symptoms. In the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), 4556 participants had at least one measure of BMI and affective symptoms between ages 11 and 60-64 years. A structural equation modelling framework was used with the BMI trajectory fitted as latent variables representing BMI at 11, and adolescent (11-20 years), early adulthood (20-36 years) and midlife (36-53 years) change in BMI. Higher levels of adolescent emotional problems were associated with greater increases in adult BMI and greater increases in early adulthood BMI were associated with higher subsequent levels of affective symptoms in women. The rs9939609 risk variant (A allele) from 2469 participants with DNA genotyping at age 53 years showed mostly protective effect modification of these relationship. Increases in adolescent and early adulthood BMI were generally not associated with, or were associated with lower levels, of affective symptoms in the FTO risk homozygote (AA) group, but positive associations were seen in the TT group. These results suggest bi-directional relationships between higher BMI and affective symptoms across the life course in women, and that the relationship could be ameliorated by rs9939609 risk variant.

  11. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  13. biostatistical analysis of birth weight and head circumference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    URCHMAN

    maturity of the neonate and health status of the mother. It is also an important determinant of prenatal mortality, it is known to increase with successive birth order up to the fourth or fifth rank in other words, and babies tend to outweigh their immediate elder siblings. The birth weight of a newborn infant is influenced by various ...

  14. Maternal autoimmune disease and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Meredith M; Browne, Marilyn L; Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Richardson, Sandra D; Blossom, Sarah J; Broussard, Cheryl S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the association between maternal autoimmune disease or its treatment and the risk of birth defects. We examined these associations using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Analyses included 25,116 case and 9897 unaffected control infants with estimated delivery dates between 1997 and 2009. Information on autoimmune disease, medication use, and other pregnancy exposures was collected by means of telephone interview. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for birth defects with five or more exposed cases; crude ORs and exact 95% CIs were estimated for birth defects with three to four exposed cases. Autoimmune disease was reported by 373 mothers (279 case and 94 control mothers). The majority of birth defects evaluated were not associated with autoimmune disease; however, a statistically significant association between maternal autoimmune disease and encephalocele was observed (OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.95-11.04). Eighty-two mothers with autoimmune disease used an immune modifying/suppressing medication during pregnancy; this was associated with encephalocele (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.37-24.61) and atrial septal defects (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.16-7.80). Our findings suggest maternal autoimmune disease and treatment are not associated with the majority of birth defects, but may be associated with some defects, particularly encephalocele. Given the low prevalence of individual autoimmune diseases and the rare use of specific medications, we were unable to examine associations of specific autoimmune diseases and medications with birth defects. Other studies are needed to confirm these findings. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:950-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  16. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    and implications for practice: as images on the Internet inform and persuade society about stereotypical behaviours, the trends of our time and sociocultural norms, it is important to recognise images of the technological birth room on the Internet may be influential in dictating women's attitudes, choices......Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form...... of discourse analysis. Setting/participants: forty images of birth rooms were collected in 2013 from Google Images, Flickr, Wikimedia Commons and midwifery colleagues. The images were from obstetric units, alongside and freestanding midwifery units located in developed countries (Australia, Canada, Europe, New...

  17. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  18. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  19. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  20. Gestational diabetes and offspring birth size at elevated environmental pollutant exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valvi, Damaskini; Oulhote, Youssef; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    examined whether GDM may mediate or modify the associations between maternal environmental pollutant exposures and offspring birth size measures. METHODS: We analyzed 604 Faroese pregnant women and their offsprings born in 1997-2000. Maternal pregnancy serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs...... circumference in boys, and positive or null associations in girls. None of the environmental pollutants was associated with offspring length. GDM neither modified nor mediated the associations with birth size measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations with GDM and offspring birth size to be specific...... to the environmental pollutant or pollutant group. Associations with birth size measures appear to be independent of GDM occurrence....

  1. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  2. Better Births Initiative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring that health professionals practise according to evidence-based standards is important since it affects the quality and cost of care patients receive. The purpose of this research was to use a focused change programme (the Better Births Initiative) to influence obstetric practice at 10 hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa.

  3. Birth Characteristics and Childhood Leukemia Risk: Correlations With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, Mehmet T

    2015-07-01

    Birth characteristics such as birth order, birth weight, birth defects, and Down syndrome showed some of the first risk associations with childhood leukemia. Examinations of correlations between birth characteristics and leukemia risk markers have been limited to birth weight-related genetic polymorphisms. We integrated information on nongenetic and genetic markers by evaluating the relationship of birth characteristics, genetic markers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, and ALL risk together. The multiethnic study consisted of cases with childhood ALL (n=161) and healthy controls (n=261). Birth characteristic data were collected through questionnaires, and genotyping was achieved by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed risk associations for birth weight over 4000 g (odds ratios [OR]=1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.19), birth length (OR=1.18 per inch; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), and with gestational age (OR=1.10 per week; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). Only the HFE tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9366637 showed an inverse correlation with a birth characteristic, gestational age, with a gene-dosage effect (P=0.005), and in interaction with a transferrin receptor rs3817672 genotype (Pinteraction=0.05). This correlation translated into a strong association for rs9366637 with preterm birth (OR=5.0; 95% CI, 1.19-20.9). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of prenatal events in the development of childhood ALL. The inverse correlation of rs9366637 with gestational age has implications on the design of HFE association studies in birth weight and childhood conditions using full-term newborns as controls.

  4. A Study of Prevalence of Psychoactive Substance Use And Birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . While there is continued efforts to determine factors associated, there would be need to examine if birth order influences its prevalence. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among ...

  5. Occupational risk factors for HIV infection among traditional birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in order to determine occupational risk ... KEYWORDS: HIV, Traditional birth attendants, occupational risk factors, Zambia. [Afr J Health Sci. 2010; 17:5-9] ... + 5% and a confidence level of 95%, the required minimum sample would have been ...

  6. Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Wenda

    2015-03-05

    The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Wenda

    2015-01-01

    The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an ‘obstetric dilemma’ whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate. PMID:25602069

  8. Planned Out-of-Hospital Birth and Birth Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Tilden, Ellen L.; Snyder, Janice; Quigley, Brian; Caughey, Aaron B.; Cheng, Yvonne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The frequency of planned out-of-hospital birth in the United States has increased in recent years. The value of studies assessing the perinatal risks of planned out-of-hospital birth versus hospital birth has been limited by cases in which transfer to a hospital is required and a birth that was initially planned as an out-of-hospital birth is misclassified as a hospital birth. Methods We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all births that occurred in Oregon during 2012 and 2013 using data from newly revised Oregon birth certificates that allowed for the disaggregation of hospital births into the categories of planned in-hospital births and planned out-of-hospital births that took place in the hospital after a woman’s intrapartum transfer to the hospital. We assessed perinatal morbidity and mortality, maternal morbidity, and obstetrical procedures according to the planned birth setting (out of hospital vs. hospital). Results Planned out-of-hospital birth was associated with a higher rate of perinatal death than was planned in-hospital birth (3.9 vs. 1.8 deaths per 1000 deliveries, P = 0.003; odds ratio after adjustment for maternal characteristics and medical conditions, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 4.30; adjusted risk difference, 1.52 deaths per 1000 births; 95% CI, 0.51 to 2.54). The odds for neonatal seizure were higher and the odds for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit lower with planned out-of-hospital births than with planned in-hospital birth. Planned out-of-hospital birth was also strongly associated with unassisted vaginal delivery (93.8%, vs. 71.9% with planned in-hospital births; P<0.001) and with decreased odds for obstetrical procedures. Conclusions Perinatal mortality was higher with planned out-of-hospital birth than with planned in-hospital birth, but the absolute risk of death was low in both settings. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human

  9. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. ...

  10. Birth order and fratricide: an evaluation of Sulloway's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marleau, Jacques D

    2005-01-01

    Sulloway (1996) suggested that older siblings were more likely to be fratricidal than younger ones. Our data, based on 113 case studies found in the psychiatric, psychological and criminological literature since 1959, confirms his hypothesis. In 72 out of the 92 cases (78%) where age could be determined, the aggressor was older than the victim. The same held true even when the age of aggressor, sex of aggressor and victim, presence or not of a blood tie, and presence of one or more victims are taken into account. Surprisingly, most of the aggressors in our sample were under the age of 18 years. Also, first-borns were more often the aggressor than the victim. This result seems to confirm the Adlerian theory of dethronement. Some suggestions and hypotheses are advanced for future research to improve our understanding of this phenomenon.

  11. 221 THE ROLE OF BIRTH ORDER IN SUBSTANCE RELATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    It has often been suggested by Evolutionary Psychologists and Anthropologists that since a first born is 'an only child' before another sibling is born parents heavily invest in their first born child (Dunbar & Barrett, 2007). This is because the child is looked upon as one who will carry on their family genes to the next generation ...

  12. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  13. Coping strategies for adolescent birth-mothers who return to school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the birth-mothers using phenomenological interviews. The study aimed at providing an in-depth understanding of the factors that impacted negatively on the birth-mothers' school performance in order to ultimately develop guidelines for helping birth-mothers cope better when returning to school. South African Journal of ...

  14. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  15. Fathers' birth experience in relation to midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Cederlöf, Linnea; Widén, Sara

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to identify the proportion of fathers having a positive experience of a normal birth and to explore factors related to midwifery care that were associated with a positive experience. Research has mainly focused on the father's supportive role during childbirth rather than his personal experiences of birth. 595 new fathers living in a northern part of Sweden, whose partner had a normal birth, were included in the study. Data was collected by questionnaires. Odds Ratios with 95% confidence interval and logistic regression analysis were used. The majority of fathers (82%) reported a positive birth experience. The strongest factors associated with a positive birth experience were midwife support (OR 4.0; 95 CI 2.0-8.1), the midwife's ongoing presence in the delivery room (OR 2.0; 1.1-3.9), and information about the progress of labour (OR 3.1; 1.6-5.8). Most fathers had a positive birth experience. Midwifery support, the midwife's presence and sufficient information about the progress of labour are important aspects in a father's positive birth experience. The role of the midwife during birth is important to the father, and his individual needs should be considered in order to enhance a positive birth experience. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  17. Word Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The way constituents are ordered in a linguistic expression is determined by general principles and language specific rules. This article is mostly concerned with general ordering principles and the three main linguistic categories that are relevant for constituent order research: formal, functio...

  18. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  19. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  20. Does planning of births affect childhood undernutrition? Evidence from demographic and health surveys of selected South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Juel; Goli, Srinivas

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of child undernutrition in South Asia is high, as is also the unmet need for family planning. In previous literature, the biodemographic relationship of family planning, particularly birth order and birth spacing, and nutritional status of children have been assessed separately. The aim of this study was to work on the hypothesis that the planning of births comprising timing, spacing, and number of births improves child undernutrition, especially in the areas with high prevalence of stunting and underweight. We used recent Demographic and Health Survey data from four selected South Asian countries. Binary logistic regression models were applied to estimate the adjusted percentage of stunting and underweight by identified independent factors. Findings suggested that after controlling for other socioeconomic factors, children in the first birth order with >24 mo of interval between marriage and first birth have a lower risk for stunting (20%; p planning of births. The probability of child undernutrition is lower among children born with >24 mo of birth spacing than its counterpart in all birth orders, but the significance of birth spacing reduces with increasing birth orders. Appropriate planning of births using family planning methods in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce childhood undernutrition. Thus, the planning of births emerges as an important biodemographic approach to eradicate childhood undernutrition especially in developing regions like South Asia and thereby to achieve sustainable development goals by 2030. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated i...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks.......Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...

  3. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  4. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  5. Implications of teen birth for overweight and obesity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy; Choi, HwaJung; Richardson, Caroline R; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether teen birth was independently associated with overweight and obesity in a US cohort. We examined whether teen birth is independently associated with overweight and obesity in a multiyear US cohort using the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. We performed multinomial logistic regression adjusting for survey cohort, age at survey, race, education, and parity. We included women 20-59 years old at the time of survey, with at least 1 live birth, not currently or recently pregnant (unweighted, n = 5220; weighted, n = 48.4 million). Our outcome measure was the effect of teen birth on subsequent overweight and obesity. In bivariate analyses, women with a teen birth were significantly more likely than women without a teen birth to be overweight (relative risk ratios [RRRs], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.90) or obese (RRR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.56-2.16) at the time of the survey. In multivariate models, women with a teen birth remained significantly more likely to be overweight (adjusted RRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) or obese (adjusted RRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.61) than women without a teen birth. For women in the United States, giving birth as a teen is associated with subsequent overweight/obese status later in life. To inform clinical and policy interventions with the goal to improve the long-term health of teenage mothers, future studies must examine modifiable physiological and sociomedical reasons for early child-bearing and later risk of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The birth of joseph gabriel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Anne Touhill

    2013-01-01

    In this column, a mother shares the story of the birth of her first child. With confidence in the process of birth and in her ability to give birth, and with the support, confidence, and encouragement of her mother and sisters, Anne manages to cope with strong contractions through a busy day. Finally, her husband realizes how fast labor is progressing. Baby Joseph was born less than 2 hours after arrival at the hospital.

  7. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  8. Life after Birth: the Klan and cinema, 1915-1928.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, T.

    2007-01-01

    "Life after Birth" considers the relationship between the Ku Klux Klan and cinema during the 1920s, highlighting how the Klan used, produced and protested against film in order to recruit members, generate publicity, and define itself as a traditional Protestant American organisation. In my opening chapter I reassess the significance of The Birth of a Nation in the development of the Klan, and introduce a number of other overlooked films, such as The Face at Your Window that Kleagles (Klan re...

  9. Predictors and birth outcomes: An investigation of birth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Birth and emergency preparedness is a safe motherhood strategy which encourages early decision making and minimizes delays in health care seeking in the event of obstetric complications. The aim of this study was to determine individual level factors influencing birth and emergency preparedness. Methods: A ...

  10. Generation and control of multi-scroll chaotic attractors in fractional order systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Wajdi M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is twofold: on one hand we demonstrate the generation of multi-scroll attractors in fractional order chaotic systems. Then, we design state feedback controllers to eliminate chaos from the system trajectories. It is demonstrated that modifying the underlying nonlinearity of the fractional chaotic system results in the birth of multiple chaotic attractors, thus forming the so called multi-scroll attractors. The presence of chaotic behavior is evidenced by a positive largest Lyapunov exponent computed for the output time series. We investigate generation and control of multi-scroll attractors in two different models, both of which are fractional order and chaotic: an electronic oscillator, and a mechanical 'jerk' model. The current findings extend previously reported results on generation of n-scroll attractors from the domain of integer order to the domain of fractional order chaotic systems, and addresses the issue of controlling such chaotic behaviors. Our investigations are validated through numerical simulations

  11. 76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-768] In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain vaginal ring birth control... investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders. ADDRESSES: The complaint, except for any...

  12. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively f...... explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates....

  13. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    western Johannesburg and also at the. Donald Gordon Medical Centre. Neonatal skin, like the respiratory system, bears the brunt of the extreme change in external environment that characterises birth. NEONATES. 488 CME September 2004 Vol.22 No.9. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH). Fig. 1. Café-au-lait macule. Fig. 2.

  14. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  15. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  16. Paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood. Data from the medical birth register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service and the national statistics agency, Statistics Norway. This study used the data on 346,609 registered males who were born at term in single birth without physical anomalies during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years). The relationship between paternal age at birth and the occurrence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) ) at conscription was examined using a multinomial logistic regression analysis with BMI birth but did not increase (P = 0.52) with maternal age at birth. Men born when their fathers were 50 years or older had a 55% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%, 110%) higher relative risk of obesity than men born when their fathers were younger than 20 years of age, after adjustment for age at conscription, birth order, birth year, maternal age at birth, the mother's total number of children, and maternal and paternal education levels. The risk of obesity in young Norwegian men increases with advancing paternal age at birth but does not increase with advancing maternal age at birth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Birth of ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowke, J. J.; Smith, D.; Nelson, K. E.; Crompton, R. W.; Murphy, A. B.

    2012-10-01

    Many observations of ball lightning report a ball of light, about 10 cm in diameter, moving at about walking speed, lasting up to 20 s and frequently existing inside of houses and even aeroplanes. The present paper reports detailed observations of the initiation or birth of ball lightning. In two cases, navigation crew of aircraft saw ball lightning form at the windscreen inside the cockpit of their planes. In the first case, the ball lightning occurred during a thunderstorm, with much lightning activity outside of the plane. In the second case, large "horns" of electrical corona were seen outside of the plane at the surface of the radome, just prior to the formation of the ball lightning. A third case reports ball lightning formed inside of a house, during a thunderstorm, at a closed glass window. It is proposed, based on two-dimensional calculations of electron and ion transport, that ball lightning in these cases is driven and formed by atmospheric ions impinging and collecting on the insulating surface of the glass or Perspex windows. This surface charge can produce electric fields inside of the cockpit or room sufficient to sustain an electric discharge. Charges of opposite sign to those outside of the window accumulate on the inside surface of the glass, leaving a ball of net charge moving inside of the cockpit or room to produce a pulsed discharge on a microsecond time scale.

  18. Aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Quasicrystals are non-periodic solids that were discovered in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011. The mathematics that underlies this discovery or that proceeded from it, known as the theory of Aperiodic Order, is the subject of this comprehensive multi-volume series. This second volume begins to develop the theory in more depth. A collection of leading experts, among them Robert V. Moody, cover various aspects of crystallography, generalising appropriately from the classical case to the setting of aperiodically ordered structures. A strong focus is placed upon almost periodicity, a central concept of crystallography that captures the coherent repetition of local motifs or patterns, and its close links to Fourier analysis. The book opens with a foreword by Jeffrey C. Lagarias on the wider mathematical perspective and closes with an epilogue on the emergence of quasicrystals, written by Peter Kramer, one of the founders of the field.

  19. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...

  20. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... to this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be ...

  1. Changes in the newborn at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth - changes in the newborn ... heart and flows through the baby's body. At birth, the baby's lungs are filled with fluid. They ... gastrointestinal system doesn't fully function until after birth. In late pregnancy, the baby produces a tarry ...

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  3. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  4. Cranial birth trauma; Kraniales Geburtstrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)

  5. Interfacial Modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ina; French, Roger H.

    2018-03-19

    Our project objective in the first and only Budget Period was to demonstrate the potential of nm-scale organofunctional silane coatings as a method of extending the lifetime of PV materials and devices. Specifically, the target was to double the lifetime performance of a laminated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) cell under real-world and accelerated aging exposure conditions. Key findings are that modification of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films (materials used as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) top contacts) resulted in decreased degradation of optical and electrical properties under damp heat (DH) exposure compared to un-modified AZO. The most significant finding is that modification of the AZO top contact of full CIGS devices resulted in significantly improved properties under DH exposure compared to un-modified devices, by a factor of 4 after 1000 h. Results of this one-year project have demonstrated that surface functionalization is a viable pathway for extending the lifetime of state-of-the-art CIGS devices.

  6. Inequality in access to health care in Cambodia: socioeconomically disadvantaged women giving birth at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Them, Rathnita

    2015-03-01

    Cambodia faces major challenges in its effort to provide access to health care for all. Although there is a sharp improvement in health and health care in Cambodia, 6 in 10 women still deliver at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. This practice is associated with higher maternal and infant deaths. This article analyzes the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and deliveries at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. It is evident that babies in poorer households are significantly more likely to be delivered at home by an unskilled birth attendant than those in wealthier households. Moreover, delivery at home by an unskilled attendant is associated with mothers who have no education, live in a rural residence, and are farmers, and with higher birth order children. Results from this analysis demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality is still a major factor contributing to ill health in Cambodia. © 2011 APJPH.

  7. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  8. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental public health tracking is the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data on environmental ... 2016) Key Findings: Gastroschisis – a Serious Birth Defect – Continues to Increase New CDC research shows that the ...

  9. After-birth abortion: the intuition argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Zohar

    2013-05-01

    The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack.

  10. Why give birth in health facility? Users’ and providers’ accounts of poor quality of birth care in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, half of all pregnant women access a health facility for delivery. The proportion receiving skilled care at birth is even lower. In order to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, the government has set out to increase health facility deliveries by skilled care. The aim of this study was to describe the weaknesses in the provision of acceptable and adequate quality care through the accounts of women who have suffered obstetric fistula, nurse-midwives at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities and local community members. Methods Semi-structured interviews involving 16 women affected by obstetric fistula and five nurse-midwives at maternity wards at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities, and Focus Group Discussions with husbands and community members were conducted between October 2008 and February 2010 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania and Temeke hospitals in Dar es Salaam, and Mpwapwa district in Dodoma region. Results Health care users and health providers experienced poor quality caring and working environments in the health facilities. Women in labour lacked support, experienced neglect, as well as physical and verbal abuse. Nurse-midwives lacked supportive supervision, supplies and also seemed to lack motivation. Conclusions There was a consensus among women who have suffered serious birth injuries and nurse midwives staffing both BEmOC and CEmOC maternity wards that the quality of care offered to women in birth was inadequate. While the birth accounts of women pointed to failure of care, the nurses described a situation of disempowerment. The bad birth care experiences of women undermine the reputation of the health care system, lower community expectations of facility birth, and sustain high rates of home deliveries. The only way to increase the rate of skilled attendance at birth in the current Tanzanian context is to make facility birth a safer alternative than home birth. The findings from this study

  11. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  12. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  13. Maternal risk factors for singleton preterm births and survival at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-24

    Feb 24, 2015 ... ratio [aOR] = 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.92, 6.07), Previous preterm birth (aOR = 5.06; 95% CI: 2.66, 9.12), ... on gestational age at birth and mode of delivery, but not on maternal sociodemographic risk factors for singleton preterm births. ... of preterms in this area have become important in order to.

  14. Congenital Microphthalmia, Anophthalmia and Coloboma among Live Births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Laura; Jensen, Hanne; Grønskov, Karen

    2016-01-01

    -2012 with diagnoses of MO/AO or coloboma was identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR), and their ocular and extra-ocular diagnoses were reviewed. In order to assess the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort, the data were cross-referenced with the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry...... (DCCR). RESULTS: We identified 415 patients with MO/AO/coloboma in the DNPR. The total number of live births from 1995-2012 was 1,174,299, and the average birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma was 3.6/10,000 live births and of MO/AO was 1.2/10,000 live births. Extra-ocular abnormalities were observed in 32....... CONCLUSION: The birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma in Denmark has been steady at 3.6/10,000 live births during the last 17 years. The rate of syndromic cases was lower compared to other studies. A relatively high rate of pathogenic chromosomal aberrations was observed, suggesting an important role...

  15. The birth satisfaction scale: Turkish adaptation, validation and reliability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Fatma Cosar; Sezer, Ayse; Merih, Yeliz Dogan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the validity and the reliability of Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and to adapt it into the Turkish language. This scale is used for measuring maternal satisfaction with birth in order to evaluate women’s birth perceptions. METHODS: In this study there were 150 women who attended to inpatient postpartum clinic. The participants filled in an information form and the BSS questionnaire forms. The properties of the scale were tested by conducting reliability and validation analyses. RESULTS: BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions. It was developed by Hollins Martin and Fleming. Total scale scores ranged between 30–150 points. Higher scores from the scale mean increases in birth satisfaction. Three overarching themes were identified in Scale: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships with health care professionals); personal attributes (ability to cope during labour, feeling in control, childbirth preparation, relationship with baby); and stress experienced during labour (distress, obstetric injuries, receiving sufficient medical care, obstetric intervention, pain, prolonged labour and baby’s health). Cronbach’s alfa coefficient was 0.62. CONCLUSION: According to the present study, BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions and evaluates women’s birth perceptions. The Turkish version of BSS has been proven to be a valid and a reliable scale. PMID:28058355

  16. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth : Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marit F.; Hermus, Marieke A. A.; Boesveld, Inge I.C.; Franx, Arie; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Van Den Akker-Van Marle, Eiske M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  17. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Franx, A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der; Steegers, E.E.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  18. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Hitzert (Marit); M.A.A. Hermus (Marieke A.A.); Boesveld, I.I.C. (Inge I.C.); A. Franx (Arie); K.M. van der Pal-De Bruin (Karin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Van Den Akker-Van Marle, E.M.E. (Eiske M.E.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design

  19. 38 CFR 3.209 - Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth. 3.209 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.209 Birth. Age or... abstract of the public record of birth. Such a record established more than 4 years after the birth will be...

  20. Progestin-Only Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and ... ExpectDepo-Provera: An Injectable ContraceptiveTubal Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)Birth Control OptionsNatural Family PlanningBirth Control: How to Use ...

  1. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  2. [Proportional hazards model of birth intervals among marriage cohorts since the 1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, K

    1987-01-01

    With a view to investigating the possibility of an attitudinal change towards the timing of 1st and 2nd births, proportional hazards model analysis of the 1st and 2nd birth intervals and univariate life table analysis were both carried out. Results showed that love matches and conjugal families immediately after marriage are accompanied by a longer 1st birth interval than others, even after controlling for other independent variables. Marriage cohort analysis also shows a net effect on the relative risk of having a 1st birth. Marriage cohorts since the mid-1960s demonstrate a shorter 1st birth interval than the 1961-63 cohort. With regard to the 2nd birth interval, longer 1st birth intervals, arranged marriages, conjugal families immediately following marriage, and higher ages at 1st marriage of women tended to provoke a longer 2nd birth interval. There is no interaction between the 1st birth interval and marriage cohort. Once other independent variables were controlled, with the exception of the marriage cohorts of the early 1970s, the authors found no effect of marriage cohort on the relative risk of having a 2nd birth. This suggests that an attitudinal change towards the timing of births in this period was mainly restricted to that of a 1st birth. Fluctuations in the 2nd birth interval during the 1970-72 marriage cohort were scrutinized in detail. As a result, the authors found that conjugal families after marriage, wives with low educational status, women with husbands in white collar professions, women with white collar fathers, and wives with high age at 1st marriage who married during 1970-72 and had a 1st birth interval during 1972-74 suffered most from the pronounced rise in the 2nd birth interval. This might be due to the relatively high sensitivity to a change in socioeconomic status; the oil crisis occurring around the time of marriage and 1st birth induced a delay in the 2nd birth. The unanimous decrease in the 2nd birth interval among the 1973

  3. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...... the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers....

  5. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  6. Forced Marriage and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Charles M; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

    2017-08-01

    We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with children born to other mothers. The largest difference is between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the women involved but potentially also for their children.

  7. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; P= 0.01). There is need of increasing promotion of reproductive health services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk fac- tors of LBW. Key words: Low birth weight, pregnancy, risk factors, hospital, Tanzania.

  8. Audit of Childbirth Emergency Referrals by Trained Traditional Birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at 95% confidence level. Results: Most of the patients (185/205, ... to hospitals before complications develop. Keywords: Childbirth emergencies, Delay, Outcomes, Referrals, Trained traditional birth attendants ..... concoctions, and starving in order to reduce the fetal size so as. Table 2: Clinical history/signs observed in the ...

  9. Perceived Factors Influencing the Utilization of Traditional Birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    2012-04-08

    Apr 8, 2012 ... utilization of traditional birth attendants' services among mothers in Akinyele Local Government, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methodology: The study design was .... many countries in order to reduce maternal mortality. Despite the level of ... freedom at the desired confidence level (3.841). N = the population size (138).

  10. assessment of the birth and emergency preparedness level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    honey

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... the birth and emergency preparedness level of 250 pregnant women attending Antenatal Care (ANC) in a Primary. Health Care (PHC) ... obtained from the hypothesis method and based on the following assumption: 95% confidence level, prevalence .... order to reduce morbidity and mortality in pregnancy.

  11. relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    Conclusion: The study outcome suggests that cord serum zinc but not maternal serum zinc predicts birth weight. In spite of low maternal serum zinc level, ... Therefore, in order to ensure optimal fetal growth and development, ... info statistical software version 3.5.3. A 95% confidence interval was used and a p- value of less.

  12. Cytomegalovirus infections among low birth weight infants in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of congenital infections, which can lead to severe foetal anomalies or even foetal loss. In order to determine the incidence of congenital HCMV infection in low birth weight neonates and the most prevalent genotype, cord blood samples were collected from a ...

  13. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  14. 76 FR 6650 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Birth of the Modern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Determinations: ``Birth of the Modern: Style and Identity in Vienna 1900'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the.... 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs Reform and... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Birth of the Modern: Style and Identity in Vienna...

  15. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The model for all evaluated traits included litter size, birth weight and litter size x birth weight interaction as a fixed effects and order parity of sows in which the litters were standardized as random effect. The significance of difference. (P) between means was determined using Duncan's multiple range test.

  16. 75 FR 21384 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Birth of Impressionism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Determinations: ``Birth of Impressionism: Masterpieces From the Musee d'Orsay'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given..., 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Birth of Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Musee d'Orsay...

  17. Selective versus routine use of episiotomy for vaginal birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Qian, Xu; Carroli, Guillermo; Garner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    multiparae) and by surgical method (midline versus mediolateral episiotomy) did not identify any modifying effects. Pain was not well assessed, and women's preferences were not reported. One trial examined selective episiotomy compared with routine episiotomy in women where an operative vaginal delivery was intended in 175 women, and did not show clear difference on severe perineal trauma between the restrictive and routine use of episiotomy, but the analysis was underpowered. Authors' conclusions In women where no instrumental delivery is intended, selective episiotomy policies result in fewer women with severe perineal/vaginal trauma. Other findings, both in the short or long term, provide no clear evidence that selective episiotomy policies results in harm to mother or baby. The review thus demonstrates that believing that routine episiotomy reduces perineal/vaginal trauma is not justified by current evidence. Further research in women where instrumental delivery is intended may help clarify if routine episiotomy is useful in this particular group. These trials should use better, standardised outcome assessment methods. Selective versus routine use of episiotomy for vaginal birth What is the issue? Normal birth can cause tears to the vagina and the surrounding tissue, usually as the baby's head is born, and sometimes these tears extend to the rectum. These are repaired surgically, but take time to heal. To avoid these severe tears, doctors have recommended making a surgical cut to the perineum with scissors or scalpel to prevent severe tearing and facilitate the birth. This intervention, known as an episiotomy, is used as a routine care policy during births in some countries. Both a tear and an episiotomy need sutures, and can result in severe pain, bleeding, infection, pain with sex, and can contribute to long term urinary incontinence. Why is this important? An episiotomy requires suturing and benefits and harms as part of routine management of normal births remains

  18. The birth of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Serres, Michel

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the largest text from the Ancient Greek Atomists - Lucretius' De Rerum Natura - and mobilizes knowledge about the related scientific work of the time (Archimedes, Epicurus et al) in order to demand a complete reappraisal of the legacy. Serres argues that the Greeks had all the mathematical resources to formulate an adequate picture of the physical principles acting on matter. Crucial to his reconception of the Atomists' thought is a recognition that their model of atomic matter is essentially a fluid one - they are describing the actions of turbulence. Recognition of this fact throws in relief the force of this ancient thought with respect to the disciplines of chaos and complexity. It explains the continuing presence of Lucretius in the work of such scientific giants as Nobel Laureates Schroedinger and Prigogine.

  19. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary...... complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake...

  20. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  1. Birth under-registration in the republic-of-ireland during the 20th-century

    OpenAIRE

    Coward, J

    1982-01-01

    Precis: The efficiency of birth registration in Ireland is investigated in this article by comparing the number of registered births with Census age-distributions in the period 1916-1971. It is argued that there was a sudden increase in the efficiency of birth registration in 1942-44 as a result of the greater incentives to register births, whilst a certain amount of under-registration, in the order of 3-10 per cent, existed from 1916 to 1941. Generally speaking, registration was more complet...

  2. Modified harmony search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  3. The Danish Medical Birth Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    on all births in Denmark and comprises primarily of data from the Danish National Patient Registry supplemented with forms on home deliveries and stillbirths. It contains information on maternal age provided by the Civil Registration System. Information on pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking......The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used...

  4. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  5. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  6. Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

  7. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  8. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  9. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  10. Quality assessment of home births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrina; Colmorn, Lotte B.; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The safety of home births has been widely debated. Observational studies examining maternal and neonatal outcomes of home births have become more frequent, and the quality of these studies has improved. The aim of the present study was to describe neonatal outcomes of home births...... compared with hospital births and to discuss which data are needed to evaluate the safety of home births. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. Data on all births in Denmark (2003-2013) were collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (DMBR). The cohort included healthy women...... with uncomplicated pregnancies and no medical interventions during delivery. A total of 6,395 home births and 266,604 hospital births were eligible for analysis. Comparative analyses were performed separately in nulliparous and multiparous women. The outcome measures were neonatal mortality and morbidity. RESULTS...

  11. Association between air pollution and preterm birth among neonates born in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have investigated the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight (LBW in an Iranian pregnant population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we identified 4758 consecutive singleton birth records from one large referral hospital (2010-2012 in Isfahan, Iran. We identified cases of preterm birth and LBW, which were combined with meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. We estimated the effect of air pollution exposure during the entire pregnancy, each trimester, and last month, and preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks and LBW (<2500 g by Pollutant Standard Index (PSI using logistic regression adjusted for gestational age, neonate gender, birth order, and mother′s age. Results: The PSI for entire pregnancy was significantly associated with preterm birth [Odds Ratio (95% CI = 1.26 (1.20, 1.33]. There was no association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and each trimester and the last month of pregnancy, and preterm birth or LBW. Conclusion: Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during the entire pregnancy was associated with preterm birth in Isfahani women.

  12. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  13. Factors affecting inter-birth in rural areas of Zarrindasht (Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Zare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper time intervals among pregnancies has a major role in family provision. Investigating the dynamism of the birth spacing, identify factors and their effects on the time interval among pregnancies and determination of optimal spacing is the utmost importance for health planners and families. The purpose was to study the abortion and stillbirth due to short inter-birth spacing, factors affecting inter-births and optimal birth spacing. Material and Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 1064 women of childbearing age in Fars province by multistage random sampling. Information on reproductive history was collected by resident health workers. Variables affecting inter-births were checked by the frailty recurrent events model using S-plus 2000 and SPSS 13 software. Results: The rate of abortion or stillbirth was 1.7%, which fell with increasing interval between births and reached their lowest (1.9% at 36-48 months. Mother's level of education, duration of breastfeeding of previous infant, maternal age at birth and father's job showed positive correlation with inter-birth. Mother's age at marriage, having a job other than household, socioeconomic status was negatively correlated with the the time interval to the next delivery. With increasing birth order, inter-birth of each delivery with regard to previous delivery increased on average by one to two months. Conclusion: The risk of abortion and stillbirth were observed more in subsequent delivery with very low or very long gap interval.

  14. Birth of a closed universe, and the anthropogenic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A scenario is proposed for the evolution of the universe, starting with the quantum birth of a closed world at a minimum in the self-consistent de Sitter cosmological solution with vacuum polarization. The closure of the universe and the permanently supercritical value of its density follow directly from a single condition: that quantum birth take place. The perturbations must be small in order that the de Sitter phase may be sufficiently prolonged to ensure a protracted Friedmann plasma-matter expansion. Thus a universe having the properties we observe may in fact have been singled out by the anthropogenic principle

  15. Antepartum Fetal Monitoring and Spectral Analysis of Preterm Birth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păsăricără, Alexandru; Nemescu, Dragoş; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Rotariu, Cristian

    2017-11-01

    The monitoring and analysis of antepartum fetal and maternal recordings is a research area of notable interest due to the relatively high value of preterm birth. The interest stems from the improvement of devices used for monitoring. The current paper presents the spectral analysis of antepartum heart rate recordings conducted during a study in Romania at the Cuza Voda Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinical Hospital from Iasi between 2010 and 2014. The study focuses on normal and preterm birth risk subjects in order to determine differences between these two types or recordings in terms of spectral analysis.

  16. The genus Mustelus (Family Triakidae, Order Carcharhiniformes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The genus Mustelus (Family Triakidae, Order. Carcharhiniformes), commonly called .... suitable for sharks with a well-defined length-at-birth. (L0). This eliminates the .... Table I: Parameter estimates using Fabens' method and standard errors (SE) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the Von. Bertalanffy growth model fitted ...

  17. Prediction of low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Frøkjær, Jens B

    2017-01-01

    operating characteristic curves demonstrated a significantly higher performance of T2* (AUC of 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) than UtA PI (AUC of 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) in the prediction of low birth weight (p = 0.010). Placental pathological findings were closely related to the T2* values. CONCLUSIONS...... placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 100 singleton pregnancies included at 20-40 weeks......' gestation. Placental T2* was obtained using a gradient recalled multi-echo MRI sequence and UtA PI was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Placental pathological examination was performed in 57 of the pregnancies. Low birth weight was defined by a Z-score ≤ -2.0. RESULTS: The incidence of low birth weight...

  18. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G

    2008-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  19. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    birth attendants in their care of pregnant women are .... Postnatal care. The TBA normally visits any woman she has delivered during the traditional lying-in period of 8 days. She bathes the baby, gives him an enema when she considers this necessary, and offers ... instructed to kneel so that her heels press the wound edges ...

  20. The birth of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Although the exact date of birth of nuclear physics is difficult to set the author claims that 1932 was a year of great importance since it saw the discoveries of the neutron, the positron and the deuteron, together with the completion of the first particle accelerators. These breakthroughs and their crucial importance to the early development of nuclear physics are traced. (U.K.)

  1. Season of Birth and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Colin; Black, F. William

    1970-01-01

    120 children, most with a diagnosisof chronic encephalopathy, were selected from the psychology department of a Boston hospital in this attempt to replicate Orme's findings. Results indicate a clear curvilinear relationship with modest temperatures in the birth month being associated with high IQ, while both higher and lower temperatures are…

  2. Adolescent perceptions of teen births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W

    2008-01-01

    To investigate teens' perceptions of the costs and rewards of teen births, potential interventions to prevent teen pregnancy, and the presence of someone with whom teens could discuss sexuality. Seventeen focus groups were conducted to solicit individual views, group interactions, and shared meanings. Purposive methods accessed a sample of teens considered at risk of teen pregnancy based on their membership in selected community service and teen groups. Teen parents and nonparents (n = 120), from 12 to 19 years of age, were asked about their lives and stresses and the costs and rewards related to teen births. This study yielded rich data about the consequences of teen births. Data were organized in the domains of Impact on relationships, Impact on vocation, and Impact on self. The data reflected the cost and reward themes in each domain. Though teens believed that there were positives of teen births, early childbearing was considered "hard" in many aspects. These perceptions may be used to guide programs, policies, messages, and curricula with the intent to prevent teen pregnancy. These initiatives may be more effective if informed by teens and guided by their perceptions.

  3. CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort. Crossing BMI centiles and early adiposity rebound associated with adult metabolic syndrome. BMI gain in infancy and early childhood – associated more with adult lean mass. BMI gain in later childhood / adolescence – associated more with adult fat mass and constituents of ...

  4. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  5. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  6. Maternal age at birth and daughters' subsequent childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, O; Weinberg, C R; D'Aloisio, A A; Sandler, D P

    2018-02-01

    Does maternal age at a daughter's birth predict her subsequent probability of lifelong childlessness? In this study population, women born to older mothers were more likely to be childless. Although maternal age at childbearing is increasing in many countries, there is limited evidence on whether being born to older parents may influence offspring fertility. This analysis included 43 135 women from the US-based Sister Study, a cohort study of 50 884 sisters of women with breast cancer recruited between 2003 and 2009. Participants had no breast cancer at baseline. Women were included in the analytic sample if they were born between 1930 and 1964 and were at least 44 years old at enrolment. Median age when reproductive history was last ascertained was 63.8 years. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% CI of lifelong childlessness as a function of maternal age at birth, using multivariable log-binomial models, including total number of siblings, birth order, socioeconomic indicators of the family of origin, race and birth cohort. We examined the association in different subgroups and in a sibling-matched analysis including 802 sister pairs discordant for childlessness. Compared with women born to 20-24-year-old mothers, those born to mothers aged 25-29, 30-34 and ≥35 years were more likely to be childless [RR (95% CI): 1.21 (1.14-1.29), 1.30 (1.22-1.39) and 1.40 (1.31-1.50), respectively]. The association was consistent in strata defined by birth cohort, number of siblings, birth order, and participant's educational level, as well as within sister pairs. Overall, we found weak evidence for an independent contribution of paternal age at birth to the daughter's probability of childlessness. All participants had at least one sister, and all information was self-reported. We had no knowledge of whether childlessness was intentional and found only a modest association between maternal age at birth and self-reported indicators of infertility. Still, the association with

  7. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297

  8. Craniofacial anomalies amongst births at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, A; Rotich, E C; Chindia, M L; Macigo, F G; Ndavi, M; Were, F

    2012-05-01

    The pattern of congenital oral and craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) in the Kenyan population remains unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of occurrence of CFAs at two hospitals in Nairobi. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital was carried out from November 2006 to March 2007. Mothers who delivered at the hospitals consented to an interview and physical examination of their babies within 48 h of delivery. The anomalies were classified for type and magnitude. Data were analysed to determine the association of these anomalies with ages of the mothers, gender, weight, birth order, mode of delivery and birth status of the babies. During the study period, 7989 babies were born. The CFAs manifested in 1.8% of the total births and were more common in female (1.4%) than in male (1.0%) live births. 12.8% of stillbirths had CFAs, with lesions manifesting more in males (16.7%) than in females (6.9%). The commonest CFA was preauricular sinus (4.3/1000) followed by hydrocephalus (1.9/1000) then preauricular tags and cleft lip and palate (1.5/1000 and 1.3/1000 total births, respectively). Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. No. 155-Guidelines for Vaginal Birth After Previous Caesarean Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marie-Jocelyne; MacKinnon, Catherine Jane

    2018-03-01

    To provide evidence-based guidelines for the provision of a trial of labour (TOL) after Caesarean section. Fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) and repeat Caesarean section. MEDLINE database was searched for articles published from January 1, 1995, to February 28, 2004, using the key words "vaginal birth after Caesarean (Cesarean) section." The quality of evidence is described using the Evaluation of Evidence criteria outlined in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. VALIDATION: These guidelines were approved by the Clinical Practice Obstetrics and Executive Committees of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Birth weight curves tailored to maternal world region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Joel G; Sgro, Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Glazier, Richard H; Bocking, Alan; Hilliard, Robert; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2012-02-01

    Newborns of certain immigrant mothers are smaller at birth than those of domestically born mothers. Contemporary, population-derived percentile curves for these newborns are lacking, as are estimates of their risk of being misclassified as too small or too large using conventional rather than tailored birth weight curves. We completed a population-based study of 766 688 singleton live births in Ontario from 2002 to 2007. Smoothed birth weight percentile curves were generated for males and females, categorized by maternal world region of birth: Canada (63.5%), Europe/Western nations (7.6%), Africa/Caribbean (4.9%), Middle East/North Africa (3.4%), Latin America (3.4%), East Asia/Pacific (8.1%), and South Asia (9.2%). We determined the likelihood of misclassifying an infant as small for gestational age (≤ 10th percentile for weight) or as large for gestational age (≥ 90th percentile for weight) on a Canadian-born maternal curve versus one specific to maternal world region of origin. Significantly lower birth weights were seen at gestation-specific 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles among term infants born to mothers from each world region, with the exception of Europe/Western nations, compared with those for infants of Canadian-born mothers. For example, for South Asian babies born at 40 weeks' gestation, the absolute difference at the 10th percentile was 198 g (95% CI 183 to 212) for males and 170 g (95% CI 161 to 179) for females. Controlling for maternal age and parity, South Asian males had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.68) of being misclassified as small for gestational age, equivalent to approximately 116 in 1000 newborns; for South Asian females the OR was 2.41 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.48), equivalent to approximately 106 per 1000 newborns. Large for gestational age would be missed in approximately 61 per 1000 male and 57 per 1000 female South Asian newborns if conventional rather than ethnicity-specific birth weight curves were used. Birth weight curves

  11. Default settings of computerized physician order entry system order sets drive ordering habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jordan; Hollenbeak, Christopher; Donaldson, Keri; Abendroth, Thomas; Castellani, William

    2015-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are quickly becoming ubiquitous, and groups of orders ("order sets") to allow for easy order input are a common feature. This provides a streamlined mechanism to view, modify, and place groups of related orders. This often serves as an electronic equivalent of a specialty requisition. A characteristic, of these order sets is that specific orders can be predetermined to be "preselected" or "defaulted-on" whenever the order set is used while others are "optional" or "defaulted-off" (though there is typically the option is to "deselect" defaulted-on tests in a given situation). While it seems intuitive that the defaults in an order set are often accepted, additional study is required to understand the impact of these "default" settings in an order set on ordering habits. This study set out to quantify the effect of changing the default settings of an order set. For quality improvement purposes, order sets dealing with transfusions were recently reviewed and modified to improve monitoring of outcome. Initially, the order for posttransfusion hematocrits and platelet count had the default setting changed from "optional" to "preselected." The default settings for platelet count was later changed back to "optional," allowing for a natural experiment to study the effect of the default selections of an order set on clinician ordering habits. Posttransfusion hematocrit values were ordered for 8.3% of red cell transfusions when the default order set selection was "off" and for 57.4% of transfusions when the default selection was "preselected" (P default order set selection was "optional," increased to 59.4% when the default was changed to "preselected" (P default selection was returned to "optional." The posttransfusion platelet count rates during the two "optional" periods: 7.0% versus 7.5% - were not statistically different (P = 0.620). Default settings in CPOE order sets can significantly influence physician selection of

  12. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.

    1989-08-01

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  13. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  14. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  15. Vaginal birth after C-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000589.htm Vaginal birth after C-section To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. If you had a cesarean birth (C-section) before, it does not mean that ...

  16. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  17. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  18. "Risk factors of birth asphyxia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; Afzal, Rafia; Iqbal, Umair; Saleem, Sehrish Muhammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Waqas Abid; Shahid, Nazish

    2014-12-20

    Birth asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn due to failure to breath or breathing poorly, leads to decrease oxygen perfusion to various organs. According to WHO, 4 million neonatal deaths occurred each year due to birth asphyxia. Our goal was to evaluate antepartum, intrapartum, and fetal risk factors of birth asphyxia. It was a Retrospective Case control study, conducted at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of pediatric ward (I, II, III) and in Gynecology wards (I, II, III) of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. Study was conducted from January 2011-November 2012. Neonates diagnosed with birth asphyxia were considered as "cases" while neonates born either with normal vaginal delivery or by cesarean section having no abnormality were considered as "control". Demographics of both the mother and neonate were noted and Questions regarding possible risk factors were asked from mother. Ethical issues were confirmed from Institutional review board of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Out of total 240 neonates, 123 were "cases" and 117 were "control". Mean maternal age in "case" group was 24.22 ± 3.38 while maternal age of control group was 24.30 ± 4.04. Significant antepartum risk factors were maternal age of 20-25 (OR 0.30 CI 95% 0.07-1.21), booking status (OR 0.20 CI 95% 0.11-0.37), pre-eclampsia (OR 0.94 CI 95% 0.90-0.98) and primigravidity (OR 2.64 CI 95% 1.56-4.46). Significant Intrapartum risk factors were breech presentation (OR 2.96 CI 95% 1.25-7.02), home delivery (OR 16.16 CI 95% 3.74-69.75) and maternal fever (OR 10.01 CI95% 3.78-26.52). Significant Fetal risk factors were resuscitation of child (OR 23 CI 95% 31.27-1720.74), pre-term babies(OR 0.34 CI 95% 0.19-0.58), fetal distress (OR 0.01 CI 95% 0.00-0.11) and baby weight (OR 0.13 CI 95% 0.05-0.32). Measures should be taken to prevent neonatal mortality with great emphasis on skilled attendance at birth

  19. Order Aggressiveness and Order Book Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we model traders' aggressiveness in market trading, limit order trading as well as in order cancellations on both sides of the market using a six-dimensional autoregressive intensity model. The information revealed by the open order book plays an important role in explaining the degree of order agg...

  20. 28 CFR 74.12 - Order of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order of payment. 74.12 Section 74.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT REDRESS PROVISION Notification and Payment § 74.12 Order of payment. Payment will be made in the order of date of birth pursuant...

  1. Birth Satisfaction Scale/Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS/BSS-R): A large scale United States planned home birth and birth centre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susan E; Donovan-Batson, Colleen; Burduli, Ekaterina; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Martin, Colin R

    2016-10-01

    to explore the prevalence of birth satisfaction for childbearing women planning to birth in their home or birth centers in the United States. Examining differences in birth satisfaction of the home and birth centers; and those who birthed in a hospital using the 30-item Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and the 10-item Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R). a quantitative survey using the BSS and BSS-R were employed. Additional demographic data were collected using electronic linkages (Qualtrics ™ ). a convenience sample of childbearing women (n=2229) who had planned to birth in their home or birth center from the US (United States) participated. Participants were recruited via professional and personal contacts, primarily their midwives. the total 30-item BSS score mean was 128.98 (SD 16.92) and the 10-item BSS-R mean score was 31.94 (SD 6.75). Sub-scale mean scores quantified the quality of care provision, women's personal attributes, and stress experienced during labour. Satisfaction was higher for women with vaginal births compared with caesareans deliveries. In addition, satisfaction was higher for women who had both planned to deliver in a home or a birth centre, and who had actually delivered in a home or a birth center. total and subscale birth satisfaction scores were positive and high for the overall sample IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the BSS and the BSS-R provide a robust tool to quantify women's experiences of childbirth between variables such as birth types, birth settings and providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The stylistic ordering of English modifiers | Sam | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall...

  4. Experiences of women who planned birth in a birth centre compared to alternative planned places of birth. Results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermes, M.A.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, L.C.; Wiegers, T.A.; Akker-van Marle, M.E.; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. de; Graaf, J.P. de

    2016-01-01

    Objective to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ

  5. Experiences of women who planned birth in a birth centre compared to alternative planned places of birth. Results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, I.C.; Wiegers, T.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graal, J. P. de

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design: this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ

  6. Birth-death processes and associated polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2003-01-01

    We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis

  7. Birth Experience through an Existential Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange

    2017-01-01

    Background: The moment of birth is seen as a miracle, a journey and even a religious act. Research stress how giving birth might facilitate interference with previous conceptions of how to make meaning of life existentially. However, birth as an existential life transformative event, has been exp...

  8. Back to normal: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of the multi-factorial determinants of normal birth in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Yvette D; Prosser, Samantha J; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    informed decision-making for maternity care consumers, providers, and policy-makers alike. Research to evaluate the impact of modifying key clinical practices (e.g., supporting women׳s mobility during labour, facilitating non-supine positioning during birth) on the likelihood of a normal birth is an important next step. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Team training for safer birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atopy risk factors at birth and in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Erica; Garcia, Clécia Aparecida; Bettiol, Heloísa; Caldeira, Roseane Durães; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Arruda, Luiza Karla; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    To study the association between atopy and variables such as weight, length, and socioeconomic level at birth and in young adulthood. A total of 2,063 subjects were investigated in a prospective birth cohort study of individuals born in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, in 1978/1979, and examined at the age of 23-25 years. Skin prick tests (SPT) for eight common allergens in Brazil were performed. Subjects with a wheal reaction ≥ 3 mm to one or more of the eight allergens tested were considered to be atopic. We used the log-binomial model (generalized linear model) in order to assess the association between atopy and birth or adult variables. The prevalence of positive SPT was 47.6%. Male gender was associated with an increased risk of atopy (relative risk [RR] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.07-1.30). Low level of schooling was a protective factor against atopy, with a RR = 0.74; 95%CI 0.62-0.89. Living with a smoker in childhood was also associated with lower risk of atopy (RR = 0.87; 95%CI 0.79-0.96). Birth weight, length and order, maternal age, and intrauterine growth restriction were not associated with positive SPT. This study showed that male gender was associated with an increased risk of atopy. Low socioeconomic status, assessed by low level of schooling, was a protective factor against atopy. These data agree with the hygiene hypothesis.

  11. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    and infant health) of a variety of exposures during pregnancy, as well as examples showing different methodological approaches in design and analyses of the studies, are presented. RESEARCH TOPICS: The exposures of interest include alcohol drinking, coffee intake, smoking, use of nicotine substitutes...... that this investment in epidemiologic infrastructure was well spent. The existence of the Danish National Birth Cohort together with other cohorts and national registers has given Denmark a leading position in reproductive epidemiology....

  12. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  13. Birth Control in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Beyer, B. K.; Chadwick, K.; De Schaepdrijver, L.; Desai, M.; Enright, B.; Foster, W.; Hui, J. Y.; Moffat, G. J.; Tornesi, B.; Van Malderen, K.; Wiesner, L.; Chen, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee sponsored a pharmaceutical industry survey on current industry practices for contraception use during clinical trials. The objectives of the survey were to improve our understanding of the current industry practices for contraception requirements in clinical trials, the governance processes set up to promote consistency and/or compliance with contraception requirements, and the effectiveness of current contraception practices in preventing pregnancies during clinical trials. Opportunities for improvements in current practices were also considered. The survey results from 12 pharmaceutical companies identified significant variability among companies with regard to contraception practices and governance during clinical trials. This variability was due primarily to differences in definitions, areas of scientific uncertainty or misunderstanding, and differences in company approaches to enrollment in clinical trials. The survey also revealed that few companies collected data in a manner that would allow a retrospective understanding of the reasons for failure of birth control during clinical trials. In this article, suggestions are made for topics where regulatory guidance or scientific publications could facilitate best practice. These include provisions for a pragmatic definition of women of childbearing potential, guidance on how animal data can influence the requirements for male and female birth control, evidence-based guidance on birth control and pregnancy testing regimes suitable for low- and high-risk situations, plus practical methods to ascertain the risk of drug-drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives. PMID:27042398

  14. Latitude, birth date, and allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wjst

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The space and time distribution of risk factors for allergic diseases may provide insights into disease mechanisms. Allergy is believed to vary by month of birth, but multinational studies taking into account latitude have not been conducted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A questionnaire was distributed in 54 centres to a representative sample of 20- to 44-y-old men and women mainly in Europe but also including regions in North Africa, India, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from 200,682 participants were analyzed. The median prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 22%, with a substantial variation across centres. Overall, allergic rhinitis decreased with geographical latitude, but there were many exceptions. No increase in prevalence during certain winters could be observed. Also, no altered risk by birth month was found, except borderline reduced risks in September and October. Effect estimates obtained by a multivariate analysis of total and specific IgE values in 18,085 individuals also excluded major birth month effects and confirmed the independent effect of language grouping. CONCLUSION: Neither time point of first exposure to certain allergens nor early infections during winter months seems to be a major factor for adult allergy. Although there might be effects of climate or environmental UV exposure by latitude, influences within language groups seem to be more important, reflecting so far unknown genetic or cultural risk factors.

  15. A population-based study of effect of multiple birth on infant mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthman Mubashir B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-foetal pregnancies and multiple births including twins and higher order multiples births such as triplets and quadruplets are high-risk pregnancy and birth. These high-risk groups contribute to the higher rate of childhood mortality especially during early period of life. Methods We examined the relationship between multiple births and infant mortality using univariable and multivariable survival regression procedure with Weibull hazard function, controlling for child's sex, birth order, prenatal care, delivery assistance; mother's age at child birth, nutritional status, education level; household living conditions and several other risk factors. Results Children born multiple births were more than twice as likely to die during infancy as infants born singleton (hazard ratio = 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 3.19 holding other factors constant. Maternal education and household asset index were associated with lower risk of infant mortality. Conclusion Multiple births are strongly negatively associated with infant survival in Nigeria independent of other risk factors. Mother's education played a protective role against infant death. This evidence suggests that improving maternal education may be key to improving child survival in Nigeria. A well-educated mother has a better chance of satisfying important factors that can improve infant survival: the quality of infant feeding, general care, household sanitation, and adequate use of preventive and curative health services.

  16. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  17. Women's and men's negative experience of child birth-A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2018-04-01

    A negative birth experience may influence both women and men and can limit their process of becoming a parent. This study aimed to analyze and describe women's and men's perceptions and experiences of childbirth. A cross-sectional study of women and their partners living in one Swedish county were recruited in mid pregnancy and followed up two months after birth. Women (n=928) and men (n=818) completed the same questionnaire that investigated new parents' birth experiences in relation to socio-demographic background and birth related variables. Women (6%) and men (3%) with a negative birth experiences, experienced longer labours and more often emergency caesarean section compared to women (94%) and men (97%) with a positive birth experience. The obstetric factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience were emergency caesarean and was found in women (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-10.8) and men (OR 4.5, Cl 95% 1.4-17.3). In addition, pain intensity and elective caesarean section were also associated with a negative birth experiences in women. Feelings during birth such as agreeing with the statement; 'It was a pain to give birth' were a strong contributing factor for both women and men. A negative birth experience is associated with obstetric factors such as emergency caesarean section and negative feelings. The content of negative feelings differed between women and men. It is important to take into account that their feelings differ in order to facilitate the processing of the negative birth experience for both partners. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-03-27

    The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and the federal income tax T1 Family Files. Separate logistic models were used to quantify the association between socioeconomic position, clinical risk factors and spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth. The study population included 132,714 singleton deliveries and the rate of preterm birth was 5.5%. Preterm birth rates were significantly higher among the women in the lowest (versus the highest) family income group for spontaneous (rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.25) but not iatrogenic preterm birth (rate ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75, 1.19). Adjustment for maternal characteristics attenuated the family income-spontaneous preterm birth relationship but strengthened the relationship with iatrogenic preterm birth. Clinical risk factors such as hypertension were differentially associated with spontaneous (rate ratio 3.92, 95% CI 3.47, 4.44) and iatrogenic preterm (rate ratio 14.1, 95% CI 11.4, 17.4) but factors such as diabetes mellitus were not (rate ratio 4.38, 95% CI 3.21, 5.99 for spontaneous and 4.02, 95% CI 2.07, 7.80 for iatrogenic preterm birth). Socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors have different effects on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm. Recent temporal increases in iatrogenic preterm birth appear to be responsible for the inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth.

  19. Modified teleparallel gravity: Inflation without an inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2007-01-01

    The Born-Infeld strategy to smooth theories having divergent solutions is applied to the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. Differing from other theories of modified gravity, modified teleparallelism leads to second order equations, since the teleparallel Lagrangian only contains first derivatives of the vierbein. We show that the Born-Infeld-modified teleparallelism solves the particle horizon problem in a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe by providing an initial exponential expansion without resorting to an inflaton field

  20. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way.