WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth order effects

  1. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  2. Examining the effects of birth order on personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2015-11-17

    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain.

  3. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  4. Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tychele Turner

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.

  5. Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L; Kee, Hiau Joo

    2006-01-01

    We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their children'...

  6. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...

  7. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  8. The effects of birth order and birth interval on the phenotypic expression of autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren A Martin

    Full Text Available A rise in the prevalence of diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in several studies in recent years. While this rise in ASD prevalence is at least partially related to increased awareness and broadened diagnostic criteria, the role of environmental factors cannot be ruled out, especially considering that the cause of most cases of ASD remains unknown. The study of families with multiple affected children can provide clues about ASD etiology. While the majority of research on ASD multiplex families has focused on identifying genetic anomalies that may underlie the disorder, the study of symptom severity across ASD birth order may provide evidence for environmental factors in ASD. We compared social and cognitive measures of behavior between over 300 first and second affected siblings within multiplex autism families obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset. Measures included nonverbal IQ assessed with the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, verbal IQ assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and autism severity assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS, an instrument established as a quantitative measure of autism. The results indicated that females were more severely impacted by ASD than males, especially first affected siblings. When first and second affected siblings were compared, significant declines in nonverbal and verbal IQ scores were observed. In addition, SRS results demonstrated a significant increase in autism severity between first and second affected siblings consistent with an overall decline in function as indicated by the IQ data. These results remained significant after controlling for the age and sex of the siblings. Surprisingly, the SRS scores were found to only be significant when the age difference between siblings was less than 2 years. These results suggest that some cases of ASD are influenced by a dosage effect involving unknown epigenetic

  9. Birth order and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L; Williams, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in four subject groups. Subject groups were participants in (1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N = 4401), (2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N = 1959), (3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N = 1344), and (4) Israeli Defense Force Pre-recruitment Candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N = 888,277). The main outcome was odds ratios (OR) for myopia in first-born versus non-first-born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. Adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); and IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first-born versus fourth- or higher-born comparison than for the first-born versus second/third-born comparison (p 4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism.

  10. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  11. Probing Birth-Order Effects on Narrow Traits Using Specification-Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2017-12-01

    The idea that birth-order position has a lasting impact on personality has been discussed for the past 100 years. Recent large-scale studies have indicated that birth-order effects on the Big Five personality traits are negligible. In the current study, we examined a variety of more narrow personality traits in a large representative sample ( n = 6,500-10,500 in between-family analyses; n = 900-1,200 in within-family analyses). We used specification-curve analysis to assess evidence for birth-order effects across a range of models implementing defensible yet arbitrary analytical decisions (e.g., whether to control for age effects or to exclude participants on the basis of sibling spacing). Although specification-curve analysis clearly confirmed the previously reported birth-order effect on intellect, we found no meaningful effects on life satisfaction, locus of control, interpersonal trust, reciprocity, risk taking, patience, impulsivity, or political orientation. The lack of meaningful birth-order effects on self-reports of personality was not limited to broad traits but also held for more narrowly defined characteristics.

  12. Effects of gender, birth order, and other correlates on childhood mortality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, M K; Hao, H; Wang, F

    1995-01-01

    Using data from the 1988 Two-Per-Thousand Survey of Fertility and Birth Control, this paper examines the effects of gender, birth order, and other correlates of childhood mortality in China. Controlling for family-level factors, childhood mortality is found to be associated with the child's gender and birth order. Among firstborn children the difference between male and female childhood mortality is not statistically significant, but among others, female children between ages 1 and 5 experience higher mortality than male children. Childhood mortality is slightly higher for children who have older brothers only than for those who have older sisters only, and it is highest for those who have both older brothers and sisters. Other factors affecting childhood mortality in China include mortality of older siblings, birth interval, urban/rural residence, mother's level of education, and mother's occupation. All interactive effects between gender and family-level characteristics are found to be statistically insignificant.

  13. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  14. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  15. Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…

  16. The Effect of Birth Order and Sex on Perceptions of the Sibling Relationship among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele; Beaudoin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined demographic factors (e.g., parental marital status) as well as sex and birth order effects on emerging adults' views of their sibling relationships. One hundred sixty-seven participants completed a demographic and sibling relationship questionnaire designed for the purposes of this study. Factors of the sibling…

  17. Kin and birth order effects on male child mortality: three East Asian populations, 1716-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z

    2017-03-01

    Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.

  18. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  19. Risk Attitudes and Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...

  20. On the Mathematics of Fraternal Birth Order Effect and the Genetics of Homosexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Khovanova, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Mathematicians have always been attracted to the field of genetics. I am especially interested in the mathematical aspects of research on homosexuality. Certain studies show that male homosexuality may have a genetic component that is correlated with female fertility. Other studies show the existence of the fraternal birth order effect, that is the correlation of homosexuality with the number of older brothers. This paper is devoted to the mathematical aspects of how these two phenomena are i...

  1. Birth order and health of newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Molitor, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    We examine birth order differences in health of newborns and follow the children throughout childhood using high-quality administrative data on individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 2010. Family fixed effects models show a positive and robust effect of birth order on health at birth......; firstborn children are less healthy at birth. During earlier pregnancies, women are more likely to smoke, receive more prenatal care, and are more likely to suffer a medical pregnancy complication, suggesting worse maternal health. We further show that the health disadvantage of firstborns persists...

  2. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Separation and Crowding on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)

  3. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  5. Birth Order and the Aviator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-17

    research on birth order. His book, Family Constellation , has been the basis for many subsequent studies. Toman states, ’We proceed from the assumption...patterns would do well to familiarize themselves with chapter 16 of Walter Toman’s Family Constellation . Procedures for conducting this type of

  6. Eczema, birth order, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ann Maree; Crouch, Simon; Lightfoot, Tracy; Ansell, Pat; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve

    2008-05-15

    The association between infections occurring in the first 2 years of life and development of eczema was investigated in 1,782 control children from a national population-based case-control study in the United Kingdom conducted over the period 1991-1996. Dates of eczema and infectious diagnoses were ascertained from contemporaneously collected primary care records. Children diagnosed with eczema before the age of 2 years had more prior clinically diagnosed infections recorded than did children without eczema (rate ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). The difference in infection rates between children with and without eczema was apparent from birth and throughout the first 2 years of life. As expected, compared with children of second or higher birth order, those firstborn were at increased risk of eczema (p = 0.020); however, the relation between eczema and prior infection was evident only among children of second or higher birth order and not among firstborn children (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.59, and rate ratio = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.20, respectively). The authors' results are consistent with the notion that the association between birth order and eczema is unlikely to be attributable to variations in early infectious exposure.

  7. The Effects of Birth Order on Personality Traits and Feelings of Academic Sibling Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Julia; Reddy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The influence of birth order on personality and sibling rivalry is controversial; little research has been conducted into academic sibling rivalry, and none into the connection with personality traits. This study considers the interaction of all three factors. Firstborns (N=22) and lastborns (N=24) completed online personality tests and an…

  8. Gender Differences in Intrahousehold Schooling Outcomes: The Role of Sibling Characteristics and Birth-Order Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Dancer, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an…

  9. Direct and Indirect Effects of Birth Order on Personality and Identity: Support for the Null Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Harbke, Colin R.; Papini, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed that birth order affects psychosocial outcomes through differential investment from parent to child and differences in the degree of identification from child to parent. The authors conducted this study to test these 2 models. Despite the use of statistical and methodological procedures to increase sensitivity and reduce…

  10. Born to learn or born to win? Birth order effects on achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart

  11. Effect modification by parental education on the associations of birth order and gender with learning achievement in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-C J; Wang, W-L; Sung, Y-T; Wang, Y-C; Su, S-Y; Li, C-Y

    2013-11-01

    A child's gender and ordinal position within a family have varied implications on his or her personality and cognitive development. However, little is known about whether or not parental educational level may moderate the effects of birth order and gender. Basic Competence Test (BCT) scores of 290,588 young adolescents aged 15-16 years in Taiwan were analysed. Parental educational level was calculated as the highest educational attainment of the subjects' parents. The multiple linear regression model was used to assess the modification effects of parental educational levels on the associations of interest. After controlling for covariates, we noted a clear inverse relationship between birth order and BCT scores in Mandarin, Mathematics and Science. Additionally, boys had significantly lower mean scores in Mandarin, but had significantly higher mean scores in both Mathematics and Science. We also found the significant interactive effects of birth order, gender and parental educational attainment on BCT scores, in which the birth order and gender effects were more evident in higher-educated families than in lower-educated ones. This large cohort study confirmed that both birth order and gender may pose independent influences on BCT scores; moreover, such influences are significantly modified by parental educational attainment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Systemic sclerosis, birth order and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul A J; Lester, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    A recent study identified increasing birth order to be a risk factor for the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This finding supports the theory that transplacental microchimerism may be a key pathological event in the initiation of SSc. We investigated the relationship between birth order and parity and the age of onset of SSc in South Australia. A retrospective analysis of patient data in the South Australian Scleroderma Register was performed. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire. Control data was collected prospectively using a similar questionnaire. The relationship between birth order, family size or parity and risk of subsequent development of SSc was analyzed by mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and eighty-seven index probands were identified and compared with 457 controls. Controls were well matched for gender, but not for age. No statistically significant relationship was identified between SSc and birth order, parity in females, family size, age at first pregnancy in females or gender of first child in parous females. Our data suggests that parity, age at first pregnancy and the gender of the first child are not relevant factors in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSc. Birth order and family size in both genders also appears irrelevant. These results argue against microchimerism as being relevant in the pathogenesis of SSc and add further support to the theory that stochastic events may be important in the etiopathogenesis of SSc. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  14. The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Children's Education. CEE DP 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the…

  15. The Effect of Birth Order on Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality in Very Preterm Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Dan, Elad; Shah, Jyotsna; Lee, Shoo; Shah, Prakesh S; Murphy, Kellie E

    2017-07-01

    Objective  This retrospective cohort study examined the effect of birth order on neonatal morbidity and mortality in very preterm twins. Study Design  Using 2005 to 2012 data from the Canadian Neonatal Network, very preterm twins born between 24 0/7 and 32 6/7 weeks of gestation were included. Odds of morbidity and mortality of second-born cotwins compared with first-born cotwins were examined by matched-pair analysis. Outcomes were neonatal death, severe brain injury (intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or 4 or persistent periventricular echogenicity), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (> stage 2), necrotizing enterocolitis (≥ stage 2), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Multivariable analysis was performed adjusting for confounders. Result  There were 6,636 twins (3,318 pairs) included with a mean gestational age (GA) of 28.9 weeks. A higher rate of small for GA occurred in second-born twins (10 vs. 6%). Mortality was significantly lower for second-born twins (4.3 vs. 5.3%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.95). RDS (66 vs. 60%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.29-1.52) and severe retinopathy (9 vs. 7%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.07-2.01) were significantly higher in second-born twins. Conclusion  Thus, while second-born twins had reduced odds of mortality, they also had increased odds of RDS and ROP. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Effect of sibling number in the household and birth order on prevalence of Helicobacter pylori: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Forman, David; Bailey, Alastair G; Goodman, Karen J; Axon, Anthony T R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired mainly in childhood, with studies demonstrating this is related to living conditions. Effects of sibling number and birth order on prevalence of infection have not been extensively studied. The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of adults, aged between 50 and 59 years, previously involved in a community-screening programme for H. pylori in Leeds and Bradford, UK. Prevalence of H. pylori was assessed at baseline with urea breath test. All individuals who were alive, and could be traced, were contacted by postal questionnaire in 2003 obtaining information on number of siblings and birth order. Data concerning childhood socioeconomic conditions were stored on file from the original study. 3928 (47%) of 8407 original participants provided data. Prevalence of infection increased according to sibling number (20% in those with none vs 63% with eight or more). Controlling for childhood socioeconomic conditions and birth order using multivariate logistic regression, infection odds were substantially increased with three siblings compared with none [odds ratio (OR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.15], and a gradient of effect continued up to eight or more siblings (OR 5.70; 95% CI 2.92-11.14). Odds of infection also increased substantially with birth order, but the positive gradient disappeared on adjustment for sibling number and childhood socioeconomic conditions. : In this cross section of UK adults, aged 50-59 years, sibling number in the household, but not birth order, was independently associated with prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  17. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential

  18. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human

  19. Birth Order and Perceived Birth Order of Chemically Dependent and Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kristie G.; Newlon, Betty J.

    Birth order as it relates to family constellation is one of the principle concepts of Adlerian theory, and has implications for the understanding of chemical addiction. Adler premised that it was the individual's interpretation of his/her birth circumstances that was more important than sequential birth order. This study examined whether…

  20. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years...... of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer...... statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited...

  1. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  2. [Effects of birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery on childhood acute leukemia risk: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guobin; Sha, Xia

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the associations between birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery and childhood acute leukemia risk. Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies up to March 2013 using the search terms "childhood leukemia", "acute lymphoblastic leukemia", "acute myeloid leukemia","birth order", "abortion", "miscarriage", "cesarean", "birth characteristics" and "prenatal risk factor". Data from cohort and case-control studies were analyzed using the Stata software. Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis according to the selection criteria. No significant associations were identified for birth order and mode of delivery (birth order = 2: OR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.89-1.05; birth order = 3: OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.91-1.11; birth order ≥ 4: OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.87-1.20; mode of delivery: OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.96-1.15). However, there was a significant association between maternal abortion and childhood acute leukemia risk (spontaneous abortion: OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.05-1.41; induced abortion: OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.07-1.43). Furthermore, the stratified analysis by disease subtypes showed that spontaneous and induced abortions were significantly associated with the risks of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (OR = 1.71, 95%CI: 1.09-2.70) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42), respectively. This meta-analysis revealed that maternal abortion might contribute to the childhood acute leukemia risk.

  3. Later-borns Don't Give Up: The Temporary Effects of Birth Order on European Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    The existing empirical evidence on the effects of birth order on wages does not distinguish between temporary and permanent effects. Using data from 11 European countries for males born between 1935 and 1956, we show that firstborns enjoy on average a 13.7% premium in their entry wage compared with later-borns. This advantage, however, is short-lived and disappears 10 years after labor market entry. Although firstborns start with a better job, partially because of their higher education, later-borns quickly catch up by switching earlier and more frequently to better-paying jobs. We argue that a key factor driving our findings is that later-borns have lower risk aversion than firstborns.

  4. CHANGES IN SEX RATIO AT BIRTH IN CHINA: A DECOMPOSITION BY BIRTH ORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yu, Qun; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2017-11-01

    The long-term high sex ratio at birth (SRB) is a serious issue in China. In this study, changes in SRB were decomposed into variations in SRB by birth order and compositional changes in female births by birth order. With SRB data from China's surveys and censuses, and SRB data from South Korea's vital registration and censuses from 1980-2015, the trend and decomposition results in SRB were compared between China and South Korea, and the decomposition results for urban and rural SRBs, and for provinces, are presented. In both China and South Korea the rise in the SRB was driven by a rise in the SRB at all birth orders, which was only partly counteracted by the change in the distribution of births by order. The overall rise in the SRB ended when there was a decline in the SRB at second birth or above in South Korea. In China the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders increased more for the rural population than for the urban population before 2000, resulting in a higher total SRB for rural than urban population. After 2000, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders lowered the total SRB for the rural population, whereas the effect of compositional change increased the total SRB, leading to a very slight rise in the total SRB for the rural population. At the province level, there was no spatial autocorrelation for the changes in total SRB by province, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders or the effect of compositional change. The effect of variations in SRB by birth order accounted for the majority of changes in total SRB in most provinces.

  5. Effects of birth order and maternal age on breast cancer risk: modification by whether women had been breast-fed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L; Hampton, John M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A

    2008-05-01

    Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and genetic hypotheses. Recent studies have also considered potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of women living in Wisconsin. Cases (n = 2016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002-2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (n = 1960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk-factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breast-fed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.72-0.96). In analyses restricted to breast-fed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (P = 0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breast-fed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (0.82-1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breast-fed women (for women with 3 or more older siblings compared with first-born women, OR = 0.58 [CI = 0.39-0.86]) but not among nonbreast-fed women (1.13 [0.81-1.57]). These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breast-feeding status in infancy.

  6. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  7. Ordered Delinquency: The “Effects” of Birth Order On Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born to rebel hypothesis I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of both between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  8. Birth order and postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Jones, Ian; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2014-05-01

    Primiparity is a well-established and significant risk factor for postpartum psychosis and especially bipolar affective disorders. However, no studies have, to our knowledge, quantified the risk of psychiatric disorders after the first, second, or subsequent births. The overall aim of the present study was to study the risk of first-time psychiatric episodes requiring inpatient treatment after the birth of the first, second, or third child. A cohort comprising 750,127 women was defined using information from Danish population registries. Women were followed individually from the date of birth of their first, second, or third child through the following 12 months over the period 1970-2011. The outcome of interest was defined as first-time admissions to a psychiatric hospital with any type of psychiatric disorder. Women who had a first psychiatric episode which required inpatient treatment after their first (n = 1,327), second (n = 735), or third (n = 238) delivery were included. The highest risk was found in primiparous mothers 10-19 days postpartum [relative risk (RR) = 8.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.89-10.85]. After the second birth, the highest risk was at 60-89 days postpartum (RR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.52-2.65), and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The effect of primiparity was strongest for bipolar disorders. Primiparity is a significant risk factor for experiencing a first-time episode with a psychiatric disorder, especially bipolar disorders. A second birth was associated with a smaller risk, and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The risk of postpartum episodes after the second delivery increased with increasing inter-pregnancy intervals, a result which warrants further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  10. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  11. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men. NBER Working Paper No. 13237

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and…

  12. Birth order in a contemporary sample of gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, D W; Blanchard, R; Zucker, K J

    2000-08-01

    The birth order of a contemporary North American sample of 97 gay men was quantified using Slater's Index. For the 84 probands with at least one sibling, the results showed a late mean birth order compared with the expected value of .50. Additional birth order indices derived from Slater's Index suggested that the mean later birth order was accounted for more strongly by the proband's number of older brothers than by his number of older sisters. The present findings constitute a replication of a series of recent studies and add to the growing body of evidence that birth order is a reliable correlate of sexual orientation in males.

  13. Healthy(?), wealthy, and wise: Birth order and adult health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E; Devereux, Paul J; Salvanes, Kjell G

    2016-12-01

    While recent research has found that birth order affects outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence for effects on health is more limited. This paper uses a large Norwegian dataset to focus on the relationship between birth order and a range of health and health-related behaviors, outcomes not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Interestingly, we find complicated effects of birth order. First-borns are more likely to be overweight, to be obese, and to have high blood pressure and high triglycerides. For example, compared to fifth-borns, first-borns are about 5% points more likely to be obese and 7% points more likely to have high blood pressure. So, unlike education or earnings, there is no clear first-born advantage in health. However, first-borns are about 13% points less likely to smoke daily than fifth-borns and are more likely to report good physical and mental health. Later-borns also score lower on well-being with fifth-borns being about 9% points less likely than first-borns to report that they are happy. Our findings are generally monotonic with middle-borns having outcomes that are intermediate between first- and fifth-borns. We find that these effects are largely unaffected by conditioning on education and earnings, suggesting that these are not the only important pathways to health differentials by birth order. When we explore possible mechanisms, we find that early maternal investment may play a role in birth order effects on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order…

  15. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevier, Melanie; Weires, Marianne; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer

  16. Intelligence and birth order in boys and girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Beem, A.L.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Bartels, M.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. Intelligence, 35, 503-514

  17. Can Knowledge of Client Birth Order Bias Clinical Judgment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Allan E.

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians (N = 308) responded to identical counseling vignettes of a male client that differed only in the client's stated birth order. Clinicians developed different impressions about the client and his family experiences that corresponded with the prototypical descriptions of persons from 1 of 4 birth orders (i.e., first, middle, youngest, and…

  18. Brief Report: Asperger's Syndrome and Sibling Birth Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karmen; Zimmerman, Andrew; Bauman, Margaret; Ferrone, Christine; Venter, Jacob; Spybrook, Jessaca; Henry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Prior investigations suggest that birth order position may be associated with the risk for developing a pervasive developmental disorder. This retrospective chart review examined the birth order status of 29 psychiatrically-referred patients with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Eighty-six percent of the subjects were first born. The finding was…

  19. Birth order and sport participation | Potgieter | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between birth order and sport participation in terms of the inherent dangers associated with different sport codes. Data collected from 1310 sport science students over a period of more than 15 years failed to support the popular birth-order hypothesis. Keywords: ...

  20. Intelligence and Birth Order in Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Beijsterveld, T. C. E. M.; Beem, A. L.; Hoekstra, R. A.; Polderman, T. J. C.; Bartels, M.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. "Intelligence," 35, 503-514] to be negative. Subjects in this…

  1. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  2. Birth order and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily C

    2014-01-01

    To compare the birth order of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD) with population norms. 83 PTSD patients and 104 AD control patients from a psychiatric trauma clinic were diagnosed according to DCR-10 guidelines. A family history was taken as to number of siblings, and their birth order. We compared the distribution of birth order for each patient group against birth order distributions expected by chance for the same years of birth using UK population-level birth order from the Office for National Statistics. Psychiatric patients with PTSD were more likely to be from a large family, specifically to be the fifth child or later (OR 4.78, p birth order between AD patients and the general population. People with PTSD are more likely to be the youngest children from large families than expected from a random sample of people born in the same years. This association with birth order was not found for another psychiatric diagnosis AD from the same clinic. We discuss possible psychosocial and biological causes, and implications for further research.

  3. Maternal Age at Child Birth, Birth Order, and Suicide at a Young Age: A Sibling Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars Johan; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967–1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families wit...

  4. Birth Order and Educational Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Boden, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between birth order and later educational outcomes in a birth cohort of more than 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of twenty-five. Being later born was associated with gaining fewer educational qualifications at secondary level and beyond. The use of nested models to control for the confounding…

  5. Birth order and paediatric allergic disease: A nationwide longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Yorifuji, T; Fujii, Y; Yashiro, M; Okada, A; Ikeda, M; Doi, H; Tsukahara, H

    2018-05-01

    Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments, where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects post-natal environment. However, longitudinal studies are limited on this subject. This study sought to elucidate the relationships between birth order and allergic disease. From a nationwide longitudinal study that followed children born in 2001 (n = 47 015), we selected doctors' visits for 3 types of allergic disease-bronchial asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis-from infancy to 12 years of age and conducted binomial log-linear regression analysis to evaluate the associations between birth order and these diseases. We adjusted for the child and parental factors and estimated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. The associations between birth order and bronchial asthma were diverse; later birth order increased the risk in early childhood, but decreased the risks during school age. For example, the adjusted RR comparing third-born or higher and first-born children was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) between 30 and 42 months of age, but was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89) between 10 and 11 years. Later birth order was generally protective for food allergy but increased the risk of atopic dermatitis. The influence of birth order depended on the type of allergic disease and the childhood period. Childhood is unique in terms of physical and immunological development, and the immune response to the post-natal environment in childhood appears to be heterogeneous. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Birth Order and Child Cognitive Outcomes: An Exploration of the Parental Time Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Chiara; See, Sarah Grace

    2016-01-01

    Higher birth order positions are associated with poorer outcomes due to smaller shares of resources received within the household. Using a sample of Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement children, we investigate if the negative birth order effect we find in cognitive outcomes is due to unequal allocation of mother and father…

  7. What Causes Birth Order-Intelligence Patterns? The Admixture Hypothesis, Revived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2001-01-01

    Describes why birth order interests both parents and researchers, discussing what really causes apparent birth order effects on intelligence, examining problems with using cross-sectional intelligence data, and noting how to move beyond cross-sectional inferences. Explains the admixture hypothesis, which finds that family size is much more…

  8. Birth Order, Educational Attainment, and Earnings: An Investigation Using the PSID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    We examine the implications of being early in the birth order, and whether a pattern exists within large families of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order. Unlike other studies using U.S. data, we go beyond grade for age and look at racial differences. Drawing from OLS and fixed effects estimations, we find that being…

  9. Maternal age at child birth, birth order, and suicide at a young age: a sibling comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967-1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families with 2 or more children in which one died from suicide. Altogether, 3,005 suicides occurred over a mean follow-up period of 15 years; 2,458 of these suicides occurred among 6,741 siblings within families of 2 or more siblings. Among siblings, a higher position in the birth order was positively associated with risk; each increase in birth order was associated with a 46% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.66) higher risk of suicide. For each 10-year increase in maternal age at child birth, the offspring's suicide risk was reduced by 57% (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.62). Our study suggests that confounding due to familial factors is not likely to explain the associations of birth order and maternal age at child birth with suicide risk.

  10. Birth Order and Achievement: A Study of the Effects of Family Constellation and Related Variables on the Achievement of Officer Students at the Naval Postgraduate School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, William J.; Murphy, Timothy A.

    The findings suggest that there may be no significant difference between the achievement of first-, only-, and last-born children. While middle-born children appeared to do less well in academic achievement, their occupational achievement did not differ significantly from the other birth-order groups. The findings suggest further that…

  11. Birth order and male homosexuality: extension of Slater's index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M B; Blanchard, R

    1998-08-01

    Homosexual men tend to be later-born children. Slater's index, the ratio of older sibs to all sibs, is consistently higher for male homosexuals than for comparable heterosexuals. According to some explanations of this tendency, homosexual men are later born with respect to their brothers and later born with respect to their sisters only secondarily and less strongly. We show that if sisters have no direct bearing on a brother's sexual orientation and brothers do, then [formula: see text] On the other hand, if sisters have the same bearing on a brother's sexual orientation as male sibs do, then [formula: see text] These ratios are calculated and compared in nine samples of homosexual men and nine corresponding samples of control heterosexuals. The first equation holds for homosexual men, and the second equation holds for heterosexual men. The late birth order of homosexual men is sex specific. What matters is a boy's birth order relative to his brothers only. This effect may have its origins in an immune reaction or in behavioral contagion.

  12. Respiratory morbidity in twins by birth order, gestational age and mode of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Tul, Natasa; Lasic, Mateja; Bregar, Andreja Trojner; Verdenik, Ivan; Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between respiratory morbidity in twins by gestational age, birth order and mode of delivery. All twin deliveries at birth order and to the mode of delivery. In contrast, RDS was more frequent among the second born twins in the vaginal birth groups born at 30-36 weeks [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5 for 33-36 weeks and 30-32 weeks, respectively], whereas this trend was seen in the cesarean birth groups born earlier (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.0 for 28-29 weeks). Cesarean delivery significantly increased the frequency of RDS in twin A as well as in twin B compared with vaginal birth, but only at gestational ages birth order have a gestational age dependent effect on the incidence of RDS.

  13. Birth order--a risk factor for dental trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käch, Matthias; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Many character traits are influenced by birth order with greatest differences between first and lastborns. To investigate the influence of birth order on the risk of dental trauma. Five hundred mothers in Switzerland were interviewed personally regarding dental trauma in their children. Inclusion criteria were a family size of at least two children. Data of 1282 children were collected. Thirty-two percent of the children had sustained one or more dental trauma before the age of 16 (57% male, 43% female). In children who had sustained dental trauma twice, the gender ratio moved to 68% male and 32% female (P = 0.003). Regarding birth order, lastborns sustained more second dental traumas. Relative risk of second dental trauma was 2.1 times higher in lastborns than in firstborns (P = 0.02). Moreover, certain character traits in children are influenced by birth order. According to their mothers, lastborns were more curious, less calm and less deliberate than firstborns (P Birth order is a risk factor for sustaining dental trauma twice. Character traits of lastborns (curious, not calm/deliberate and aggressive) could be reasons for higher risk of dental trauma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Gender Nonconformity and Birth Order in Relation to Anal Sex Role Among Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2018-05-01

    Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.

  15. BIRTH ORDER, STAGE OF INFANCY AND INFANT MORTALITY IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S K; Ram, Bali; Singh, Abhishek; Yadav, Awdhesh

    2017-10-02

    Using data from India's National Family Health Survey, 2005-06 (NFHS-3), this article examines the patterns of relationship between birth order and infant mortality. The analysis controls for a number of variables, including mother's characteristics such as age at the time of survey, current place of residence (urban/rural), years of schooling, religion, caste, and child's sex and birth weight. A modest J-shaped relationship between birth order of children and their risk of dying in the neonatal period is found, suggesting that although both first- and last-born children are at a significantly greater risk of dying compared with those in the middle, last-borns (i.e. fourth and higher order births) are at the worst risk. However, in the post-neonatal period first-borns are not as vulnerable, but the risk increases steadily with the addition of successive births and last-borns are at much greater risk, even worse than those in the neonatal period. Although the strength of relationship between birth order and mortality is attenuated after the potential confounders are taken into account, the relationship between the two variables remains curvilinear in the neonatal period and direct in the post-neonatal period. There are marked differences in these patterns by the child's sex. While female children are less prone to the risk of dying in the neonatal period in comparison with male children, the converse is true in the post-neonatal period. Female children not only run higher risks of dying in the post-neonatal period, but also become progressively more vulnerable with an increase in birth order.

  16. The intergenerational transmission of fertility in contemporary Denmark: the effects of number of siblings (full and half), birth order, and whether male or female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M; Knudsen, L B

    2002-11-01

    Using the Danish Fertility Database, we investigate intergenerational fertility transmission, including the relationship between the number of children born to those aged 25 and 26 years in 1994 and the number of their full sibs and half-sibs. We find that the fertility behaviour of parents and their children is positively correlated, and that half-sibs and full sibs have broadly similar effects. We do not find, in this complete national population, the strong birth order effects reported in some earlier studies. Nor do we find evidence of a weakening of intergenerational fertility transmission over time, perhaps because the greater flexibility of lifestyles in this post-transitional phase provides the extended social space within which intergenerational continuities can manifest themselves. We show that members of large families are over-represented in subsequent generations - that they have far more kin than those from smaller families - and that intergenerational continuities in fertility behaviour play a substantial role in keeping fertility higher than it would be in the absence of such transmission.

  17. Predictors of third and Higher order births in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate (TFR reflecting population growth is closely related to higher order parity progression. Many Indian states reached replacement level of TFR, but still states constituting nearly 40% population are with TFR ≥ 3. The predictors are the desire of son’s, poor contraceptives practices, younger age at marriage, child loss and shorter birth spacing. Objective: This analysis assessed the degree of relation of 3rd and higher order parity progression with the above mentioned predictors. Material and Methods: State/Union Territories wise proportions of women: progressing to ≥3 births, more sons desire, birth spacing <24 months, adopting modern contraception and median marriage age <18 years along with infant mortality rate (IMR were taken from NFHS-III report. Correlation matrix and stepwise forward multiple regression carried. Significance was seen at 5%. Results: Hindi speaking states constituting 38.92% nation population recorded TFR ≥3. Positive correlation of mothers progressing ≥ 3 births was highest (0.746 with those desiring more sons followed by IMR (0.445; while maximum negative correlation with those practicing modern contraceptives (-0.565 followed by median age at marriage (-0.391. Multiple regression analysis in order identified desire of more sons, practicing modern contraception and shorter birth spacing as the significant predictors and jointly explained 77.9% of the total variation with gain of 15.5% by adding modern contraceptive practice and 8.3% by adding shorter birth spacing. Conclusions: Desire of more sons appeared the most important predictor to progress ≥3 births that is governed by society culture and educational attainment, require attitudinal change. Further, mothers need motivation to practice both spacing and terminal methods once family is complete.

  18. How Do Children Behave Regarding Their Birth Order in Dental Setting?

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Ghaderi; Soleiman Fijan; Shahram Hamedani

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child’s behavior in dental setting. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental...

  19. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.

  20. Earliest Recollections and Birth Order: Two Adlerian Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Les

    1992-01-01

    Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…

  1. Higher Order Multiple Births in Nigeria: Experiences, Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher Order Multiple Births in Nigeria: Experiences, Challenges and. Neonatal Outcomes in a Private Health Facility. B Ezenwa, O Oseni, P Akintan1, P Aligwekwe, B Chukwukelu2, O Fashola3, A Ogunmokun3, O Odukoya3. Original Article. Departments of Paediatrics,. 2Obstetrics and Gynaecology and 3Family Medicine,.

  2. Birth Order and the Language Experience of Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the language experience of second-generation immigrant Korean American school-age children (4-18 years) by surveying their parents. Reports responses to a small portion of the questionnaire that specifically addressed the issue of birth order. (Author/VWL)

  3. Birth Order and Intelligence: Together Again for the Last Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Cleveland, H. Harrington; van den Oord, Edwin; Rowe, David C.

    2001-01-01

    The authors respond to critiques of their investigation of whether birth order reliably contributes to variance in intelligence, concluding that little in the critiques challenges the original position that cross-sectional data are suspect as evidence for within-family trends in intelligence. When looking inside families and directly comparing the…

  4. The role of birth order in substance related disorders | Mukangi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was guided by two objectives. The first objective was to investigate which of the ordinal birth orders (one's chronological position with in their family of origin) was over represented within patients receiving treatment for addiction at a drugs rehabilitation centre. The second objective was to investigate whether ...

  5. Perinatal mortality in second- vs firstborn twins: a matter of birth size or birth order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Zhang, Jun; Klebanoff, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Second-born twins on average weigh less than first-born twins and have been reported at an elevated risk of perinatal mortality. Whether the risk differences depend on their relative birth size is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of birth order with perinatal mortality by birth order-specific weight difference in twin pregnancies. In a retrospective cohort study of 258,800 twin pregnancies without reported congenital anomalies using the US matched multiple birth data 1995-2000 (the available largest multiple birth dataset), conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death adjusted for fetus-specific characteristics (sex, presentation, and birthweight for gestational age). Comparing second vs first twins, the risks of perinatal death were similar if they had similar birthweights (within 5%) and were increasingly higher if second twins weighed progressively less (adjusted ORs were 1.37, 1.90, and 3.94 if weighed 5.0-14.9%, 15.0-24.9%, and ≥25.0% less, respectively), and progressively lower if they weighed increasingly more (adjusted ORs were 0.67, 0.63, and 0.36 if weighed 5.0-14.9%, 15.0-24.9%, and ≥25.0% more, respectively) (all P birth size. Vaginal delivery at term is associated with a substantially greater risk of perinatal mortality in second twins. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Birth order and physical fitness in early adulthood: evidence from Swedish military conscription data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Separate influences of birth order and gravidity/parity on the development of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Tonya; del Junco, Deborah J; Arnett, Frank C; Assassi, Shervin; Tan, Filemon K; McNearney, Terry; Fischbach, Michael; Perry, Marilyn; Mayes, Maureen D

    2010-03-01

    Birth order has been valuable in revealing the role of environmental influences on the risk of developing certain diseases such as allergy and atopy. In addition, pregnancy has profound effects on the immune system such as short-term effects that permit fetal survival as well as longer-term effects that could influence late-onset diseases. In order to better evaluate these influences, we studied the association of birth order and gravidity/parity as risk factors for systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Data regarding SSc cases and their unaffected sibling controls were obtained from the Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository. The case-sibling design was used to minimize confounding due to differences in age, race, ethnicity, or calendar time. The gravidity/parity analysis was based on sibships with at least one SSc-affected and one unaffected sister. Birth order was examined in 974 sibships, comparing SSc cases (n = 987) with their unaffected siblings (n = 3,088). The risk of scleroderma increased with increasing birth order (odds ratio [OR] 1.25, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-1.50 for birth order 2-5; OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.57-3.15 for birth order 6-9; and OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.68-7.45 for birth order 10-15). Gravidity/parity was analyzed in 168 sibships (256 unaffected sisters, 172 SSc cases). We found an association between a history of one or more pregnancies and SSc (OR 2.8). Birth order and pregnancy were independently associated with a higher risk of developing SSc. These findings suggest that immune development in early childhood and/or pregnancy-associated events, including but not limited to microchimerism, plays a role in SSc susceptibility.

  8. The Social and Academic Consequences of Birth Order: Real, Artifactual, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…

  9. Birth order, sibship size, and risk for germ-cell testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Akre, Olof; Lambe, Mats; Granath, Fredrik; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders

    2004-05-01

    Several studies have reported an inverse association between birth order and testicular cancer risk, but estimates vary greatly and the biologic mechanism underlying the association is not established. We have evaluated the effect of birth order, sibship size, and the combined effect of these 2 variables in relation to risk for testicular cancer in a large, nested case-control study. Specifically, we compared 3051 patients with germ-cell testicular cancer (diagnosed between 1958 and 1998 and identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry) with 9007 population control subjects. Using record linkage with the Multi-Generation Register and the Census, we obtained information on number, order, and sex of the subjects' siblings, parental age, and paternal socioeconomic status. Both birth order and sibship size had an inverse and monotonically decreasing association with testicular cancer risk after adjusting for parental age, paternal socioeconomic status, and twin status. The associations were modified by subjects' cohort of birth and were not present among those born after 1959. The odds ratio for having at least 3 siblings, compared with none, was 0.63 (95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.75) among subjects born before 1960. Stratified analyses showed that birth order and number of younger siblings had a similar inverse association with the risk for testicular cancer. Sibship size, and not only birth order, is associated with testicular cancer risk. This suggests a higher prevalence of parental subfertility among patients with testicular cancer.

  10. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.

  11. Parent-Child Quality Time: Does Birth Order Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that a first-born child receives 20-30 more minutes of quality time each day with his or her parent than a second-born child of the same age from a similar family. The birth-order difference results from parents giving roughly equal time to each child at any point in time while the amount of…

  12. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  13. Association between order of birth and chronic malnutrition of children: a study of nationally representative Bangladeshi sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the net effect of birth order on child nutritional status in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2011 (BDHS). Analyses were restricted to 4,120 surviving, lastborn singleton children who were younger than 36 months at the time of the survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between birth order and child nutritional status. Results indicate 38.1% children are stunted and 8.2% children are fifth or higher order birth. Order of birth is one of the significant predictors of child being stunted. Third order, fourth order, and fifth or higher order children are 24%, 30%, and 72%, respectively, more likely to be stunted after adjusting for all other variables. Besides birth order, results also indicate that child age, size at birth, birth intention, maternal education, maternal body mass index, wealth index, place of residence and mass media access exert strong influences over child malnutrition. Reducing birth rates which limit number of births and birth order as well may reduce child malnutrition in Bangladesh.

  14. Learning word order at birth: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Gervain, Judit

    2017-06-01

    In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants' ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1) and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2). We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Learning word order at birth: A NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Benavides-Varela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants’ ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1 and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2. We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth.

  16. Birth order and mortality in two ethno-linguistic groups: Register-based evidence from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aberrant clones: Birth order generates life history diversity in Greater Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejbel, Hebah S; Simons, Andrew M

    2018-02-01

    Environmental unpredictability is known to result in the evolution of bet-hedging traits. Variable dormancy enhances survival through harsh conditions, and is widely cited as a diversification bet-hedging trait. The floating aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed), provides an opportunity to study diversification because although partially reliable seasonal cues exist, its growing season is subject to an unpredictable and literally "hard" termination when the surface water freezes, and overwinter survival depends on a switch from production of normal daughter fronds to production of dense, sinking "turions" prior to freeze-over. The problem for S. polyrhiza is that diversified dormancy behavior must be generated among clonally produced, genetically identical offspring. Variation in phenology has been observed in the field, but its sources are unknown. Here, we investigate sources of phenological variation in turion production , and test the hypothesis that diversification in turion phenology is generated within genetic lineages through effects of parental birth order. As expected, phenotypic plasticity to temperature is expressed along a thermal gradient; more interestingly, parental birth order was found to have a significant and strong effect on turion phenology: Turions are produced earlier by late birth-order parents. These results hold regardless of whether turion phenology is measured as first turion birth order, time to first turion, or turion frequency. This study addresses a question of current interest on potential mechanisms generating diversification, and suggests that consistent phenotypic differences across birth orders generate life history variation.

  18. Birth order and hospitalization for alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko; Tynelius, Per; Berglind, Daniel; Rasmussen, Finn

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that birth order is an important predictor of later life health as well as socioeconomic attainment. In this study, we examine the relationship between birth order and hospitalization for alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. We study the relationship between birth order and hospitalization related to alcohol and narcotics use before and after the age of 20 using Swedish register data for cohorts born 1987-1994. We apply Cox proportional hazard models and use sibling fixed effects, eliminating confounding by factors shared by the siblings. Before age 20 we find that later born siblings are hospitalized for alcohol use at a higher rate than first-borns, and there is a monotonic increase in the hazard of hospitalization with increasing birth order. Second-borns are hospitalized at a rate 47% higher than first-borns, and third-borns at a rate 65% higher. Similar patterns are observed for hospitalization for narcotics use. After age 20 the pattern is similar, but the association is weaker. These patterns are consistent across various sibling group sizes. Later born siblings are more likely to be hospitalized for both alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. These birth order effects are substantial in size, and larger than the estimated sex differences for the risk of hospitalization related to alcohol and drug use before age 20, and previous estimates for socioeconomic status differences in alcohol and drug abuse. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Epilepsia e ordem de nascimento Epilepsy and birth order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sandler

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante o método de Greenwood-Yule e o teste estatístico mais sensível de que se dispõe atualmente, o x² de Halperin, foi testada a possível associação entre a prevalência de epilepsia e a ordem de nascimento de 238 pacientes. Estes pacientes foram obtidos em dois hospitais de São Paulo, na tentativa de se controlar sua classe social; tratava-se de epilépticos com variados transtornos psiquiátricos. Concluiu-se por uma associação estatisticamente significante entre a doença e a ordem de nascimento dos 238 pacientes, com uma sobre-representação nos primeiros e nos últimos nascidos.This paper deals with birth order and epilepsy. The Greenwood-Yule's method was applied, with the most powerful statistical test available, Halperin's modified chi-square. The authors concluded that there is a consistent positive association between this illness prevalence and birth order of the patients, being first and last born over-represented, irrespective of their sibship size. The data were obtained in two psychiatric hospitals in the city of São Paulo, being social class factor qualitatively controlled. All the 238 patients studied suffered a wide range of psychiatric symptoms.

  20. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  1. Complexities of sibling analysis when exposures and outcomes change with time and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka I; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Divan, Hozefa A; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were included. We examined differences in exposures and behavioral problems between siblings and non-siblings and by birth order and birth year. We estimated associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems while accounting for the random family effect among siblings. The association of behavioral problems with both prenatal and postnatal exposure differed between siblings (odds ratio (OR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-1.66) and non-siblings (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.36-1.74) and within siblings by birth order; the association was strongest for first-born siblings (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.86-3.42) and negative for later-born siblings (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.31-1.25), which may be because of increases in cell phone use with later birth year. Sibling analysis can be a powerful tool for (partially) accounting for confounding by invariant unmeasured within-family factors, but it cannot account for uncontrolled confounding by varying family-level factors, such as those that vary with time and birth order.

  2. Appraising Birth Order in Career Assessment: Linkages to Holland's and Super's Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hartung, Paul J.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Study 1 (n=159) found significant differences in vocational personality types, interests, and values depending on birth order. Study 2 (n=119) found significant differences in occupational interests by birth order. Both results support Alfred Adler's theory that birth order determines aspects of vocational behavior. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  3. Role of Educational Exposure in the Association Between Myopia and Birth Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Williams, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    Visual impairment due to myopia is an important public health issue. A prior analysis of population-based cohorts aged 15 to 22 years recruited from the United Kingdom and Israel suggested myopia and high myopia were approximately 10% more common in first-born compared with later-born children. To examine whether myopia was associated with birth order in an earlier generation than studied previously and, if so, whether the association was attenuated after adjusting for education exposure, as predicted by the hypothesis that the education of children with later birth orders is less intense. Cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants recruited from 2006 to 2010. Analysis was restricted to participants aged 40 to 69 years who had a vision assessment, self-reported white ethnicity, and no history of eye disorders (N = 89,120). Myopia and high myopia were defined as autorefraction of -0.75 diopters (D) or less and -6.00 D or less, respectively. Birth order and information on potential confounders including highest educational qualification ascertained using a structured questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for myopia and high myopia by birth order, using logistic regression and adjusting for age and sex (model 1) or age, sex, and highest educational qualification (model 2). In model 1 (no adjustment for education), birth order was associated with both myopia and high myopia (eg, comparing first- vs second-born individuals; OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P = 1.40E-11 and OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11-1.30; P = 3.60E-06 for myopia and high myopia, respectively). The risk for myopia became progressively lower for later birth orders, suggesting a dose response. In model 2 (after adjusting for education), the effect sizes were attenuated by approximately 25% (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12; P = 1.30E-06 and OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25; P = 4.60E-04 for myopia and high myopia, respectively) and the apparent dose response was abolished. These data suggest that the

  4. BIRTH ORDER AND ANDROPHILIC MALE-TO-FEMALE TRANSSEXUALISM IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Zucker, Kenneth J; Massuda, Raffael; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Borba, André Oliveira; Costa, Angelo Bradelli; Schneider, Maiko Abel; Mueller, Andressa; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; Da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has indicated that biological older brothers increase the odds of androphilia in males. This finding has been termed the fraternal birth order effect. The maternal immune hypothesis suggests that this effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens involved in fetal male brain masculinization. Exposure to these antigens, as a result of carrying earlier-born sons, is hypothesized to produce maternal immune responses towards later-born sons, thus leading to female-typical neural development of brain regions underlying sexual orientation. Because this hypothesis posits mechanisms that have the potential to be active in any situation where a mother gestates repeated male fetuses, a key prediction is that the fraternal birth order effect should be observable in diverse populations. The present study assessed the association between sexual orientation and birth order in androphilic male-to-female transsexuals in Brazil, a previously unexamined population. Male-to-female transsexuals who reported attraction to males were recruited from a specialty gender identity service in southern Brazil (n=118) and a comparison group of gynephilic non-transsexual men (n=143) was recruited at the same hospital. Logistic regression showed that the transsexual group had significantly more older brothers and other siblings. These effects were independent of one another and consistent with previous studies of birth order and male sexual orientation. The presence of the fraternal birth order effect in the present sample provides further evidence of the ubiquity of this effect and, therefore, lends support to the maternal immune hypothesis as an explanation of androphilic sexual orientation in some male-to-female transsexuals.

  5. Fraternal birth order and ratio of heterosexual/homosexual feelings in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, Nathaniel; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Stevens, Carol; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Buhrich, Neil; Vollmer-Conna, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the 2-3% of persons who identify as homosexual found men but not women had more older brothers than persons who identify as heterosexual. The present study investigated the birth order in the approximately 20% of men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings, few of whom identify as homosexual. The number of older brothers and sisters was investigated in seven cohorts: 319 male twins; and 49, 54, and 61 female and 66, 116, and 50 male medical students. Both women and men who anonymously reported homosexual feelings had a greater mean number of older brothers and sisters than did those who reported no homosexual feelings. The difference was stronger in relation to brothers than sisters. The birth order effect was not related to the strength of the subjects' degree of homosexual compared with heterosexual feelings. Its presence in women could not be accounted for by the widely accepted hypothesis that the birth order effect is due to a maternal immune reaction provoked only by male fetuses. The lack of relationship between the strength of the effect and degree of homosexual feelings in the men and women suggests the influence of birth order on homosexual feelings was not due to a biological, but a social process in the subjects studied. Investigating the neglected significant percentage of predominantly heterosexual men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings may aid in understanding the factors influencing sexual orientation, and identity.

  6. Supplementary analyses regarding Langevin, Langevin, and Curnoe's (2007) findings on fraternal birth order in homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2007-08-01

    A recent article by Langevin, Langevin, and Curnoe (2007) reported mixed results regarding the fraternal birth order effect, that is, the repeatedly observed finding that older brothers correlate with homosexuality in later-born males. Using a fraternal birth order index computed as older brothers minus younger brothers, Langevin et al. found that the "homoerotic" probands were born later among their brothers than were the "heteroerotic" probands in their full sample (N = 1194) and in their subsample over age 19 (N = 1122), but not in their subsample over age 31 (N = 698) or in their subsample with mothers over age 46 at the proband's birth (N = 727). The present writer concluded that the results obtained with the larger samples are more reliable, based on analyses demonstrating that (1) the larger samples are unlikely to be seriously affected by incomplete sibships, and (2) the smaller samples have poor statistical power. A separate analysis, based on an approximate reconstruction of Langevin et al.'s raw data, indicated that their heteroerotic probands reported a ratio of 104 older brothers per 100 older sisters, which is close to the normative population value of 106, whereas their homoerotic probands reported a ratio of 137, indicating a statistically significant excess of older brothers. These results suggest that Langevin et al.'s data showed significant evidence of a fraternal birth order effect and that their data were consistent with previous studies of this phenomenon.

  7. Birth order and suicide in adulthood: evidence from Swedish population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-06-15

    Each year, almost 1 million people die from suicide, which is among the leading causes of death in young people. We studied how birth order was associated with suicide and other main causes of death. A follow-up study based on the Swedish population register was conducted for sibling groups born from 1932 to 1980 who were observed during the period 1981-2002. Focus was on the within-family variation in suicide risk, meaning that we studied sibling groups that consisted of 2 or more children in which at least 1 died from suicide. These family-fixed effects analyses revealed that each increase in birth order was related to an 18% higher suicide risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.23, P = 0.000). The association was slightly lower among sibling groups born in 1932-1955 (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.21, P = 0.000) than among those born in 1967-1980 (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.57, P = 0.080). Further analyses suggested that the association between birth order and suicide was only modestly influenced by sex, birth spacing, size of the sibling group, own socioeconomic position, own marital status, and socioeconomic rank within the sibling group. Causes of death other than suicide and other external causes were not associated with birth order. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Association of birth order with cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adulthood: a study of one million Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (pbirth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.

  9. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis from five US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G; Mueller, Beth A; Carozza, Susan E; Chow, Eric J; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas and Washington. We included 17,672 cases confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size, which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  10. How many gay men owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray; Paterson, Andrew D; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2002-02-01

    In men, sexual orientation correlates with the number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. However, this phenomenon, the fraternal birth order effect, accounts for the sexual orientation of only a proportion of gay men. To estimate the size of this proportion, we derived generalized forms of two epidemiological statistics, the attributable fraction and the population attributable fraction, which quantify the relationship between a condition and prior exposure to an agent that can cause it. In their common forms, these statistics are calculable only for 2 levels of exposure: exposed versus not-exposed. We developed a method applicable to agents with multiple levels of exposure--in this case, number of older brothers. This noniterative method, which requires the odds ratio from a prior logistic regression analysis, was then applied to a large contemporary sample of gay men. The results showed that roughly 1 gay man in 7 owes his sexual orientation to the fraternal birth order effect. They also showed that the effect of fraternal birth order would exceed all other causes of homosexuality in groups of gay men with 3 or more older brothers and would precisely equal all other causes in a theoretical group with 2.5 older brothers. Implications are suggested for the gay sib-pair linkage method of identifying genetic loci for homosexuality.

  11. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    OpenAIRE

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were...

  12. Birth Order and Participation in School Sports and Other Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Lopez, Elizabeth; Averett, Susan L.; Argys, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Argys, L.M., Rees, D.I., Averett S.L., & Witoonchart, B. (2006). Birth order and risky adolescent behavior. "Economic Inquiry", 44(2), 215-233 demonstrated that a strong link exists between birth order and adolescent risky behavior. Using data on 10th graders from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we extend the work of Argys et…

  13. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  14. Impact of Birth Order on Procrastination among College Students in Eldoret Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Chege Kimani

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the impact of birth order on procrastination among college students in Eldoret town. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: (1) to find out the prevalence of procrastination among college students in Eldoret town, (2) to find out the relationship between birth order on procrastination among college…

  15. Twin birth order, birthweight and birthweight discordance: any relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka A.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely believed that in twin pairs, at birth, the first-born weigh more than the second-born but this concept has been challenged. Objective: To assess the truthfulness of this common concept that first-born twins are usually heavier than their second-born siblings at birth. Methods: In a series of 104 sets of live-born twins, the birth weights of first-born twins were compared with those of their second-born siblings, after controlling for gender. Their intra-pair birthweight differences were determined and twin pairs whose birthweight difference was 15% or more were designated as discordant. Results: Twin I was heavier than Twin II in 61.5% of cases while Twin II was heavier than Twin I in 28.9% of cases. Twins I and II had equal birthweights in 9.6% of cases. Comparing the mean birthweight of the first-born-male twin with that of second-born- male twin, it was 2515+427g (95% Confidence Interval, CI=2402-2628 versus 2432 +435g (95% CI=2321-2543 p>0.05. The mean birthweight of first-born-female twin was 2326+445g (95% CI=2214-2439 while that of the second-born-female twin was 2325+501g (95% CI=2197-2453 p>0.05. When the birthweight difference exceeded 750g, the probability that Twin I will be heavier than Twin II was 83.3% (5 of 6. Conclusion: Although the first-born twin was more often heavier than their second-born siblings, either could weigh more or less at birth. The larger the birthweight difference between growth-discordant twin pair, the greater the probability that the heavier twin would be delivered first

  16. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  17. Birth order and preschool children's cooperative abilities: A within-family analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Heather; Plamondon, André; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence for a laterborn sibling advantage in some social skills, although this has not been investigated in children's early capacities for cooperation. Using a within-family design, this study compared firstborn and laterborn (i.e., middle and youngest) siblings on their cooperative abilities when they were aged around 3 years. Further, the study investigated whether the association between children's birth order and cooperative abilities was dependent on the prosocial behaviour of other siblings in the home. The sample included 288 ethnically and sociodemographically diverse children clustered within 144 families. Cooperation was directly assessed using a problem-solving paradigm requiring two simultaneous and complementary actions of the child and adult tester to achieve a joint goal. Parents reported on the prosocial behaviour of up to four siblings in the home. Results of a multilevel analysis indicated that youngest children were more advanced in their cooperative abilities, compared to firstborn children, irrespective of their siblings' prosociality. Middle children, in contrast, were only advantaged over firstborn children if their siblings showed high levels of prosociality. The analysis accounted for a number of potential family-wide confounds, providing evidence that this is a child-specific effect related to birth order. Findings are discussed from a social constructivist perspective with an emphasis on the sibling relationship as a context for cooperative interactions that facilitate sociocognitive development. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There are individual differences in children's early capacities for cooperation. Children's early cooperation has not been considered in relation to birth order and/or sibling interaction quality. What does this study add? Youngest children are advantaged in their cooperation as compared to firstborn children. Middle children are also advantaged, but only if their

  18. Association of Birth Order with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Young Adulthood: A Study of One Million Swedish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. Methods BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1 065 710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Results Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (p<0.001) lower BMI than first-born, respectively. The association pattern differed among muscle strengths. After adjustment for BMI, first-born presented lower elbow flexion and hand grip strength than second-born (−5.9 N and −3.8 N, respectively, p<0.001). Knee extension strength was inversely related to birth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Conclusions Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood. PMID:23696817

  19. Association of birth order with cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adulthood: a study of one million Swedish men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Jelenkovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI, muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. METHODS: BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. RESULTS: Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (p<0.001 lower BMI than first-born, respectively. The association pattern differed among muscle strengths. After adjustment for BMI, first-born presented lower elbow flexion and hand grip strength than second-born (-5.9 N and -3.8 N, respectively, p<0.001. Knee extension strength was inversely related to birth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.

  20. Complexities of sibling analysis when exposures and outcomes change with time and birth order

    OpenAIRE

    Sudan, M; Kheifets, LI; Arah, OA; Divan, HA; Olsen, J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were included. We examined differences in exposures and behavioral problems between siblings and non-siblings and by birth order and birth year. We estimated associations between cell phone exposures and b...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth : Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marit F.; Hermus, Marieke A. A.; Boesveld, Inge I.C.; Franx, Arie; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Van Den Akker-Van Marle, Eiske M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  2. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Franx, A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der; Steegers, E.E.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  3. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Hitzert (Marit); M.A.A. Hermus (Marieke A.A.); Boesveld, I.I.C. (Inge I.C.); A. Franx (Arie); K.M. van der Pal-De Bruin (Karin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Van Den Akker-Van Marle, E.M.E. (Eiske M.E.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design

  4. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.

  5. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler’s theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler’s birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) A...

  6. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong?s ?Children of 1997? Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored re...

  7. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of triplets or higher-order extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Vohr, Betty R; Wrage, Lisa; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J; Walsh, Michele C; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2011-03-01

    Extremely low birth weight twins have a higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than singletons. Higher-order extremely low birth weight multiple births may have an even higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Extremely low birth weight (birth weight 401-1000 g) multiple births born in participating centers of the Neonatal Research Network between 1996 and 2005 were assessed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined by the presence of 1 or more of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy; mental developmental index score or psychomotor developmental index score less than 70; severe bilateral deafness; or blindness. Infants who died within 12 hours of birth were excluded. Maternal and infant demographic and clinical variables were compared among singleton, twin, and triplet or higher-order infants. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the association between singletons, twins, and triplet or higher-order multiples and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for confounding variables that may affect death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Our cohort consisted of 8296 singleton, 2164 twin, and 521 triplet or higher-order infants. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was increased in triplets or higher-order multiples when compared with singletons (adjusted odds ratio: 1.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.24]), and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27 [95% confidence: 0.95-1.71]). Triplet or higher-order births are associated with an increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age when compared with extremely low birth weight singleton infants, and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins.

  8. Review and theory of handedness, birth order, and homosexuality in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Research has repeatedly shown that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This phenomenon has been called the fraternal birth order effect. The most highly developed explanation of this phenomenon is the maternal immune hypothesis, which proposes that the fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunisation of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male foetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of anti-male antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male foetus. Recent studies indicate that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in right-handed males but not in non-right-handed males. The present article explores how the maternal immune hypothesis might be extended or modified to account for the apparent interaction of older brothers and handedness. Two possibilities are considered: (1) non-right-handed foetuses are insensitive to the presence of maternal anti-male antibodies, and (2) mothers of non-right-handed foetuses do not produce anti-male antibodies.

  9. Sibling Variation and Family Language Policy: The Role of Birth Order in the Spanish Proficiency and First Names of Second-Generation Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Maryann

    2013-01-01

    The effects of birth order have been debated in many disciplines and have been shown to be important for a number of outcomes. However, studies examining the significance of birth order in language development and practices, particularly with regard to minority languages, are few. This article reports on two sets of data collected among Spanish…

  10. Blind adolescents' birth order as a determinant of their perception of family functioning dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While other theoreticians of personality stressed only the influence of parents in early childhood, Adler paid particular attention to a psychological position of a child among brothers/sisters. There is some empirical evidence that birth order may influence vocational choice, characteristic style of interacting with others, affiliation, anxiety, perception of parents' authority, and even intellectual capabilities. Visual impairment of a family member affects a family system and a sibling subsystem in a specific way. The goal of the research was to determine whether birth order influences perception of dimensions of family functioning in families with a blind adolescent and in families with an adolescent of typical development. The sample included 32 blind (experimental group and 32 subjects of typical development (control group aged 14 to 26, who lived in complete families with two or three children and without serious personal, marrital or family problems. The groups were paired by sex, age, professional status and birth order of adolescents, number of children in the family, type of family (nuclear; extended and environment (rural; urban. A Questionnaire of socio-demographic information and a Questionnaire of situation and family relationships RADIR by Knežević were applied for data collection. First-borns made lower appraisals of each dimension of family functioning than second-born respondents. There were no statistically significant differences in the control group. Differences in the experimental group were statistically significant in the following dimensions: Activity, Democracy and Structuring time and activity. Thus, the results show that first-born child's 'dethronement' has more effect if it is associated with blindness. This can be explained by fact that it is more difficult for a blind first-born child to catch up with a second-born 'rival'.

  11. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Birth Defects: Effects of Subfertility and Multiple Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Rebecca F; Getz, Kelly D; Heinke, Dominique; Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Declercq, Eugene R; Chen, Xiaoli; Lin, Angela E; Anderka, Marlene

    2017-08-15

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with birth defects, but the contributions of multiple births and underlying subfertility remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of subfertility and mediation by multiple births on associations between ART and nonchromosomal birth defects. We identified a retrospective cohort of Massachusetts live births and stillbirths from 2004 to 2010 among ART-exposed, ART-unexposed subfertile, and fertile mothers using linked information from fertility clinics, vital records, hospital discharges, and birth defects surveillance. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mediation analyses were performed to deconstruct the ART-birth defects association into the direct effect of ART, the indirect effect of multiple births, and the effect of ART-multiples interaction. Of 17,829 ART-exposed births, 355 had a birth defect, compared with 162 of 9431 births to subfertile mothers and 6183 of 445,080 births to fertile mothers. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6) for ART and 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) in subfertile compared with fertile deliveries. We observed elevated rates of several birth defects with ART, including tetralogy of Fallot and hypospadias. Subfertility and multiple births affect these associations, with multiple births explaining 36% of the relative effect of ART on nonchromosomal birth defects. Although the risk of birth defects with ART is small, a substantial portion of the relative effect is mediated through multiple births, with subfertility contributing an important role. Future research is needed to determine the impact of newer techniques, such as single embryo transfer, on these risks. Birth Defects Research 109:1144-1153, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  13. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby

    2013-02-14

    The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams

  14. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  15. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.

  16. Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R

    2001-09-01

    In men, sexual orientation correlates with an individual's number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. It has been hypothesized that this fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to Y-linked minor histocompatibility antigens (H-Y antigens) by each succeeding male fetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of such maternal immunization on the future sexual orientation of each succeeding male fetus. According to this hypothesis, anti-H-Y antibodies produced by the mother pass through the placental barrier to the fetus and affect aspects of sexual differentiation in the fetal brain. This explanation is consistent with a variety of evidence, including the apparent irrelevance of older sisters to the sexual orientation of later born males, the probable involvement of H-Y antigen in the development of sex-typical traits, and the detrimental effects of immunization of female mice to H-Y antigen on the reproductive performance of subsequent male offspring. The maternal immune hypothesis might also explain the recent finding that heterosexual males with older brothers weigh less at birth than heterosexual males with older sisters and homosexual males with older brothers weigh even less than heterosexual males with older brothers. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Family size, birth order, and intelligence in a large South American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velandia, W; Grandon, G M; Page, E B

    1978-01-01

    The confluence theory, which hypothesizes a relationship between intellectual development birth order, and family size, was examined in a colombian study of more than 36,000 college applicants. The results of the study did not support the confluence theory. The confluence theory states that the intellectual development of a child is related to average mental age of the members of his family at the time of his birth. The mental age of the parents is always assigned a value of 30 and siblings are given scores equivalent to their chronological age at the birth of the subject. Therefore, the average mental age of family members for a 1st born child is 30, or 60 divided by 2. If a subject is born into a family consisting of 2 parents and a 6-year old sibling, the average mental age of family members tends, therefore, to decrease with each birth order. The hypothesis derived from the confluence theory states that there is a positive relationship between average mental age of a subject's family and the subject's performance on intelligence tests. In the Colombian study, data on family size, birth order and socioeconomic status was derived from college application forms. Intelligence test scores for each subject was obtained from college entrance exams. The mental age of each applicant's family at the time of the applicant's birth was calculated. Multiple correlation analysis and path analysis were used to assess the relationship. Results were 1) the test scores of subjects from families with 2,3,4, and 5 children were higher than test scores of the 1st born subjects; 2) the rank order of intelligence by family size was 3,4,5,2,6,1 instead of the hypothesized 1,2,3,4,5,6; and 3) only 1% of the variability in test scores was explained by the variables of birth order and family size. Further analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was a far more powerful explanatory variable than family size.

  18. Associations of scores on the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory and the Kern Lifestyle Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Campbell, L; Stewart, A

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the relations among psychological birth order, actual birth order, and lifestyle. The study also further examined the convergent validity of the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory. This inventory and Kern's Lifestyle Scale were administered to 126 individuals in a southeastern urban university. The several analyses of variance and canonical correlation analysis (1) supported a stronger relationship between psychological birth order and lifestyle than between actual birth order and lifestyle, (2) identified differential relationships between particular birth-order positions and lifestyle scales that were predicted and in accord with Adlerian theory, and (3) further supported the validity of the inventory. The results reaffirmed the lifestyle pattern and birth-order characterizations of Adlerian theory.

  19. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under

  20. METABOLIC AND BEHAVIORAL PARAMETERS IN NEWBORN PIGLETS IN RELATION TO BIRTH ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment had 2 phases:During the first phase 19 sows were monitored during farrowing; the piglets were numbered according to birth order, they were weighed and there were recorded the time each piglet was born and when it first suckled. There was calculated the time from the beginning of the farrowing until the time each piglet was born (TNPP and the time from birth until the first suckle (TPS. A statistical correlation was established between these parameters.During the second experimental phase, for 49 piglets from 5 sows were determined: birth weight, TPS, glycemia at birth (G0 and after the first suckle (G1, rectal temperature at birth (T0 and after the first suckles (T1. This data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Respecting the birth order, TPS is shorter for piglets born last (p<0.05. Average TPS was 23.04±2.49 minutes; during this time glycemia rises from 58.35 mg% to 64.35 mg% and rectal temperature drops from 38.58°C to 37.35°C. T0 is positively correlated with G0 (p<0.01 with G1 (p<0.01 and T1 (p<0.01. G0 is highly correlated to G1 (r=0.8855; p=0.

  1. Sibling Sex Ratio and Birth Order in Early-Onset Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.; Blanchard, Ray; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2011-01-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands’ position (e.g., first-born, middle-born, last-born) within their sibships. Fraternal birth order refers to their position among male siblings only. Such research was extended in this study to a large group of early-onset gender dysphor...

  2. Sexual orientation, fraternal birth order, and the maternal immune hypothesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Skorska, Malvina

    2011-04-01

    In 1996, psychologists Ray Blanchard and Anthony Bogaert found evidence that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This "fraternal birth order" (FBO) effect has been replicated numerous times, including in non-Western samples. More recently, strong evidence has been found that the FBO effect is of prenatal origin. Although there is no direct support for the exact prenatal mechanism, the most plausible explanation may be immunological in origin, i.e., a mother develops an immune reaction against a substance important in male fetal development during pregnancy, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestation. This immune effect is hypothesized to cause an alteration in (some) later born males' prenatal brain development. The target of the immune response may be molecules (i.e., Y-linked proteins) on the surface of male fetal brain cells, including in sites of the anterior hypothalamus, which has been linked to sexual orientation in other research. Antibodies might bind to these molecules and thus alter their role in typical sexual differentiation, leading some later born males to be attracted to men as opposed to women. Here we review evidence in favor of this hypothesis, including recent research showing that mothers of boys develop an immune response to one Y-linked protein (i.e., H-Y antigen; SMCY) important in male fetal development, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each additional boy to which a mother gives birth. We also discuss other Y-linked proteins that may be relevant if this hypothesis is correct. Finally, we discuss issues in testing the maternal immune hypothesis of FBO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Socio-Economic Status And Birth-Order As Correlates Of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated socio-economic status and birth-order as correlates of women spiritual help-seeking behavior. Five hundred women help-seekers were sampled from 10 spiritual houses within Ibadan metropolis. Their age ranged between 17-70 years. Fifty percent (50 %,) i.e. 250 of the total sample were singles; ...

  4. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir

    2011-01-01

    The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous...

  5. Sibling Sex Ratio and Birth Order in Early-Onset Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.E.E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blanchard, R.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2012-01-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands' position (e.g., first-born,

  6. Personality, birth order and attachment styles as related to various types of jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else),

  7. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  8. Relationship of birth order and the marketing-related variable of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanek, J E; Claxton, R P; Zemanek, W H

    2000-04-01

    The relationship between the birth order and materialism scores was investigated using materialism conceptualized as a consumer value. Data were collected from 275 alumni of a major southwestern university. The analysis indicated that first-borns in this sample scored significantly lower on materialism than younger siblings.

  9. Self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and birth order as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and birth order as predictors of academic performance among secondary school students in Kajola Local Government ... standardized scales and the data obtained was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Multiple Regression Statistical analysis of SPSS.

  10. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of ...

  11. Organizing population data into complex family pedigrees: application of a second-order data linkage to state birth defects registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shihfen; Mason, Craig A

    2004-09-01

    Researchers and health officials are increasingly using electronic linkage of large-scale health data systems as a tool for assembling a comprehensive picture of birth defects at a population level. Current linkage and database techniques are limited to first-order linkage--linking information on a single individual in one database with information on that same individual in another database. For example, while current strategies may indicate whether a child with a certain birth defect also has a specific metabolic disorder or risk factor, they are unable to readily determine whether he or she also has any siblings or other relatives with the same pattern. In contrast, the current manuscript proposes a second-order linkage--one that organizes data so that individual-level data can readily be organized into families or extended family pedigrees across an entire population. The ability to link and organize population data into family pedigrees can have significant, broad impact upon health research and service delivery. This can lead to large-scale analysis of genetic factors and, with the linking of environmental data, the potential for large-scale studies of gene-environment interactions. In addition, it expands the potential for epidemiological research by readily allowing the examination of familial effects upon population rates of birth defects, and provides valuable information that can assist in applied public health. An example of a second order database incorporating an electronic birth defects registry is presented. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Birth order and number of siblings and their association with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Fernanda Oliveira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Schäfer, Antônio Augusto; Dahly, Darren Lawrence; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2018-02-01

    The effect of both birth order and number of siblings on overweight and/or obesity has not been determined. Birth order and sibsize have been mathematically coupled to overweight and/or obesity, but thus far their respective effects have been estimated separately. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of both birth order and number of siblings on the risk of overweight/obesity. The electronic databases MEDLINE, Social Science, SocINDEX, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Academic Search Complete were searched systematically. Titles and abstracts of 1698 records were examined. After 1504 records were excluded, 2 authors independently assessed the full text of all remaining papers (n = 194); disagreements were resolved by discussion. A standardized form for assessment of study quality and evidence synthesis was used to extract data from the included studies. Twenty studies were included in the systematic review, 14 of which were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed that lower (vs higher) birth order and smaller (vs greater) number of siblings were associated with overweight and/or obesity, with ORs of 1.47 (95%CI, 1.12-1.93) and 1.46 (95%CI, 1.17-1.84), respectively. However, among the 9 studies that attempted to separate the effects of birth order and number of siblings in the same analysis, a higher risk of overweight/obesity was consistently found among individuals without siblings than among those with 1 or more siblings, rather than among firstborns more generally. The results show that both lower birth order and lower number of siblings are associated with risk of overweight/obesity, which suggests that only children are at a slightly increased risk of overweight/obesity. PROSPERO registration number CRD42014015135. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Homosexuality, birth order, and evolution: toward an equilibrium reproductive economics of homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E M

    2000-02-01

    The survival of a human predisposition for homosexuality can be explained by sexual orientation being a polygenetic trait that is influenced by a number of genes. During development these shift male brain development in the female direction. Inheritance of several such alleles produces homosexuality. Single alleles make for greater sensitivity, empathy, tendermindedness, and kindness. These traits make heterosexual carriers of the genes better fathers and more attractive mates. There is a balanced polymorphism in which the feminizing effect of these alleles in heterosexuals offsets the adverse effects (on reproductive success) of these alleles' contribution to homosexuality. A similar effect probably occurs for genes that can produce lesbianism in females. The whole system survives because it serves to provide a high degree of variability among the personalities of offspring, providing the genotype with diversification and reducing competition among offspring for the same niches. An allele with a large effect can survive in these circumstances in males, but it is less likely to survive in females. The birth order effect on homosexuality is probably a by-product of a biological mechanism that shifts personalities more in the feminine direction in the later born sons, reducing the probability of these sons engaging in unproductive competition with each other.

  14. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis...... at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR¿=¿0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P¿=¿0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I(2)¿=¿67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed...

  15. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C; Lähteenmäki, P; Träger, C; Stokland, T; Grell, K; Gustafson, G; Kogner, P; Sehested, A; Schüz, J

    2010-05-25

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease. In a large case-control study nested in the populations of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland of 4.4 million children, we studied the association of birth order and seasonal variation of birth with subsequent risk for CNS tumours. We identified 3983 children from the national cancer registries, and information on exposure was obtained from the high-quality national administrative health registries. We investigated the association between childcare attendance during the first 2 years of life and the risk for CNS tumours in a subset of Danish children with CNS tumours, using information from the Danish Childcare database. We observed no association between birth order and risk of CNS tumours overall (odds ratio (OR) for second born or later born vs first born, 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10) or by histological subgroup, and children with CNS tumours did not show a seasonal variation of birth that was distinct from that of the background population. Childcare attendance compared with homecare showed a slightly increased OR (1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.86) for CNS tumours, with the highest risk observed in children attending a crèche. The strongest association was observed for embryonal CNS tumours. We found no effect of age at enrolment or duration of enrolment in childcare. These results do not support the hypothesis that the burden of exposure to infectious disease in early childhood has an important role in the aetiology of paediatric CNS tumours.

  16. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The model for all evaluated traits included litter size, birth weight and litter size x birth weight interaction as a fixed effects and order parity of sows in which the litters were standardized as random effect. The significance of difference. (P) between means was determined using Duncan's multiple range test.

  17. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  18. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feij, Jan A,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same factor, are related to biologically based impulsive disorders, and have a common genetic basis. Questionnaire and biographical data obtained from 532 female and 479 male young adults (age between 18 and 30 years were analyzed using structural modeling. The results show that participants who experienced little parental care and much control were more likely to have high scores on disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. It appears that these family factors may partly explain the previously reported effects of birth order and family size on sensation seeking.

  19. Birth Order and Injury-Related Infant Mortality in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Katherine A; Rossen, Lauren M; Thoma, Marie E; Warner, Margaret; Simon, Alan E

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of death during the first year of life due to injury, such as unintentional injury and homicide, by birth order in the U.S. Using national birth cohort-linked birth-infant death data (births, 2000-2010; deaths, 2000-2011), risks of infant mortality due to injury in second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth or later-born singleton infants were compared with first-born singleton infants. Risk ratios were estimated using log-binomial models adjusted for maternal age, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education. The statistical analyses were conducted in 2016. Approximately 40%, 32%, 16%, 7%, and 4% of singleton live births were first, second, third, fourth, and fifth or later born, respectively. From 2000 to 2011, a total of 15,866 infants died as a result of injury (approximately 1,442 deaths per year). Compared with first-born infants (2.9 deaths per 10,000 live births), second or later-born infants were at increased risk of infant mortality due to injury (second, 3.6 deaths; third, 4.2 deaths; fourth, 4.8 deaths; fifth or later, 6.4 deaths). The corresponding adjusted risk ratios were as follows: second, 1.84 (95% CI=1.76, 1.91); third, 2.42 (95% CI=2.30, 2.54); fourth, 2.96 (95% CI=2.77, 3.16); and fifth or later, 4.26 (95% CI=3.96, 4.57). Singleton infants born second or later were at increased risk of mortality due to injury during their first year of life in the U.S. This study's findings highlight the importance of investigating underlying mechanisms behind this increased risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Fraternal Birth Order, Family Size, and Male Homosexuality: Meta-Analysis of Studies Spanning 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2018-01-01

    The fraternal birth order effect is the tendency for older brothers to increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This study compared the strength of the effect in subjects from small versus large families and in homosexual subjects with masculine versus feminine gender identities. Meta-analyses were conducted on 30 homosexual and 30 heterosexual groups from 26 studies, totaling 7140 homosexual and 12,837 heterosexual males. The magnitude of the fraternal birth order effect was measured with a novel variable, the Older Brothers Odds Ratio, computed as (homosexuals' older brothers ÷ homosexuals' other siblings) ÷ (heterosexuals' older brothers ÷ heterosexuals' other siblings), where other siblings = older sisters + younger brothers + younger sisters. An Older Brothers Odds Ratio of 1.00 represents no effect of sexual orientation; values over 1.00 are positive evidence for the fraternal birth order effect. Evidence for the reliability of the effect was consistent. The Older Brothers Odds Ratio was significantly >1.00 in 20 instances, >1.00 although not significantly in nine instances, and nonsignificantly <1.00 in 1 instance. The pooled Older Brothers Odds Ratio for all samples was 1.47, p < .00001. Subgroups analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in the 12 feminine or transgender homosexual groups than in the other 18 homosexual groups. There was no evidence that the magnitude of the effect differs according to family size.

  1. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir; Bulsara, Max K; Cinek, Ondrej; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Svensson, Jannet; Goldacre, Michael J; Waldhoer, Thomas; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Gimeno, Suely Ga; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Roberts, Christine L; Parslow, Roger C; Wadsworth, Emma Jk; Chetwynd, Amanda; Brigis, Girts; Urbonaite, Brone; Sipetic, Sandra; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E; Stoyanov, Denka; Buschard, Karsten; Radon, Katja; Glatthaar, Christopher; Patterson, Chris C

    2011-04-01

    The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies. Relevant studies published before January 2010 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of studies provided individual patient data or conducted pre-specified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios (ORs), before and after adjustment for confounders, and investigate heterogeneity. Data were available for 6 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 11,955 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was no evidence of an association prior to adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for maternal age at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR = 0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P = 0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I² = 67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed that the association was stronger and more consistent in children birth order, particularly in children aged < 5 years. This finding could reflect increased exposure to infections in early life in later born children.

  2. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  3. Birth order and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in multiplex families from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Coghill, Anna E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Kelly J; Niwa, Shelley; Brotzman, Michelle; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hildesheim, Allan

    2016-12-01

    A small proportion of individuals infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) develop nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Timing of initial exposure could alter immunological responses to primary EBV infection and explain variation in cancer risk later in life. We measured early life family structure as a proxy for the timing of primary EBV infection to examine whether earlier age at infection alters NPC risk. We utilized data from 480 NPC cases and 1,291 unaffected siblings from Taiwanese NPC multiplex families (≥ 2 family members with NPC, N = 2,921). Information on birth order within the family was derived from questionnaires. We utilized logistic regression models to examine the association between birth order and NPC, accounting for correlations between relatives. Within these high-risk families, older siblings had an elevated risk of NPC. Compared with being a first-born child, the risk (95% CIs) of NPC associated with a birth order of two, three, four and five or more was 1.00 (0.71, 1.40), 0.88 (0.62, 1.24), 0.74 (0.53, 1.05) and 0.60 (0.43, 0.82), respectively (P for trend = 0.002). We observed no associations between NPC risk and the number of younger siblings or cumulative infant-years exposure. These associations were not modified by underlying genetic predisposition or family size. We observed that early life family structure was important for NPC risk in NPC multiplex families, with older siblings having a greater risk of disease. Future studies focusing on more direct measures of the immune response to EBV in early childhood could elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  5. The Effect of Prior Term Birth on Risk of Recurrent Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Turitz, Amy L; Elovitz, Michal A; Levine, Lisa D

    2018-03-01

     The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior term birth on recurrent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) risk.  Retrospective cohort study of 211 women with prior sPTB, comparing women with and without prior term births. The primary outcome was recurrent sPTB term births (28.9 vs. 37.7%, p  = 0.2). Among women with prior second-trimester loss (16-23 6/7 weeks), those with a term birth had a decreased sPTB rate (15.4 vs. 43.2%, p  = 0.02), which persisted after adjusting for age and 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate use. For women with prior sPTB ≥24 weeks, there was no difference in sPTB with and without prior term births (29.5 vs. 26.6%, p  = 0.7). A term birth as the most recent delivery lowered, but did not eliminate, the sPTB risk (19.1 vs. 36.4%, p  = 0.1).  Prior term birth lowers the risk of recurrent sPTB for women with prior second-trimester loss, but not for women with prior sPTB ≥24 weeks. Women with prior preterm and term births should be counseled accordingly and all sPTB prevention strategies should be recommended. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327). Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  7. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ki Kwok

    Full Text Available Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally.We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327.Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.23, -0.14, lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04, greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14 and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14, but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11, adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996, but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15, but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11, at 13 years, but similar blood pressure.Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  8. Effects of Intimate Partner Physical Violence on Newborns' Birth Outcomes Among Jordanian Birthing Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujilban, Sanaa; Mrayan, Lina; Al-Modallal, Hanan; Isaa, Esra'a

    2015-09-07

    Intimate partner physical violence against women (VAW) during pregnancy is a common experience all over the world. In Jordan, the number is double the reported international average. Data on effect of violence on birth outcomes are important for planning, implementing, and evaluating maternal health programs. The research question was, "Does intimate partner physical VAW during pregnancy increase the risk of negative birth outcomes for newborns among birthing women in Jordan?" Natural experiment design was used for this study. A consecutive sampling technique was used for selecting the victims of physical violence (n = 79) and a simple random sampling for selecting non-victims (n = 79). Intimate partner physical violence was measured by using the Arabic version of World Health Organization's (WHO) domestic violence questionnaire, which has an accepted interrater validity. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and chi-square were used to detect the differences in birth outcomes between the victims and non-victims of physical violence. The results showed that there is a significant difference in newborn's birth weight between the victims of violence and non-victims with a small effect size. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in preterm birth and assisted newborn ventilation. The non-significant effect of violence on the incidence of preterm birth contradicts the published literature. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is rooted in Jordanian culture and widely accepted among married Jordanian women. Midwives, doctors, educators, and policy makers should work together to eradicate violence and detect victims of it, to improve birth outcomes and decrease newborn morbidity and mortality rates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Effect of maternal age on facility-based delivery: analysis of first-order births in 34 countries of sub-Saharan Africa using demographic and health survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Catherine L; Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona

    2018-04-13

    Increasing access to skilled birth attendance, usually via childbirth in health facilities, is a key intervention to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Yet, in some countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the uptake is Health Surveys from 34 sub-Saharan African countries were used to assess women's delivery locations. 72 772 women having their first birth in the 5 years preceding the surveys were included in the analysis. Proportions and 95% CIs of facility-based deliveries were estimated overall and by country. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of facility-based delivery for different maternal age groups (15-19, 20-24 and ≥25 years) for a pooled sample of all countries. 59.9% of women had a facility-based delivery for their first birth (95% CI 58.6 to 61.2), ranging from 19.4% in Chad to 96.6% in Rwanda. Compared with women aged 15-19 years, the adjusted odds of having a facility-based delivery for those aged 20-24 was 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5, psub-Saharan Africa. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Birth order and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus: a case-control study in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Yusuke; Lemoine, Maud; Bottomley, Christian; Njai, Harr Freeya; Ndow, Gibril; Jatta, Abdoulie; Tamba, Saydiba; Bojang, Lamin; Taal, Makie; Nyan, Ousman; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark; Hall, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Early age at infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases the risk of chronic infection. Moreover, early HBV infection may further independently increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond its effect on chronicity. The distribution of birth order, a proxy for mode and timing of HBV transmission, was compared in The Gambia between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases recruited from hospitals (n = 72) and two HBsAg-positive control groups without HCC: population-based controls from a community HBV screening (n = 392) and hospital-based controls (n = 63). HCC risk decreased with increasing birth order in the population-based case-control analysis. Using first birth order as the reference, the odds ratios were 0.52 (95% CI: 0.20-1.36), 0.52 (0.17-1.56), 0.57 (0.16-2.05) and 0.14 (0.03-0.64) for second, third, fourth and greater than fourth birth order respectively (P = 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed in the hospital-based case-control comparison (P = 0.04). Compared to controls, HCC cases had earlier birth order, a proxy for young maternal age and maternal HBV viraemia at birth. This finding suggests that in chronic HBV carriers perinatal mother-to-infant transmission may increase HCC risk more than horizontal transmission. Providing HBV vaccine within 24 h of birth to interrupt perinatal transmission might reduce the incidence of HCC in The Gambia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Jelenkovic, A.; Sund, R.; Sung, J.; Hopper, J.L.; Ooki, S.; Heikkilä, K.; Aaltonen, S.; Tarnoki, A.D.; Tarnoki, D.L.; Willemsen, G.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Saudino, K.J.; Cutler, T.L.; Nelson, T.L.; Whitfield, K.E.; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; He, M.; Ding, X.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sodemann, M.; Song, Y.M.; Yang, S.; Lee, K.; Jeong, H.U.; Knafo-Noam, A.; Mankuta, D.; Abramson, L.; Burt, S.A.; Klump, K.L.; Ordonana, J.R.; Sanchez-Romera, J.F.; Colodro-Conde, L.; Harris, J.R.; Brandt, I.; Sevenius Nilsen, T.; Craig, J.M.; Saffery, R.; Ji, F.; Ning, F.; Pang, Z.; Dubois, L.; Boivin, M.; Brendgen, M.; Dionne, G.; Vitaro, F.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dahl Aslan, A.K.; Tynelius, P.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Plomin, R.; Rebato, E.; Rose, R.J.; Goldberg, J.H.; Rasmussen, F.; Hur, Y.M.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kaprio, J.; Silventoinen, K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of

  12. Maternal attitudes towards home birth and their effect on birth outcomes in Iceland: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Sveinsdottir, Herdis

    2016-03-01

    to examine the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and birth outcomes, and whether women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected this relationship. a prospective cohort study. the study was set in Iceland, a sparsely populated island with harsh terrain, 325,000 inhabitants, high fertility and home birth rates, and less than 5000 births a year. a convenience sample of women who attended antenatal care in Icelandic health care centres, participated in the Childbirth and Health Study in 2009-2011, and expressed consistent attitudes towards home birth (n=809). of the participants, 164 (20.3%) expressed positive attitudes towards choosing home birth and 645 (79.7%) expressed negative attitudes. Women who had a positive attitude towards home birth had significantly more positive attitudes towards birth and more negative attitudes towards intervention than did women who had a negative attitude towards home birth. Of the 340 self-reported low-risk women that answered questionnaires on birth outcomes, 78 (22.9%) had a positive attitude towards home birth and 262 (77.1%) had a negative attitude. Oxytocin augmentation (19.2% (n=15) versus 39.1% (n=100)), epidural analgesia (19.2% (n=15) versus 33.6% (n=88)), and neonatal intensive care unit admission rates (0.0% (n=0) versus 5.0% (n=13)) were significantly lower among women who had a positive attitude towards home birth. Women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and oxytocin augmentation or epidural analgesia. the beneficial effect of planned home birth on maternal outcome in Iceland may depend to some extent on women's attitudes towards birth and intervention. Efforts to de-stigmatise out-of-hospital birth and de-medicalize women's attitudes towards birth might increase women׳s use of health-appropriate birth services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Norway and Denmark. Comments on pleiotropy and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Viggo; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Johannesen, Tom B; Ly, Bernt; Olsen, Jørgen H; Yuille, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the genetics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In 56 (7%) out of 800 CLL patients with concomitant malignant hematological disease, 51 families and 141 cases were ascertained. 106 cases (75%) of CLL, 27 cases (19%) of nonCLL and 8 cases (6%) of myeloproliferative disorders. Paternal disease was transmitted primarily to the youngest sons in the sibship while maternal disease was transmitted equally to all sibs, demonstrated by means of matrix conjugation and confirmed with Cox regression on parity and birth order (maternal-offspring combination: relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47 (0.89 - 2.43), p=0.12, compared with paternal-offspring combination: RR=3.25, 95% CI=(1.57-6.72), p<0.001). The B-cell expression in familial and sporadic CLL was indistinguishable. Parental genomic imprinting is pointed out as one possible mechanism behind this non-Mendelian genomic output.

  14. Siblings and Birth Order-Are They Important for the Occurrence of ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimelt, Charlotte; Wolff, Nicole; Hölling, Heike; Mogwitz, Sabine; Ehrlich, Stefan; Martini, Julia; Roessner, Veit

    2018-05-01

    The associations of birth order, number of siblings, and ADHD was examined. The analysis based on representative, epidemiological data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study ( N = 13,488). An increased risk for ADHD in firstborn versus youngest born children (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.09, 1.58]) and also versus children with no sibling (OR = 1.31, 95% CI [1.03, 1.68]) was revealed, while number of siblings was not associated with ADHD. Results remained stable after controlling for confounders. Firstborn children may receive simultaneously less parental resources and more responsibilities if younger siblings are born. This happens during the vulnerable developmental period of ADHD. In addition, due to higher levels of insecurity, parents are assumed to focus more on potential physical or psychological abnormities in their firstborn children. This may result in a diagnostic bias in firstborn children.

  15. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, Stephen; Mens, Pètra F.; Karema, Corine; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Kaligirwa, Nadine; Vyankandondera, Joseph; de Vries, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence

  16. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-03-27

    The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and the federal income tax T1 Family Files. Separate logistic models were used to quantify the association between socioeconomic position, clinical risk factors and spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth. The study population included 132,714 singleton deliveries and the rate of preterm birth was 5.5%. Preterm birth rates were significantly higher among the women in the lowest (versus the highest) family income group for spontaneous (rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.25) but not iatrogenic preterm birth (rate ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75, 1.19). Adjustment for maternal characteristics attenuated the family income-spontaneous preterm birth relationship but strengthened the relationship with iatrogenic preterm birth. Clinical risk factors such as hypertension were differentially associated with spontaneous (rate ratio 3.92, 95% CI 3.47, 4.44) and iatrogenic preterm (rate ratio 14.1, 95% CI 11.4, 17.4) but factors such as diabetes mellitus were not (rate ratio 4.38, 95% CI 3.21, 5.99 for spontaneous and 4.02, 95% CI 2.07, 7.80 for iatrogenic preterm birth). Socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors have different effects on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm. Recent temporal increases in iatrogenic preterm birth appear to be responsible for the inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth.

  17. Maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval evaluation for cleft lip-palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Cruz, Kaliany Wanessa da; Barros, Letízia Monteiro de; Silveira, Marise Fernandes; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval), obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the SPSS 17.0 software. The results were analyzed with the relative risk for each variable, in order to estimate the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval, followed by a bivariate and multivariate analysis. among 200 children, 54% were males and 46% were females. As far as skin color is concerned most were brown, white and black, respectively. Cleft palates were the most common fissures found (54%), followed by lip cleft (30%) and palate cleft (16%). although with a limited sample, we noticed an association between maternal age and an increased risk for cleft lip and palate; however, paternal age, pregnancy order and interpregnancy interval were not significant.

  18. Detecting and correcting for family size differences in the study of sexual orientation and fraternal birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The term "fraternal birth order effect" denotes a statistical relation most commonly expressed in one of two ways: Older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later born males or, alternatively, homosexual men tend to have more older brothers than do heterosexual men. The demonstrability of this effect depends partly on the adequate matching of the homosexual and heterosexual study groups with respect to mean family size. If the homosexual group has too many siblings, relative to the heterosexual group, the homosexual group will tend to show the expected excess of older brothers but may also show an excess of other sibling-types (most likely older sisters); if the homosexual group has too few siblings, it will tend not to show a difference in number of older brothers but instead may show a deficiency of other sibling-types (most likely younger brothers and younger sisters). In the first part of this article, these consequences are illustrated with deliberately mismatched groups selected from archived data sets. In the second part, two slightly different methods for transforming raw sibling data are presented. These are intended to produce family-size-corrected variables for each of the four original sibling parameters (older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters). Both versions are shown to render the fraternal birth order effect observable in the deliberately mismatched groups. In the third part of the article, fraternal birth order studies published in the last 5 years were surveyed for failures to find a statistically significant excess of older brothers for the homosexual group. Two such studies were found in the nine examined. In both cases, the collective findings for older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters suggested that the mean family size of the homosexual groups was smaller than that of the heterosexual comparison groups. Furthermore, the individual findings for the four classes of siblings resembled those

  19. Proportion of homosexual men who owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order: An estimate based on two national probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2004-01-01

    Homosexuality in men correlates with an individual's number of older brothers, greater numbers of older brothers being associated with a greater probability of homosexuality. There are reasons to believe that this relationship is causal rather than merely statistical, that is, that older brothers produce the increase in the probability of homosexuality for later-born males. It is possible, under this assumption, to estimate the proportion of homosexual men who can attribute their sexual orientation to their birth order among their brothers (fraternal birth order). This statistic, the population attributable fraction (PAF), was computed on the combined archival data of 2,256 heterosexual and 71 homosexual men examined in survey studies of sexual behavior in the UK and the USA. The PAF was 28.6%, with 95% confidence limits of 14.8% and 48.0%. These limits encompass the PAF of 15.1% previously estimated with a Canadian sample. The results indicate that the proportion of homosexual men whose sexual orientation is attributable to fraternal birth order constitutes a minority, but not a negligible minority, of all homosexual men. The fraternal birth order effect may reflect the progressive immunization of some mothers to Y-linked antigens by each succeeding male fetus, and the concomitantly increasing effects of antimale antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male fetus. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Fraternal Birth Order and Extreme Right-Handedness as Predictors of Sexual Orientation and Gender Nonconformity in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Mariana; Rahman, Qazi

    2015-07-01

    The present study explored whether there were relationships between number of older brothers, handedness, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and sexual orientation in men. We used data from previous British studies conducted in our laboratory (N = 1,011 heterosexual men and 921 gay men). These men had completed measures of demographic variables, number and sex of siblings, CGN, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The results did not replicate the fraternal birth order effect. However, gay men had fewer "other siblings" than heterosexual men (even after controlling for the stopping-rule and family size). In a sub-sample (425 gay men and 478 heterosexual men) with data available on both sibling sex composition and handedness scores, gay men were found to show a significantly greater likelihood of extreme right-handedness and non-right-handedness compared to heterosexual men. There were no significant effects of sibling sex composition in this sub-sample. In a further sub-sample (N = 487) with data available on sibling sex composition, handedness, and CGN, we found that men with feminine scores on CGN were more extremely right-handed and had fewer other-siblings compared to masculine scoring men. Mediation analysis revealed that handedness was associated with sexual orientation directly and also indirectly through the mediating factor of CGN. We were unable to replicate the fraternal birth order effect in our archived dataset but there was evidence for a relationship among handedness, sexual orientation, and CGN. These data help narrow down the number of possible neurodevelopmental pathways leading to variations in male sexual orientation.

  1. Divergent response profile in activated cord blood T cells from first-born child implies birth-order-associated in utero immune programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, M; Larsen, J M; Thysen, A H; Rasmussen, M A; Wolsk, H M; Bisgaard, H; Brix, S

    2016-03-01

    First-born children are at higher risk of developing a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of 'birth-order effects' on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. We studied the association between birth order and the functional response of stimulated cord blood T cells. Purified cord blood T cells were polyclonally activated with anti-CD3-/anti-CD28-coated beads in a subgroup of 28 children enrolled in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort. Expression levels of seven activation markers on helper and cytotoxic T cells as well as the percentage of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-10 was measured in the supernatants. IL-10 secretion (P = 0.007) and CD25 expression on CD4(+) helper T cells (P = 0.0003) in the activated cord blood T cells were selectively reduced in first-born children, while the percentage of circulating CD4(+) CD25(+) cord blood T cells was independent of birth order. First-born infants display a reduced anti-inflammatory profile in T cells at birth. This possible in utero 'birth-order' T-cell programming may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Impact of Birth Order on Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes from Parents to Adolescent Sons: The Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…

  3. Birth order and the dominance aspect of extraversion : Are firstborns more extraverted, in the sense of being dominant, than laterborns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study set out to examine the relationship between birth order and the dominance facet of extraversion in a community sample of around 1500 participants. In contrast, to Sulloway's (1995) predictions, the present study, using a between-family design, found firstborns to be less

  4. The effect of cigarette and alcohol consumption on birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    behaviors, most importantly prenatal alcohol consumption. Second, it uses prenatal maternal reports on inputs and objective administrative data on child outcomes. Both features of the data reduce the threat of recall bias and measurement error. Third, the paper identifies the effect of health behaviors...... by exploiting variation between siblings. The results of the paper confirm and extend earlier findings. Maternal smoking decreases birth weight and fetal growth, with smaller effects in sibling models. The negative alcohol effect on birth outcomes is pronounced and remains intact in sibling models. Both effects...

  5. Maternal age at delivery and order of birth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Joanna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2006-04-01

    Parental age and birth order as risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus were investigated using data from the Regional Diabetic Center for Upper Silesia, Poland, in a population-based study of 398 children with type 1 DM aged 0-14 years born between 1979-1996. Noting differences in the proportions of children of different birth order between cases and controls, the data were stratified by birth order. For each stratum, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess risks related to the mother's age. The homogeneity of the odds ratios related to the mother's age between strata was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Risks related to mother's age and birth order were also estimated jointly by multivariable logistic regression. Decreased risk in later children compared with firstborns was noted. Increased maternal age was found to be a risk factor for type 1 DM. An increase in the mother's age by one year increases the risk of the child being affected by type 1 DM 1.07 times, and children born as the nth in the family are 1.59 times less exposed to the same risk than those born as the (n-1)th. Children of different birth order have different risks of being affected by type 1 DM. Increased maternal age at the time of delivery is a risk factor for type 1 DM in Upper Silesia, Poland. To avoid bias in estimating risks, the mother's age and child's sequence number should be analyzed jointly.

  6. Maternal and social genetic effects on average daily gain of piglets from birth until weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Bergsma, R.; Duijvestein, N.; Bijma, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is heritable social variation in ADG from birth until weaning in piglets. Nursing and the establishment of teat order are sources of social interaction among suckling piglets nursed by the same sow. If a heritable social effect is present, but

  7. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Obuchi, Ritsuko; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-09-11

    Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9-10 years) in Ina Town during 1999-2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents' age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects' height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these

  8. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14 and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16 significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend P for trend  Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.

  9. Birth cohort effects on mortality in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    groups. The data was analysed using descriptive techniques, Age-period-cohort modelling and age-decomposing of life expectancies. Results: The results showed no similar birth cohort effect for Norway and Sweden when compared to Denmark and a relatively high impact of the birth cohort effect on life......Background Understanding and then reducing disparities in health and life expectancy within and between countries, has been described as an important issue on the public health agenda for the this century. In this context it is of interest that Danish women, had a lower increase in life expectancy...... during the last decades then other countries in the European Union and now has the lowest life expectancy in EU. The low life expectancy of Danish women is strongly influenced by a birth cohort effect for Danish women born between the two World Wars. The high risk generations of women were in part...

  10. Colorado Child Identification Process. Birth - Five Years Effectiveness Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro-Jackson, Pat; And Others

    This set of effectiveness indicators is intended to assist Colorado communities and agencies to evaluate themselves regarding processes for the identification of young children (birth to age 5) with disabilities. First, a statement of values stresses proactivity, family empowerment, and outcome orientation. Specific effectiveness indicators are…

  11. Birth order in homosexual versus heterosexual sex offenders against children, pubescents, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R; Bogaert, A F

    1998-12-01

    Homosexual men erotically attracted to physically mature partners typically have more older brothers than comparable heterosexual men. We investigated whether late fraternal birth positions also occur in homosexuals attracted to children or pubescents. Probands were 710 sex offenders from Gebhard et al.'s (1965) study of sexual offending. Homosexual offenders against adults and pubescents had later fraternal birth positions than heterosexual offenders against adults and pubescents, respectively; there was no difference between the homosexual and heterosexual offenders against children. Results provide some evidence that homosexuality in men attracted to immature males is etiologically related to homosexuality in men attracted to mature males.

  12. Complexities of sibling analysis when exposures and outcomes change with time and birth order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka I.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Divan, Hozefa A.; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were

  13. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Feij, Jan A,; Taris, Toon W.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same fa...

  14. Direct Maternal Genetic Effects and Birth Weight Trends of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlation between direct and maternal effects was negative implying that selection should be directed at both components, considering the maternal heritability estimate, which was moderate. The environmental parameter records of the study area suggest that birth weight was not depressed by the tropical semi arid ...

  15. The effect of geographical region of birth on the reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sonia

    2013-07-13

    Jul 13, 2013 ... The objective of this study was to assess the effect of place of birth on the reproductive performance ... largest indigenous cattle breed (Rocha, 1985; Maciel, 2001), largely distributed among the provinces of ... When the civil war ended, Mozambique started a Livestock Restocking Programme importing.

  16. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  17. Overshooting Effects in Nonequilibrium Ordering Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1995-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulation on the simplest possible statistical mechanical model, the two-dimensional, nonconserved kinetic Ising model that undergoes an order-disorder transition, we show that the local order of the ordering domains, subsequent to a temperature quench, transiently overshoots t...... the value of the equilibrium order parameter. It is argued that overshooting is a generic effect in ordering dynamics, independent of the detailed dynamics and the conservation laws in effect....

  18. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation.

  19. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  20. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women can choose from many different types of birth control methods. These include, in order of most effective to least effective at preventing pregnancy: Female and male sterilization (female tubal ligation or occlusion, male vasectomy) — Birth control that prevents pregnancy for the rest of ...

  1. Alphabetical order effects in school admissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 483-498 ISSN 0267-1522 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : admissions * alphabetical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2016

  2. Keeping it Natural: Does Persuasive Magazine Content Have an Effect on Young Women's Intentions for Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kate; Miller, Yvette D

    2015-01-01

    Information in the popular media tends to be biased toward promoting the benefits of medicalized birth for low-risk pregnancies. We aimed to assess the effect of communicating the benefits of non-medicalized birth in magazine articles on women's birth intentions and to identify the mechanisms by which social communication messages affected women's intentions for birth. A convenience sample of 180 nulliparous Australian women aged 18-35 years were randomly exposed to a magazine article endorsing non-medicalized birth (using either celebrity or non-celebrity endorsement) or organic eating (control) throughout June-July 2011. Magazine articles that endorsed non-medicalized birth targeted perceived risk of birth, expectations for labor and birth, and attitudes toward birth. These variables and intention for birth were assessed by self-report before and after exposure. Exposure to a magazine article that endorsed non-medicalized birth significantly reduced women's intentions for a medicalized birth, regardless of whether the endorsement was by celebrities or non-celebrities. Changes in perceived risk of birth mediated the effect of magazine article exposure on women's intentions for a medicalized birth. Persuasive communication that endorses non-medicalized birth could be delivered at the population level and may reduce women's intentions for a medicalized birth.

  3. Maternal air pollution exposure and preterm birth in Wuxi, China: Effect modification by maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Jiang, Panhua; Dong, Tianyu; Ding, Xinliang; Chen, Ting; Villanger, Gro Dehli; Aase, Heidi; Huang, Lu; Xia, Yankai

    2018-08-15

    Numerous studies have investigated prenatal air pollution and shown that air pollutants have adverse effect on birth outcomes. However, which trimester was the most sensitive and whether the effect was related to maternal age is still ambiguous. This study aims to explore the association between maternal air pollution exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, and if this relationship is modified by maternal age. In this retrospective cohort study, we examine the causal relationship of prenatal exposure to air pollutants including particulate matters, which are less than 10 µm (PM 10 ), and ozone (O 3 ), which is one of the gaseous pollutants, on preterm birth by gestational age. A total of 6693 pregnant women were recruited from Wuxi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital. The participants were dichotomized into child-bearing age group ( = 35 years old) in order to analyze the effect modification by maternal age. Logistic and linear regression models were performed to assess the risk for preterm birth (gestational age air pollution exposure. With adjustment for covariates, the highest level of PM 10 exposure significantly increased the risk of preterm birth by 1.42-fold (95% CI: 1.10, 1.85) compared those with the lowest level in the second trimester. Trimester-specific PM 10 exposure was positively associated with gestational age, whereas O 3 exposure was associated with gestational age in the early pregnancy. When stratified by maternal age, PM 10 exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only in the advanced age group during pregnancy (OR:2.15, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.07). The results suggested that PM 10 exposure associated with preterm birth was modified by advanced maternal age (OR interaction = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.91, P interaction = 0.032). Prenatal air pollution exposure would increase risk of preterm birth and reduced gestational age. Thus, more attention should be paid to the effects of ambient air pollution

  4. Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C L; Coeli, C M; Pinheiro, R S; Brandão, E R; Camargo, K R; Aguiar, F P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Relation of Birth Order, Social Class, and Need Achievement to Independent Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhine, W. Ray

    1974-01-01

    This article reports an investigation in which the brith order, social class, and level of achievement arousal are the variables considered when fifth and sixth-grade girls make independent judgements in performing a set task. (JH)

  6. Order effect in interactive information retrieval evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Melanie Landvad; Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study of order effect in interactive information retrieval (IIR) studies. The phenomenon of order effect is well-known, and it is the main reason why searches are permuted (counter-balanced) between test participants in IIR studies. However, the ...

  7. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  8. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Birth order of twins and risk of perinatal death related to delivery in England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, 1994-2003: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon C S; Fleming, Kate M; White, Ian R

    2007-03-17

    To determine the effect of birth order on the risk of perinatal death in twin pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, 1994-2003. 1377 twin pregnancies with one intrapartum stillbirth or neonatal death from causes other than congenital abnormality and one surviving infant. The risk of perinatal death in the first and second twin estimated with conditional logistic regression. There was no association between birth order and the risk of death overall (odds ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.1). However, there was a highly significant interaction with gestational age (Pbirth order and the risk of death among infants born before 36 weeks' gestation but there was an increased risk of death among second twins born at term (2.3, 1.7 to 3.2, Pbirths, there was a trend (P=0.1) towards a greater risk of the second twin dying from anoxia among those delivered vaginally (4.1, 1.8 to 9.5) compared with those delivered by caesarean section (1.8, 0.9 to 3.6). In this cohort, compared with first twins, second twins born at term were at increased risk of perinatal death related to delivery. Vaginally delivered second twins had a fourfold risk of death caused by intrapartum anoxia.

  10. [Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    to develop abnormal glucose metabolism when compared with norm weight ones. Likewise, subjects with central obesity were more likely to develop abnormal glucose metabolism than ones with normal waist (odds ratio (OR)=3.35, 95%CI=2.49-4.50). In addition, compared to subjects with normal birth weight and normal BMI at adulthood, ones with normal birth weight and overweight (including obesity) at adulthood were more likely to have abnormal glucose metabolism (OR= 2.60, 95%CI=1.94-3.49); subjects with low birth weight and overweight (including obesity) at adulthood had the highest risk for abnormal glucose metabolism (OR=4.70, 95% CI=1.84- 11.99). The attributable proportion of interaction between low birth weight and overweight (including obesity) at adulthood was 48.5%. In addition, compared to subjects with normal birth weight and normal WC at adulthood, one with normal birth weight and central obesity at adulthood were more likely to have abnormal glucose metabolism (OR=3.18, 95% CI=2.33- 4.32); subjects with low birth weight and central obesity at adulthood had the highest risk for abnormal glucose metabolism (OR=4.78, 95% CI=2.01- 11.38); subjects with high birth weight and central at adulthood also had high risk for abnormal glucose metabolism (OR=4.35, 95%CI=1.38- 13.65). We found that the attributable proportion of interaction between low birth weight and central obesity at adulthood was 38.5% , and was 28.3% for interaction between high weight and central obesity. There was strong interaction effect between birth weight and overweight (especially central obesity) at adulthood on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Effective measures should be adopted to prevent and control adult obesity in order to offset the adverse effect of birth weight on long-term health risk.

  11. Alphabetical order effects in school admissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 483-498 ISSN 0267-1522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : admissions * alphabetical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2016

  12. Systemic Design for Second-Order Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Barba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Second-order effects refer to changes within a system that are the result of changes made somewhere else in the system (the first-order effects. Second-order effects can occur at different spatial, temporal, or organizational scales from the original interventions, and are difficult to control. Some organizational theorists suggest that careful management of feedback processes can facilitate controlled change from one organizational configuration to another. Recognizing that skill in managing feedback processes is a core competency of design suggests that design skills are potentially useful tools in achieving organizational change. This paper describes a case study in which a co-design methodology was used to control the second-order effects resulting from a classroom intervention to create organizational change. This approach is then theorized as the Instigator Systems approach.

  13. Ordering effects in nonstoichiometric titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Zueva, L.V.; Gusev, A.I.; Kottar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of nonstoichiometry and ordering on crystalline structure and specific electric resistance (ρ) of TiC y (0.52≤y≤0.98) is studied within the temperature range of 300-1100 K. It is shown that the titanium carbide ordering in the areas 0.52≤y≤0.55, 0.56≤y≤0.58 and 0.62≤y≤0.68 leads to formation of the Ti 2 C cubic and trigonal ordered phase and the Ti 3 C 2 rhombic ordered phase correspondingly. Availability of hysteresis on the ρ(T) dependences in the area of the disorder-order reversible equilibrium transition points out to the fact that the TiC y ↔Ti 2 C and TiC y ↔Ti 3 C 2 transformations are the first order phase transitions [ru

  14. Effect of intimate partner violence on birth outcomes.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... sought to determine association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A ... partner violence was not associated with still birth, pre-term birth and Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes. Conclusion: ..... Besides, the wide confidence intervals were observed ...

  15. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hawken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  16. Presentation Order Effects in Product Taste Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michael L.

    1980-01-01

    Presentation order in paired-comparison testing was varied to measure the impact of primacy v recency effects on consumer product evaluation. First position preference bias characterized the findings, lending support to the attention decrement hypothesis or a suggested palate desensitization effect on subsequent taste trial behavior. (Author)

  17. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  18. Exposure Order Effects and Advertising Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies the theories of exposure order effects, developed in the psychology literature, to an industrial organization model to explore their role in advertising competition. There are two firms and infinitely many identical consumers. The firms produce a homogeneous product and distribute their brands through a common retailer. Consumers randomly arrive at the retailer and buy their most preferred brands. The order in which a consumer sees the advertising messages affects his brand...

  19. Relationship of Cord Blood Immunoglobulin E and Maternal Immunoglobulin E with Birth Order and Maternal History of Allergy in Albanian Mother/Neonate Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Lumezi, Besa

    2017-10-15

    Previous studies reported that familial factors such as birth order and mothers atopy might influence cord blood levels and development of allergies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship of cord blood IgE and maternal IgE with birth order and mothers history of allergy in Albanian mother/neonate pairs. Study population represented 291 mother-infant pairs. Mothers were interviewed with a questionnaire for personal history of allergy and pregnancy history whereas serum IgE levels were determined using sandwich IRMA assay. The mean level of cIgE in neonates with detectable levels was 1.59 (n = 78). No significant difference in means of cIgE was found between first born and later born neonates (p = 0.232) and between neonates of mothers with a negative and positive history of allergy (p = 0.125). Also, no significant difference was found between means of mIgE by birth order, whereas there was a significant difference of mIgE between mothers with and without a history of allergy (p = 0.01). In a group of neonates with detectable cIgE levels, maternal IgE levels were moderately correlated with cIgE levels. Cord blood IgE is not affected by birth order and mothers history of allergy, whereas mothers IgE are affected by the history of allergy but not by birth order.

  20. Sibship size, birth order and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and infectious mononucleosis: a nationwide study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Fang, Fang; Chang, Ellen T; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ye, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    The aetiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains enigmatic in endemic and non-endemic areas. Early-life infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may predispose to NPC development, whereas delayed primary infection with EBV may cause infectious mononucleosis (IM). We used Swedish population and health registers to investigate whether potential indicators of early EBV infection, such as birth order, sibship size, maternal age and paternal age, are related to the subsequent risks for NPC and IM. We conducted two nested case-control studies, one for each health outcome, based on 251 NPC case patients, 11 314 IM case patients and five population control subjects per case matched by birth year and sex. We used conditional logistic regression modelling to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NPC and IM. The multivariate-adjusted ORs of developing NPC increased with number of siblings; the ORs associated with having one, two and three or more siblings, compared with none, were 1.59 (95% CI = 0.97, 2.62), 1.94 (95% CI = 1.17, 3.22), and 2.03 (95% CI = 1.23, 3.35), respectively (Ptrend = 0.006). This increased risk of NPC was explained mainly by having older rather than younger siblings. In contrast, lower risks of IM were observed among individuals with an increasing number of older siblings, younger siblings and total siblings. Early-life social environment, possibly related to EBV infection, contributes to NPC pathogenesis in non-endemic areas. This hypothesis is further supported by the clearly contrasting findings between NPC and IM. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. [Age, period and birth-cohort effects on marriage rates in Japanese women between 1985 and 2005, and comparison of trends of effects between marriage and birth rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Odagiri, Youichi; Ohtake, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Jun

    2008-07-01

    An age-period-cohort (APC) analysis was performed to provide information about age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage trends in Japanese women. In addition, the relationships of the trends of age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects between marriage and birth were analyzed. We obtained data regarding marriages of Japanese women aged between 19 and 38 years for the period of 1985 to 2005 from the National Vital Statistics. Population data used were for an estimated population, obtained from the Population Estimates Annual Reports. Standard cohort tables comprising marriage and population data were analyzed using a Bayesian APC model to identify age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage rate trends. Previously obtained data for a similar APC-analysis of birth trends were used to compare the trends in the effects of age, period, and cohort on marriage and birth patterns. For this purpose, the estimated values for each effect were normalized. With regard to the marriage trends in Japanese women, the effect of age was the greatest, peaking at the age of 25 years. The period effect increased after 1997; however, its effect was relatively limited as compared to the other effects. The cohort effect, which was greater than the period effect and less than the age effect, on marriage trends showed a decreasing slope for birth cohorts born after 1966 and subsequent increase after 1982. Comparison of age, period and cohort effects between the trends in marriage and birth rates showed that the age effect distinctly peaked at 25 and 28 years for marriage and births, respectively. The period effect on marriage and birth showed a decreasing trend until 1991 and subsequent increased in 1992 and 1997 for births and marriage, respectively. With regard to the cohort effect on birth rates, a decreasing trend was observed for the birth cohorts after 1961, with increase after 1977. However, with regard to the cohort effect on marriage rates, the decreasing

  2. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  3. Gender and birth order as parenting moderators / A influência do gênero e ordem de nascimento sobre as práticas educativas parentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.

  4. Does Birth Order and Academic Proficiency Influence Perfectionistic Self-presentation Among Undergraduate Engineering Students? A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Preeti Tabitha; Kumar, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfectionism is a multifaceted concept. It had both advantages and disadvantages. Perfectionistic traits have been associated with leadership and very intellectual people. The present study is an attempt to understand if engineering students possess perfectionistic orientation and whether it influences self-efficacy, social connectedness, and achievement motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study adopts a random sampling design to evaluate the presence of perfectionism as a personality trait among undergraduate engineering students (N = 320). Standardized inventories such as Almost Perfect Scale-Revised were administered first to identify perfectionists and second to differentiate the adaptive from the maladaptive perfectionists. Scheduled interviews were conducted with students to obtain information regarding birth order and family functioning. Results: Findings from the study reveal that there were a significant number of maladaptive perfectionists and that they experienced higher levels of personal and societal demands leading to a negative emotional well-being in comparison to the adaptive perfectionists. We also observed that first-born children were more likely to display a perfectionistic self-presentation and from scheduled interviews, we understood that paternal influences were stronger when it came to decision-making and display of conscientiousness. Conclusion: The study draws on important implications for helping students to understand perfectionism and to respond to demands of the family and societal subsystems in a positive and an adaptive manner. PMID:27833225

  5. Does Birth Order and Academic Proficiency Influence Perfectionistic Self-presentation Among Undergraduate Engineering Students? A Descriptive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Preeti Tabitha; Kumar, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Perfectionism is a multifaceted concept. It had both advantages and disadvantages. Perfectionistic traits have been associated with leadership and very intellectual people. The present study is an attempt to understand if engineering students possess perfectionistic orientation and whether it influences self-efficacy, social connectedness, and achievement motivation. The present study adopts a random sampling design to evaluate the presence of perfectionism as a personality trait among undergraduate engineering students ( N = 320). Standardized inventories such as Almost Perfect Scale-Revised were administered first to identify perfectionists and second to differentiate the adaptive from the maladaptive perfectionists. Scheduled interviews were conducted with students to obtain information regarding birth order and family functioning. Findings from the study reveal that there were a significant number of maladaptive perfectionists and that they experienced higher levels of personal and societal demands leading to a negative emotional well-being in comparison to the adaptive perfectionists. We also observed that first-born children were more likely to display a perfectionistic self-presentation and from scheduled interviews, we understood that paternal influences were stronger when it came to decision-making and display of conscientiousness. The study draws on important implications for helping students to understand perfectionism and to respond to demands of the family and societal subsystems in a positive and an adaptive manner.

  6. Nonspecific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on early childhood infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitm......BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during...... during the first 3 mo....

  7. Effects of mobility on ordering dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2009-01-01

    Models of ordering dynamics allow us to understand natural systems in which an initially disordered population homogenizes some traits via local interactions. The simplest of these models, with wide applications ranging from evolutionary to social dynamics, are the Voter and Moran processes, usually defined in terms of static or randomly mixed individuals that interact with a neighbor to copy or modify a discrete trait. Here we study the effects of diffusion in Voter/Moran processes by proposing a generalization of ordering dynamics in a metapopulation framework, in which individuals are endowed with mobility and diffuse through a spatial structure represented as a graph of patches upon which interactions take place. We show that diffusion dramatically affects the time to reach the homogeneous state, independently of the underlying network's topology, while the final consensus emerges through different local/global mechanisms, depending on the mobility strength. Our results highlight the crucial role played by mobility in ordering processes and set up a general framework that allows its effect to be studied on a large class of models, with implications in the understanding of evolutionary and social phenomena. (letter)

  8. A population-based study of effect of multiple birth on infant mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthman Mubashir B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-foetal pregnancies and multiple births including twins and higher order multiples births such as triplets and quadruplets are high-risk pregnancy and birth. These high-risk groups contribute to the higher rate of childhood mortality especially during early period of life. Methods We examined the relationship between multiple births and infant mortality using univariable and multivariable survival regression procedure with Weibull hazard function, controlling for child's sex, birth order, prenatal care, delivery assistance; mother's age at child birth, nutritional status, education level; household living conditions and several other risk factors. Results Children born multiple births were more than twice as likely to die during infancy as infants born singleton (hazard ratio = 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 3.19 holding other factors constant. Maternal education and household asset index were associated with lower risk of infant mortality. Conclusion Multiple births are strongly negatively associated with infant survival in Nigeria independent of other risk factors. Mother's education played a protective role against infant death. This evidence suggests that improving maternal education may be key to improving child survival in Nigeria. A well-educated mother has a better chance of satisfying important factors that can improve infant survival: the quality of infant feeding, general care, household sanitation, and adequate use of preventive and curative health services.

  9. Changes in haemoglobin levels in infants in Malawi: effect of low birth weight and fetal anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Cessie, S.; Verhoeff, F. H.; Mengistie, G.; Kazembe, P.; Broadhead, R.; Brabin, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) on haemoglobin (Hb) patterns in infancy. To study the additional contribution of other risk factors known at birth. To examine the effect of iron supplementation during infancy on Hb levels. Methods: A stratified

  10. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children: beneficial nonspecific effects in the neonatal period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam; Ravn, Henrik; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Stensballe, Lone; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2011-07-15

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG. In the period 2004-2008 we recruited 2320 LBW children in Bissau. The children were visited at home at 2, 6, and 12 months of age. With a pretrial infant mortality of 250 per 1000, we hypothesized a 25% reduction in infant mortality for LBW children. Infant mortality was only 101 per 1000 during the trial. In the primary analysis, infant mortality was reduced insignificantly by 17% (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = .83 [.63-1.08]). In secondary analyses, early BCG vaccine was safe with an MRR of .49 (.21-1.15) after 3 days and .55 (.34-.89) after 4 weeks. The reduction in neonatal mortality was mainly due to fewer cases of neonatal sepsis, respiratory infection, and fever. The impact of early BCG on infant mortality was marked for children weighing <1.5 kg (MRR = .43 [.21-.85]) who had lower coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations. Though early BCG did not reduce infant mortality significantly, it may have a beneficial effect in the neonatal period. This could be important for public health because BCG is often delayed in low-income countries.

  11. Ordering effects of cholesterol and its analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Without any exaggeration, cholesterol is one of the most important lipid species in eukaryotic cells. Its effects on cellular membranes and functions range from purely mechanistic to complex metabolic ones, besides which it is also a precursor of the sex hormones (steroids) and several vitamins....... In this review, we discuss the biophysical effects of cholesterol on the lipid bilayer, in particular the ordering and condensing effects, concentrating on the molecular level or inter-atomic interactions perspective, starting from two-component systems and proceeding to many-component ones e.g., modeling lipid...... rafts. Particular attention is paid to the roles of the methyl groups in the cholesterol ring system, and their possible biological function. Although our main research methodology is computer modeling, in this review we make extensive comparisons between experiments and different modeling approaches....

  12. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  13. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  14. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen LA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Michielsen,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Paddy KC Janssen,2 Harold JH Kuijpers11Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacy, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, the NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01. There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, psychotropic medication, dosage, birth outcomes

  16. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  17. Effect of probiotics on perinatal outcome in patients at high risk of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirihara, Nami; Kamitomo, Masato; Tabira, Tatsunori; Hashimoto, Takashi; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Maeda, Takatsugu

    2018-02-01

    Recent reports have shown lower levels of Clostridium and higher levels of Lactobacillales in the intestinal microbiota in preterm birth patients compared to term birth patients. However, the influence of probiotics on perinatal status has not been elucidated. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics on perinatal outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of oral probiotics on perinatal outcome in patients at high risk of preterm birth. Probiotics containing Streptococcus faecalis, Clostridium butyricum and Bacillus mesentericus were administered for prophylaxis of bacterial vaginosis or treatment of constipation starting at 12.5 ± 4.1 weeks until delivery. Patients not administered probiotics were defined as the non-probiotics group. Between these two groups, perinatal outcomes including gestational age at birth, birth weight, chorioamnionitis or funisitis and preterm birth before 32 weeks were compared. In addition, multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors influencing preterm birth before 32 weeks, chorioamnionitis/funisitis and normal vaginal flora. The probiotics group showed longer gestation, higher birth weight, lower rates of chorioamnionitis and higher rates of normal vaginal flora compared to the non-probiotics group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that probiotics significantly suppressed preterm birth before 32 weeks and tended to suppress chorioamnionitis/funisitis. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for preterm birth before 32 weeks and chorioamnionitis/funisitis were 0.05 (0.01-0.71) and 0.07 (0.01-1.03), respectively. Oral probiotics containing Clostridium had a significant effect on the prevention of preterm birth before 32 weeks of gestation. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Higher order effects of pseudoparticles in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietarinta, J.; Palmer, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    Gauge invariant Green's functions of quark-antiquark bilinear densities in massless, two-color QCD are studied. Nonzero-energy fermion modes, pseudoparticle solutions with topological charge absolute value ν > 1, and n-point functions with n > 2. Some general properties of the O(Dirac constant) approximation are developed, enabling one to isolate and define the terms which contribute to a general n-point function. The higher effects it is found preserve the symmetry breakdown found earlier in the 2-point function (U(2) x U(2) → SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1)). It is shown that a previous 2-point function analysis is exact to order Dirac constant

  19. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, KS; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O’Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-01-01

    Background The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. Methods We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Da...

  20. Effect of rotating shift work on childbearing and birth weight: a study of women working in a semiconductor manufacturing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Stable circadian rhythm is important for both maternal and fetal health. This retrospective analysis of women in a semiconductor factory evaluated the effect of shift work exposure on childbearing and birth weight. Records of 440 female employees (initial mean age: 28.4 years) including 111 mothers who had 158 live births during the period of observation (1997-2007) were reviewed. The data analyzed included maternal age, general health condition, highest educational level, life-style and occupational factors, as well as newborn gender, birth weight, birth order and gestational age. The childbearing rates of female workers on three different work schedules (consistent daytime work (CDW), intermittent (i-) or persistent (p-) rotating shift works (RSW)) were 32.1%, 20.0% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.047). After controlling for potential confounding factors, childbearing rates among women with CDW exceeded those of shift workers (odds ratio (OR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-3.0). The birth weights of newborns from mothers on the three work schedules (CDW, i-RSW and p-RSW) were significantly different (3271.7±395.4, 3251.3±460.9, and 2998.5±381.2 g, respectively (Pschedules should be carefully planned for female employees who are pregnant or preparing for pregnancy. Prenatal evaluations for mothers with persistent day-night rotating shift work exposures are especially necessary.

  1. Effect of intimate partner violence on birth outcomes | Laelago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence by intimate partner during pregnancy has many adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, that's why we sought to determine association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among 183 recently ...

  2. Effect of prolonged birth spacing on maternal and perinatal outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest reason adduced for prolonged birth spacing is failed contraception (56%), followed by secondary infertility (24%) and to a lesser extent re-marriage, improved income and sheer desire. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in maternal and perinatal outcome in pregnancy between women with ...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  4. Are Quantum Models for Order Effects Quantum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Catarina; Wichert, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    The application of principles of Quantum Mechanics in areas outside of physics has been getting increasing attention in the scientific community in an emergent disciplined called Quantum Cognition. These principles have been applied to explain paradoxical situations that cannot be easily explained through classical theory. In quantum probability, events are characterised by a superposition state, which is represented by a state vector in a N-dimensional vector space. The probability of an event is given by the squared magnitude of the projection of this superposition state into the desired subspace. This geometric approach is very useful to explain paradoxical findings that involve order effects, but do we really need quantum principles for models that only involve projections? This work has two main goals. First, it is still not clear in the literature if a quantum projection model has any advantage towards a classical projection. We compared both models and concluded that the Quantum Projection model achieves the same results as its classical counterpart, because the quantum interference effects play no role in the computation of the probabilities. Second, it intends to propose an alternative relativistic interpretation for rotation parameters that are involved in both classical and quantum models. In the end, instead of interpreting these parameters as a similarity measure between questions, we propose that they emerge due to the lack of knowledge concerned with a personal basis state and also due to uncertainties towards the state of world and towards the context of the questions.

  5. Effects of the 2011 flood in Thailand on birth outcomes and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; Finnegan, Lorna; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of displacement due to flooding during pregnancy on birth outcomes (infant birth weight and gestational age) and the moderating effect of perceived social support on the relationship between displacement and birth outcomes. A descriptive, longitudinal study. A university-affiliated hospital in Pathum Thani, Thailand. Pregnant women (N = 175) in the third trimester that had uncomplicated pregnancies and no history of mental illness. During pregnancy, the participants completed standardized measurements of depression symptoms, perceived social support, and questionnaires concerning the effect of the flood. After giving birth, infant birth weight and gestational age at birth were retrieved from delivery records. Seventy percent (n = 123) of the participants experienced displacement during the flood. The displaced women had a mean infant birth weight of 175 grams less than that of the nondisplaced women, t(173) = -2.38, p = .02, whereas infant gestational age was not different. Displacement and other variables explained approximately 8% of the variance in infant birth weight. The interaction term between displacement and perceived social support was statistically significant and additionally explained the variance in infant birth weight, F(6, 168) = 3.24, p = .005. Being displaced during pregnancy due to a natural disaster affected fetal growth rather than length of gestation. Health care providers should closely monitor maternal weight gain and fetal growth of pregnant women who experience displacement. Among the displaced women, social support was associated with higher infant birth weight; therefore, high levels of perceived social support may be protective for pregnant women who experience stressful events such as displacement from flooding. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  6. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM 10 , PM 2.5 , CO, NO 2 , and SO 2 . Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Birth cohort effect on the obesity epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lina W; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Holst, Claus

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the obesity epidemic has developed in phases. To investigate if this has been a birth cohort phenomenon, we explored the secular trend in the prevalence of obesity among boys and young men. METHODS: We calculated body mass index (BMI; kg/m) over time for 163,835 Danish boys...... examined at ages 7-11 years and for 708,342 male draftees examined at age 19 years. Obesity was defined according to age-specific criteria for boys and as BMI >or=31 kg/m for men. We examined trends in the prevalence of obesity from 1930 through 1999, expressing time as the subjects' year of measurement...... and as year of birth. RESULTS: When expressed by year of measurement, 4 phases in the prevalence of obesity emerged for the boys and the young men, but they occurred at different times. However, when expressed by year of birth, the 2 stable periods and the 2 periods with sharp increases in obesity occurred...

  8. The effects of preterm birth on visual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Myra Ps; Thompson, Benjamin; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Alsweiler, Jane M

    2018-01-01

    Children born very preterm are at a greater risk of abnormal visual and neurological development when compared to children born at full term. Preterm birth is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (a proliferative retinal vascular disease) and can also affect the development of brain structures associated with post-retinal processing of visual information. Visual deficits common in children born preterm, such as reduced visual acuity, strabismus, abnormal stereopsis and refractive error, are likely to be detected through childhood vision screening programs, ophthalmological follow-up or optometric care. However, routine screening may not detect other vision problems, such as reduced visual fields, impaired contrast sensitivity and deficits in cortical visual processing, that may occur in children born preterm. For example, visual functions associated with the dorsal visual processing stream, such as global motion perception and visuomotor integration, may be impaired by preterm birth. These impairments can continue into adolescence and adulthood and may contribute to the difficulties in learning (particularly reading and mathematics), attention, behaviour and cognition that some children born preterm experience. Improvements in understanding the mechanisms by which preterm birth affects vision will inform future screening and interventions for children born preterm. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  9. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2016-01-01

    Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied...... programing may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings....

  10. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The effects of the sequencing of marriage and first birth during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, S D; Grady, W R; Billy, J O; Landale, N S; Winges, L D

    1986-01-01

    Whether or not they marry, black adolescent mothers are more likely than whites to attend school following the birth of their first child. Marrying to legitimate a birth reduces the likelihood that a teenager will return to school after childbearing; this impact of marriage is much stronger among black than among white teenagers. The timing of marriage appears to affect school enrollment among white teenagers through its impact on living arrangements. However, the negative impact of marriage on educational achievement does not seem to be a consequence of earlier differences in educational expectations among the teenagers. Teenage mothers appear less likely to separate from their husbands in later years if they marry before the birth than if they marry afterward. Delaying marriage until after the birth has a long-term effect on the probability of separation among white teenage mothers, but has only a short-term impact among blacks. Among teenagers who marry before giving birth, there is little difference in the likelihood of separation between those who marry before becoming pregnant and those who do so afterward. In addition, the effect of the sequence of marriage and first birth among white teenage mothers may have declined in recent years. Adolescent mothers who do not marry before their first birth experience a longer interval between that birth and their second than do those who marry either before or during the pregnancy. These differences are primarily the result of short-term variations in the amount of time they spend married; that is, women who are unmarried when they give birth are less likely to have a second birth soon afterward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. A Survey on Some of the Effective Factors in Premature Birth: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Esmailnasab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Preterm birth (birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy is the major factor affecting a child's health and survival. Compared with term infants, these infants are at higher risk of mortality and incidence of health problems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with preterm birth. Material and Methods : A case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Fatemieh hospital, Iran, between 23rd October 2011 and 21st June 2012. Convenience sampling was performed and a total number of 110 cases of preterm births and 132 full-term births as control group were screened and enrolled in the study.  Data were collected through interview and patient medical record. The results were compared using logistic regression analysis and odds ratio (OR in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between preterm birth and the following risk factors were identified. Results : Significant risk factors for preterm births included: preeclampsia (OR = 2.42 cesarean delivery (OR = 2.61, previous history of stillbirth or abortion (OR = 2.75, multiple pregnancies (OR = 1.03, recurrent low birth weight delivery (OR = 4.10, prenatal care in private sector (OR = 2.47, working women (OR = 5.70, hospitalization during pregnancy for more than 2 days, multiple gestation deliveries (OR = 5.79, diabetes in first-degree relatives and birth order higher than 3 (OR = 1.03 showed a significant relationship with premature births. The logistic regression analysis indicated that odds of preterm birth increases with the number of pregnancies ≥3 (OR=0.03 95% CI: 1.07- 3.75. Conclusion : The main determinants of preterm birth in the study consisted of previous history of stillbirth or abortion, cesarean delivery, multiple pregnancies, working women, preeclampsia and health care in the private sector. By applying special attention to the caring of high-risk pregnancies and health services for mothers and improvement of

  13. Birth order and sibship composition as predictors of overweight or obesity among low-income 4- to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, R H; Miller, A L; Peterson, K E; Kaciroti, N; Rosenblum, K; Baylin, A; Lumeng, J C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of birth order and number and sex of siblings with overweight or obesity among 4- to 8-year-olds. This is a cross-sectional study involving 273 low-income mother-child dyads. Questionnaires and anthropometry were completed. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of birth order, having younger siblings, having older siblings, having at least one brother and having at least one sister with odds of overweight or obesity. Analyses were repeated to additionally include non-biological siblings. Models were adjusted for potential confounders and intermediate variables. Prevalence of child overweight or obesity was 42.5%. Adjusting for covariates, only children and youngest siblings had higher odds of overweight or obesity compared with oldest siblings (odds ratio [OR]: 4.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67, 10.46 and OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.41, 7.33, respectively). Having one or more younger siblings and having at least one brother were associated with lower odds (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.69 and OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.81, respectively). Including non-biological siblings did not meaningfully change the associations. Birth order and sibship composition are associated with overweight or obesity among 4- to 8-year-olds. Future studies identifying the underlying behavioural mechanism can help inform family-based intervention programmes. © 2015 World Obesity.

  14. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  15. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 582 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or ...

  16. Birth weight effects on children's mental, motor, and physical development: evidence from twins data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Jacknowitz, Alison

    2009-11-01

    To determine the effect of very low birth weight (VLBW; motor development and physical growth during the first 2 years of life and whether VLBW and MLBW babies catch up to normal birth weight (NBW; > or =2500 g) children by age 2. We use data on dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twins and singleton births from the first two waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative dataset of children born in the US in 2001. We estimate the effects of VLBW and MLBW on children's mental and motor development scores, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height, and length-for-age z-scores at 9 months and 2 years. We examine whether differences in outcomes within twin pairs are related to differences in their birth weights. The within-twins analysis is conducted on samples of DZ and MZ twins. For comparison, we also estimate birth weight effects on child outcomes from multivariate linear regression models using the full singleton and twins' sample. We also estimate the effect of being small-for-gestational age (SGA; birth weight development, motor development, and growth at 9 months and 2 years of age. However, results from within-twin models with DZ twins that control for shared maternal and environmental factors showed much less effect of birth weight on mental or motor development, but continued large effects on growth for the VLBW group. Within-twin models with MZ twins that control for shared maternal, environmental, and genetic factors showed statistically insignificant effects of birth weight on mental and motor development, but continued effects on growth. Similar patterns were found when examining the effects of SGA. After controlling for the influence of maternal, environmental, and genetic factors, low birth weight has at most a small negative effect on children's mental and motor development in their first 2 years of life. However, low birth weight is a major risk factor for children's physical growth in

  17. The change in the sex ratio in multiple sclerosis is driven by birth cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdacic-Gross, V; Schmid, M; Mutsch, M; Steinemann, N; von Wyl, V; Bopp, M

    2017-01-01

    Birth cohort effects have greatly shaped long-term trends in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined whether birth cohort effects have also determined trends in the sex ratio. Age-period-cohort analyses were applied to Swiss mortality data, 1901-2010, using logit models. Sex was introduced as an additional main effect (overall effect) and in interaction terms with A, P and C. Birth cohort effects strongly impacted the trends of MS risk in Switzerland, with a peak in cohorts born in the 1910s and 1920s. Similarly, birth cohort effects accounted for the change in the sex ratios during the 20th century. The balanced sex ratio at the beginning of the 20th century has been superseded by a ratio with a preponderance of women. Despite similarities in timing, the patterns of overall and sex-specific birth cohort estimates were not congruent. The change in the sex ratio in MS is driven by birth cohort related factors. Overall and sex-specific trends indicate that the appearance of MS has changed dramatically in the 20th century. The driving force behind these trends is related to yet unknown environmental factors. © 2016 EAN.

  18. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects.......A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects....

  19. Possible association of first and high birth order of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 42 CFR 2.61 - Legal effect of order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Court Orders Authorizing Disclosure and Use § 2.61 Legal effect of order. (a) Effect. An order of a court of competent jurisdiction entered under this subpart is... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal effect of order. 2.61 Section 2.61 Public...

  1. The effects of preterm birth and its antecedents on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Jonathan G; De Matteo, Robert; Harding, Richard; Black, Mary J

    2016-06-01

    Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. It prematurely exposes the developing cardiovascular system to the hemodynamic transition that occurs at birth and to the subsequent functional demands of life ex utero. This review describes the current knowledge of the effects of preterm birth, and some of its common antecedents (chorioamnionitis, intra-uterine growth restriction, and maternal antenatal corticosteroid administration), on the structure of the myocardium. A thorough literature search was conducted for articles relating to how preterm birth, and its antecedents, affect development of the heart. Given that sheep are an excellent model for the studies of cardiac development, this review has focused on experimental studies in sheep as well as clinical findings. Our review of the literature demonstrates that individuals born preterm are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, including increased mean arterial pressure, abnormally shaped and sub-optimally performing hearts and changes in the vasculature. The review highlights how antenatal corticosteroids, intra-uterine growth restriction, and exposure to chorioamnionitis also have the potential to impact cardiac growth in the preterm newborn. Preterm birth and its common antecedents (antenatal corticosteroids, intra-uterine growth restriction, and chorioamnionitis) have the potential to adversely impact cardiac structure immediately following birth and in later life. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation in preterm low birth weight newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alo, D; Shahidullah, M; Mannan, M A; Noor, K

    2010-07-01

    This interventional study was done to determine the effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation on weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis in preterm low birth weight newborns during their hospital stay. It was carried out during the period of June 2006-May 2007 in the Newborn unit of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Sixty preterm (28-34weeks), low birth weight (1000-1800g) AGA (appropriate for gestational age) newborns were enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Intervention and control newborns were matched in terms of birth weight and gestational age. Samples were volunteers. Parenteral amino acid (5%) supplementation in addition to usual nutritional management until enteral feeding reached three fourth of total calorie intake. Usual nutritional management was 10% intravenous dextrose and subsequent enteral feeding. Main outcome measured with weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis. Weight change was observed by two parameters such as mean percentage of maximum postnatal weight loss and mean days to reach birth weight, both were significantly lower in intervention than control group (psupplementation investigated in this study has been shown to have no effect. There was no difference in incidence of sepsis between intervention and control group (p>0.05). Improved nutritional supplementation with parenteral amino acids resulted in better growth as evident by lesser degree of weight loss and earlier regaining of birth weight in the early neonatal period. Biochemical parameters are not affected by parenteral amino acid supplementation.

  3. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  4. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Mendola, Pauline; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L

    2015-08-01

    We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor's or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur.

  5. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and...

  6. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han S

    2005-11-01

    mechanism of action of condoms, abstinence, sterilization, and abortion, but a substantial percentage of women (between 19% and 57% were uncertain about the mechanisms of action of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices (IUDs, Depo-Provera, or natural family planning. Conclusion Women who believe that life begins at fertilization may not intend to use a birth control method that could have postfertilization effects. More research is needed to understand the relative importance of postfertilization effects for women in other populations, and in relation to other properties of and priorities for birth control methods. However, many women were uncertain about the mechanisms of action of specific methods. To respect the principles of informed consent, some women may need more education about what is known and not known about the mechanisms of action of birth control methods.

  7. Limit-order book resiliency after effective market orders: spread, depth and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Chuan; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2017-07-01

    In order-driven markets, limit-order book (LOB) resiliency is an important microscopic indicator of market quality when the order book is hit by a liquidity shock and plays an essential role in the design of optimal submission strategies of large orders. However, the evolutionary behavior of LOB resilience around liquidity shocks is not well understood empirically. Using order flow data sets of Chinese stocks, we quantify and compare the LOB dynamics characterized by the bid-ask spread, the LOB depth and the order intensity surrounding effective market orders with different aggressiveness. We find that traders are more likely to submit effective market orders when the spreads are relatively low, the same-side depth is high, and the opposite-side depth is low. Such phenomenon is especially significant when the initial spread is 1 tick. Although the resiliency patterns show obvious diversity after different types of market orders, the spread and depth can return to the sample average within 20 best limit updates. The price resiliency behavior is dominant following aggressive market buy orders, while the price continuation behavior is dominant following less-aggressive market sell orders. Moreover, the resiliency stimulus of buy-sell shock is asymmetrical. The intensities of limit sell orders after market buy orders’ shock are always higher than the intensities of limit buy orders after market sell orders’ shock. The resiliency behavior of spread and depth is linked to limit order intensity.

  8. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  9. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Govarts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

  10. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  11. The association of birth order with later body mass index and blood pressure: a comparison between prospective cohort studies from the United Kingdom and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L D; Hallal, P C; Matijasevich, A; Wells, J C; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Lawlor, D A; Victora, C G; Smith, G D

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found greater adiposity and cardiovascular risk in first born children. The causality of this association is not clear. Examining the association in diverse populations may lead to improved insight. We examine the association between birth order and body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in the 2004 Pelotas cohort from southern Brazil and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) from Bristol, south-west England, restricting analysis to families with two children in order to remove confounding by family size. No consistent differences in BMI, SBP or DBP were observed comparing first and second born children. Within the Pelotas 2004 cohort, first born females were thinner, with lower SBP and DBP; for example, mean difference in SBP comparing first with second born was -0.979 (95% confidence interval -2.901 to 0.943). In ALSPAC, first born females had higher BMI, SBP and DBP. In both cohorts, associations tended to be in the opposite direction in males, although no statistical evidence for gender interactions was found. The findings do not support an association between birth order and BMI or blood pressure. Differences to previous studies may be explained by differences in populations and/or confounding by family size in previous studies.

  12. Effectiveness of Home Visits in Pregnancy as a Public Health Measure to Improve Birth Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Ichikawa

    Full Text Available Birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW, and small for gestational age (SGA, are crucial indicators of child development and health.To evaluate whether home visits from public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women prevent adverse birth outcomes.In this quasi-experimental cohort study in Kyoto city, Japan, high-risk pregnant women were defined as teenage girls (range 14-19 years old, women with a twin pregnancy, women who registered their pregnancy late, had a physical or mental illness, were of single marital status, non-Japanese women who were not fluent in Japanese, or elderly primiparas. We collected data from all high-risk pregnant women at pregnancy registration interviews held at a public health centers between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, as well as birth outcomes when delivered from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (N = 964, which is a record of prenatal check-ups, delivery, child development and vaccinations. Of these women, 622 women were selected based on the home-visit program propensity score-matched sample (pair of N = 311 and included in the analysis. Data were analyzed between January and June 2014.In the propensity score-matched sample, women who received the home-visit program had lower odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.98 and showed a 0.55-week difference in gestational age (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92 compared to the matched controlled sample. Although the program did not prevent LBW and SGA, children born to mothers who received the program showed an increase in birth weight by 107.8 g (95% CI: 27.0 to 188.5.Home visits by public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women in Japan might be effective in preventing preterm birth, but not SGA.

  13. Short term effect of air pollution, noise and heat waves on preterm births in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Virginia; Díaz, Julio; Ortiz, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Sáez, Marc; Linares, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) refers to delivery before 37 weeks of gestation and represents the leading cause of early-life mortality and morbidity in developed countries. PTB can lead to serious infant health outcomes. The etiology of PTB remains uncertain, but epidemiologic studies have consistently shown elevated risks with different environmental variables as traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). The aim of the study was to evaluate with time series methodology the short-term effect of air pollutants, noise levels and ambient temperature on the number of births and preterm births occurred in Madrid City during the 2001-2009 period. A time-series analysis was performed to assess the short term impact of daily mean concentrations (µg/m(3)) of PM2.5 and PM10, O3 and NO2. Measurements of Acoustic Pollution in dB(A) analyzed were: Leqd, equivalent diurnal noise level and Leqn, equivalent nocturnal noise level. Maximum and Minimum daily temperature (°C), mean Humidity in the air (%) and Atmospheric Pressure (HPa), were included too. Linear trends, seasonality, as well as the autoregressive nature of the series itself were controlled. We added as covariate the day of the week too. Autoregressive over-dispersed Poisson regression models were performed and the environmental variables were included with short-term lags (from 0 to 7 days) in reference to the date of birth. Firstly, simple models for the total number of births and preterm births were done separately. In a second stage, a model for total births adjusted for preterm births was performed. A total of 298,705 births were analyzed. The results of the final models were expressed in relative risks (RRs) for interquartile increase. We observed evidence of a short term effect at Lag 0, for the following environmental variables analyzed, PM2.5 (RR: 1.020; 95% CI:(1.008 1.032)) and O3 (RR: 1.012; 95% CI:(1.002 1.022)) concentrations and Leqd (RR: 1.139; 95% CI:( (1.124 1.154)) for the total number of births, and besides

  14. Gender-Specific Effects on Gestational Length and Birth Weight by Early Pregnancy BPA Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-11-01

    Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. design, setting, participants, and outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA.

  15. Effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate: a systematic review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Néstor J; Uribe, Sergio; Martinez, Benjamín

    2015-02-01

    Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Preterm birth is a highly complex syndrome that includes distinct clinical subtypes in which many different causes may be involved. The results of epidemiological, molecular, microbiological and animal-model studies support a positive association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth. However, the results of intervention studies carried out to determine the effect of periodontal treatment on reducing the risk of preterm birth are controversial. This systematic review critically analyzes the methodological issues of meta-analyses of the studies to determine the effect of periodontal treatment to reduce preterm birth. The quality of the individual randomized clinical trials selected is of highest relevance for a systematic review. This article describes the methodological features that should be identified a priori and assessed individually to determine the quality of a randomized controlled trial performed to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment on pregnancy outcomes. The AMSTAR and the PRISMA checklist tools were used to assess the quality of the six meta-analyses selected, and the bias domain of the Cochrane Collaboration's Tool was applied to evaluate each of the trials included in the meta-analyses. In addition, the methodological characteristics of each clinical trial were assessed. The majority of the trials included in the meta-analyses have significant methodological flaws that threaten their internal validity. The lack of effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate concluded by four meta-analyses, and the positive effect of treatment for reducing preterm birth risk concluded by the remaining two meta-analyses are not based on consistent scientific evidence. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials using rigorous methodology, including appropriate definition of the exposure, adequate control of confounders for

  16. The effect of climate fluctuation on chimpanzee birth sex ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar S Kühl

    Full Text Available Climate and weather conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, precipitation and temperature influence the birth sex ratio (BSR of various higher latitude species, including deer, elephant seals or northern human populations. Although, tropical regions show only little variation in temperature, climate and weather conditions can fluctuate with consequences for phenology and food resource availability. Here, we evaluate, whether the BSR of chimpanzees, inhabiting African tropical forests, is affected by climate fluctuations as well. Additionally, we evaluate, if variation in consumption of a key food resource with high nutritional value, Coula edulis nuts, is linked to both climate fluctuations and variation in BSR. We use long-term data from two study groups located in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire to assess the influence of local weather conditions and the global climate driver El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO on offspring sex. Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable climate variation over the last decades, with increasing temperature and declining precipitation. For both groups we find very similar time windows around the month of conception, in which offspring sex is well predicted by ENSO, with more males following low ENSO values, corresponding to periods of high rainfall. Furthermore, we find that the time spent cracking and feeding on Coula nuts is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Although, some of our analysis suggest that a higher proportion of males is born after periods with higher nut consumption frequency, we cannot conclude decisively at this point that nut consumption may influence shifts in BSR. All results combined suggest that also chimpanzees may experience climate related shifts in offspring sex ratios as response to climate fluctuation.

  17. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat......Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... were mailed to a stratified random sample from the Norwegian population registry in 1996 and 2001. Complete data sets for both periods were obtained from N = 4590 respondents. Data were analyzed by means of multivariate linear models. Results indicate that overall consumption of fat fish and processed...

  18. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM 2.5 , which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM 2.5 mass and 23 PM 2.5 constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; 2.5 mass and several PM 2.5 constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM 2.5 constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM 2.5 , especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity

  19. Original Research Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and birth order of child were the significant confounders factors in our adjusted models. Conclusions. We observed reduced birth weight in children whose mothers used high pollution fuels suggesting a negative effect of maternal exposure to biomass fuels on birth weight of the child. However, this reduction was not ...

  20. Effects of the phthalate exposure during three gestation periods on birth weight and their gender differences: A birth cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hui; Mao, Lei-Jing; Tao, Xing-Yong; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Wang, Qu-Nan; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Zhong-Xiu; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Ye-Qing; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Tao, Xu-Guang; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2018-02-01

    Phthalate has been widely used as a type of plasticiser in various consuming products in daily life. Recent studies have suggested that prenatal phthalate exposure may have adverse effects on fetal development. We aimed to identify the effects of in utero phthalate exposure on birth weight (BW). We evaluated a birth cohort comprising 3474 pregnant women and their single infants; 3103, 2975 and 2838 urine samples were collected in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Phthalate metabolites included monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxylhexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), which were analysed in the urine by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed linear model was used in the statistical analysis. Generally, MMP and MEP exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased birth weight of infants (MMP, β=-12.192, p=0.009; MEP, β=-11.876, p=0.014). Hierarchical analysis found that MMP and MEOHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight only in low birth weight groups (MMP, β=-42.538, p=0.005; MEOHP, β=-63.224, p=0.008); MEHP and MEHHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight in both low birth weight group (MEHP, β=-42.348, p=0.035; MEHHP, β=-50.485, p=0.006) and high birth weight group (MEHP, β=-16.580, p=0.034; MEHHP, β=-18.009, p=0.040), MBP and MEHP exposure were associated with increased infants' birth weight in male NBW group (MBP, β=10.438, p=0.039; MEHP, β=13.223, p=0.017). Moreover, the effect has sex difference. The reduction of birth weight associated with MEHP and MEOHP exposure was stronger in male infants, while MMP and MEP exposure was more significant in female infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Direct and maternal genetic effects for birth weight in dorper and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance components for birth (BWT) in Dorper and Mutton Merino sheep were estimated by Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AIREML). Animal model was fitted allowing for genetic maternal effects and a genetic covariance between direct and maternal effects. Estimates of heritability for direct genetic ...

  2. Effect of correcting for gestational age at birth on population prevalence of early childhood undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Roth, Daniel E; Perdrizet, Johnna; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Bassani, Diego G

    2018-01-01

    Postmenstrual and/or gestational age-corrected age (CA) is required to apply child growth standards to children born preterm (age). Yet, CA is rarely used in epidemiologic studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which may bias population estimates of childhood undernutrition. To evaluate the effect of accounting for GA in the application of growth standards, we used GA-specific standards at birth (INTERGROWTH-21st newborn size standards) in conjunction with CA for preterm-born children in the application of World Health Organization Child Growth Standards postnatally (referred to as 'CA' strategy) versus postnatal age for all children, to estimate mean length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z scores at 0, 3, 12, 24, and 48-months of age in the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. At birth (n = 4066), mean LAZ was higher and the prevalence of stunting (LAZ age (mean ± SD): - 0.36 ± 1.19 versus - 0.67 ± 1.32; and 8.3 versus 11.6%, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk (PAR) of stunting due to preterm birth were attenuated and changed inferences using CA versus postnatal age at birth [OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 (95% CI 0.95, 1.82) vs 14.7 (95% CI 11.7, 18.4); PAR 3.1 vs 42.9%]; differences in inferences persisted at 3-months. At 12, 24, and 48-months, preterm birth was associated with stunting, but ORs/PARs remained attenuated using CA compared to postnatal age. Findings were similar for weight-for-age z scores. Population-based epidemiologic studies in LMICs in which GA is unused or unavailable may overestimate the prevalence of early childhood undernutrition and inflate the fraction of undernutrition attributable to preterm birth.

  3. Estimating direct effects of parental occupation on Spaniards’ health by birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pinilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social health inequalities in adult population are partly due to socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. A better understanding of how those circumstances affect health during adulthood may improve the opportunities for reducing health disparities. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parental socioeconomic status, which is proxied by occupation, on adult Spaniards’ health by birth cohort. The analysis will allow checking not only the direct impact of parental occupation on their offspring’s health, but also whether inherited inequality has been reduced over time. Methods We use data from the Bank of Spain’s Survey of Household Finances on Spanish households from 2002 to 2008. Sequential models were used to estimate the influence of the father’s and mother’s occupation on their offspring’s health, trying to disentangle direct from indirect effects. With a sample of 26,832 persons we consider effects for four different cohorts by birth periods ranging from 1916 to 1981. Results The results show that parental occupation has a significant direct impact on individuals’ health (p < 0.01. The effect of father’s occupation exceeds that of mother’s. For those born before 1936, the probability of reporting a good health status ranges from 0.31 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.14–0.48, when fathers were classified as unskilled elementary workers, to 0.98 (95% CI 0.98–0.99 when they were managers or mid-level professionals. For those born during the period 1959–1975, those probabilities are 0.49 (95% CI 0.39–0.59 and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96–0.98, respectively. Therefore, health inequalities linked to parental socioeconomic status have been noticeably reduced, although discrimination against unskilled workers persists over time. Conclusions Great progress has been made in the health area during the twentieth century, so that the impact of parental socioeconomic status on individuals

  4. Effects of time ordering in quantum nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Nicolás; Sipe, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    We study time-ordering corrections to the description of spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), four-wave mixing (SFWM), and frequency conversion using the Magnus expansion. Analytic approximations to the evolution operator that are unitary are obtained. They are Gaussian preserving, and allow us to understand order-by-order the effects of time ordering. We show that the corrections due to time ordering vanish exactly if the phase-matching function is sufficiently broad. The calculation of the effects of time ordering on the joint spectral amplitude of the photons generated in SPDC and SFWM are reduced to quadrature.

  5. Effect of bidet toilet use on preterm birth and vaginal flora in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Takahashi, Kaori; Sueoka, Kou; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the association between bidet toilet use and preterm birth, as well as the effect of bidet toilet use on bacterial vaginosis, in pregnant women. Questionnaires about bidet toilet usage were sent to 2,545 women who gave birth between 2006 and 2010 in Tokyo. Crude and multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the incidence of preterm birth (delivery at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) and the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis between users and nonusers of the bidet toilet were calculated using data from the questionnaire and delivery records. Bacterial vaginosis was estimated by the balance of lactobacilli and nonlactobacillus microbes based on routine prenatal microbiologic test results. Of 1,293 women who responded to the questionnaire, 63.3% were users of the bidet toilet. The incidence of preterm birth was 15.8% among bidet users and 16.0% among nonusers (adjusted OR 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-1.48). Additionally, no association was found between bidet toilet use and bacterial vaginosis (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.70-1.33). Normal use of the bidet toilet by pregnant women poses no clinical health risk for preterm birth and bacterial vaginosis.

  6. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  7. The effect of compulsory schooling laws on teenage marriage and births in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kirdar, Murat G.; Tayfur, Meltem Dayioglu; Koç, Ismet

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the extension of compulsory schooling in Turkey from 5 to 8 years on the marriage and fertility behavior of teenage women in Turkey using the 2008 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. We find that the new education policy reduces the probability of marriage and giving birth for teenage women substantially: the probability of marriage by age 16 is reduced by 44 percent and the probability of giving birth by age 17 falls by 36 percent. The effects of the edu...

  8. Effect of preterm birth and antenatal corticosteroid treatment on lactogenesis II in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jennifer J; Hartmann, Peter E; Newnham, John P; Simmer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The onset of copious milk secretion after birth is known as lactogenesis II. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preterm birth and antenatal corticosteroids on the timing of lactogenesis II after birth. Women who had received antenatal betamethasone treatment and were expressing for a preterm infant whose gestational age was lactogenesis II. The volume of milk was reduced further when antenatal corticosteroids were administered between 28 and 34 weeks' gestation and delivery occurred 3 to 9 days later. In view of the advantages of mothers' own milk, additional support with lactation is recommended for mothers of preterm infants, particularly those who have been treated with corticosteroids before the delivery.

  9. Effect of socioeconomic status and parents' education at birth on risk of schizophrenia in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Cheryl; Perrin, Mary; Harlap, Susan; Deutsch, Lisa; Fennig, Shmuel; Manor, Orly; Nahon, Daniella; Kimhy, David; Malaspina, Dolores; Susser, Ezra

    2009-04-01

    Although it is known that schizophrenia is associated with social class, controversy exists as to the nature of this association. The authors studied the incidence of schizophrenia in relation to social class at birth in a population-based cohort of 88,829 offspring born in Jerusalem in 1964-1976. They constructed a six-point scale to index social class, based on paternal occupation at the time of birth, with each of 108 occupations being ranked by mean education. Cox proportional hazards methods were used in adjusting for sex, parents' ages, duration of marriage and birth order. Linkage with Israel's Psychiatric Registry identified 637 people admitted to psychiatric care facilities with schizophrenia-related diagnoses, before 1998. There was no gradient of risk for schizophrenia associated with social class at birth; however, offspring of fathers in the lowest social class showed a modest increase in risk (adjusted Relative Risk = 1.4; 95% Confidence interval = 1.1-1.8, P = 0.002). These data suggest that in contrast to many other health outcomes, there is not a continuous gradient for increasing schizophrenia with decreasing social class of origin. Instead, a modest increase in risk for schizophrenia was observed only for those born at the bottom of the social ladder.

  10. Effect of Super-OV hormone on multiple births in Kurdish ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induction of super-ovulation in ewes requiring the production of multiple ova at a single estrus was used to determine if the commercial follicle-stimulating hormone (Super-OV, Canada) is effective in increasing multiple births in ewes. Thirty-two (32) Kurdish ewes were used for the study during a period of 12 months.

  11. Effect of use of insecticide treated nets on birth outcomes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major impact of malaria during pregnancy in these regions is caused by persistent or recurrent, predominantly low-grade, sometimes sub-patent, parasitaemia. In Nigeria, malaria has severe negative effects on maternal health and birth outcomes, resulting in maternal anaemia, a high incidence of miscarriages and low ...

  12. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; van Bakel, Hedwig; Koldewijn, Karen; Kok, Joke; van Baar, Anneloes

    2011-01-01

    Objective: For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is

  13. Effect of birth ball on labor pain relief: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Somayeh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Sadeghi, Ramin; Karimi, Leila

    2015-11-01

    To critically evaluate the available evidence related to the impact of using a birth ball on labor pain relief. The Cochrane library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus were searched from their inception to January 2015 using keywords: (Birth* OR Swiss OR Swedish OR balance OR fitness OR gym* OR Pezzi OR sport* OR stability) AND (ball*) AND (labor OR labour OR Obstetric). All available randomized controlled trials involving women using a birth ball for pain relief during labor were considered. The search resulted in 341 titles and abstracts, which were narrowed down to eight potentially relevant articles. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Pain intensity on a 10 cm visual analogue scale was used as the main outcome measure. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2 was used for statistical analysis. Four RCTs involving 220 women were included in the systematic review. One study was excluded from the meta-analysis because of heterogeneous interventions and a lack of mean and standard deviation results of labor pain score. The meta-analysis showed that birth ball exercises provided statistically significant improvements to labor pain (pooled mean difference -0.921; 95% confidence interval -1.28, -0.56; P = 0.0000005; I(2)  = 33.7%). The clinical implementation of a birth ball exercise could be an effective tool for parturient women to reduce labor pain. However, rigorous RCTs are needed to evaluate the effect of the birth ball on labor pain relief. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Order Effects in Children's Gender-Constancy Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Robinson, Judith

    1987-01-01

    Study examines the Slaby and Frey (1975) gender-constancy interview, which has been widely used in tests of the cognitive-developmental account. Sixty children, aged between 42 and 54 months, were given the interview either in the traditional order or in a reversed order. Order effects were found. Methodological issues are discussed. (Author/BN)

  15. Using bayesian models to assess the effects of under-reporting of cannabis use on the association with birth defects, national birth defects prevention study, 1997-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Devine, O.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on associations between periconceptional cannabis exposure and birth defects have mainly relied on self-reported exposure. Therefore, the results may be biased due to under-reporting of the exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential effects of this form of

  16. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  17. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  18. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  19. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA are treated with growth hormone (GH, inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment.We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S, SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU, and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay.We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04, and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08, after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11, SGA-CU (p = 0.80, and AGA-NS (p = 0.30.Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL.

  20. Trial of Labor After One Cesarean: Role of the Order and Number of Prior Vaginal Births on the Risk of Emergency Cesarean Delivery and Neonatal Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chiong Tan

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: In women who have had prior vaginal birth attempting a trial of labor after cesarean, a vaginal delivery before cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor for repeat cesarean. Women with two or more prior vaginal births have a similar risk for repeat cesarean and neonatal admission to women with only one prior vaginal birth.

  1. The role of under-employment and unemployment in recent birth cohort effects in Australian suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Milner, Allison; Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard

    2013-09-01

    High suicide rates evident in Australian young adults during an epidemic period in the 1990s appear to have been sustained in older age-groups in the subsequent decade. This period also coincides with changes in employment patterns in Australia. This study investigates age, period, and birth cohort effects in Australian suicide over the 20th century, with particular reference to the period subsequent to the 1990s youth suicide epidemic in young males. Period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide were examined for 1907-2010 based on descriptive analysis of age-specific suicide rates and a series of age-period-cohort (APC) models using Poisson regression. Under-employment rates (those employed part-time seeking additional hours of work) and unemployment rates (those currently seeking employment) for the latter part of this time series (1978-2010) were also examined and compared with period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide. A significant increasing birth cohort effect in male suicide rates was evident in birth cohorts born after 1970-74, after adjusting for the effects age and period. An increasing birth cohort effect was also evident in female suicide rates, but was of a lesser magnitude. Increases in male cohort-specific suicide rates were significantly correlated with increases in cohort-specific under-employment and unemployment rates. Birth cohorts that experienced the peak of the suicide epidemic during the 1990s have continued to have higher suicide rates than cohorts born in earlier epochs. This increase coincides with changes to a labour force characterised by greater 'flexibility' and 'casualised' employment, especially in younger aged cohorts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A influência do gênero e ordem de nascimento sobre as práticas educativas parentais Gender and birth order as parenting moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o gênero e a ordem de nascimento como variáveis moderadoras das práticas educativas parentais e da percepção da preferência parental a partir do ponto de vista dos filhos. Participaram da pesquisa 322 adolescentes entre 13 e 17 anos. Foram utilizados dois instrumentos para a coleta de dados: Inventário de Estilos Parentais (IEP e um questionário desenvolvido pelos autores. Os dados foram analisados através da estatística não-paramétrica (Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. Através da análise dos resultados, constatou-se que: (a o gênero dos filhos interfere significativamente nos índices de estilo parental; (b as primogênitas apresentaram significativamente maior risco de sofrer com as práticas parentais negativas e (c a percepção da preferência parental é influenciada pelo gênero e ordem de nascimento dos filhos.This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.

  3. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

    1999-01-01

    The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.

  4. Effects of birth asphyxia on neonatal hippocampal structure and function in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiss, B; Coleman, H A; Castillo-Melendez, M; Ireland, Z; Walker, D W; Parkington, H C

    2011-11-01

    Studies of human neonates, and in animal experiments, suggest that birth asphyxia results in functional compromise of the hippocampus, even when structural damage is not observable or resolves in early postnatal life. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in hippocampal function occur in a model of birth asphyxia in the precocial spiny mouse where it is reported there is no major lesion or infarct. Further, to assess if, as in human infants, this functional deficit has a sex-dependent component. At 37 days gestation (term=39 days) spiny mice fetuses were either delivered immediately by caesarean section (control group) or exposed to 7.5min of in utero asphyxia causing systemic acidosis and hypoxia. At 5 days of age hippocampal function was assessed ex vivo in brain slices, or brains were collected for examination of structure or protein expression. This model of birth asphyxia did not cause infarct or cystic lesion in the postnatal day 5 (P5) hippocampus, and the number of proliferating or pyknotic cells in the hippocampus was unchanged, although neuronal density in the CA1 and CA3 was increased. Protein expression of synaptophysin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and the inositol trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP(3)R1) were all significantly increased after birth asphyxia, while long-term potentiation (LTP), paired pulse facilitation (PPF), and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) were all reduced at P5 by birth asphyxia. In control P5 pups, PPF and synaptic fatigue were greater in female compared to male pups, and after birth asphyxia PPF and synaptic fatigue were reduced to a greater extent in female vs. male pups. In contrast, the asphyxia-induced increase in synaptophysin expression and neuronal density were greater in male pups. Thus, birth asphyxia in this precocial species causes functional deficits without major structural damage, and there is a sex-dependent effect on the hippocampus. This may be a clinically relevant model for assessing

  5. The Long Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

        The length of parents' total birth related leave was increased with almost 50% in 1984 in Denmark. The previous length of the Danish maternity leave was long, especially compared to e.g. the U.S. today. This paper investigates the long term effects on children of increasing length of birth...... and educational outcomes. A 100% sample Danish population born in May, June, July, and August 1983, 1984, and 1985 and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the estimations. Preliminary results indicate there is no positive effect on children's cognitive outcomes from increasing parents' mandated...... related leave from 14 to 20 weeks. We use differences-in-differences regression discontinuity design to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and it estimated whether such a large increase in the mandated leave period has a large measurable and persistent effect on children's cognitive...

  6. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  7. Wind energy and electricity prices. Exploring the 'merit order effect'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthost, P.E.; Ray, S.; Munksgaard, J.; Sinner, A.F.

    2010-04-01

    This report focuses on the effect of wind energy on the electricity price in the power market. As the report will discuss, adding wind into the power mix has a significant influence on the resulting price of electricity, the so called merit order effect (MOE). The merit order effect has been quantified and discussed in many scientific publications. This report ends the first phase of a study on the MOE, evaluating the impact of EWEA's 2020 scenarios on future European electricity prices. The basic principles of the merit order effect are provided in the first part of the document. The literature review itself contains methods and tools not only to quantify the merit order effect but also in order to forecast its future range and volume.

  8. Current practices in the prediction and prevention of preterm birth in patients with higher-order multiple gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily; Hunter, Tiffany; Okun, Nanette; Farine, Dan

    2015-05-01

    We sought to determine the interventions utilized by maternal-fetal medicine specialists in the prediction and prevention of preterm labor in higher-order multiple (HOM) gestations. Online questionnaires and email surveys were sent to all the maternal-fetal medicine specialists in Canada (n=122). Questionnaire items included interventions physicians routinely recommended for HOM gestations including: (1) bed rest; (2) cervical length measurement on transvaginal ultrasound; (3) corticosteroids use; (4) cerclage; and (5) tocolytic therapy. Response rate was 66% (81/122), with 68% of respondents in practice for >10 years. Of physicians, 91% did not routinely recommend bed rest (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7-97.2). In all, 82% (95% CI, 73.63-90.4%) recommended routine cervical length assessment with 32.3% (95% CI, 20.7-43.2) and 37.1% (95% CI, 25.3-48.6) of this group suggesting assessment at 16-18 and 19-21 weeks, respectively. Frequency of assessment varied from biweekly (53.3%; 95% CI, 40.9-65.0), to monthly (23.3%; 95% CI, 12.8-33.1), to a single measurement repeated only if abnormal (12.5%; 95% CI, 4.5-20.8). In all, 28% (95% CI, 18.2-37.8) recommended routine administration of corticosteroids for lung maturation. Timing of administration varied, with 24% initiating steroids between 24-26 weeks, 59% between 27-28 weeks, and 17% after 28 weeks. None reported routine cerclage placement. However, 71% (95% CI, 61.1-80.8) would perform cerclage based on history or ultrasound. Of respondents, 81% (95% CI, 72.4-89.5) would consider using tocolytic agents for threatened preterm labor including calcium channel blockers (94%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (5%), and nitroglycerin transdermal patch (24%). The variable practice guidelines and paucity of data for management of HOM pregnancy places the onus on individual practitioners to develop their own management schemes. This results in heterogeneous management, which is based on conflicting international

  9. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at ... and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected ...

  10. Effects of vacancies on overshooting in nonequilibrium ordering processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of annealed site dilution on the nonequilibrium ordering process in the two-dimensional Ising model with a nonconserved order parameter have been studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the transient development of a local order that is larger than the equilibrium order...... (overshooting), as recently reported in the pure Ising model [H. Gilhoj, C. Jeppesen, and O. G; Mouritsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3305 (1995)], persists in the dilute model and is accompanied by a depletion of the vacancies within the ordered domains....

  11. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, L.K.; Buck, G.M.; Druschel, C.M.; Fitzgerald, E.F.; Sever, L.E.; Vena, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ≤1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ≥2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ≥2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

  12. Developmental contexts and sporting success: birth date and birthplace effects in national hockey league draftees 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Logan, A Jane

    2007-08-01

    To examine relative age and birth place effects in hockey players drafted to play in the National Hockey League (NHL) between 2000 and 2005 and determine whether these factors influenced when players were chosen in the draft. 1013 North American draftees were evaluated from the official NHL website, which provided birthplace, date of birth and selection order in the draft. Population size was collected from Canadian and American census information. Athletes were divided into four quartiles on the basis of selection date to define age cohorts in hockey. Data between the Canadian and American players were also compared to see if the optimal city sizes differed between the two nations. Relative age and birthplace effects were found, although the optimal city size found was dissimilar to that found in previous studies. Further, there were inconsistencies between the Canadian and American data. Contextual factors such as relative age and size of birthplace have a significant effect on likelihood of being selected in the NHL draft.

  13. Effect of aspirin treatment on TNFalpha production by women with a history of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Morgan R; Faux, David S; Hamblin, Steven D; Cooper, Corrina; Silver, Robert M; Esplin, M Sean

    2009-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated TNFalpha production is reported to be greater for whole blood (WB) cultures prepared from patients with a history of preterm birth than cultures obtained from women with a history of term birth. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if there is a similar differential responsiveness for peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) and (2) to determine if treatment with aspirin influences LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production in these patients. WB and PBML were obtained from women with a history of preterm delivery before 32 weeks (cases; n=5) and age- and race-matched controls (n=5) with a history of uncomplicated term delivery. WB and PBML were cultured and stimulated with LPS. All participants then took aspirin daily for 1 week and responsiveness of PBML and WB cultures to LPS was retested. The history of preterm labor was found to have no effect on LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production in cultures of WB or PBML. Aspirin treatment enhanced LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production by PBML from controls but not cases. We conclude that endotoxin responsiveness of women with a history of preterm birth is similar to that of women with a history of term birth in terms of in vitro TNFalpha production. Aspirin increases TNFalpha production by PBML in control women but not in women with a history of preterm birth. The divergent responses to aspirin treatment in patients with and without prior preterm labor may reflect differential regulation of cytokine production by prostaglandins in women with preterm labor associated with infection or inflammation.

  14. The effect of e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael T; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the effect of county-level e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes using United States birth record data for 7 million pregnant women living in places already comprehensively banning the indoor use of traditional cigarettes. We use both cross-sectional and panel data to estimate our difference-in-difference models. Our panel model results suggest that adoption of a comprehensive indoor vaping restriction increased prenatal smoking by 2.0 percentage points, which is double the estimate obtained from a cross-sectional model. We also document heterogeneity in effect sizes along lines of age, education, and type of insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers' marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men's work-family balance.

  16. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    , the SGA outcome remained significant only in women with mean body mass index (BMI ≥ 22 kg/m2. There was an increased risk of neonatal mortality in studies with majority of births at home [RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92]; such an effect was not evident where ≥ 60% of births occurred in facility settings [RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.09]. Overall there was no increase in the risk of neonatal mortality [RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 – 1.19 (fixed model]. Conclusion This review provides evidence of a significant benefit of MMN supplementation during pregnancy on reducing SGA births as compared to iron-folate, with no significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality in populations where skilled birth care is available and majority of births take place in facilities. Given comparability of impacts on maternal anemia, the decision to replace iron-folate with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy may be taken in the context of available services in health systems and birth outcomes monitored.

  17. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  18. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexy...

  19. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Peres,Karen Glazer; Barros,Aluísio J D; Peres,Marco Aurélio; Victora,César Gomes

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding bre...

  20. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani, Zein

    2010-12-01

    To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 degrees C prior to analysis. Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 microg/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 microg/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature.rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 microg/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 microg/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 microg/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead sulfide eye cosmetic "kohl

  1. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirghani, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. Methods: The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 deg. C prior to analysis. Results: Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 mu g/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 mu g/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 mu g/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. Conclusion: The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead

  2. Examining the Effects of Ambient Temperature on Pre-Term Birth in Central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Mathew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (born before 37 completed weeks of gestation is one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years of age. Several recent studies have examined the association between extreme temperature and preterm births, but there have been almost no such studies in arid Australia. In this paper, we explore the potential association between exposures to extreme temperatures during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy in a Central Australian town. An immediate effect of temperature exposure is observed with an increased relative risk of 1%–2% when the maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the summer season maximum temperature data. Delayed effects are also observed closer to 3 weeks before delivery when the relative risks tend to increase exponentially. Immediate risks to preterm birth are also observed for cold temperature exposures (0 to –6 °C, with an increased relative risk of up to 10%. In the future, Central Australia will face more hot days and less cold days due to climate change and hence the risks posed by extreme heat is of particular relevance to the community and health practitioners.

  3. Effect of Women's Decision-Making Autonomy on Infant's Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arpana; Kader, Manzur

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight (LBW), an outcome of maternal undernutrition, is a major public health concern in Bangladesh where the problem is most prominent. Women's decision-making autonomy is likely an important factor influencing maternal and child health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of women's decision-making autonomy on infant's birth weight (BW). Methods. The study included data of 2175 enrolled women (14-45 years of age) from the Maternal and Infant Nutritional Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat-study) in Bangladesh. Pearson's chi-square test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and logistic regression analysis were applied at the collected data. Results. Women with lowest decision-making autonomy were significantly more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) child, after controlling for maternal age, education (woman's and her husband's), socioeconomic status (SES) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.8). BW was decreased significantly among women with lowest decision making autonomy after adjusting for all confounders. Conclusion. Women's decision-making autonomy has an independent effect on BW and LBW outcome. In addition, there is a need for further exploration to identify sociocultural attributes and gender related determinants of women decision-making autonomy in this study setting.

  4. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    between 1959 and 1961 (N = 9,125). A comprehensive series of measures was obtained for each of the 8,109 surviving and eligible infants before birth, during birth, shortly after birth, and at 1 year. The adult alcoholism outcome was defined as any ICD-10 F10 diagnosis (Mental and behavioral disorders due......) but not female (n = 138) subjects. Logistic regression modeling with a global prematurity score, adjusted for social status, maternal smoking, and gender, indicated a significant association of prematurity score for males (p risk of developing an alcohol use disorder......ABSTRACT. Objective: A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. Method: Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital...

  5. The effect of abnormal birth history on ambulatory blood pressure and disease progression in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph T; Ng, Derek K; Chan, Grace J; Samuels, Joshua; Furth, Susan; Warady, Bradley; Greenbaum, Larry A

    2014-07-01

    To examine the associations between abnormal birth history (birth weight Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Study, a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Casual and 24-hour ambulatory BP were obtained. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by iohexol disappearance. Confounders (birth and maternal characteristics, socioeconomic status) were used to generate predicted probabilities of abnormal birth history for propensity score matching. Weighted linear and logistic regression models with adjustment for quintiles of propensity scores and CKD diagnosis were used to assess the impact of birth history on BP and GFR. Age at enrollment, percent with glomerular disease, and baseline GFR were similar between the groups. Those with abnormal birth history were more likely to be female, of Black race or Hispanic ethnicity, to have low household income, or part of a multiple birth. Unadjusted BP measurements, baseline GFR, and change in GFR did not differ significantly between the groups; no differences were seen after adjusting for confounders by propensity score matching. Abnormal birth history does not appear to have exerted a significant influence on BP or GFR in this cohort of children with CKD. The absence of an observed association is likely secondary to the dominant effects of underlying CKD and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. METHOD: Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital between 1959......: The results suggest that neurodevelopmental sequelae of premature birth are associated with gender-specific effects on the development of alcoholism in the male baby: small, premature, or growth-delayed male babies appear to be selectively vulnerable to alcoholic drinking years later. The findings implicate...

  7. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents' birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. In this paper, I will focus on some potential benefits of leave. I investigate the long-term effects on children of increasing the length of parents' birth-related leave using a natural...... and educational outcomes at ages 15 and 21. A population sample of Danish children born in the months around implementation of the reform and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect...... on children's long-term cognitive outcomes....

  8. Effect of placental malaria on birth weight of babies in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraneli, Boniface U; Okeke, Ogochukwu C; Ubachukwu, Patience O

    2013-03-01

    In malaria-endemic countries, one adverse consequence of placental malaria on infants is low birth weight (LBW) caused by intra-uterine growth retardation and pre-term delivery. The effect of placental malaria on birth weight of babies was investigated in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. Placental blood was collected from 364 women who gave birth in NAUTH. Thin and thick placental blood smears were made and checked for the presence of malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum antigen rapid kit was used to confirm the presence of P. falciparum. New-borns were weighed and classified as normal birth weight (≥2500 g) or LBW (<2500 g). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's t and Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare means and percentages. Risk factors for LBW were also determined. Placental malaria was found in 55.2% (n = 201) of the women. Placental malaria was associated with gravidity while age was not. In all the age groups, primigravidae and secundigravidae were mostly infected. Women with placental malaria delivered more LBW babies (32.1%) than their uninfected counterparts (5.5%), with primigravidae having more LBW babies. Similarly, weight of babies born by infected women was significantly different from that of uninfected women (p <0.0001). In multivariate analysis, placental malaria was associated with LBW (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06-0.17, p <0.0001). The result suggests a high prevalence of placental malaria and its close association with LBW in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in NAUTH. It was also found that the percentage of LBW was highest in primigravidae.

  9. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    . Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged...... generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP...

  10. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Michel

    Full Text Available Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother's inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring.

  11. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV) at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not availa......-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted.......BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV) at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV...

  12. Effects and safety of periconceptional oral folate supplementation for preventing birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana C; Rayco-Solon, Pura

    2015-12-14

    It has been reported that neural tube defects (NTD) can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear. This review aims to examine whether periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube and other congenital anomalies (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes in mothers or babies. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane review on this topic. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2015). Additionally, we searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 August 2015) and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies, checked data entry for accuracy and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. Five trials involving 7391 women (2033 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 5358 with no history of NTDs) were included. Four comparisons were made: 1) supplementation with any folate versus no intervention, placebo or other micronutrients without folate (five trials); 2) supplementation with folic acid alone versus no treatment or placebo (one trial); 3) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus other micronutrients without folate (four trials); and 4) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus the same other micronutrients without

  13. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita V. Alfimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74. We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p=0.007 and η2=0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p=0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  15. The effect of providing skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care in preventing stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawn Joy E

    2011-04-01

    recommended for inclusion in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST model. Conclusions Both Skilled Birth Attendance and Emergency/or Essential Obstetric Care have the potential to reduce the number of stillbirths seen globally. Further evidence is needed to be able to calculate an effect size.

  16. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  17. The Effect of Gestational Age at Birth on Post-Term Maturation of Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L.; Yiallourou, Stephanie R.; Wong, Flora Y.; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Preterm birth delays maturation of autonomic cardiovascular control, reflected in reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm compared to term infants at term-equivalent age. It has been suggested that immature cardiovascular control contributes to the increased risk for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in preterm infants. However, the effects of prone sleeping, the major SIDS risk factor, and of gestational age (GA) at birth on HRV have not been assessed in preterm infants beyond term-equivalent age. Subjects and Methods: Very preterm (n = 21; mean GA 29.4 ± 0.3 weeks), preterm (n = 14; mean GA 33.5 ± 0.3 weeks), and term (n = 17; mean GA 40.1 ± 0.3 weeks) infants were recruited and underwent daytime polysomnography at 2–4 weeks, 2–3 months, and 5–6 months post-term corrected age (CA). Infants slept both supine and prone. HRV was assessed in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges. Results: There was no effect of prone sleeping on HRV parameters in either preterm group. In term infants LF/HF was significantly elevated in the prone position in AS at 2–4 weeks (P preterm compared to both preterm and term infants at 2–3 months CA. Conclusion: Prone sleeping did not significantly impact on heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm infants. However, reduced maturation of high frequency HRV in very preterm infants resulted in significantly altered sympathovagal balance at 2–3 months corrected age, the age of peak sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk. This may contribute to the increased risk of SIDS in infants born at earlier gestational age. Citation: Fyfe KL, Yiallourou SR, Wong FY, Odoi A, Walker AM, Horne RS. The effect of gestational age at birth on post-term maturation of heart rate variability. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1635–1644. PMID:25902805

  18. Is chloroquine chemoprophylaxis still effective to prevent low birth weight? Results of a study in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiniffo Richard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas of stable transmission, malaria during pregnancy is associated with severe maternal and foetal outcomes, especially low birth weight (LBW. To prevent these complications, weekly chloroquine (CQ chemoprophylaxis is now being replaced by intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in West Africa. The prevalence of placental malaria and its burden on LBW were assessed in Benin to evaluate the efficacy of weekly CQ chemoprophylaxis, prior to its replacement by intermittent preventive treatment. Methods In two maternity clinics in Ouidah, an observational study was conducted between April 2004 and April 2005. At each delivery, placental blood smears were examined for malaria infection and women were interviewed on their pregnancy history including CQ intake and dosage. CQ was measured in the urine of a sub-sample (n = 166. Multiple logistic and linear regression were used to assess factors associated with LBW and placental malaria. Results Among 1090 singleton live births, prevalence of placental malaria and LBW were 16% and 17% respectively. After adjustment, there was a non-significant association between placental malaria and LBW (adjusted OR = 1.43; P = 0.10. Multiple linear regression showed a positive association between placental malaria and decreased birth weight in primigravidae. More than 98% of the women reported regular chemoprophylaxis and CQ was detectable in 99% of urine samples. Protection from LBW was high in women reporting regular CQ prophylaxis, with a strong duration-effect relationship (test for linear trend: P Conclusion Despite high parasite resistance and limited effect on placental malaria, a CQ chemoprophylaxis taken at adequate doses showed to be still effective in reducing LBW in Benin.

  19. Computerized Physician Order Entry - effectiveness and efficiency of electronic medication ordering with decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürzlinger, Heidi; Hiebinger, Cora; Pertl, Daniela; Traurig, Peter

    2009-05-19

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are software to electronically enter medication orders. They can be equipped with tools for decision support (CDS). In Germany, various vendors offer such systems for hospitals and physicians' offices. These systems have mostly been developed during the last five to ten years. CPOE-systems exist since the 1970's. Usually, clinical decision support is integrated into the CPOE to avoid errors. This HTA-report aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of CPOE-/CDS-systems and their ethical, social and legal aspects. The systematic literature search (27 international data bases) yielded 791 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process, twelve publications were included in the assessment. All reviews and studies included in the present report show that the use of CPOE-/CDS-systems can lead to a reduction of medication errors. Minor errors can be eliminated almost completely. The effect of CPOE-/CDS-systems on the rate of adverse drug events (ADE) is evaluated in only two primary studies with conflicting results. It is difficult to compare the results of economical studies because they evaluate different settings, interventions and time frames. In addition, the documentation often is not fully transparent. All four studies included measure costs and effects from the perspective of a hospital or hospital affiliation. Concerning social aspects, the literature points at changes regard competing interests of technology and humans that result from the implementation of CPOE-systems. The experience of institutions in which the implementation of CPOE-systems leads to problems showed that the importance of considering the socio-organisational context had partly been underestimated. CPOE-/CDS-systems are able to reduce the rate of medication errors when ordering medications. The adherence to guidelines, communication, patient care and personnel satisfaction can also be affected positively. However, the literature also

  20. Computerized Physician Order Entry - effectiveness and efficiency of electronic medication ordering with decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traurig, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Computerized physician order entry (CPOE systems are software to electronically enter medication orders. They can be equipped with tools for decision support (CDS. In Germany, various vendors offer such systems for hospitals and physicians’ offices. These systems have mostly been developed during the last five to ten years. Scientific background: CPOE-systems exist since the 1970’s. Usually, clinical decision support is integrated into the CPOE to avoid errors. Research questions: This HTA-report aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of CPOE-/CDS-systems and their ethical, social and legal aspects. Methods: The systematic literature search (27 international data bases yielded 791 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process, twelve publications were included in the assessment. Results: All reviews and studies included in the present report show that the use of CPOE-/CDS-systems can lead to a reduction of medication errors. Minor errors can be eliminated almost completely. The effect of CPOE-/CDS-systems on the rate of adverse drug events (ADE is evaluated in only two primary studies with conflicting results. It is difficult to compare the results of economical studies because they evaluate different settings, interventions and time frames. In addition, the documentation often is not fully transparent. All four studies included measure costs and effects from the perspective of a hospital or hospital affiliation. Concerning social aspects, the literature points at changes regard competing interests of technology and humans that result from the implementation of CPOE-systems. The experience of institutions in which the implementation of CPOE-systems leads to problems showed that the importance of considering the socio-organisational context had partly been underestimated. Discussion: CPOE-/CDS-systems are able to reduce the rate of medication errors when ordering medications. The adherence to

  1. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition in young adulthood: the modifying role of offspring sex and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Koupil, Ilona; Byberg, Liisa

    2017-12-01

    To investigate if the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring's body composition in late adolescence and young adulthood varies by offspring birth order and sex. Family cohort study, with data from registers, questionnaires and physical examinations. The main outcome under study was offspring body composition (percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage lean mass (%LM)) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Uppsala, Sweden. Two hundred and twenty-six siblings (first-born v. second-born; average age 19 and 21 years) and their mothers. In multivariable linear regression models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with daughter's %FM, with stronger estimates for first-born (β=0·97, 95 % CI 0·14, 1·80) v. second-born daughters (β=0·64, 95 % CI 0·08, 1·20). Mother's BMI before her first pregnancy was associated with her second-born daughter's body composition (β=1·05, 95 % CI 0·31, 1·79 (%FM)) Similar results albeit in the opposite direction were observed for %LM. No significant associations were found between pre-pregnancy BMI and %FM (β=0·59, 95 % CI-0·27, 1·44 first-born; β=-0·13, 95 % CI-0·77, 0·52 second-born) or %LM (β=-0·54, 95 % CI-1·37, 0·28 first-born; β=0·11, 95 % CI-0·52, 0·74 second-born) for sons. A higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher offspring %FM and lower offspring %LM in late adolescence and young adulthood, with stronger associations for first-born daughters. Preventing obesity at the start of women's reproductive life might reduce the risk of obesity in her offspring, particularly for daughters.

  2. Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology from order reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) seems to be predicting modified effective Friedmann equations without extra degrees of freedom. A puzzle arises if one decides to seek for a covariant effective action which would lead to the given Friedmann equation: The Einstein-Hilbert action is the only action that leads to second order field equations and, hence, there exists no covariant action which, under metric variation, leads to a modified Friedmann equation without extra degrees of freedom. It is shown that, at least for isotropic models in LQC, this issue is naturally resolved and a covariant effective action can be found if one considers higher order theories of gravity but faithfully follows effective field theory techniques. However, our analysis also raises doubts on whether a covariant description without background structures can be found for anisotropic models.

  3. 16 CFR 1025.57 - Effective date of order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date of order. 1025.57 Section 1025.57 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... of the statutory period for court review specified in Section 5(c) of the Federal Trade Commission...

  4. Dioxin-metabolizing genes in relation to effects of prenatal dioxin levels and reduced birth size: The Hokkaido study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Sata, Fumihiro; Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Ban, Susumu; Araki, Atsuko; Goudarzi, Houman; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Kishi, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of maternal polymorphisms in 3 genes encoding dioxin-metabolizing enzymes in relation to prenatal dioxin levels on infant birth size in Japan. We examined the relationship between dioxin exposure and birth size in relation to the polymorphisms in the genes encoding aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR [G>A, Arg554Lys]), cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (T6235C), and glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1; Non-null/null) in 421 participants using multiple linear regression models. In mothers carrying the GSTM1 null genotype, a ten-fold increase in total dioxin toxic equivalency was correlated with a decrease in birth weight of -345g (95% confidence interval: -584, -105). We observed adverse effects of maternal GSTM1 null genotype on birth weight in the presence of dioxins exposure during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  6. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465

  7. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba J. Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.

  8. Effect of Birth Cohort on Risk of Hip Fracture: Age-Specific Incidence Rates in the Framingham Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yuqing; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian T.; Felson, David T.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of birth cohort on incidence rates of hip fracture among women and men in the Framingham Study. Methods. Age-specific incidence rates of first hip fracture were presented according to tertile of year of birth for 5209 participants of the Framingham Study, a population-based cohort followed since 1948. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios were calculated by Cox regression to assess the relation between birth cohort and hip fracture incidence. Results. An increasing trend in hip fracture incidence rates was observed with year of birth for women (trend, P = .05) and men (trend, P = .03). Relative to those born from 1887 to 1900 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.0), age-specific incidence rates were greatest in the most recent birth cohort, born from 1911 to 1921 (IRR = 1.4 for women, IRR = 2.0 for men), and intermediate in those born from 1901 to 1910 (IRR = 1.2 for women, IRR = 1.5 for men). Conclusions. Results suggest risk of hip fracture is increasing for successive birth cohorts. Projections that fail to account for the increase in rates associated with birth cohort underestimate the future public health impact of hip fracture in the United States. PMID:11988460

  9. Composite symmetry-protected topological order and effective models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietner, A.; Krumnow, C.; Bergholtz, E. J.; Eisert, J.

    2017-12-01

    Strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at low dimension exhibit a wealth of phenomena, ranging from features of geometric frustration to signatures of symmetry-protected topological order. In suitable descriptions of such systems, it can be helpful to resort to effective models, which focus on the essential degrees of freedom of the given model. In this work, we analyze how to determine the validity of an effective model by demanding it to be in the same phase as the original model. We focus our study on one-dimensional spin-1 /2 systems and explain how nontrivial symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPT) phases of an effective spin-1 model can arise depending on the couplings in the original Hamiltonian. In this analysis, tensor network methods feature in two ways: on the one hand, we make use of recent techniques for the classification of SPT phases using matrix product states in order to identify the phases in the effective model with those in the underlying physical system, employing Künneth's theorem for cohomology. As an intuitive paradigmatic model we exemplify the developed methodology by investigating the bilayered Δ chain. For strong ferromagnetic interlayer couplings, we find the system to transit into exactly the same phase as an effective spin-1 model. However, for weak but finite coupling strength, we identify a symmetry broken phase differing from this effective spin-1 description. On the other hand, we underpin our argument with a numerical analysis making use of matrix product states.

  10. Cost effects of preterm birth: a comparison of health care costs associated with early preterm, late preterm, and full-term birth in the first 3 years after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Josephine; Lehne, Moritz; Mischker, Andrea; Klinger, Normen; Zickermann, Claudia; Walker, Jochen

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is one of the main causes for infant morbidity and mortality. Apart from negative health outcomes, preterm birth also produces significant health care expenditures. This study evaluates the costs associated with preterm birth in different health sectors during the first 3 years of infants' lives. In a retrospective observational study based on claims data from a German statutory health insurance company, average costs for medication, hospital treatment, ambulatory treatment, and non-medical remedies during the first 3 years after birth were analyzed for early preterm, late preterm, and full-term births. Costs associated with preterm births were generally higher than for full-term births, with the highest costs for the hospital treatment of early preterm births. Cost differences tended to decrease in the second and third year after birth except for ambulatory treatment costs, which decreased for late preterm and full-term births but not for early preterm births. The study shows that preterm birth is associated with increased health care costs, particularly during the first year after birth, indicating that the implementation of adequate programs and policies for preventing preterm birth is not only desirable from a medical but also from a health economic perspective.

  11. The effect of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Tikellis, G; Sun, C; Pezic, A; Wang, L; Wells, J C K; Cochrane, J; Ponsonby, A-L; Dwyer, T

    2014-07-01

    Maternal influence on fetal growth is mediated through the placenta and this influence may have an implication for the offspring's long-term health. The placenta-to-birth weight ratio has been regarded as an indicator of placental function. However, few studies have examined the effect of maternal lifestyle exposures on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. This study aims to examine the associations of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption with the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. Data for 7945 term singletons, gestation≥37 weeks, were selected from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey; a 1988-1995 Australian cohort study. Placenta and birth weight were extracted from birth notification records. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was strongly associated with a 6.77 g/kg higher (95% CI 4.83-8.71) placenta-to-birth weight ratio when compared to non-smoking mothers. Maternal prenatal smoking was associated with lower placental (β = -15.37 g; 95% CI -23.43 to -7.31) and birth weights (β = -205.49 g; 95% CI -232.91 to -178.08). Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy had a lower placenta-to-birth weight ratio (β = -2.07 g/kg; 95% CI -4.01 to -0.12) than mothers who did not consume alcohol. The associations of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy with placental and birth weight did not reach statistical significance. Maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption may influence fetal growth by either directly or indirectly altering the function of the placenta. The alteration of the in utero environment induced by smoking and alcohol consumption appears to affect placental and fetal growth in differing ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of the Community Treatment Order in streamlining psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, Mahmoud A; Jaffar, Khalid; Roberts, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    The implementation of the Community Treatment Order (CTO) has created controversy surrounding its beneficence. The study aims at examining the effectiveness of the CTO in reducing the rate and duration of revolving door admissions for patients who were made subject to this Order. All patients who were made subject to CTO between November 2008 and August 2009 in South Essex were involved in the study where patients acted as their own control through comparing their pre-CTO, during CTO and post-CTO's admission rate and duration. There was a significant reduction in the rate and duration of admissions in the period during and post-CTO state. The CTO proved to be effective in reducing revolving door admissions and it has a beneficial carryover effect in the post-CTO state.

  13. Generality of a congruity effect in judgements of relative order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang S; Chan, Michelle; Caplan, Jeremy B

    2014-10-01

    The judgement of relative order (JOR) procedure is used to investigate serial-order memory. Measuring response times, the wording of the instructions (whether the earlier or the later item was designated as the target) reversed the direction of search in subspan lists (Chan, Ross, Earle, & Caplan Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(5), 945-951, 2009). If a similar congruity effect applied to above-span lists and, furthermore, with error rate as the measure, this could suggest how to model order memory across scales. Participants performed JORs on lists of nouns (Experiment 1: list lengths = 4, 6, 8, 10) or consonants (Experiment 2: list lengths = 4, 8). In addition to the usual distance, primacy, and recency effects, instructions interacted with serial position of the later probe in both experiments, not only in response time, but also in error rate, suggesting that availability, not just accessibility, is affected by instructions. The congruity effect challenges current memory models. We fitted Hacker's (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6(6), 651-675, 1980) self-terminating search model to our data and found that a switch in search direction could explain the congruity effect for short lists, but not longer lists. This suggests that JORs may need to be understood via direct-access models, adapted to produce a congruity effect, or a mix of mechanisms.

  14. Estimation of Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects on Birth Weight in Brown Swiss Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kaygisiz*, Galip Bakir1, Isa Yilmaz2 and Yusuf Vanli3

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight in Brown Swiss cattle reared at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, Türkiye. The least square means of birth weight were 39.91±0.005 and 42.26±0.09kg for the calves raised at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, respectively. The effects of calving year, parity and calf sex on birth weight were significant (P<0.05. The effect of calving season on birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01 for Malya State Farm, while it was non-significant for Konuklar State Farm. Direct heritability (h2d, maternal heritability (h2m, total heritability (h2T and the fraction of variance due to maternal permanent environmental effects (c2 were 0.09, 0.04, 0.11 and 0.04, respectively for birth weights of the calves raised at Malya State Farms. The corresponding values of birth weight for calves raised at Konuklar State Farm were 0.39, 0.015, 0.29 and 0.018, respectively.

  15. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-09-18

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty.

  16. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation on Motor Development of Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low Birth Weight neonates need complementary interventions (e.g. tactile kinesthetic stimulation to promote their development. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Tactile- Kinesthetic Stimulation (TKS on motor development of Low Birth Weight neonates. Methods: In this clinical trial study, sample was made out of 40 inborn LBW neonates who were divided into two groups randomly. TKS was provided for three 15-minute periods per day for 10 consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate of pressure strokes in prone position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of limbs in supine position. All measurements were taken before and after completion of the study with the same equipment and by the same person. Results: Results indicated that motor behavior in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group after the 10 days TKS (P-Value≤0.0001. Discussion: TKS could be an effective intervention in development of motor behavior of LBW neonates. Because very little is known about neonate's behavior, it seems to need more studies in other aspects of behavior in LBW neonates.

  17. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097

  18. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination. PMID:27647943

  19. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination.

  20. Effect of Concomitant Birth Defects and Genetic Anomalies on Infant Mortality in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Eric G; Strassle, Paula D; Stebbins, Rebecca C; Meyer, Robert E; Nelson, Jennifer S

    2017-08-15

    A substantial proportion of infants born with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) die in infancy. A better understanding of the heterogeneity associated with TOF, including extracardiac malformations and chromosomal anomalies is vital to stratifying risk and optimizing outcomes during infancy. Using the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program, infants diagnosed with TOF and born between 2003 and 2012 were included. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative 1-year mortality, stratified by the presence of concomitant birth defects (BDs) and chromosomal anomalies. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the direct effect of each concomitant BD, after adjusting for all others. A total of 496 infants with TOF were included, and 15% (n = 76) died. The number of concomitant BD systems was significantly associated with the risk of death at 1-year, p < 0.0001. Specifically, the risk of mortality was 8% among infants with TOF with or without additional cardiac defects, 16% among infants with TOF and 1 extracardiac BD system, 19% among infants with 2 extracardiac BD systems, and 39% among infants with ≥ 3 extracardiac BD systems. After adjustment, concomitant eye and gastrointestinal defects were significantly associated increased with 1-year mortality, odds ratio 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-7.32) and odds ratio 4.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.57, 12.45), respectively. Infants with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18 were also significantly more likely to die, p < 0.0001. Both concomitant BDs and genetic anomalies increase the risk of mortality among infants with TOF. Future studies are needed to identify the underlying genetic and socioeconomic risk factors for high-risk TOF infants. Birth Defects Research 109:1154-1165, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Working memory mediates the effects of gestational age at birth on expressive language development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Valentina; Cantiani, Chiara; Dionne, Ginette; Marini, Andrea; Mascheretti, Sara; Molteni, Massimo; Marino, Cecilia

    2017-07-01

    This study tested the role of temporary memory, measured by phonological short-term memory (pSTM) and verbal working memory (vWM), as a mediator of the effect of 3 putative risk factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, home literacy environment, birth gestational age) upon expressive and receptive language. A community-based sample of 646 Italian children aged 6-11 years was assessed with a comprehensive battery of language and cognitive tests. A mediation analysis was used to examine whether memory mediates environmental/biological effects on language. The results demonstrated a developmental cascade of effects, whereby the duration of pregnancy drives vWM functioning that, in turn, may affect expressive linguistic outcome Conclusion: Treatments focused on vWM, specifically to preterm children, may improve their language development, with enduring consequences on educational and psychosocial outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H M-L; Pedersen, L J

    2016-01-01

    It has been documented that floor heating of the farrowing area in loose housed sows improves survival of piglets significantly. However, today, the majority of farrowing pens are designed with crating of sows and slatted floor at the birth site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether providing radiant heat at the birth site to new-born piglets in pens with crated sows reduced hypothermia, time to first milk intake and growth of the piglets during the 1(st) week. Second parity Danish Landrace×Yorkshire sows (n=36) were randomly divided into two groups: Control (CG) and heat (HG). In the area behind the sow (zone 1), two radiant heat panels were mounted above the slatted floor in the HG. The farrowings were attended, and the heaters were turned on at birth of first piglet and turned off 12 h after. Birth time, time to leave zone 1, time to first contact with udder and time to first suckling were registered by direct observation. The piglet's rectal temperature (RT) was measured 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 min after birth and 12, 14 and 24 h after birth of first piglet. Piglets were weighed at birth, 24 and 48 h and 7 days after birth. Data were analysed in a mixed model in SAS. The drop in RT was lower in HG compared with CG (P=0.002), and the RT in HG remained higher than in CG from 30 to 240 min after birth (Pweight gain was found between piglets in HG and CG at 24 h (P=0.23), 48 h (P=0.28) and 7 days after birth (P=0.44). Birth weight had a positive effect on RT (P<0.001) and reduced time to leave zone 1 (P<0.01), reach udder (P<0.001) and time to first suckling (P<0.001). The results showed that radiant heating behind the sows reduced hypothermia in new-born piglets and indicate that providing heat during the first half hour after birth is important.

  3. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  4. [The effect of birth weight on the early postnatal vitality of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Wähner, M; Puppe, B

    1994-10-01

    Investigations with 1248 newborn piglets in 7 farms showed a high significant influence of birth weight on parameters of early postnatal vitality. The duration between birth and first standing up was by two times, the time between birth and first udder contact by 3.5 times and the duration between birth and first colostrum intake was by 4 times longer in piglets with a low birth weight ( 2200 g). The drop in rectal temperature up to 30 minutes after birth reached 4.5 Kelvin in lightweight piglets, whereas their litter mates with a high body weight at birth had a value of 0.85 K (p vitality of newborn piglets and has a high prognostic value in relation to the risk of losses and the live weight development of neonates.

  5. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E; van der Post, J A M; van Wely, M; Bloemenkamp, K W M; Hoek, A; Kuchenbecker, W K; Verhoeve, H R; Scheepers, H C J; Rombout-de Weerd, S; Koks, C; Zwart, J J; Broekmans, F; Verpoest, W; Christiansen, O B; Post, M; Papatsonis, D N M; Verberg, M F G; Sikkema, J; Mol, B W; Bisschop, P H; Goddijn, M

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of levothyroxine administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20th week of gestation. The primary outcome is live birth, defined as the birth of a living fetus beyond 24weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes are ongoing pregnancy at 12weeks, miscarriage, preterm birth, (serious) adverse events, time to pregnancy and survival at 28days of neonatal life. The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here we discuss the rationale and design of the T4-LIFE study, an international multicenter randomized, double blind placebo controlled, clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine in women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nutritional status of the mother prior to and during pregnancy plays a vital role in fetal growth and development, and maternal undernourishment may lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Several macronutrient interventions had been proposed for adequate protein and energy supplementation during pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to review the effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on birth outcomes. This paper is a part of a series of reviews undertaken for getting estimates of effectiveness of an intervention for input to Lives Saved Tool (LiST model. Methods A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional data bases to identify randomized trials (RCTs and quasi RCTs that evaluated the impact of balanced protein energy supplementation in pregnancy. Balanced protein energy supplementation was defined as nutritional supplementation during pregnancy in which proteins provided less than 25% of the total energy content. Those studies were excluded in which the main intervention was dietary advice to pregnant women for increase in protein energy intake, high protein supplementation (i.e. supplementation in which protein provides at least 25% of total energy content, isocaloric protein supplementation (where protein replaces an equal quantity of non-protein energy content, or low energy diet to pregnant women who are either overweight or who exhibit high weight gain earlier in gestation. The primary outcomes were incidence of small for gestational age (SGA birth, mean birth weight and neonatal mortality. Quality of evidence was evaluated according to the Child Health Epidemiology Reference group (CHERG adaptation of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria. Results The final number of studies included in our review was eleven comprising of both RCTs and quasi-RCTs. Our meta

  7. Effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-13

    The nutritional status of the mother prior to and during pregnancy plays a vital role in fetal growth and development, and maternal undernourishment may lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Several macronutrient interventions had been proposed for adequate protein and energy supplementation during pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to review the effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on birth outcomes. This paper is a part of a series of reviews undertaken for getting estimates of effectiveness of an intervention for input to Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional data bases to identify randomized trials (RCTs) and quasi RCTs that evaluated the impact of balanced protein energy supplementation in pregnancy. Balanced protein energy supplementation was defined as nutritional supplementation during pregnancy in which proteins provided less than 25% of the total energy content. Those studies were excluded in which the main intervention was dietary advice to pregnant women for increase in protein energy intake, high protein supplementation (i.e. supplementation in which protein provides at least 25% of total energy content), isocaloric protein supplementation (where protein replaces an equal quantity of non-protein energy content), or low energy diet to pregnant women who are either overweight or who exhibit high weight gain earlier in gestation. The primary outcomes were incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) birth, mean birth weight and neonatal mortality. Quality of evidence was evaluated according to the Child Health Epidemiology Reference group (CHERG) adaptation of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. The final number of studies included in our review was eleven comprising of both RCTs and quasi-RCTs. Our meta-analysis indicates that providing pregnant females

  8. Message Order Effects in Persuasion: An Attitude Strength Perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Haugtvedt, Curtis P; Wegener, Duane T

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary research on attitude change processes is reviewed for implications regarding the relative influence of successive opposing messages on final judgements. Based on this review, extent of message relevant elaboration is offered as a moderator of primacy versus recency effects in prior research. Support for this view is derived from the ability to explain the results of pervious studies and from two experiments in which message presentation order and personal relevance of the topic a...

  9. Neural correlates of serial order effect in verbal divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meijuan; Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Grabner, Roland H; Fink, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    During the course of divergent thinking (DT), the number of generated ideas decreases while the originality of ideas increases. This phenomenon is labeled as serial order effect in DT. The present study investigated whether different executive processes (i.e., updating, shifting, and inhibition) specifically contribute to the serial order effect in DT. Participants' executive functions were measured by corresponding experimental tasks outside of the EEG lab. They were required to generate original uses of conventional objects (alternative uses task) during EEG recording. The behavioral results revealed that the originality of ideas was higher in later stage of DT (i.e., Epoch 2) than in its earlier stage (i.e., Epoch 1) for higher-shifting individuals, but showed no difference between two epochs for lower-shifting individuals. The EEG results revealed that lower-inhibition individuals showed stronger upper alpha (10-13Hz) synchronization in left frontal areas during Epoch 1 compared to during Epoch 2. For higher-inhibition individuals, no changes in upper alpha activity from Epoch 1 to Epoch 2 were found. These findings indicated that shifting and inhibition contributed to create a serial order effect in DT, perhaps because individuals suppress interference from obvious ideas and switch to new idea categories during DT, thus more original ideas appear as time passes by. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High order effects in cross section sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.; Gilai, D.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of high order effects associated with perturbations in the flux shape are considered: Spectral Fine Structure Effects (SFSE) and non-linearity between changes in performance parameters and data uncertainties. SFSE are investigated in Part I using a simple single resonance model. Results obtained for each of the resolved and for representative unresolved resonances of 238 U in a ZPR-6/7 like environment indicate that SFSE can have a significant contribution to the sensitivity of group constants to resonance parameters. Methods to account for SFSE both for the propagation of uncertainties and for the adjustment of nuclear data are discussed. A Second Order Sensitivity Theory (SOST) is presented, and its accuracy relative to that of the first order sensitivity theory and of the direct substitution method is investigated in Part II. The investigation is done for the non-linear problem of the effect of changes in the 297 keV sodium minimum cross section on the transport of neutrons in a deep-penetration problem. It is found that the SOST provides a satisfactory accuracy for cross section uncertainty analysis. For the same degree of accuracy, the SOST can be significantly more efficient than the direct substitution method

  11. Electron correlation effects in third-order densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mayorga, Mauricio; Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Feixas, Ferran; Matito, Eduard

    2017-02-08

    The electronic energy of a system of fermions can be obtained from the second-order reduced density matrix through the contracted Schrödinger equation or its anti-Hermitian counterpart. Both energy expressions depend on the third-order reduced density matrix (3-RDM) which is usually approximated from lower-order densities. The accuracy of these methods depends critically on the set of N-representability conditions enforced in the calculation and the quality of the approximate 3-RDM. There are no benchmark studies including most 3-RDM approximations and, thus far, no assessment of the deterioration of the approximations with correlation effects has been performed. In this paper we introduce a series of tests to assess the performance of 3-RDM approximations in a model system with varying electron correlation effects, the three-electron harmonium atom. The results of this work put forward several limitations of the currently most used 3-RDM approximations for systems with important electron correlation effects.

  12. Noise exposure during pregnancy, birth outcomes and fetal development: meta-analyses using quality effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D; Dimitrakova, Elena D

    2014-01-01

    Many women are exposed daily to high levels of occupational and residential noise, so the effect of noise exposure on pregnancy should be considered because noise affects both the fetus and the mother herself. However, there is a controversy in the literature regarding the adverse effects of occupational and residential noise on pregnant women and their fetuses. The aim of this study was to conduct systematic review of previously analyzed studies, to add additional information omitted in previous reviews and to perform meta-analyses on the effects of noise exposure on pregnancy, birth outcomes and fetal development. Previous reviews and meta-analyses on the topic were consulted. Additionally, a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Internet was carried out. Twenty nine studies were included in the meta-analyses. Quality effects meta-analytical model was applied. Women exposed to high noise levels (in most of the studies ≥ 80 dB) during pregnancy are at a significantly higher risk for having small-for-gestational-age newborn (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.38), gestational hypertension (RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.58) and infant with congenital malformations (RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.79). The effect was not significant for preeclampsia, perinatal death, spontaneous abortion and preterm birth. The results are consistent with previous findings regarding a higher risk for small-for-gestational-age. They also highlight the significance of residential and occupational noise exposure for developing gestational hypertension and especially congenital malformations.

  13. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Barros, Aluísio J D; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Victora, César Gomes

    2007-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits was collected at birth, in the first, third, sixth and 12th months of life, and at six years of age. Control variables included maternal schooling and child's birthweight, cephalic perimeter, and sex. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression. Prevalence of anterior open bite was 46.2%, and that of posterior cross bite was 18.2%. Non-nutritive sucking habits between 12 months and four years of age and digital sucking at age six years were the main risk factors for anterior open bite. Breastfeeding for less than nine months and regular use of pacifier between age 12 months and four years were risk factors for posterior cross bite. Interaction between duration of breastfeeding and the use of pacifier was identified for posterior cross bite. Given that breastfeeding is a protective factor for other diseases of infancy, our findings indicate that the common risks approach is the most appropriate for the prevention of posterior cross bite in primary or initial mixed dentition.

  14. Induced abortion in Denmark: effect of socio-economic situation and country of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2007-01-01

    study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. RESULTS: The strongest factor...... associated with the decision to have an abortion was being single (OR 39.1; 23.8-64.2), followed by being aged 19 years or below (OR 29.6; 13.4-65.5), having two children or more (OR 7.05; 5.29-9.39) and being unskilled (OR 2.48; 1.49-4.10), student (OR 2.29; 1.52-3.43) or unemployed (OR 1.65; 1.......11-2.46). When evaluating the effect of social exposure on abortion among Danish-born and foreign-born women, the higher rate of abortion among non-Westerners was found to be caused by the composition of non-Westerners more often being unemployed, having a low income and having two or more children rather than...

  15. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; van Bakel, Hedwig; Koldewijn, Karen; Kok, Joke; van Baar, Anneloes

    2011-02-01

    For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is designed to assist parents to support and enhance their infant's regulatory competence and development. The intervention consisted of 6-8 home visits during the first 8 months after birth. Seventy-eight mothers of very preterm infants (attachment representations were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI). The interviews resulted in a classification of the attachment representations into balanced or non-balanced. 30% of the mothers had non-balanced attachment representations. Qualitative content analysis of the answers showed that negative feelings when first seeing their baby and negative or ambivalent feelings in the first weeks at home with their baby are related to non-balanced attachment representations. The WMCI revealed no differences between the intervention and control group. Early support for mothers of very preterm born infants to develop a healthy mother-infant relationship is recommended especially for mothers who report negative first experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kangaroo position: Immediate effects on the physiological variables of preterm and low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Cesário Defilipo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method is a significant neonatal alternative that ensures better quality humanized care for preterm and low birth weight newborns. Objective: To analyze the immediate physiological effects of the kangaroo position in critically ill newborns. Methods: Open clinical trial with parallel interventions, involving preterm (up to 28 days old low or very low birth weight newborns (minimum weight of 1,250 grams of both sexes, that were clinically stable and undergoing enteral nutrition. The degree of respiratory distress was assessed and quantified using the Silverman-Anderson scoring system. Heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were collected using a pulse oximeter. Respiratory rate was determined by auscultation for one minute. The newborns were submitted to the kangaroo position once only, for 90 minutes. Results: Participants were 30 newborns, 56.7% of which were girls. Comparison of the variables before and after application of the kangaroo position using the Wilcoxon test showed a statistically significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.02 and Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01. The remaining variables showed no significant differences: heart rate (p = 0.21, peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.26 and axillary temperature (p = 0.12. Conclusion: There was a decline in the respiratory rate and Silverman-Anderson score after application of the kangaroo position, while peripheral oxygen saturation, axillary temperature and heart rate remained stable.

  17. The effect of parental involvement laws on teen birth control use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J; Anderson, D Mark

    2016-01-01

    In Volume 32, Issue 5 of this journal, Colman, Dee, and Joyce (CDJ) used data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (NYRBS) and found that parental involvement (PI) laws had no effect on the probability that minors abstain from sex or use contraception. We re-examine this question, augmenting the NYRBS with data from the State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (SYRBS), and use a variety of identification strategies to control for state-level time-varying unmeasured heterogeneity. Consistent with CDJ, we find that PI laws have no effect on minor teen females' abstinence decisions. However, when we exploit additional state policy variation unavailable to CDJ and use non-minor teens as a within-state control group, we find evidence to suggest that PI laws are associated with an increase in the probability that sexually active minor teen females use birth control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  19. Effect of creatine supplementation during the last week of gestation on birth intervals, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that creatine supplementation would reduce birth intervals, stillbirth rate, and preweaning survival in pigs because of its reported improvement of athletic performance in humans. In Exp. 1, gilts (n = 42) and first parity sows (n = 75) were mated at estrus. Beginning on d 110 of gestation, dams received either no treatment or 20 g creatine daily until farrowing. At farrowing in November 2008, pigs were monitored by video camera to determine individual piglet birth intervals. On d 1, piglets were weighed, euthanized, and the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were collected from the largest and smallest piglets in each litter to measure myelin basic proteins, myelin cholesterol, glucocerebrosides, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. Preweaning mortality of the remaining piglets was recorded, including whether a piglet had been overlayed by the dam. A second experiment was performed using gilts (n = 90), farrowing in July 2010, to test differential effects of creatine supplementation during hot, humid weather when dams typically have more difficulty farrowing. Once again, gilts were provided either no supplementation or 20 g creatine daily from d 110 to the day of farrowing. Gilts were video recorded during farrowing, piglets were weighed on d 1, and preweaning mortality (including overlays) was recorded. In Exp. 1, creatine supplementation had no effect on birth intervals or stillbirth rate. Creatine supplementation improved the amount of myelin lipids in brain regions of piglets, particularly the brain stem. Creatine supplementation also reduced overlays of low birth weight piglets from gilts but not second parity sows. Data from Exp. 2 were combined with gilt data from Exp. 1 to examine the effect of creatine, season, and their interaction. There were no effects of treatment or season on birth intervals, stillbirth rates, or overall preweaning mortality. Creatine treatment reduced the incidence of overlays in low

  20. Oral misoprostol for preventing postpartum haemorrhage in home births in rural Bangladesh: how effective is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Hashima-E-; Nahar, Shamsun; Al Mamun, Mahfuz; Afsana, Kaosar; Byass, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Aims Evidence exists about prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) by oral administration of misoprostol in low-income countries, but effectiveness of prevention by lay community health workers (CHW) is not sufficient. This study aimed to investigate whether a single dose (400 µg) of oral misoprostol could prevent PPH in a community home-birth setting and to assess its acceptability and feasibility among rural Bangladeshi women. Methods This quasi-experimental trial was conducted among 2,017 rural women who had home deliveries between November 2009 and February 2010 in two rural districts of northern Bangladesh. In the intervention district 1,009 women received 400 µg of misoprostol immediately after giving birth by the lay CHWs, and in the control district 1,008 women were followed after giving birth with no specific intervention against PPH. Primary PPH (within 24 hours) was measured by women's self-reported subjective measures of the normality of blood loss using the ‘cultural consensus model.’ Baseline data provided socio-economic, reproductive, obstetric, and bleeding disorder information. Findings The incidence of primary PPH was found to be lower in the intervention group (1.6%) than the control group (6.2%) (pMisoprostol provided 81% protection (RR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.08–0.48) against developing primary PPH. The proportion of retained and manually removed placentae was found to be higher in the control group compared to the intervention group. Women in the control group were more likely to need an emergency referral to a higher level facility and blood transfusion than the intervention group. Unexpectedly few women experienced transient side effects of misoprostol. Eighty-seven percent of the women were willing to use the drug in future pregnancy and would recommend to other pregnant women. Conclusion Community-based distribution of oral misoprostol (400 µg) by CHW appeared to be effective, safe, acceptable, and feasible in reducing the incidence

  1. The Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Birth Outcomes in a Cohort of Pregnant Women in Lao PDR, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sonja J; Mirza, Sara A; Vonglokham, Phouvanh; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Chitry, Bounlap; Pholsena, Vathsana; Chitranonh, Visith; Omer, Saad B; Moen, Ann; Bresee, Joseph S; Corwin, Andrew; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh

    2016-08-15

    Some studies suggest that maternal influenza vaccination can improve birth outcomes. However, there are limited data from tropical settings, particularly Southeast Asia. We conducted an observational study in Laos to assess the effect of influenza vaccination in pregnant women on birth outcomes. We consented and enrolled a cohort of pregnant woman who delivered babies at 3 hospitals during April 2014-February 2015. We collected demographic and clinical information on mother and child. Influenza vaccination status was ascertained by vaccine card. Primary outcomes were the proportion of live births born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm and mean birth weight. Multivariate models controlled for differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women and influenza virus circulation. We enrolled 5103 women (2172 [43%] were vaccinated). Among the 4854 who had a live birth, vaccinated women were statistically significantly less likely than unvaccinated women to have an infant born preterm during the period of high influenza virus circulation (risk ratio [RR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], .45-.70), and the effect remained after adjusting for covariates (adjusted RR, 0.69; 95% CI, .55-.87). There was no effect of vaccine on SGA or mean birth weight. The population-prevented fraction was 18.0%. In this observational study, we found indirect evidence of influenza vaccine safety during pregnancy, and women who received vaccine had a reduced risk of delivering a preterm infant during times of high influenza virus circulation. Vaccination may prevent 1 in 5 preterm births that occur during periods of high influenza circulation. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Threshold resummation and higher order effects in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, Felix Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a quantum field theory that describes the strong interactions between quarks and gluons, the building blocks of all hadrons. Thanks to the experimental progress over the past decades, there has been an ever-growing need for QCD precision calculations for scattering processes involving hadrons. For processes at large momentum transfer, perturbative QCD offers a systematic approach for obtaining precise predictions. This approach relies on two key concepts: the asymptotic freedom of QCD and factorization. In a perturbative calculation at higher orders, the infrared cancellation between virtual and real emission diagrams generally leaves behind logarithmic contributions. In many observables relevant for hadronic scattering these logarithms are associated with a kinematic threshold and are hence known as ''threshold logarithms''. They become large when the available phase space for real gluon emission shrinks. In order to obtain a reliable prediction from QCD, the threshold logarithms need to be taken into account to all orders in the strong coupling constant, a procedure known as ''threshold resummation''. The main focus of my PhD thesis is on studies of QCD threshold resummation effects beyond the next-to-leading logarithmic order. Here we primarily consider the production of hadron pairs in hadronic collisions as an example. In addition, we also consider hadronic jet production, which is particularly interesting for the phenomenology at the LHC. For both processes, we fully take into account the non-trivial QCD color structure of the underlying partonic hard- scattering cross sections. We find that threshold resummation leads to sizable numerical effects in the kinematic regimes relevant for comparisons to experimental data.

  3. Effects of a Birth Hospital's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Level and Annual Volume of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infant Deliveries on Morbidity and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erik A; Lorch, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    The annual volume of deliveries of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants has a greater effect on mortality risk than does neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) level. The differential effect of these hospital factors on morbidity among VLBW infants is uncertain. To assess the independent effects of a birth hospital's annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries and NICU level on the risk of several neonatal morbidities and morbidity-mortality composite outcomes that are predictive of future neurocognitive development. Retrospective, population-based cohort study (performed in 2014) of all VLBW infants without severe congenital anomalies delivered in all hospitals in California, Missouri, and Pennsylvania between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2009 (N = 72,431). Risk-adjusted odds ratios and risk-adjusted probabilities were determined by logistic regression. The primary study outcomes were the individual composites of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Among the 72,431 VLBW infants in the present study, birth at a hospital with 10 or less deliveries of VLBW infants per year was associated with the highest risk-adjusted probability of death (15.3% [95% CI, 14.4%-16.3%]), death or severe intraventricular hemorrhage (17.5% [95% CI, 16.5%-18.6%]), and death or necrotizing enterocolitis (19.3% [95% CI, 18.1%-20.4%]). These complications were also more common among infants born at hospitals with a level I or II NICU compared with infants delivered at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU. The risk-adjusted probability of death or retinopathy of prematurity was highest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU and lowest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIA NICU. When the effects of NICU level and annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries were evaluated simultaneously, the annual volume of deliveries was the stronger contributor to the risk of death, death or

  4. The paternal component of the "healthy migrant" effect: fathers' natality and infants' low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lane, Sandra D; Hall, Meghan; Tso, Evaline; Pinto, Natasha; Oberoi, Navpriya; Suk, William; Badawy, Zaki; Wojtowycz, Martha A; Aubry, Richard

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the predictors of birth outcomes among women of European and African ancestry and considers the birthplace of the babies' fathers (foreign born vs. native born) as a protective factor. This is a secondary data analysis of 146,431 singleton births among women of European and African ancestry, both native-born and foreign-born, in a 21 birth hospital region of Central New York State from 1996 to 2003. Foreign born fathers were found to have 15% fewer low birth weight infants than US-born fathers, after controlling for the race and birthplace of the mother, tobacco use and Medicaid. Although this secondary data analysis does not allow us to determine the social determinants of the better birth outcomes among infants of foreign born fathers, it does demonstrate that fathers matter and that foreign born fathers are associated with reduced low birth weight in their infants.

  5. A Survey on Some of the Effective Factors in Premature Birth: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Esmailnasab; Hossein Amirian; Batoul Eskandai; Mina Zarei

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives : Preterm birth (birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy) is the major factor affecting a child's health and survival. Compared with term infants, these infants are at higher risk of mortality and incidence of health problems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with preterm birth. Material and Methods : A case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Fatemieh hospital, Iran, between 23rd October 2011 and 21st June 2012. Convenie...

  6. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stabell Benn

    Full Text Available The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during several periods. We took advantage of this "natural experiment" to test the effect on mortality of receiving OPV at birth.Between 2002 and 2004, the VAS trial randomised normal-birth-weight infants to 50,000 IU VAS or placebo administered with BCG. Provision of OPV at birth was not part of the trial, but we noted whether the infants received OPV or not. OPV was missing during several periods in 2004. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compute mortality rate ratios (MRR of children who had received or not received OPV at birth.A total of 962 (22.1% of the 4345 enrolled children did not receive OPV at birth; 179 children died within the first year of life. Missing OPV at birth was associated with a tendency for decreased mortality (adjusted MRR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46-1.03, the effect being similar among recipients of VAS and placebo. There was a highly significant interaction between OPV at birth and sex (p = 0.006. Not receiving OPV at birth was associated with a weak tendency for increased mortality in girls (1.14 (0.70-1.89 but significantly decreased mortality in boys (0.35 (0.18-0.71.In our study OPV at birth had a sex-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted.

  7. Effect of Maternal Diet Diversity and Physical Activity on Neonatal Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Slums of Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Manerkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India has the highest prevalence of low birth weight babies. Geographical variation and level of physical activity can influence diet diversity and maternal nutritional status which in turn influences the birth weight of the neonate. Mumbai is a large city comprising of slums in suburbs depicting diet diversity amongst populations. Aim: To study the maternal diet diversity, physical activity and its effect on birth weight of the neonates in urban slums of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A six month follow-up study was carried out in three maternity homes representing different geographical areas of Western, Central and Southern Mumbai. A total number of 131 pregnant women were selected using simple random sampling. Final sample size was n=121 after follow-up loss of 9 and 1 miscarriage. Maternal anthropometric, socio-demographic, physical activity and diet diversity data was collected using structured questionnaires through personal interview after taking written informed consent. Birth weight of the neonate was recorded. Chi-Square, Correlation, ANOVA was used to test the significance. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Nineteen (15.7% were low birth weight (LBW infants, 102 (84.3% had normal weight. There was a significant association between place of Antenatal Clinic (ANC visit and diet diversity score and its subsequent effect on birth weight (p<0.05. Geographic variation had an impact on diet diversity scores which in turn affected the birth weight of neonates. Women who delivered low birth weight babies were more involved in household domestic activities (p<0.05 compared to those women who delivered normal weight babies. Conclusion: Diet diversity and physical activity influence the birth weight of neonates across different geographic locations. Despite of ample interventions available to prevent maternal malnutrition, the incidence of LBW was not decreased. Thus, this issue needs to be addressed at

  8. The effect of mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight on risk of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas J; Litman, Heather J; Tennstedt, Sharon L; Link, Carol L; McKinlay, John B

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship between symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) and mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight, data were obtained from a population-based random sample of 3,205 black, Hispanic, and white women age 30-79 in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Measures include UI symptoms [>or=3 (moderate/severe) Sandvik's severity index]; reproductive history [live birth(s), no live births, never pregnant]; mode of delivery for live births (>or=1 vaginal birth, cesarean delivery only); parity (1, 2, >or=3); and maximum birth weight of live births (or=4,000 g). Using logistic regression, women having >or=1 vaginal delivery had twice the odds of UI compared to women with no pregnancies (P = 0.002) or only cesarean deliveries (P = 0.032). There was no difference in odds of UI between cesarean delivery only and never pregnant, by parity or birth weight. Vaginal delivery contributes to risk of UI for black, Hispanic, and white women.

  9. Long-term effects of preterm birth on language and literacy at eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Annalisa; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fabbri, Cristina; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether specific linguistic difficulties in preterm children persist at eight years and to examine the interrelationships between language and literacy in this population, compared with a control group of full-term children. Sixty-eight monolingual Italian preterms and 26 chronologically matched controls were recruited. Language (grammar comprehension, lexical production and phonological awareness), literacy (reading comprehension, reading and writing) and general cognitive development were investigated. Results showed no general delay in preterms, but slight difficulties in specific linguistic abilities (grammar, lexicon, phoneme synthesis and deletion of the first syllable), more difficulties in literacy (speed in reading and accuracy in writing) and certain correlations among competencies turning out to be different from the control group. In conclusion, our study established that a partially atypical trajectory emerged in preterms, showing specific long-term effects of preterm birth on language and literacy development.

  10. Nonmetal effect on ordering structures in titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ehm, V.T.; Savenko, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of oxygen and nitrogen atoms on formation of intermediate, cubic and trigonal ordering structures in the titanium carbide is studied through the roentgenography and neutron radiography methods. Metal atoms in the TiC 0.545 O 0.08 , TiC 0.545 N 0.09 samples under study are shifted from ideal positions in the direction from vacancies to metalloid atoms. In the intermediate cubic phase the values of the titanium atoms free parameter in both samples are identical, but they differ from analogous values in the titanium carbide

  11. The effect of low birth weight on height, weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive o...

  12. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  13. Effects of birth ball exercise on pain and self-efficacy during childbirth: a randomised controlled trial in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Meei-Ling; Chang, Ching-Yi; Tian, Shu-Hui; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2011-12-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a birth ball exercise programme during childbirth by measuring childbirth self-efficacy and childbirth pain. In addition, it tested the mediating effects of childbirth self-efficacy on the relationship between the birth ball exercise programme and childbirth pain. Randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted from December 2008 to November 2009, at two birth units, one at a regional hospital and one at a medical centre, with 600 and 1022 annual births, respectively. One hundred and eighty-eight expectant mothers were recruited (recruitment rate: 47%) and were allocated by block randomisation into the two arms of the study, but only 48 intervention and 39 control group participants completing the trial. The birth ball exercise programme consisted of a 26-page booklet and a 19-minute videotape, with periodic follow-ups during prenatal checks. All members of the experimental group were asked to practise the exercises and positions at home for at least 20 minutes three times a week for a period of 6-8 weeks. Each woman in the experimental group was given a birth ball for use during labour and encouraged every hour to choose the most comfortable positions, movements, and exercises. Both the experimental and control groups received standard nursing and midwifery care from hospital staff nurses in all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth. When cervical dilations were four centimetres and eight centimetres, the women completed demographic and obstetrics information, the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory (CBSEI), and the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Our study revealed that birth ball exercises provided statistically significant improvements in childbirth self-efficacy and pain. Specifically, self-efficacy had a 30-40% mediating effect on relationships between birth ball exercises and childbirth pain. Mothers in the experimental group had shorter first-stage labour duration, less epidural analgesia, and fewer

  14. The 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (ETTNO)' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT....... Objectives: To summarize the current equipoise and to outline the study protocol of the 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of extremely low birth-weight infants (ETTNO)' study. Methods: Review of the literature and design of a large pragmatic randomized controlled trial...

  15. Medium-term consequences of low birth weight on health and behavioral deficits - is there a catch-up effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight.  Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long-run.  While some studies find effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthoo...... Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time allows us to chart the evolution of health and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helps inform the nature and timing of interventions....

  16. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  17. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adj OR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  18. Effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia at the referral hospital of Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, N.; Housseine, N.; Meguid, T.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines (PartoMa guidelines) on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia. Design: Quasi-experimental pre-post study investigating the causal pathway through changes in clinical practice. Setting: Tanzanian low-resource ref......Objective: To evaluate effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines (PartoMa guidelines) on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia. Design: Quasi-experimental pre-post study investigating the causal pathway through changes in clinical practice. Setting: Tanzanian low......-resource referral hospital, Mnazi Mmoja Hospital.Population: Facility deliveries during baseline (1 October 2014 until 31 January 2015) and the 9th to 12th intervention month (1 October 2014 until 31 January 2015). Methods: Birth outcome was extracted from all cases of labouring women during baseline (n = 3690...

  19. Investigation of Effectiveness of Order Review and Release Models in Make to Order Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Kaustav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays customisation becomes more common due to vast requirement from the customers for which industries are trying to use make-to-order (MTO strategy. Due to high variation in the process, workload control models are extensively used for jobshop companies which usually adapt MTO strategy. Some authors tried to implement workload control models, order review and release systems, in non-repetitive manufacturing companies, where there is a dominant flow in production. Those models are better in shop floor but their performances are never been investigated in high variation situations like MTO supply chain. This paper starts with the introduction of particular issues in MTO companies and a general overview of order review and release systems widely used in the industries. Two order review and release systems, the Limited and Balanced models, particularly suitable for flow shop system are applied to MTO supply chain, where the processing times are difficult to estimate due to high variation. Simulation results show that the Balanced model performs much better than the Limited model if the processing times can be estimated preciously.

  20. Segregation and preterm birth: The effects of neighborhood racial composition in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic research suggests that racial segregation is associated with poor health among blacks in the United States (US). We used geocoded birth records and US census data to investigate whether neighborhood-level percent black is associated with preterm birth (PTB) for blac...

  1. 4. The Lunar Effect on Delivery and Other Birth Outcomes in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Objective: It is a widely held belief that the period of a full moon is associated with higher birth rates compared to periods when the moon is not full. We investigated whether more births occurred during a full moon in a rural African population. Design: Data collected from 42 clinical sites in rural.

  2. [Birth cohort effect on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in coronary artery disease. Experience in a Latin-american country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiel, Marisol; Cepeda, Magda; Ochoa, Julián; Loaiza, John H; Velásquez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of major risk factors associated to coronary artery disease has changed over time. Today, the frequency of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus has increased, while smoking has decreased. The birth cohort effect for coronary artery disease in subjects as an approximation of the true prevalence over time has not been studied in Latin-America. To determine the trends in the prevalence of major risk factors for coronary artery disease by birth cohort effect in a high risk population. We estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia from a prospective institutional registry (DREST registry) of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary event. Birth cohort effect was defined as a statistical, epidemiological and sociological methodology to identify the influence of the environment in the lifetime from birth by each decade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed adjusted by gender. Out of 3,056 subjects who were enrolled, 72% were male, with a median age of 61 years (interquartile range=53-69). Hypertension prevalence was 62.3%, for diabetes mellitus it was 48.8%, for smoking it was 18.8% and for dyslipidemia it was 48.8%. We observed an increase in prevalence for diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in each cohort according to birth decade, while there was a reduction in prevalence for hypertension in the same decades. The prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors has changed in time and the presence of time at birth effect is evident, possibly influenced by the environment's social conditions in each decade of life. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of individualized lung recruitment strategies at birth: an experimental study in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, David G; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Zannin, Emanuela; Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Dellaca, Raffaele L; Perkins, Elizabeth J; Zonneveld, Cornelis E E; Adler, Andy; Black, Don; Frerichs, Inéz; Lavizzari, Anna; Sourial, Magdy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Mosca, Fabio; Davis, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory transition at birth involves rapidly clearing fetal lung liquid and preventing efflux back into the lung while aeration is established. We have developed a sustained inflation (SI OPT ) individualized to volume response and a dynamic tidal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (open lung volume, OLV) strategy that both enhance this process. We aimed to compare the effect of each with a group managed with PEEP of 8 cmH 2 O and no recruitment maneuver (No-RM), on gas exchange, lung mechanics, spatiotemporal aeration, and lung injury in 127 ± 1 day preterm lambs. Forty-eight fetal-instrumented lambs exposed to antenatal steroids were ventilated for 60 min after application of the allocated strategy. Spatiotemporal aeration and lung mechanics were measured with electrical impedance tomography and forced-oscillation, respectively. At study completion, molecular and histological markers of lung injury were analyzed. Mean (SD) aeration at the end of the SI OPT and OLV groups was 32 (22) and 38 (15) ml/kg, compared with 17 (10) ml/kg (180 s) in the No-RM (P = 0.024, 1-way ANOVA). This translated into better oxygenation at 60 min (P = 0.047; 2-way ANOVA) resulting from better distal lung tissue aeration in SI OPT and OLV. There was no difference in lung injury. Neither SI OPT nor OLV achieved homogeneous aeration. Histological injury and mRNA biomarker upregulation were more likely in the regions with better initial aeration, suggesting volutrauma. Tidal ventilation or an SI achieves similar aeration if optimized, suggesting that preventing fluid efflux after lung liquid clearance is at least as important as fluid clearance during the initial inflation at birth. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effect of antenatal pelvic floor muscle training on labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Fleten, Caroline; Nystad, Wenche

    2009-06-01

    To estimate whether women doing pelvic floor muscle training before and during pregnancy have increased risk of perineal lacerations, episiotomy, vacuum/forceps delivery, or acute cesarean delivery. Participants were 18,865 primiparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected by self-completed questionnaires at gestational weeks 17 and 30 and analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Data about obstetric outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Pelvic floor muscle training was categorized as less than once per week, one to two times per week, and at least three times per week both before and during pregnancy. The results are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of women who performed pelvic floor muscle training less than once per week, 7.2% sustained a third-degree or fourth-degree laceration compared with 6.3% of women who performed pelvic floor muscle training at least three times per week. A similar pattern was present for rates of episiotomy (29.1% compared with 24.9%), vacuum/forceps delivery (15.9% compared with 15.0%), and acute cesarean delivery (9.5% compared with 7.5%). Adjusting for factors that might be associated with pelvic floor muscle training and the outcomes under study did not distort the effect of pelvic floor muscle training. Exercising at least three times per week was not associated with third-degree and fourth-degree perineal lacerations, episiotomy, vacuum/forceps delivery, or acute cesarean delivery (adjusted OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.60-1.24], 0.82 [0.67-1.01], 0.95 [0.74-1.22], and 0.75 [0.53-1.05], respectively). Pelvic floor muscle training before and during pregnancy does not affect labor and birth outcomes or complication rates. II.

  5. Induced abortion in Denmark: effect of socio-economic situation and country of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B; Tobiassen, Charlotte; Ginzel, Annelie; Kempf, Lillan

    2008-04-01

    Equal access to health care is considered a key in Scandinavian healthcare policy. However, problematic differences between the socio-economic situation of immigrants and that of native Scandinavians are increasingly challenging this aspect of the Scandinavian welfare model. The present study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. The strongest factor associated with the decision to have an abortion was being single (OR 39.1; 23.8-64.2), followed by being aged 19 years or below (OR 29.6; 13.4-65.5), having two children or more (OR 7.05; 5.29-9.39) and being unskilled (OR 2.48; 1.49-4.10), student (OR 2.29; 1.52-3.43) or unemployed (OR 1.65; 1.11-2.46). When evaluating the effect of social exposure on abortion among Danish-born and foreign-born women, the higher rate of abortion among non-Westerners was found to be caused by the composition of non-Westerners more often being unemployed, having a low income and having two or more children rather than the fact that they are coming from a non-Western country. Immigrant women comprise a vulnerable group, with a poor socio-economic status. This situation exposes immigrant women to increased risk of induced abortion. In a society with an increasing heterogeneous population, the vulnerable situation of immigrant women has to be addressed, if equal access to health care is to be maintained.

  6. Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612......) answered a questionnaire during 12th to 16th gestational week about their exposure to ETS at home and outside the home. RESULTS: Pregnant nonsmokers exposed to ETS both at home and outside the home gave birth to children with a birth weight of 78.9 g (95% CI -143.7 to -14.1) (P=0.02) lower than the weight...... of children born to women unexposed to ETS. There was no significant reduction in birth weight among women exposed to ETS at home only or outside the home only. A nonsignificant dose-response association was seen between increasing daily exposure to ETS and reduction in birth weight. CONCLUSION: Nonsmoking...

  8. The effect of assisted reproductive technology on the incidence of birth defects among livebirths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter-Maor, Gil; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Spence, Andrea R; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2018-02-15

    Our study objective is to examine the association between births conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) and birth defects using a large database from the United States. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Period-linked birth-infant death data files and fetal death database for 2011-2013, we conducted a retrospective cohort study comprised of live births that occurred in the USA during that time. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between ART and birth defects, both overall and by specific defects. There were 11,862,780 live births between 2011 and 2013. Of these births, 11,791,730 were spontaneous pregnancies and 71,050 were conceived by ART, with an increasing trend in incidence of ART during the study period and an overall increasing trend of birth defects. Overall, infants conceived by ART had a greater risk of having birth defects than did infants conceived spontaneously (77/10,000 vs 25/10,000, respectively, OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.94-2.35). The malformations most commonly associated with ART were cyanotic heart defects (OR 2.74, 95% CI 2.42-3.09), cleft lip and/or palate (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14-1.89), and hypospadias (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.42-2.19). There were no differences in risk of omphalocele or neural tube defects between the two groups. There is an overall and type-specific increased risk of birth defects in the ART population. Appropriate counseling and specialized ultrasound evaluations should be considered in pregnancies conceived by ART.

  9. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Considering Fertility Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be possible, the delivery of triplets or higher order births usually requires cesarean section, with some risk to ... Reproductive Medicine, Patient Information Series. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Twins, Triplets, & Higher Order Multiples. 2004. Current Practices and Controversies in Assisted ...

  10. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  11. [Effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on neonate birth weight in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J M; Qu, P F; Dang, S N; Li, S S; Bai, R H; Qin, B W; Yan, H

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns in Shaanxi province. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing aged women selected through multistage stratified random sampling in Shaanxi during 2010-2013, all of these childbearing aged women were in pregnancy or had definite pregnancy outcomes. The birth weight of newborns and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were used as the dependent variables and independent variables respectively in multiple linear regression model and quantile regression model and confounding factors were controlled. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the birth weight of newborns whose mothers had folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were significantly higher than those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, an average increase of 29.56 g(B=29.56, t=4.69 and Pbirth weights of newborns whose mothers supplemented folic acid were higher than those whose mother did not supplement folic acid, the difference was significant, but the increase varied. As the increase of the percentiles of birth weight, the body weight increase declined gradually in those whose mothers had folic acid supplementation compared with those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy can increase the birth weight of newborns, the influence was greater in newborns with lower body weight than in newborns with higher body weight.

  12. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J A; Riley, D G; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    2015-02-01

    Brahman-cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mendelian genetic effects that may influence differences in Brahman × Simmental crossbred calves. Crossbred calves were produced by embryo transfer ( = 2,862) and natural service or artificial insemination ( = 2,125) from 1983 to 1991 by a private seedstock producer. Brahman-sired F embryos out of Simmental donors weighed 9.4 ± 1.1 ( Simmental-sired F embryos out of Brahman donor cows when transferred to comparable recipients. This reciprocal difference was accompanied by sexual dimorphism: within Brahman-sired F calves, males were 5.0 ± 1.4 kg heavier than females, whereas within Simmental-sired F calves, females were 0.7 ± 0.5 kg heavier than males. Covariates were constructed from the pedigree to represent genetic effects: proportion Brahman in calves and dams (direct and maternal breed effects), direct and maternal breed heterozygosity, probability of Brahman mitochondrial origin, probability of Brahman Y chromosome, probability of Brahman X chromosome, genomic imprinting (the difference between the probabilities of Brahman in the genetic dam and in the sire), nonrandom X inactivation by breed of origin (the probability of breed heterozygosity of the X chromosomes of a female), and nonrandom X inactivation by parent of origin (the difference between probabilities of a female inheriting a paternal or maternal Brahman X chromosome). The maternal breed heterozygosity, genomic imprinting, probability of Brahman X chromosome, and genomic imprinting × sex effect covariates from the full model were significant with regression coefficients of 1.1 ± 0.5 ( < 0.05), ‒8.3 ± 2.3 ( < 0.01), ‒3.5 ± 1.3 ( < 0.01), and ‒5.3 ± 2.0 ( < 0.01), respectively. Results suggest that sex

  13. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    effect on mothers' age at first birth (p < 0.001), the number of children born within the five years of the survey (p<0.001), and the total number of ... approach that compares reported numbers of births for settlers and non-settlers in ... 1Department of Geography, Sonoma State University, USA. 2. Department of Epidemiology ...

  14. The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2 assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3 provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects. METHODS: We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ≥ 28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59, exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30, maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33, drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95, maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57, and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53. Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary

  15. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... and effective method of birth control. Most young women who use the patch have no side effects. ...

  16. Maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight: A multi-country evaluation of effect and heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadvand, P.; Parker, J.; Bell, M.L.; Bonzini, M.; Brauer, M.; Darrow, L.A.; Gehring, U.; Glinianaia, S.V.; Gouveia, N.; Ha, E.-H.; Leem, J.H.; Hooven, E.H. van den; Jalaludin, B.; Jesdale, B.M.; Lepeule, J.; Morello-Frosch, R.; Morgan, G.G.; Pesatori, A.C.; Pierik, F.H.; Pless-Mulloli, T.; Rich, D.Q.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Seo, J.; Slama, R.; Strickland, M.; Tamburic, L.; Wartenberg, D.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Woodruff, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth

  17. Long-term effects of neonatal glutamine-enriched nutrition in very-low-birth-weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, Annelies; Neu, Josef; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants have investigated the effect of parenteral or enteral glutamine supplementation on morbidity, mortality, and outcome in the neonatal period. No evidence of toxicity of glutamine supplementation was found in these clinical trials, but the

  18. The effect of at-birth vitamin A supplementation on differential leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias J; Fisker, Ane B; Sartono, Erliyani

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth was not associated with improved survival in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. However, a negative sex-differential effect, which became evident after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination, was noted; among girls who had rec...

  19. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found...

  20. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine admi...

  1. Special health care needs explains the effect of extremely low birth weight on math but not language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Hack, Maureen

    2017-12-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1kg) adolescents are at risk for special health care needs (SHCN) and poor math achievement compared to normal birth weight (NBW) peers. SHCN are associated with poor academic achievement among NBW children. We hypothesize that SHCN explain the effect of ELBW on math achievement. We compared age 14 Woodcock-Johnson Calculation standard scores between 181 ELBW infants and 115 NBW controls. Persistent SHCN included: 1) prescription medication or equipment use, 2) subspecialty or therapeutic service use, or 3) hospitalization. We used nonlinear marginal effects models to decompose the total effect of ELBW on math into the following 4 components: the effect of ELBW controlling for SHCN, the effect of SHCN controlling for ELBW, effect modification by SHCN, and mediated interaction where SHCN is both causal mediator and effect modifier. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors. ELBW adolescents had lower mean math scores than NBW peers (81.3 vs. 96.4). SHCN were more common among ELBW adolescents (54.1% vs. 27%). The total effect of ELBW on math scores was -15.7 points (95% CI -21.0, -10.5). The effect of birth weight alone was -7.6 points (95% CI -13.7, -1.4); the effect of SHCN alone was negligible. SHCN interaction and mediated interaction effects each accounted for 25% of the total effect. Birth weight alone explains only half of the effect of ELBW on math achievement. We found evidence of effect modification and mediation by SHCN. Understanding these explanatory pathways may lead to targeted interventions for improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of Order of Presentation on Perceptions of the Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jody L.; Fuqua, Dale R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether order in which two counselors were presented on videotape would affect ratings of their performances. Seventy subjects viewed and rated counseling interviews conducted by Carl Rogers and Everett Shostrom. Groups differed only in order of presentation of counselors. Found that order in which counselors were evaluated significantly…

  3. Effects of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproduction in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M; Gonzalez-Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G S; Villafañe, P; Formía, N; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    1999-06-01

    The effect of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproductive performance was studied in Holstein heifer calves grown on pastures in comparison to naturally nematode-infected, untreated animals. Ivermectin effectively abated the presence of nematode eggs in feces. Eggs per gram (EPG) in parasitized animals increased rapidly from wk 12 to 18 of age and then decreased. Animals treated with ivermectin grew faster than untreated ones, and differences in body weight became significant at 6 wk of life, even before eggs appeared in the feces of either treatment group. Ivermectin-treated heifers reached puberty 3 wk earlier than infected ones as assessed with serum progesterone concentrations (ivermectin, 30.4 +/- .8 vs untreated, 33.7 +/- 1.3 wk of age). This delay was not directly related to body weight. In addition, pelvic area at 39 wk and at 15 mo of age was increased in treated heifers (8 and 11%, respectively) compared with parasitized animals. No differences in the wither heights were observed. We conclude that ivermectin treatment in dairy heifers may increase growth rate during development, advance the onset of ovarian function, and positively affect yearling pelvic area.

  4. Maternal age modulates the effects of early-pregnancy L-proline supplementation on the birth-weight of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Añover, P; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2017-06-01

    Previous results obtained in gilts maintained under experimental conditions suggest that amino acid supplementation during pregnancy may be a promising strategy for diminishing the incidence of embryo losses and low birth-weight newborn. The current study evaluated the effects of a short-term supplementation with L-proline, around implantational stages, on litter size and birth-weight of piglets in sows of different parities maintained under commercial farm conditions. There were no significant effects in mature sows with three or more parities, but the supplementation improved the reproductive efficiency of the high-prolific first-parity sows and of all the sows at second-parity. There were numerically higher litter size (of around two more live piglets; n.s.) and higher birth-weights (Psupplemented animals. The results of this study indicate that the effects of L-proline supplementation on litter size and birth-weight are strongly modulated by the maternal characteristics; specifically by parity and prolificacy and that supplementation may be cost-efficient for the management of females with compromised energy balance; specifically, sows at second farrowing and highly-prolific primiparous gilts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  6. Spatial variability of the effect of air pollution on term birth weight: evaluating influential factors using Bayesian hierarchical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianfa; Laurent, Olivier; Wu, Jun

    2016-02-05

    Epidemiological studies suggest that air pollution is adversely associated with pregnancy outcomes. Such associations may be modified by spatially-varying factors including socio-demographic characteristics, land-use patterns and unaccounted exposures. Yet, few studies have systematically investigated the impact of these factors on spatial variability of the air pollution's effects. This study aimed to examine spatial variability of the effects of air pollution on term birth weight across Census tracts and the influence of tract-level factors on such variability. We obtained over 900,000 birth records from 2001 to 2008 in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Air pollution exposure was modeled at individual level for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) using spatiotemporal models. Two-stage Bayesian hierarchical non-linear models were developed to (1) quantify the associations between air pollution exposure and term birth weight within each tract; and (2) examine the socio-demographic, land-use, and exposure-related factors contributing to the between-tract variability of the associations between air pollution and term birth weight. Higher air pollution exposure was associated with lower term birth weight (average posterior effects: -14.7 (95 % CI: -19.8, -9.7) g per 10 ppb increment in NO2 and -6.9 (95 % CI: -12.9, -0.9) g per 10 ppb increment in NOx). The variation of the association across Census tracts was significantly influenced by the tract-level socio-demographic, exposure-related and land-use factors. Our models captured the complex non-linear relationship between these factors and the associations between air pollution and term birth weight: we observed the thresholds from which the influence of the tract-level factors was markedly exacerbated or attenuated. Exacerbating factors might reflect additional exposure to environmental insults or lower socio-economic status with higher vulnerability, whereas attenuating factors might indicate reduced

  7. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  8. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized pla...

  9. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Moreira, Naiara Ferraz; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Nunes-Freitas, André Luis; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Sichieri, Rosely

    2014-04-10

    There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. We evaluated 2405 children in 1999-2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: -0.32, p maternal smoking not only during pregnancy, but also at early childhood, showed long-term negative effect on

  10. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  11. Information Order Effects: Examining The Effect of Sequencing and Complexity in a Long Information Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Primacy / Recency / No Effect ) Order Mental Effort Complexity (within Subject) Sequencing Length Response Mode 10 Hypotheses 1. Anchoring...1----------No Effect 92/100%124Recency 21/68%-----3/60%3/60%15/79% Primacy Long Series 124314No Effect 2814221/68% Primacy Short Series...Force towards primacy Force towards primacy Force towards primacy Long Series No effect No effect

  12. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants...... A supplementation (VAS) or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were obtained 2, 6, and 12 months after enrolment. RESULTS: Overall there was no effect of early BCG on growth in the first year of life. The effect of early BCG on weight and mid-upper-arm circumference at 2 months tended to be beneficial among girls...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  13. Effect of Smoking Behavior before and during Pregnancy on Selected Birth Outcomes among Singleton Full-Term Pregnancy: A Murmansk County Birth Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkova, Olga A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Krettek, Alexandra; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Ø

    2017-08-02

    The aim of our study was to assess associations between smoking behavior before and during pregnancy and selected adverse birth outcomes. This study is based on the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). Our study includes women who delivered a singleton pregnancy after 37 weeks of gestation (N = 44,486). Smoking information was self-reported and assessed at the first antenatal visit during pregnancy. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression. The highest proportion of infants with low values of birth weight, birth length, head circumference, ponderal index and of the Apgar score at 5 min was observed for women who smoked both before and during pregnancy. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy and the odds of the aforementioned adverse birth outcomes; neither were there significant differences in their occurrences among non-smokers and those who smoked before but not during pregnancy. Moreover, smoking reduction during pregnancy relative to its pre-gestation level did not influence the odds of the adverse birth outcomes. Our findings emphasize a continued need for action against tobacco smoking during pregnancy.

  14. 77 FR 58587 - Mr. James Chaisson; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., arranged through Cornell University's Institute on Conflict Resolution. This Confirmatory Order is issued... Confirmatory Order is the result of an agreement reached during an alternative dispute resolution (ADR... opportunity to request a predecisional enforcement conference (PEC), or request alternative dispute resolution...

  15. Modeling spatial effects of PM2.5 on term low birth weight in Los Angeles County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coker, Eric; Ghosh, Jokay; Jerrett, Michael; Gomez-Rubio, Virgilio; Beckerman, Bernardo; Cockburn, Myles; Liverani, Silvia; Su, Jason; Li, Arthur; Kile, Molly L; Ritz, Beate; Molitor, John

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiological studies suggest that elevated exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with higher prevalence of term low birth weight (TLBW). Previous studies have generally assumed the exposure–response of PM 2.5 on TLBW to be the same throughout a large geographical area. Health effects related to PM 2.5 exposures, however, may not be uniformly distributed spatially, creating a need for studies that explicitly investigate the spatial distribution of the exposure–response relationship between individual-level exposure to PM 2.5 and TLBW. Here, we examine the overall and spatially varying exposure–response relationship between PM 2.5 and TLBW throughout urban Los Angeles (LA) County, California. We estimated PM 2.5 from a combination of land use regression (LUR), aerosol optical depth from remote sensing, and atmospheric modeling techniques. Exposures were assigned to LA County individual pregnancies identified from electronic birth certificates between the years 1995-2006 (N=1,359,284) provided by the California Department of Public Health. We used a single pollutant multivariate logistic regression model, with multilevel spatially structured and unstructured random effects set in a Bayesian framework to estimate global and spatially varying pollutant effects on TLBW at the census tract level. Overall, increased PM 2.5 level was associated with higher prevalence of TLBW county-wide. The spatial random effects model, however, demonstrated that the exposure–response for PM 2.5 and TLBW was not uniform across urban LA County. Rather, the magnitude and certainty of the exposure–response estimates for PM 2.5 on log odds of TLBW were greatest in the urban core of Central and Southern LA County census tracts. These results suggest that the effects may be spatially patterned, and that simply estimating global pollutant effects obscures disparities suggested by spatial patterns of effects. Studies that incorporate spatial

  16. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Birth Characteristics and Childhood Leukemia Risk: Correlations With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, Mehmet T

    2015-07-01

    Birth characteristics such as birth order, birth weight, birth defects, and Down syndrome showed some of the first risk associations with childhood leukemia. Examinations of correlations between birth characteristics and leukemia risk markers have been limited to birth weight-related genetic polymorphisms. We integrated information on nongenetic and genetic markers by evaluating the relationship of birth characteristics, genetic markers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, and ALL risk together. The multiethnic study consisted of cases with childhood ALL (n=161) and healthy controls (n=261). Birth characteristic data were collected through questionnaires, and genotyping was achieved by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed risk associations for birth weight over 4000 g (odds ratios [OR]=1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.19), birth length (OR=1.18 per inch; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), and with gestational age (OR=1.10 per week; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). Only the HFE tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9366637 showed an inverse correlation with a birth characteristic, gestational age, with a gene-dosage effect (P=0.005), and in interaction with a transferrin receptor rs3817672 genotype (Pinteraction=0.05). This correlation translated into a strong association for rs9366637 with preterm birth (OR=5.0; 95% CI, 1.19-20.9). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of prenatal events in the development of childhood ALL. The inverse correlation of rs9366637 with gestational age has implications on the design of HFE association studies in birth weight and childhood conditions using full-term newborns as controls.

  18. 75 FR 77675 - AREVA NP, Inc.; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Conflict Resolution. ADR is a process in which a neutral mediator with no decision-making authority assists..., Washington. This Confirmatory Order is the result of an agreement reached during an alternative dispute...

  19. Safety and effectiveness of mail order pharmacy use in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittdiel, Julie A; Karter, Andrew J; Dyer, Wendy T; Chan, James; Duru, O Kenrick

    2013-11-01

    Although research suggests that mail order pharmacy use is associated with greater medication adherence and cardiovascular disease risk factor control, no research has examined the potential impact of mail order pharmacy use on patient safety and utilization. To compare safety and utilization outcomes in patients using mail order versus local pharmacies. Cross-sectional, observational study of 17,217 Kaiser Permanente Northern California adult diabetes patients prescribed new cardiometabolic medications in 2006. Multivariate logistic regressions assessed the association between mail order pharmacy use and all-cause and preventable hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits; laboratory tests for monitoring persistent medications; and overlapping days of supply of contraindicated medications. Results were stratified by patient age and converted to adjusted predicted percentages. Patients aged less than 65 years using mail order had fewer ED visits (33.8% vs 40.2%; P pharmacy use is not associated with adverse outcomes in most diabetes patients, and is associated with lower ED use. Interventions to increase mail order pharmacy use should use a patient-centered approach that is sensitive to primary and preventive care access.

  20. Effect of maternal periodontitis and low birth weight--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luise Maria; Cruz, Simone Seixas da; Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Passos-Soares, Johelle Santana; Trindade, Soraya Castro; Figueiredo, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy; Alves, Claúdia Maria Coêlho; Coelho, Julita Maria Freitas; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, evidence has been raised that there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and undesirable gestational events, for example low birth weight; this issue is controversial. To evaluate whether there is an association between maternal periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was carried out on 951 mothers that had been cared for by the Brazilian Unified Health System in Petrolina-PE and Juazeiro-BA, Brazil. The case group (n = 269) consisted of mothers of newborns with birth weight <2500 g and a control group (n = 682) of mothers of newborns with birth weight ≥2500 g. An interview was realized, using a questionnaire as well as a full mouth examination to diagnose the periodontal condition. Women who had at least four teeth with probing depth ≥4 mm and clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm, with bleeding on probing at the same site, were diagnosed with periodontitis. The birth weight was obtained through the hospital book record. The main association was evaluated using the multivariate regression model, considering confounders. The frequency of periodontitis was 16.4% (case group) and 17.4% (control group). Periodontitis did not show an association with LBW (ORcrude = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.63-1.35), even after adjustment for the following confounders: maternal age, pre-gestational body mass index, number of pre-natal consultations, number of pregnancies, maternal schooling level, smoking habit during pregnancy and hypertension (ORadjusted = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.61-1.68). The findings of this study showed no association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight, even after appropriate adjustments for confounding factors.

  1. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Albertini, David F; Darmon, Sarah K; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations. We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles), as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles). During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7%) involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women 44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P banking cycles led to inflation of live birth rates in fresh ART cycles, increasing in size in parallel to advancing female age and utilization of embryo banking, reaching 56.3% in women age >44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater. Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  2. [Evolution promotes a minimal effect of fetal labor stress during birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderlein, J M

    1997-01-01

    Controlled labor-caused fetal stress during birth can be tolerated better than generally suspected. This is the result of a pilot study among 1000 term infants in which the postpartum development of neonate weight was evaluated as a simple parameter of adaptation to extrauterine life. I. The clinical relevance of postpartum weight development was demonstrated in newborns whose mothers had been hospitalized during pregnancy e.g. because of hyperemesis, diabetes or gestosis. Postpartum these newborns showed longer lasting and more extensive weight loss. II. On the contrary moderate fetal stress during labor results in less and shorter lasting weight loss of the newborn term infants born after a labor-period of 12 hours showed a weight loss greater than 5% of their birth weight. Only half as often as newborns after a shorter period of labor. Further parameters of stress like a 1 minute APGAR score up to 6 versus 1 minute APGAR between 8 and 10 or umbilical cord ph-values below and over 7.20 revealed the same tendency. Newborns with green amniotic fluid (as a sign of stress) during birth also had a lower weight loss (up to 2% of birth weight) twice as often as newborns without green amniotic fluid. A statistically significant relation was also seen between the way of delivery as another aspect of stress and postpartum weight: on the 5th day postpartum newborns delivered by cesarean section showed a weight below birth weight three times as often as babies delivered by vaginal-operation means. The evolutionary aspect of catecholamine-peak during birth as protection against labor-induced hypoxemia and as advancing factor of adaptation to extrauterine life makes the results of this study seem plausible. This topic deserves more clinical research.

  3. The effect of prenatal education classes on the birth expectations of Spanish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Vidal, F J; Vila-Candel, R; Soriano-Martín, P J; Tejedor-Tornero, A; Castro-Sánchez, E

    2018-05-01

    Maternity care has focused on lowering maternal and neonatal morbidity, though women's beliefs and expectations of care have been set aside. Women face childbirth with preconceived expectations, some of which could be expressed on their birth plan. The latter could beinfluenced by health professionals through prenatal education classes, though this has not been measured before. Antenatal classes have been argued against,since no resulting improvement in childbirth experience has been demonstrated, though some advantages may be seen: they favour communication and give time for expressing maternal expectations and beliefs. The present study evaluates the influence of prenatal educational classes led by midwives upon women birth preferences. A multicentre, observational, prospective study was carried out, measuring variables in pregnant women attending prenatal educational classes in different health centres within the health districts in Valencia (Spain) over the period January-October 2012. Birth plan preferences were compared prior to and upon completion of the classes. A total of 212 eligible pregnant women (78.3% nulliparous) with an average age of 31.39±4.0 years consented to participate in the study. There were significant differences in birth plan preferences prior to and upon completion of the prenatal classes. Three items showed an increase between the initial session and the end of the intervention: the ability to push spontaneously, episiotomy avoidance, and early breastfeeding. An adjusted general linear model was used to compare pre-post results in relation to sociodemographic and obstetric variables. The changes in birth plans could suggest that prenatal educational classes exert an influence upon maternal birth preferences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  5. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  6. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...

  7. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  8. Second-order subsonic airfoil theory including edge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Milton D

    1956-01-01

    Several recent advances in plane subsonic flow theory are combined into a unified second-order theory for airfoil sections of arbitrary shape. The solution is reached in three steps: the incompressible result is found by integration, it is converted into the corresponding subsonic compressible result by means of the second-order compressibility rule, and it is rendered uniformly valid near stagnation points by further rules. Solutions for a number of airfoils are given and are compared with the results of other theories and of experiment. A straight-forward computing scheme is outlined for calculating the surface velocities and pressures on any airfoil at any angle of attack

  9. BREED AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT, WEANING WEIGHT AND CALVING INTERVAL OF ZEBU CATTLE IN SOUTHEASTERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C. Segura

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Records of beef cows from a ranch in southern Mexico gave 1967 birth weights (BW, 1587 weaning weights adjusted to 210 days of age (AWW and 2001 calving intervals (CI for the comparison of the breed groups: Brahman (BR, Guzerat (GU, Nellore (NE and crosses born to zebu dams by Brown Swiss sires. Animals were fed mainly pasture. Data were analysed using general linear procedures. The statistical model that described the data for BW and AWW included the fixed effects of breed group (BR, GU, NE, BS x BR, BS x GU and BS x NE; year of birth or calving (2005 to 2014, season of parity of the cow (dry, rainy, windy, sex of the calf (female or male, parity (1 to =>8 and the simple interaction of year x season of birth or calving. The model for CI was similar to the previous one, except that only the Zebu purebreds were included. The overall means and standard deviations for BW, AWW and CI were 33.5+0.75 kg, 178.9+19.7 kg and 456.4+79.2 days. All effects included in the model had significant effect on BW and AWW, but season and sex on CI. The smallest least squares means for BW corresponded to the cross of BR x NE and the largest to the cross of BS x BR (33.3 and 33.7 kg, respectively; whereas the lowest and largest least squares means for AWW corresponded to the NE (173.8 kg and BS x BR (191.8 kg. NE cows had shorter CI than BR and GU cows (413.9, 446.2 and 481.3, respectively. Male calves weighed more at birth and weaning than females. Year x season interaction indicate that season effects on performance of calves or cows were not similar throughout the years studied.

  10. Ordered Effects of Technology Education Units on Higher-Order Critical Thinking Skills of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Kern D.

    2010-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental quantitative study, 105 eighth grade students at a suburban middle school in New York State participated in a seven month-long project involving the ordered effects of the technology education units of Lego[R] Mindstorms(TM) NXT Robotics System, Digital Storytelling with Microsoft Windows Movie Maker, and the Marble Maze…

  11. depicting the effects of gender, birth type, ewe line and ram breed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    This reasoning could explain why the cooking loss of the meat from multiples was generally higher than that of meat from the singles. The thicker average fat cover of singles compared to multiples provides further support to this line of reasoning. Ewe line interacted with birth type for fat thickness at the 3rd and 4th lumbar.

  12. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. Kiy

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA.

  13. The effect of maternal family social support on birth weight and foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were systematically selected and were administered a validated Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) questionnaire while the birth weight and Apgar score of their babies were recorded from the delivery notes. Results: Women aged between 25-29 years were the predominant age ...

  14. The Effect of Oral Polio Vaccine at Birth on Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Andersen, Andreas; Hansen, Anna Sofie K

    2015-01-01

    of 7012 healthy normal-birth-weight neonates were randomized to BCG only (intervention group) or OPV0 with BCG (usual practice). All children were to receive OPV with pentavalent vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B) at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Seven...

  15. Decreased incidence of myelomeningocele at birth: effect of folic acid recommendations or prenatal diagnostics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Dorte; Thygesen, Mathias; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2011-01-01

    a unique chance to study a true MMC population. The total group of MMC children since 1983 is 121. One hundred and eight (89%) parents answered a questionnaire. Results: Following the changes in prenatal ultrasonography screening programme in 2004, a significant decline of 60% live birth MMC pr. year...

  16. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  17. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  18. Order effects in contingency learning: the role of task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jessecae K; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2006-04-01

    Dennis and Ahn (2001) found that during contingency learning, initial evidence influences causal judgments more than does later evidence (a primacy effect), whereas López, Shanks, Almaraz, and Fernández (1998) found the opposite (a recency effect). We propose that in contingency learning, people use initial evidence to develop an anchoring hypothesis that tends to be underadjusted by later evidence, resulting in a primacy effect. Thus, factors interfering with initial hypothesis development, such as simultaneously learning too many contingencies, as in López et al., would reduce the primacy effect. Experiment 1 showed a primacy effect with learning contingencies involving only one outcome but no primacy effect with two outcomes. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the magnitude of the primacy effect correlated with participants' verbal working memory capacity. It is concluded that a critical moderator for exhibition of the primacy effect is task complexity, presumably because it interferes with initial hypothesis development.

  19. Examining the Effect of Information Order on Expert Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    it was received. Consequently, that research would predict a primacy effect when informatign is presented sequentially, not the recency effect ...the research by Tolcott et al. demonstrating a *confirmati-on bias," was that there would be a primacy --not recency -- effect when information was pro...than prior information, thereby resulting in a recency effect . Moreover, they hypothesized that the larger the anchor, the greater the impact of the

  20. Relative effect of genetic and environmental factors on body height: differences across birth cohorts among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, K; Kaprio, J; Lahelma, E; Koskenvuo, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the change in heritability of adult body height across birth cohorts in Finland. METHODS: In 1981, cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 10,968 twin pairs born before 1958. The effect of genetic factors was estimated via genetic modeling. RESULTS: Heritability increased from the cohort born before 1929 (0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 0.88 in men; 0.66, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.77 in women) to that born in 1947 through 1957 (0.81, 95% CI = 0.73, 0.87 in men; 0.82, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.89 in women). CONCLUSIONS: Heritability of height increased across Finnish birth cohorts born in the first half of this century and leveled off after World War II. Environmental factors, compared with genetic factors, appear to be more important among women than men. PMID:10754982

  1. Effects of vitamin A and β-carotene supplementation on birth size and length of gestation in rural Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Klemm, Rolf; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Wu, Lee; Mehra, Sucheta; Labrique, Alain; Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies may be related to poor fetal growth and short gestation. Few studies have investigated the contribution of maternal vitamin A deficiency to these outcomes. In rural northwestern Bangladesh, we examined the effects of weekly antenatal vitamin A and β-carotene supplementation on birth weight, length, circumferential body measures, and length of gestation. With the use of a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial design, pregnant women were enrolled in the first trimester and began receiving their allocated supplements (vitamin A, β-carotene, or placebo) weekly until 3 mo postpartum. Birth anthropometric measures were made at home. Of 13,709 newborns whose birth weight was measured within 72 h of birth, mean (±SD) weight was 2.44 ± 0.42 kg, the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) was 54.4%, and that of small-for-gestational age (SGA) was 70.5%. Birth weight, length, and chest, head, and arm circumferences did not differ between supplementation and placebo groups nor did rates of LBW and SGA. Mean gestational age at birth was 38.3 ± 2.9 wk, and 25.6% of births occurred before 37 wk. Neither gestational age nor preterm birth rate differed with vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation. In this rural South Asian population with a high burden of LBW and preterm birth but modest levels of maternal vitamin A deficiency, antenatal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation did not benefit these birth outcomes. Other nutritional and nonnutritional interventions should be examined to reduce risks of these adverse outcomes in rural South Asia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00198822.

  2. Effect of Environmental Factors on Low Weight in Non-Premature Births: A Time Series Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Díaz

    Full Text Available Exposure to pollutants during pregnancy has been related to adverse birth outcomes. LBW can give rise to lifelong impairments. Prematurity is the leading cause of LBW, yet few studies have attempted to analyse how environmental factors can influence LBW in infants who are not premature. This study therefore sought to analyse the influence of air pollution, noise levels and temperature on LBW in non-premature births in Madrid during the period 2001-2009.Ecological time-series study to assess the impact of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations, noise levels, and temperatures on LBW among non-premature infants across the period 2001-2009. Our analysis extended to infants having birth weights of 1,500 g to 2,500 g (VLBW and less than 1,500 g (ELBW. Environmental variables were lagged until 37 weeks with respect to the date of birth, and cross-correlation functions were used to identify explaining lags. Results were quantified using Poisson regression models.Across the study period 298,705 births were registered in Madrid, 3,290 of which had LBW; of this latter total, 1,492 were non-premature. PM2.5 was the only pollutant to show an association with the three variables of LBW in non-premature births. This association occurred at around the third month of gestation for LBW and VLBW (LBW: lag 23 and VLBW: lag 25, and at around the eighth month of gestation for ELBW (lag 6. Leqd was linked to LBW at lag zero. The RR of PM2.5 on LBW was 1.01 (1.00 1.03. The RR of Leqd on LBW was 1.09 (0.99 1.19(p<0.1.The results obtained indicate that PM2.5 had influence on LBW. The adoption of measures aimed at reducing the number of vehicles would serve to lower pregnant women's exposure. In the case of noise should be limited the exposure to high levels during the final weeks of pregnancy.

  3. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (3 of 7: evidence for effectiveness of interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Craig E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Interventions directed toward mothers before and during pregnancy and childbirth may help reduce preterm births and stillbirths. Survival of preterm newborns may also be improved with interventions given during these times or soon after birth. This comprehensive review assesses existing interventions for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods Approximately 2,000 intervention studies were systematically evaluated through December 31, 2008. They addressed preterm birth or low birth weight; stillbirth or perinatal mortality; and management of preterm newborns. Out of 82 identified interventions, 49 were relevant to LMICs and had reasonable amounts of evidence, and therefore selected for in-depth reviews. Each was classified and assessed by the quality of available evidence and its potential to treat or prevent preterm birth and stillbirth. Impacts on other maternal, fetal, newborn or child health outcomes were also considered. Assessments were based on an adaptation of the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. Results Most interventions require additional research to improve the quality of evidence. Others had little evidence of benefit and should be discontinued. The following are supported by moderate- to high-quality evidence and strongly recommended for LMICs: • Two interventions prevent preterm births—smoking cessation and progesterone • Eight interventions prevent stillbirths—balanced protein energy supplementation, screening and treatment of syphilis, intermittant presumptive treatment for malaria during pregnancy, insecticide-treated mosquito nets, birth preparedness, emergency obstetric care, cesarean section for breech presentation, and elective induction for post-term delivery • Eleven interventions improve survival of preterm newborns—prophylactic steroids in preterm labor, antibiotics for PROM, vitamin K supplementation at delivery, case management of

  4. Black-White Differences in Maternal Age, Maternal Birth Cohort, and Period Effects on Infant Mortality in the U.S. (1983-2002)1

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate three interrelated sources of change in infant mortality rates over a 20 year period using the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) linked birth and infant death cohort files. The effects of maternal age, maternal birth cohort, and time period of childbirth on infant mortality are estimated using a modified age/period/cohort (APC) model that identifies age, period, cohort effects. We document black-white differences in the patterning of these effects and find that mater...

  5. Order effects in contingency learning: The role of task complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Jessecae K.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2006-01-01

    Dennis and Ahn (2001) found that during contingency learning, initial evidence influences causal judgments more than does later evidence (a primacy effect), whereas López, Shanks, Almaraz, and Fernández (1998) found the opposite (a recency effect). We propose that in contingency learning, people use initial evidence to develop an anchoring hypothesis that tends to be underadjusted by later evidence, resulting in a primacy effect. Thus, factors interfering with initial hypothesis development, ...

  6. 29 CFR 2700.21 - Effect of filing notice of contest of citation or order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of filing notice of contest of citation or order... REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Contests of Citations and Orders § 2700.21 Effect of filing notice of contest of citation or order. (a) The filing of a notice of contest of a citation or order issued under...

  7. Josephson parametric converter saturation and higher order effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Chien, T.-C.; Cao, X.; Lanes, O.; Alpern, E.; Pekker, D.; Hatridge, M.

    2017-11-01

    Microwave parametric amplifiers based on Josephson junctions have become indispensable components of many quantum information experiments. One key limitation which has not been well predicted by theory is the gain saturation behavior which limits the amplifier's ability to process large amplitude signals. The typical explanation for this behavior in phase-preserving amplifiers based on three-wave mixing, such as the Josephson Parametric Converter, is pump depletion, in which the consumption of pump photons to produce amplification results in a reduction in gain. However, in this work, we present experimental data and theoretical calculations showing that the fourth-order Kerr nonlinearities inherent in Josephson junctions are the dominant factor. The Kerr-based theory has the unusual property of causing saturation to both lower and higher gains, depending on bias conditions. This work presents an efficient methodology for optimizing device performance in the presence of Kerr nonlinearities while retaining device tunability and points to the necessity of controlling higher-order Hamiltonian terms to make further improvements in parametric devices.

  8. Second order transient effects in a gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, O.M.

    1963-01-01

    Perturbations applied to various parameters of an isotope separation plant indices an average effect on production. This effect is determined for a finite cascade over infinite reservoir. Perturbations on product flow rate and inter-stage transports are considered. (author) [fr

  9. Effect of prematurity and low birth weight in visual abilities and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Roche, T; Altemir, I; Giménez, G; Prieto, E; González, I; Peña-Segura, J L; Castillo, O; Pueyo, V

    2016-12-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight are known risk factors for cognitive and developmental impairments, and school failure. Visual perceptual and visual motor skills seem to be among the most affected cognitive domains in these children. To assess the influence of prematurity and low birth weight in visual cognitive skills and school performance. We performed a prospective cohort study, which included 80 boys and girls in an age range from 5 to 13. Subjects were grouped by gestational age at birth (preterm, school performance in children. Figure-ground skill and visual motor integration were significantly decreased in the preterm birth group, compared with term control subjects (figure-ground: 45.7 vs 66.5, p=0.012; visual motor integration, TVAS: (9.9 vs 11.8, p=0.018), while outcomes of visual memory (29.0 vs 47.7, p=0.012), form constancy (33.3 vs 52.8, p=0.019), figure-ground (37.4 vs 65.6, p=0.001), and visual closure (43.7 vs 62.6 p=0.016) testing were lower in the SGA (vs AGA) group. Visual cognitive difficulties corresponded with worse performance in mathematics (r=0.414, p=0.004) and reading (r=0.343, p=0.018). Specific patterns of visual perceptual and visual motor deficits are displayed by children born preterm or SGA, which hinder mathematics and reading performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    birth weight data. This study was carried out to determine recall of birth weight and delivery complications among mothers in Unguja West District of Zanzibar. Methods: .... Considering confidence level of 95% and response rate of 90%, the ... delivery, delivery complications, child's birth date, birth's order and birth weight.

  11. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

  12. The effect of prenatal support on birth outcomes in an urban midwestern county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Dresang, Lee T; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Buckingham, William R; Leavitt, Judith W

    2012-12-01

    In Dane County, Wisconsin, the black-white infant mortality gap started decreasing from 2000 and was eliminated from 2004 to 2007. Unfortunately, it has reappeared since 2008. This paper examines risk factors and levels of prenatal care to identify key contributors to the dramatic decline and recent increase in black infant mortality and extremely premature birth rates. This retrospective cohort study analyzed approximately 100,000 Dane County birth, fetal, and infant death records from 1990 to 2007. Levels of prenatal care received were categorized as "less-than-standard," "standard routine" or "intensive." US Census data analysis identified demographic and socioeconomic changes. Infant mortality rates and extremely premature ( black women receiving standard routine care and intensive care decreased from 1990-2000 to 2001-2007 by 77.8% (95% CI = 49.9-90.1%) and 57.3% (95% CI = 27.6-74.8%) respectively. Women receiving less-than-standard care showed no significant improvement over time. Racial gaps in mean income and food stamp use narrowed 2002-2007 and widened since 2008. Prenatal support played an important role in improving black birth outcomes and eliminating the Dane County black-white infant mortality gap. Increasing socioeconomic disparities with worsening US economy since 2008 likely contributed to the gap's reappearance.

  13. Effect of polyethylene occlusive skin wrapping on heat loss in very low birth weight infants at delivery: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, S; Frent, G; Campbell, V; Abbott, M; Whyte, R

    1999-05-01

    Significant evaporative heat loss in the very low birth weight infant can occur in the delivery room. We investigated the effect of polyethylene wrap applied immediately at birth (without drying) on rectal temperature measured at nursery admission. Sixty-two consecutive infants delivered at radiant warmers. Wraps were removed on nursery admission. Rectal temperature was taken by digital electronic thermometer. Fifty-nine of 62 recruited infants completed the study. Maternal temperature, delivery room temperature, transfer-incubator temperature, and time to admission were recorded. Use of occlusive wrapping resulted in a significantly higher admission rectal temperature in infants means = 1.9 C, P temperature in infants of 28 to 31 weeks' gestation (difference in means = 0.17 C, P =.47). All 5 deaths were in the nonwrap group (vs wrap, P =.04); their mean temperature was 35.1 C versus 36.5 C in survivors (P =.001). Occlusive wrapping of very low birth weight infants at delivery reduces postnatal temperature fall. This may result in a decreased mortality rate.

  14. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  15. The effect of gestational age and cervical length measurements in the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in twin pregnancies : an individual patient level meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindinger, L M; Poon, L C; Cacciatore, S; MacIntyre, D A; Fox, N S; Schuit, E; Mol, B W; Liem, S; Lim, A C; Serra, V; Perales, A; Hermans, F; Darzi, A; Bennett, P; Nicolaides, K H; Teoh, T G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of gestational age (GA) and cervical length (CL) measurements at transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) in the prediction of preterm birth in twin pregnancy. DESIGN: Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. SETTING: International multicentre study. POPULATION:

  16. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  17. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  18. Effects of parenting role and parent-child interaction on infant motor development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Dai-Chan; Lee, Chun-Yang; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have rarely focused on healthy infants' motor development, and nationwide birth cohort studies in Taiwan are limited. It has been shown that parent-child interactions significantly influence infant motor development and the effect of mother-infant attachment on infant development is stronger than father-infant attachment. However, it is not well understood that whether the mother-infant or father-infant interaction has the confounding effect on infant motor development. To understand healthy infant motor development in Taiwan; and to investigate the effects of parenting roles and parent-child interactions on infant motor development. Data were derived from the 1st through the 2nd waves of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Pilot Database. Infants were classified into two categories (complete or incomplete development) according to their developmental milestones. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random effects models were used to clarify the possible long-term effects. The rate of infants who completed development in 6 months was 30.50%; however the rate was increased in 18 month-old children (80.01%). A mother's perceived infant care competence was the most important factor for infant motor development. "Whether or not the infant was the only baby in the family" and "parent-child interaction" had slightly significant effect on infant motor development. In conclusion, the mother's perceived competence must be strengthened and parent-infant interactions should be emphasized on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of epigenetic changes in survivors of preterm birth reveals the effect of gestational age and evidence for a long term legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm birth confers a high risk of adverse long term health outcomes for survivors, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that effects of preterm birth can be mediated through measurable epigenomic changes throughout development. We therefore used a longitudinal birth cohort to measure the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation at birth and 18 years comparing survivors of extremely preterm birth with infants born at term. Methods Using 12 extreme preterm birth cases and 12 matched, term controls, we extracted DNA from archived neonatal blood spots and blood collected in a similar way at 18 years of age. DNA methylation was measured at 347,789 autosomal locations throughout the genome using Infinium HM450 arrays. Representative methylation differences were confirmed by Sequenom MassArray EpiTYPER. Results At birth we found 1,555 sites with significant differences in methylation between term and preterm babies. At 18 years of age, these differences had largely resolved, suggesting that DNA methylation differences at birth are mainly driven by factors relating to gestational age, such as cell composition and/or maturity. Using matched longitudinal samples, we found evidence for an epigenetic legacy associated with preterm birth, identifying persistent methylation differences at ten genomic loci. Longitudinal comparisons of DNA methylation at birth and 18 years uncovered a significant overlap between sites that were differentially-methylated at birth and those that changed with age. However, we note that overlapping sites may either differ in the same (300/1,555) or opposite (431/1,555) direction during gestation and aging respectively. Conclusions We present evidence for widespread methylation differences between extreme preterm and term infants at birth that are largely resolved by 18 years of age. These results are consistent with methylation changes associated with blood cell development, cellular composition, immune

  20. Delay induced high order locking effects in semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, B.; Wishon, M. J.; Locquet, A.; Goulding, D.; Tykalewicz, B.; Huyet, G.; Viktorov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple time scales appear in many nonlinear dynamical systems. Semiconductor lasers, in particular, provide a fertile testing ground for multiple time scale dynamics. For solitary semiconductor lasers, the two fundamental time scales are the cavity repetition rate and the relaxation oscillation frequency which is a characteristic of the field-matter interaction in the cavity. Typically, these two time scales are of very different orders, and mutual resonances do not occur. Optical feedback endows the system with a third time scale: the external cavity repetition rate. This is typically much longer than the device cavity repetition rate and suggests the possibility of resonances with the relaxation oscillations. We show that for lasers with highly damped relaxation oscillations, such resonances can be obtained and lead to spontaneous mode-locking. Two different laser types-—a quantum dot based device and a quantum well based device—are analysed experimentally yielding qualitatively identical dynamics. A rate equation model is also employed showing an excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Runge--Kutta Methods of Maximal Effective Order

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis

    2013-07-23

    We apply the concept of effective order to strong stability preserving (SSP) explicit Runge--Kutta methods. Relative to classical Runge--Kutta methods, methods with an effective order of accuracy are designed to satisfy a relaxed set of order conditions but yield higher order accuracy when composed with special starting and stopping methods. We show that this allows the construction of four-stage SSP methods with effective order four (such methods cannot have classical order four). However, we also prove that effective order five methods---like classical order five methods---require the use of nonpositive weights and so cannot be SSP. By numerical optimization, we construct explicit SSP Runge--Kutta methods up to effective order four and establish the optimality of many of them. Numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of these methods in practice.

  2. Ordered Pinning Arrays with Tunable Geometry via Thermal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.; Malnou, Maxime; Bergeal, Nicolas; Lesueur, Jerome; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo

    2015-03-01

    We have used geometrically frustrated pinning arrays to create artificial vortex-ice. The pinning arrays are fabricated via ion irradiation of high-Tc superconducting films. These arrays present a very unique characteristic: the frustration can be reversibly switched on/off using temperature as a control knob, which allows stabilizing either a vortex-ice or a square vortex lattice. We have further investigated the thermal switching mechanism by studying the matching of the flux lattice to arrays that are incrementally deformed upon fabrication by introducing minute variations of the distance between pins. The array deformation exacerbates the thermal effects, leading to dramatic variations of the vortex distribution as a function of temperature. These results illustrate the strength of the temperature-induced reconfiguration effects, which may constitute a novel knob in fluxtronic devices based on vortex manipulation. Work supported by the French ANR MASTHER, the COST Action NanoSC, the Ville de Paris and the Galician Fundacion Barrie.

  3. Combined advanced parental age has an additive negative effect on live birth rates-data from 4057 first IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Nicole O; Zander-Fox, Deirdre; Vincent, Andrew D; Lane, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if there is an additive effect of combined advanced maternal and paternal age on pregnancy and live birth rates. Retrospective data analysis of 4057 first cycles at a fertility centre between 2009 and 2013 was compiled. Donor, preimplantation genetic screening and double embryo transfer cycles were excluded. Main outcomes measured were clinical pregnancy, viable pregnancy, live birth and term birth. Logistic regression indicated strong negative associations for maternal ages exceeding 27 years with clinical pregnancies (p < 0.001), viable pregnancies (p < 0.001), live births (p < 0.001) and term births (p < 0.001). There was evidence of negative associations between paternal age and both viable pregnancies (p = 0.06) and live births (p = 0.04), such that the probability of pregnancy was 10% further reduced for women who were 35 years with a partner over 40 years vs. women aged 35 years with a partner under 30 years. There was evidence of an interaction between maternal age and the paternal age on term births (p = 0.02) such that advanced paternal age's effect on the probability of a term birth was only evident in couples where the maternal age ranged between ~27 and 35 years. There is an additive effect to pregnancy and live birth rates when both partners are of an advanced age, thus highlighting the need for pre-conception public health messaging and a combined approach to ART counselling assessing both parental ages in combination.

  4. The effect of education on second births in Hungary: A test of the time-squeeze, self-selection and partner-effect hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Bartus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In recent years, several studies have reported a positive effect of women's education on the transition to second births. This finding contradicts the economic theory of fertility. Three explanations were proposed: the selection, the time-squeeze, and the partner effect hypotheses. OBJECTIVE We propose a modification of the economic theory to account for the positive educational gradient with regard to second births. We empirically examine the effect of women's education on the timing of second births. METHODS We use a sample of women born between 1946 and 1983 from all three waves of the Hungarian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS data. We estimate lognormal survival models of the timing of second births. RESULTS We find that female education reduces the waiting time to second conception in Hungary. The results remain robust after controlling for sample selection and cannot be explained away in terms of time-squeeze and the partner's education. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that the relationship between women's education and spacing behavior might be a causal one.

  5. Effect of embryo culture media on percentage of males at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinliang; Zhuang, Xinjie; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Does embryo culture medium influence the percentage of males at birth? The percentage of males delivered after ICSI cycles using G5™ medium was statistically significantly higher than after cycles where Global, G5™ PLUS, and Quinn's Advantage Media were used. Male and female embryos have different physiologies during preimplantation development. Manipulating the energy substrate and adding growth factors have a differential impact on the development of male and female embryos. This was a retrospective analysis of the percentage of males at birth, and included 4411 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles between January 2011 and August 2013 at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Third Hospital Peking University. Only singleton gestations were included. Participants were excluded if preimplantation genetic diagnosis, donor oocytes and donor sperm were used. The database between January 2011 and August 2013 was searched with unique medical record number, all patients were present in the database with only one cycle. Demographics, cycle characteristics and the percentage of male babies in the four culture media groups were compared with analysis of variance or χ(2) tests. Multivariable logistic regression was done to determine the association between the sex at birth and culture media after adjusting for other confounding factors, including parental age, parental BMI, type of infertility, parity, number of embryos transferred, number of early gestational sacs, cycles with testicular sperm aspiration (TESA)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm extraction (TESE), number of oocytes retrieved, cycles with blastocyst transfers, and gestational age within ICSI group. Within the IVF group, the percentage of males at birth for G5™, Global, Quinn's and G5™ PLUS media were comparable (P > 0.05); however, within the ICSI group, the percentage of male babies in cycles using G5™(56.1%) was statistically significantly higher than

  6. Effect of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function and birth outcome in goiter endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anees, Mariam; Anis, Riffat Aysha; Yousaf, Sohail; Murtaza, Iram; Sultan, Aneesa; Arslan, Muhammad; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the clinical and endocrine parameters of thyroid in a total of 460 pregnant women belonging to non-goiter areas (group 1; n = 156) and endemic areas without (group 2; n = 154) and with iodine supplementation (group 3; n = 150), and their respective newborns. Women of group 3 with visible goiter were administered two capsules of iodized oil orally each containing 200 mg of iodine, from weeks 6--8 of pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from all groups during each trimester, at parturition (umbilical cord blood) and after delivery. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by specific enzyme immunoassays. In group 2, serum T4 concentrations were low while T3 and TSH levels were high which showed hypothyroidism in the women of endemic areas. Goiter size decreased in most of the subjects who received a single dose of iodized oil and resulted in increase in serum concentrations of thyroid hormones; whereas, TSH levels decreased. Iodine supplementation also resulted in raised T4 and low TSH levels in the cord blood of neonates. During the course of study, two abortions, three still births and one cretin were reported in group 2; none was reported in group 3; and one still birth was reported in group 1. The oral administration of a single dose of iodized oil is capable of correcting iodine deficiency both clinically and endocrinologically in mothers and neonates. Iodine supplementation has the potential to positively impact the birth weight of newborns.

  7. Order effects on low cycle fatigue at various strain levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Puglia, A.; Pratesi, F.; Tesi, B.; Bacci, T.

    1985-01-01

    Ongoing research is currently underway to investigate the thorny problem of how damage originates and accumulates as a result of low-cycle fatigue. This communication describes testing conducted on specimens cut from bars of commercial AISI 304 stainless steel tubing subjected to a constant bending moment at room temperature. A specially-designed test apparatus allowed determination of specimen strength at both one and two strain levels, thereby confirming the presence of the loading effect. Lastly, crack concentration and depth were measured and correlated to physical damage evolution. (orig.)

  8. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitted in our NICU which had inclusion criteria were eligible in this trial. Included neonates were randomly placed in two groups (case and control and before intervention the total serum bilirubin (TSB was measured at second day. The participant received either 20 mg of zinc sulfate or placebo through NG-tube divided in two doses till day seven of age. Then total and indirect bilirubin was measured at 3ed, 5th and 7th day of life. If any of newborns in duration of hospitalization develop clinical jaundice, after assessment of bilirubin, need for phototherapy was evaluated based on phototherapy and exchange schedule as described by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The termination point of phototherapy was defined as a bilirubin level less than 50 percent of starting point. After gathering Data, they were analyzed using SPSS software (version 11.5 and T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurement tests. Results: Seventy eight patients enrolled in this trial that 18 cases were excluded and the remaining cases divided into two equal groups (N=30 in each group. Demographic condition was similar in two groups. There were no different between two groups in decreasing total serum bilirubin and duration of phototherapy. Conclusion: This study showed that zinc sulfate has no preventing effective in hyperbilirubinemia in preterm very low birth weight neonates. It has also no effect on duration of phototherapy.

  9. Effect of stacking order on device performance of bilayer black phosphorene-field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A., E-mail: arnabm.electinstru@gmail.com; Banerjee, L.; Sengupta, A.; Rahaman, H. [School of VLSI Technology, IIEST, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2015-12-14

    We investigate the effect of stacking order of bilayer black phosphorene on the device properties of p-MOSFET and n-MOSFET. Two layers of black phosphorus are stacked in three different orders and are used as channel material in both n-MOSFET and p-MOSFET devices. The effects of different stacking orders on electron and hole effective masses and output characteristics of MOSFETs, such as ON currents, ON/OFF ratio, and transconductance are analyzed. Our results show that about 1.37 times and 1.49 times increase in ON current is possible along armchair and zigzag directions, respectively, 55.11% variation in transconductance is possible along armchair direction, by changing stacking orders (AA, AB, and AC) and about 8 times increase in ON current is achievable by changing channel orientation (armchair or zigzag) in p-MOSFET. About 14.8 mV/V drain induced barrier lowering is observed for both p-MOSFET and n-MOSFET, which signifies good immunity to short channel effects.

  10. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  11. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing. (Afr J Reprod Health 2015; 19[1]: 14-24). Keywords: birth ..... 25-38 months (reference), 39-59 months, and > 60 months. Figures presented are Relative Risk Ratio of birth interval category relative to 25-38 months, associated 95% Confidence Intervals,.

  12. A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of an early-intervention program in reducing parenting stress after preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Rønning, John A; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz B

    2006-07-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with increased parenting stress in early infancy, and some reports have found this to be a risk factor for later behavioral problems. There are, however, few studies and conflicting results. Information about the fathers is scarce. Our goal was to study the effects of an early-intervention program on parenting stress after a preterm birth until 1 year corrected age. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted including infants with a birth weight effects of a modified version of the Mother-Infant Transaction Program on parenting stress measured by the Parenting Stress Index. A term control group was also recruited. The Parenting Stress Index was administered to the mothers at 6 and 12 months' corrected age and to the fathers at 12 months' corrected age. The intervention consisted of 8 sessions shortly before discharge and 4 home visits by specially trained nurses focusing on the infant's unique characteristics, temperament, and developmental potential and the interaction between the infant and the parents. Seventy-one infants were included in the preterm intervention group, and 69 were included in the preterm control group. The preterm groups were well balanced. Seventy-four infants were included in the term control group. Compared with the preterm controls, both the mothers and fathers in the preterm intervention group reported significant lower scores in child domain, parent domain, and total stress on all occasions except the mother-reported child domain at 12 months. These differences were not related to birth weight or gestational age. The level of stress among the preterm intervention group was comparable to their term peers. Both parents in the intervention group reported consistently lower scores within the distractibility/hyperactivity, reinforces parents, competence, and attachment subscales compared with the preterm control group. There were no differences in mean summary stress scores between the mothers and fathers in

  13. Effects on metabolic parameters in young rats born with low birth weight after exposure to a mixture of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Ramhøj, Louise; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup

    2018-01-01

    Pesticide exposure during fetal life can lead to low birth weight and is commonly observed in reproductive toxicology studies. Associations have also been found in low birth weight babies born from pesticide-exposed gardeners. Since low birth weight is also linked to metabolic disorders, it can...

  14. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  15. Modifying effects of maternal Hb concentration on infant birth weight in women receiving prenatal iron-containing supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Mei, Zuguo; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Jianmeng; Serdula, Mary K

    2016-02-28

    Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe-folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006-2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95% CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95% CI 21·98, 193·28) g (PHb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation.

  16. Effects of gestational age at birth on cognitive performance: a function of cognitive workload demands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jaekel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n = 1326 children (gestation range: 23-41 weeks were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test. RESULTS: Cognitive scores of preterm children decreased as cognitive workload demands of tasks increased. The relationship between gestation and task workload was curvilinear and more pronounced the higher the cognitive workload: GA² (quadratic term on low cognitive workload: R²  = .02, p<0.001; moderate cognitive workload: R²  = .09, p<0.001; and high cognitive workload tasks: R²  = .14, p<0.001. Specifically, disproportionally lower scores were found for very (<32 weeks gestation and moderately (32-33 weeks gestation preterm children the higher the cognitive workload of the tasks. Early biological factors such as gestation and neonatal complications explained more of the variance in high (12.5% compared with moderate (8.1% and low cognitive workload tasks (1.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The cognitive workload model may help to explain variations of findings on the relationship of gestational age with cognitive performance in the literature. The findings have implications for routine cognitive follow-up, educational intervention, and basic research into neuro-plasticity and brain reorganization after preterm birth.

  17. Effect of Kangaroo mother care on vital physiological parameters of the low birth weight newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpanamayi Bera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g, which is often associated with preterm birth, is a common problem in India. Both are recognized risk factors for neonatal mortality. Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a non-conventional, low-cost method for newborn care based upon intimate skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby. Our objective was to assess physiological state of LBW babies before and after KMC in a teaching hospital setting. Materials and Methods: Study cohort comprised in-born LBW babies and their mothers - 300 mother-baby pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Initially, KMC was started for 1 hour duration (at a stretch on first day and then increased by 1 hour each day for next 2 days. Axillary temperature, respiration rate (RR/ min, heart rate (HR/ min, and oxygen saturation (SpO 2 were assessed for 3 consecutive days, immediately before and after KMC. Results: Data from 265 mother-baby pairs were analyzed. Improvements occurred in all 4 recorded physiological parameters during the KMC sessions. Mean temperature rose by about 0.4°C, RR by 3 per minute, HR by 5 bpm, and SpO 2 by 5% following KMC sessions. Although modest, these changes were statistically significant on all 3 days. Individual abnormalities (e.g. hypothermia, bradycardia, tachycardia, low SpO 2 were often corrected during the KMC sessions. Conclusions: Babies receiving KMC showed modest but statistically significant improvement in vital physiological parameters on all 3 days. Thus, without using special equipment, the KMC strategy can offer improved care to LBW babies. These findings support wider implementation of this strategy.

  18. Do Induced Abortions Affect the First Birth Probability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie-Louise H; Stage, Louise; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    and methods: The data are obtained by linking several national public registers in Denmark, using the unique personal identification number. Initially, a logistic regression analysis is employed in order to model the first birth probability in a given year. Secondly, the long-term effect of an induced......Objective: The focus of this paper is to study, on a national basis, how the event of an induced abortion modifies the transition to first birth for Danish women aged 20-39 years in the period 1982-2001, taking into account also educational level, family situation, and urbanisation. Data...... abortion is examined by cumulative first birth probabilities, derived from a life table analysis. Main findings and conclusion: Previous abortions increased the first birth probability, though this effect was almost entirely confined to single women. For cohabiting and married women, previous abortions had...

  19. Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation on plasma amino acid concentrations in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Brenda B; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Stoll, Barbara J; Koch, Matthew A; Wright, Linda L; Oh, William; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bauer, Charles R; Carlo, Waldemar A; Donovan, Edward F; Fanaroff, Avroy A; Korones, Sheldon B; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Stevenson, David K; Tyson, Jon E; Lemons, James A

    2003-03-01

    Glutamine is one of the most abundant amino acids in both plasma and human milk and may be conditionally essential in premature infants. However, glutamine is not provided by standard intravenous amino acid solutions. We assessed the effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation on plasma amino acid concentrations in extremely low-birth-weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). A total of 141 infants with birth weights of 401-1000 g were randomly assigned to receive a standard intravenous amino acid solution that did not contain glutamine or an isonitrogenous amino acid solution with 20% of the total amino acids as glutamine. Blood samples were obtained just before initiation of study PN and again after the infants had received study PN (mean intake: 2.3 +/- 1.0 g amino acids x kg(-1) x d(-1)) for approximately 10 d. Infants randomly assigned to receive glutamine had mean plasma glutamine concentrations that increased significantly and were approximately 30% higher than those in the control group in response to PN (425 +/- 182 and 332 +/- 148 micromol/L for the glutamine and control groups, respectively). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the relative change in plasma glutamate concentration between the baseline and PN samples. In both groups, there were significant decreases in plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine between the baseline and PN samples; the decrease in tyrosine was greater in the group that received glutamine. In extremely low-birth-weight infants, parenteral glutamine supplementation can increase plasma glutamine concentrations without apparent biochemical risk. Currently available amino acid solutions are likely to be suboptimal in their supply of phenylalanine, tyrosine, or both for these infants.

  20. Effect of maternal administration of allopregnanolone before birth asphyxia on neonatal hippocampal function in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiss, Bobbi; Parkington, Helena C; Coleman, Harold A; Dickinson, Hayley; Yawno, Tamara; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Hirst, Jon J; Walker, David W

    2012-01-18

    Clinically, treatment options where fetal distress is anticipated or identified are limited. Allopregnanolone is an endogenous steroid, that positively modulates the GABA(A) receptor, and that has anti-apoptotic and anti-excitotoxic actions, reducing brain damage in adult animal models of brain injury. We sought to determine if prophylactic treatment of the pregnant female with a single dose of this steroid could reduce birth asphyxia-induced losses in hippocampal function at 5 days of age (P5) in spiny mouse neonates (Acomys cahirinus). At 37 days gestation (term=39 days) and 1h before inducing birth asphyxia, spiny mice dams were injected subcutaneously (0.2 ml) with either 3mg/kg allopregnanolone or 20% w/v β-cyclodextrin vehicle. One hour later, fetuses were either delivered immediately by caesarean section (control group) or exposed to 7.5 min of in utero asphyxia, causing acidosis and hypoxia. At P5, ex vivo hippocampal plasticity was assessed, or brains collected to determine cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PCNA) or calcium channel expression (inositol trisphosphate receptor type 1; IP(3)R1) using immunohistochemistry. Allopregnanolone partially prevented the decrease in long term potentiation at P5, and the asphyxia-induced increase in IP(3)R1 expression in CA1 pyramidal neurons. There was no effect of allopregnanolone on the asphyxia induced impairment of the input/output (I/O) curve and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF). In control birth pups, maternal allopregnanolone treatment caused significant changes in short term post-synaptic plasticity and also reduced hippocampal proliferation at P5. These findings show that allopregnanolone can modulate hippocampal development and synaptic function in a normoxic or hypoxic environment, possibly by modifying calcium metabolism. Best practice for treatment dose and timing of treatment will need to be carefully considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.