Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S
The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.
Zajonc, R. B.
Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…
Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena
Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...
Guggenheim, Jeremy A; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L; Williams, Cathy
An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in four subject groups. Subject groups were participants in (1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N = 4401), (2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N = 1959), (3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N = 1344), and (4) Israeli Defense Force Pre-recruitment Candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N = 888,277). The main outcome was odds ratios (OR) for myopia in first-born versus non-first-born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. Adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); and IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first-born versus fourth- or higher-born comparison than for the first-born versus second/third-born comparison (p 4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism.
Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G
Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.
research on birth order. His book, Family Constellation , has been the basis for many subsequent studies. Toman states, ’We proceed from the assumption...patterns would do well to familiarize themselves with chapter 16 of Walter Toman’s Family Constellation . Procedures for conducting this type of
Hughes, Ann Maree; Crouch, Simon; Lightfoot, Tracy; Ansell, Pat; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve
The association between infections occurring in the first 2 years of life and development of eczema was investigated in 1,782 control children from a national population-based case-control study in the United Kingdom conducted over the period 1991-1996. Dates of eczema and infectious diagnoses were ascertained from contemporaneously collected primary care records. Children diagnosed with eczema before the age of 2 years had more prior clinically diagnosed infections recorded than did children without eczema (rate ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). The difference in infection rates between children with and without eczema was apparent from birth and throughout the first 2 years of life. As expected, compared with children of second or higher birth order, those firstborn were at increased risk of eczema (p = 0.020); however, the relation between eczema and prior infection was evident only among children of second or higher birth order and not among firstborn children (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.59, and rate ratio = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.20, respectively). The authors' results are consistent with the notion that the association between birth order and eczema is unlikely to be attributable to variations in early infectious exposure.
Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G.
Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...
Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.
Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)
Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.
Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…
de Haan, Monique
This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…
de Haan, M.
This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth
Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Molitor, Ramona
We examine birth order differences in health of newborns and follow the children throughout childhood using high-quality administrative data on individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 2010. Family fixed effects models show a positive and robust effect of birth order on health at birth......; firstborn children are less healthy at birth. During earlier pregnancies, women are more likely to smoke, receive more prenatal care, and are more likely to suffer a medical pregnancy complication, suggesting worse maternal health. We further show that the health disadvantage of firstborns persists...
Weeks, Kristie G.; Newlon, Betty J.
Birth order as it relates to family constellation is one of the principle concepts of Adlerian theory, and has implications for the understanding of chemical addiction. Adler premised that it was the individual's interpretation of his/her birth circumstances that was more important than sequential birth order. This study examined whether…
Cundiff, Patrick R
Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.
Russo, Paul A J; Lester, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J
A recent study identified increasing birth order to be a risk factor for the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This finding supports the theory that transplacental microchimerism may be a key pathological event in the initiation of SSc. We investigated the relationship between birth order and parity and the age of onset of SSc in South Australia. A retrospective analysis of patient data in the South Australian Scleroderma Register was performed. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire. Control data was collected prospectively using a similar questionnaire. The relationship between birth order, family size or parity and risk of subsequent development of SSc was analyzed by mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and eighty-seven index probands were identified and compared with 457 controls. Controls were well matched for gender, but not for age. No statistically significant relationship was identified between SSc and birth order, parity in females, family size, age at first pregnancy in females or gender of first child in parous females. Our data suggests that parity, age at first pregnancy and the gender of the first child are not relevant factors in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSc. Birth order and family size in both genders also appears irrelevant. These results argue against microchimerism as being relevant in the pathogenesis of SSc and add further support to the theory that stochastic events may be important in the etiopathogenesis of SSc. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.
A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)
Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years...... of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer...... statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited...
Purcell, D W; Blanchard, R; Zucker, K J
The birth order of a contemporary North American sample of 97 gay men was quantified using Slater's Index. For the 84 probands with at least one sibling, the results showed a late mean birth order compared with the expected value of .50. Additional birth order indices derived from Slater's Index suggested that the mean later birth order was accounted for more strongly by the proband's number of older brothers than by his number of older sisters. The present findings constitute a replication of a series of recent studies and add to the growing body of evidence that birth order is a reliable correlate of sexual orientation in males.
Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars Johan; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard
Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967–1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families wit...
Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack
Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.
Munk-Olsen, Trine; Jones, Ian; Laursen, Thomas Munk
Primiparity is a well-established and significant risk factor for postpartum psychosis and especially bipolar affective disorders. However, no studies have, to our knowledge, quantified the risk of psychiatric disorders after the first, second, or subsequent births. The overall aim of the present study was to study the risk of first-time psychiatric episodes requiring inpatient treatment after the birth of the first, second, or third child. A cohort comprising 750,127 women was defined using information from Danish population registries. Women were followed individually from the date of birth of their first, second, or third child through the following 12 months over the period 1970-2011. The outcome of interest was defined as first-time admissions to a psychiatric hospital with any type of psychiatric disorder. Women who had a first psychiatric episode which required inpatient treatment after their first (n = 1,327), second (n = 735), or third (n = 238) delivery were included. The highest risk was found in primiparous mothers 10-19 days postpartum [relative risk (RR) = 8.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.89-10.85]. After the second birth, the highest risk was at 60-89 days postpartum (RR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.52-2.65), and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The effect of primiparity was strongest for bipolar disorders. Primiparity is a significant risk factor for experiencing a first-time episode with a psychiatric disorder, especially bipolar disorders. A second birth was associated with a smaller risk, and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The risk of postpartum episodes after the second delivery increased with increasing inter-pregnancy intervals, a result which warrants further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jiang, Quanbao; Yu, Qun; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J
The long-term high sex ratio at birth (SRB) is a serious issue in China. In this study, changes in SRB were decomposed into variations in SRB by birth order and compositional changes in female births by birth order. With SRB data from China's surveys and censuses, and SRB data from South Korea's vital registration and censuses from 1980-2015, the trend and decomposition results in SRB were compared between China and South Korea, and the decomposition results for urban and rural SRBs, and for provinces, are presented. In both China and South Korea the rise in the SRB was driven by a rise in the SRB at all birth orders, which was only partly counteracted by the change in the distribution of births by order. The overall rise in the SRB ended when there was a decline in the SRB at second birth or above in South Korea. In China the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders increased more for the rural population than for the urban population before 2000, resulting in a higher total SRB for rural than urban population. After 2000, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders lowered the total SRB for the rural population, whereas the effect of compositional change increased the total SRB, leading to a very slight rise in the total SRB for the rural population. At the province level, there was no spatial autocorrelation for the changes in total SRB by province, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders or the effect of compositional change. The effect of variations in SRB by birth order accounted for the majority of changes in total SRB in most provinces.
Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.
The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order…
Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål
Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967-1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families with 2 or more children in which one died from suicide. Altogether, 3,005 suicides occurred over a mean follow-up period of 15 years; 2,458 of these suicides occurred among 6,741 siblings within families of 2 or more siblings. Among siblings, a higher position in the birth order was positively associated with risk; each increase in birth order was associated with a 46% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.66) higher risk of suicide. For each 10-year increase in maternal age at child birth, the offspring's suicide risk was reduced by 57% (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.62). Our study suggests that confounding due to familial factors is not likely to explain the associations of birth order and maternal age at child birth with suicide risk.
Booth, Alison L; Kee, Hiau Joo
We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their children'...
Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck
Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.
Carmichael, Karla D.
Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…
Boomsma, D.I.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Beem, A.L.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Bartels, M.
The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. Intelligence, 35, 503-514
Stewart, Allan E.
Clinicians (N = 308) responded to identical counseling vignettes of a male client that differed only in the client's stated birth order. Clinicians developed different impressions about the client and his family experiences that corresponded with the prototypical descriptions of persons from 1 of 4 birth orders (i.e., first, middle, youngest, and…
Schmidt, Karmen; Zimmerman, Andrew; Bauman, Margaret; Ferrone, Christine; Venter, Jacob; Spybrook, Jessaca; Henry, Charles
Prior investigations suggest that birth order position may be associated with the risk for developing a pervasive developmental disorder. This retrospective chart review examined the birth order status of 29 psychiatrically-referred patients with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Eighty-six percent of the subjects were first born. The finding was…
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between birth order and sport participation in terms of the inherent dangers associated with different sport codes. Data collected from 1310 sport science students over a period of more than 15 years failed to support the popular birth-order hypothesis. Keywords: ...
Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Beijsterveld, T. C. E. M.; Beem, A. L.; Hoekstra, R. A.; Polderman, T. J. C.; Bartels, M.
The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. "Intelligence," 35, 503-514] to be negative. Subjects in this…
de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.
In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential
de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.
In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human
Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily C
To compare the birth order of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD) with population norms. 83 PTSD patients and 104 AD control patients from a psychiatric trauma clinic were diagnosed according to DCR-10 guidelines. A family history was taken as to number of siblings, and their birth order. We compared the distribution of birth order for each patient group against birth order distributions expected by chance for the same years of birth using UK population-level birth order from the Office for National Statistics. Psychiatric patients with PTSD were more likely to be from a large family, specifically to be the fifth child or later (OR 4.78, p birth order between AD patients and the general population. People with PTSD are more likely to be the youngest children from large families than expected from a random sample of people born in the same years. This association with birth order was not found for another psychiatric diagnosis AD from the same clinic. We discuss possible psychosocial and biological causes, and implications for further research.
Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Boden, Joseph M.
This paper examines the relationship between birth order and later educational outcomes in a birth cohort of more than 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of twenty-five. Being later born was associated with gaining fewer educational qualifications at secondary level and beyond. The use of nested models to control for the confounding…
Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Zhang, Jun; Klebanoff, Mark
Second-born twins on average weigh less than first-born twins and have been reported at an elevated risk of perinatal mortality. Whether the risk differences depend on their relative birth size is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of birth order with perinatal mortality by birth order-specific weight difference in twin pregnancies. In a retrospective cohort study of 258,800 twin pregnancies without reported congenital anomalies using the US matched multiple birth data 1995-2000 (the available largest multiple birth dataset), conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death adjusted for fetus-specific characteristics (sex, presentation, and birthweight for gestational age). Comparing second vs first twins, the risks of perinatal death were similar if they had similar birthweights (within 5%) and were increasingly higher if second twins weighed progressively less (adjusted ORs were 1.37, 1.90, and 3.94 if weighed 5.0-14.9%, 15.0-24.9%, and ≥25.0% less, respectively), and progressively lower if they weighed increasingly more (adjusted ORs were 0.67, 0.63, and 0.36 if weighed 5.0-14.9%, 15.0-24.9%, and ≥25.0% more, respectively) (all P birth size. Vaginal delivery at term is associated with a substantially greater risk of perinatal mortality in second twins. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C
This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain.
Kikkawa, T; Yorifuji, T; Fujii, Y; Yashiro, M; Okada, A; Ikeda, M; Doi, H; Tsukahara, H
Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments, where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects post-natal environment. However, longitudinal studies are limited on this subject. This study sought to elucidate the relationships between birth order and allergic disease. From a nationwide longitudinal study that followed children born in 2001 (n = 47 015), we selected doctors' visits for 3 types of allergic disease-bronchial asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis-from infancy to 12 years of age and conducted binomial log-linear regression analysis to evaluate the associations between birth order and these diseases. We adjusted for the child and parental factors and estimated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. The associations between birth order and bronchial asthma were diverse; later birth order increased the risk in early childhood, but decreased the risks during school age. For example, the adjusted RR comparing third-born or higher and first-born children was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) between 30 and 42 months of age, but was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89) between 10 and 11 years. Later birth order was generally protective for food allergy but increased the risk of atopic dermatitis. The influence of birth order depended on the type of allergic disease and the childhood period. Childhood is unique in terms of physical and immunological development, and the immune response to the post-natal environment in childhood appears to be heterogeneous. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.
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Mishra, S K; Ram, Bali; Singh, Abhishek; Yadav, Awdhesh
Using data from India's National Family Health Survey, 2005-06 (NFHS-3), this article examines the patterns of relationship between birth order and infant mortality. The analysis controls for a number of variables, including mother's characteristics such as age at the time of survey, current place of residence (urban/rural), years of schooling, religion, caste, and child's sex and birth weight. A modest J-shaped relationship between birth order of children and their risk of dying in the neonatal period is found, suggesting that although both first- and last-born children are at a significantly greater risk of dying compared with those in the middle, last-borns (i.e. fourth and higher order births) are at the worst risk. However, in the post-neonatal period first-borns are not as vulnerable, but the risk increases steadily with the addition of successive births and last-borns are at much greater risk, even worse than those in the neonatal period. Although the strength of relationship between birth order and mortality is attenuated after the potential confounders are taken into account, the relationship between the two variables remains curvilinear in the neonatal period and direct in the post-neonatal period. There are marked differences in these patterns by the child's sex. While female children are less prone to the risk of dying in the neonatal period in comparison with male children, the converse is true in the post-neonatal period. Female children not only run higher risks of dying in the post-neonatal period, but also become progressively more vulnerable with an increase in birth order.
Käch, Matthias; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas
Many character traits are influenced by birth order with greatest differences between first and lastborns. To investigate the influence of birth order on the risk of dental trauma. Five hundred mothers in Switzerland were interviewed personally regarding dental trauma in their children. Inclusion criteria were a family size of at least two children. Data of 1282 children were collected. Thirty-two percent of the children had sustained one or more dental trauma before the age of 16 (57% male, 43% female). In children who had sustained dental trauma twice, the gender ratio moved to 68% male and 32% female (P = 0.003). Regarding birth order, lastborns sustained more second dental traumas. Relative risk of second dental trauma was 2.1 times higher in lastborns than in firstborns (P = 0.02). Moreover, certain character traits in children are influenced by birth order. According to their mothers, lastborns were more curious, less calm and less deliberate than firstborns (P Birth order is a risk factor for sustaining dental trauma twice. Character traits of lastborns (curious, not calm/deliberate and aggressive) could be reasons for higher risk of dental trauma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate (TFR reflecting population growth is closely related to higher order parity progression. Many Indian states reached replacement level of TFR, but still states constituting nearly 40% population are with TFR ≥ 3. The predictors are the desire of son’s, poor contraceptives practices, younger age at marriage, child loss and shorter birth spacing. Objective: This analysis assessed the degree of relation of 3rd and higher order parity progression with the above mentioned predictors. Material and Methods: State/Union Territories wise proportions of women: progressing to ≥3 births, more sons desire, birth spacing <24 months, adopting modern contraception and median marriage age <18 years along with infant mortality rate (IMR were taken from NFHS-III report. Correlation matrix and stepwise forward multiple regression carried. Significance was seen at 5%. Results: Hindi speaking states constituting 38.92% nation population recorded TFR ≥3. Positive correlation of mothers progressing ≥ 3 births was highest (0.746 with those desiring more sons followed by IMR (0.445; while maximum negative correlation with those practicing modern contraceptives (-0.565 followed by median age at marriage (-0.391. Multiple regression analysis in order identified desire of more sons, practicing modern contraception and shorter birth spacing as the significant predictors and jointly explained 77.9% of the total variation with gain of 15.5% by adding modern contraceptive practice and 8.3% by adding shorter birth spacing. Conclusions: Desire of more sons appeared the most important predictor to progress ≥3 births that is governed by society culture and educational attainment, require attitudinal change. Further, mothers need motivation to practice both spacing and terminal methods once family is complete.
Cundiff, Patrick R.
Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born to rebel hypothesis I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of both between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623
Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian
Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…
Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…
Higher Order Multiple Births in Nigeria: Experiences, Challenges and. Neonatal Outcomes in a Private Health Facility. B Ezenwa, O Oseni, P Akintan1, P Aligwekwe, B Chukwukelu2, O Fashola3, A Ogunmokun3, O Odukoya3. Original Article. Departments of Paediatrics,. 2Obstetrics and Gynaecology and 3Family Medicine,.
Shin, Sarah J.
Investigated the language experience of second-generation immigrant Korean American school-age children (4-18 years) by surveying their parents. Reports responses to a small portion of the questionnaire that specifically addressed the issue of birth order. (Author/VWL)
Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Cleveland, H. Harrington; van den Oord, Edwin; Rowe, David C.
The authors respond to critiques of their investigation of whether birth order reliably contributes to variance in intelligence, concluding that little in the critiques challenges the original position that cross-sectional data are suspect as evidence for within-family trends in intelligence. When looking inside families and directly comparing the…
This study was guided by two objectives. The first objective was to investigate which of the ordinal birth orders (one's chronological position with in their family of origin) was over represented within patients receiving treatment for addiction at a drugs rehabilitation centre. The second objective was to investigate whether ...
Black, Sandra E; Devereux, Paul J; Salvanes, Kjell G
While recent research has found that birth order affects outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence for effects on health is more limited. This paper uses a large Norwegian dataset to focus on the relationship between birth order and a range of health and health-related behaviors, outcomes not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Interestingly, we find complicated effects of birth order. First-borns are more likely to be overweight, to be obese, and to have high blood pressure and high triglycerides. For example, compared to fifth-borns, first-borns are about 5% points more likely to be obese and 7% points more likely to have high blood pressure. So, unlike education or earnings, there is no clear first-born advantage in health. However, first-borns are about 13% points less likely to smoke daily than fifth-borns and are more likely to report good physical and mental health. Later-borns also score lower on well-being with fifth-borns being about 9% points less likely than first-borns to report that they are happy. Our findings are generally monotonic with middle-borns having outcomes that are intermediate between first- and fifth-borns. We find that these effects are largely unaffected by conditioning on education and earnings, suggesting that these are not the only important pathways to health differentials by birth order. When we explore possible mechanisms, we find that early maternal investment may play a role in birth order effects on health. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that a first-born child receives 20-30 more minutes of quality time each day with his or her parent than a second-born child of the same age from a similar family. The birth-order difference results from parents giving roughly equal time to each child at any point in time while the amount of…
A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...
Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hartung, Paul J.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael
Study 1 (n=159) found significant differences in vocational personality types, interests, and values depending on birth order. Study 2 (n=119) found significant differences in occupational interests by birth order. Both results support Alfred Adler's theory that birth order determines aspects of vocational behavior. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)
Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.
While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and…
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...
Jones, M B; Blanchard, R
Homosexual men tend to be later-born children. Slater's index, the ratio of older sibs to all sibs, is consistently higher for male homosexuals than for comparable heterosexuals. According to some explanations of this tendency, homosexual men are later born with respect to their brothers and later born with respect to their sisters only secondarily and less strongly. We show that if sisters have no direct bearing on a brother's sexual orientation and brothers do, then [formula: see text] On the other hand, if sisters have the same bearing on a brother's sexual orientation as male sibs do, then [formula: see text] These ratios are calculated and compared in nine samples of homosexual men and nine corresponding samples of control heterosexuals. The first equation holds for homosexual men, and the second equation holds for heterosexual men. The late birth order of homosexual men is sex specific. What matters is a boy's birth order relative to his brothers only. This effect may have its origins in an immune reaction or in behavioral contagion.
Paulo Cesar Sandler
Full Text Available Mediante o método de Greenwood-Yule e o teste estatístico mais sensível de que se dispõe atualmente, o x² de Halperin, foi testada a possível associação entre a prevalência de epilepsia e a ordem de nascimento de 238 pacientes. Estes pacientes foram obtidos em dois hospitais de São Paulo, na tentativa de se controlar sua classe social; tratava-se de epilépticos com variados transtornos psiquiátricos. Concluiu-se por uma associação estatisticamente significante entre a doença e a ordem de nascimento dos 238 pacientes, com uma sobre-representação nos primeiros e nos últimos nascidos.This paper deals with birth order and epilepsy. The Greenwood-Yule's method was applied, with the most powerful statistical test available, Halperin's modified chi-square. The authors concluded that there is a consistent positive association between this illness prevalence and birth order of the patients, being first and last born over-represented, irrespective of their sibship size. The data were obtained in two psychiatric hospitals in the city of São Paulo, being social class factor qualitatively controlled. All the 238 patients studied suffered a wide range of psychiatric symptoms.
Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Gervain, Judit
In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants' ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1) and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2). We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants’ ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1 and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2. We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth.
Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor
This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…
Loren A Martin
Full Text Available A rise in the prevalence of diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in several studies in recent years. While this rise in ASD prevalence is at least partially related to increased awareness and broadened diagnostic criteria, the role of environmental factors cannot be ruled out, especially considering that the cause of most cases of ASD remains unknown. The study of families with multiple affected children can provide clues about ASD etiology. While the majority of research on ASD multiplex families has focused on identifying genetic anomalies that may underlie the disorder, the study of symptom severity across ASD birth order may provide evidence for environmental factors in ASD. We compared social and cognitive measures of behavior between over 300 first and second affected siblings within multiplex autism families obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset. Measures included nonverbal IQ assessed with the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, verbal IQ assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and autism severity assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS, an instrument established as a quantitative measure of autism. The results indicated that females were more severely impacted by ASD than males, especially first affected siblings. When first and second affected siblings were compared, significant declines in nonverbal and verbal IQ scores were observed. In addition, SRS results demonstrated a significant increase in autism severity between first and second affected siblings consistent with an overall decline in function as indicated by the IQ data. These results remained significant after controlling for the age and sex of the siblings. Surprisingly, the SRS scores were found to only be significant when the age difference between siblings was less than 2 years. These results suggest that some cases of ASD are influenced by a dosage effect involving unknown epigenetic
Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary
Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored re...
Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G; Mueller, Beth A; Carozza, Susan E; Chow, Eric J; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy
The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas and Washington. We included 17,672 cases confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size, which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...
Bevier, Melanie; Weires, Marianne; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari
Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer
Full Text Available Background: It is widely believed that in twin pairs, at birth, the first-born weigh more than the second-born but this concept has been challenged. Objective: To assess the truthfulness of this common concept that first-born twins are usually heavier than their second-born siblings at birth. Methods: In a series of 104 sets of live-born twins, the birth weights of first-born twins were compared with those of their second-born siblings, after controlling for gender. Their intra-pair birthweight differences were determined and twin pairs whose birthweight difference was 15% or more were designated as discordant. Results: Twin I was heavier than Twin II in 61.5% of cases while Twin II was heavier than Twin I in 28.9% of cases. Twins I and II had equal birthweights in 9.6% of cases. Comparing the mean birthweight of the first-born-male twin with that of second-born- male twin, it was 2515+427g (95% Confidence Interval, CI=2402-2628 versus 2432 +435g (95% CI=2321-2543 p>0.05. The mean birthweight of first-born-female twin was 2326+445g (95% CI=2214-2439 while that of the second-born-female twin was 2325+501g (95% CI=2197-2453 p>0.05. When the birthweight difference exceeded 750g, the probability that Twin I will be heavier than Twin II was 83.3% (5 of 6. Conclusion: Although the first-born twin was more often heavier than their second-born siblings, either could weigh more or less at birth. The larger the birthweight difference between growth-discordant twin pair, the greater the probability that the heavier twin would be delivered first
Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy
The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were...
Kumar Velusamy Saravana
Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The
Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby
The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams
Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad
This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.
Bricelj, Katja; Tul, Natasa; Lasic, Mateja; Bregar, Andreja Trojner; Verdenik, Ivan; Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac
To evaluate the relationship between respiratory morbidity in twins by gestational age, birth order and mode of delivery. All twin deliveries at birth order and to the mode of delivery. In contrast, RDS was more frequent among the second born twins in the vaginal birth groups born at 30-36 weeks [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5 for 33-36 weeks and 30-32 weeks, respectively], whereas this trend was seen in the cesarean birth groups born earlier (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.0 for 28-29 weeks). Cesarean delivery significantly increased the frequency of RDS in twin A as well as in twin B compared with vaginal birth, but only at gestational ages birth order have a gestational age dependent effect on the incidence of RDS.
... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...
Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.
Rees, Daniel I.; Lopez, Elizabeth; Averett, Susan L.; Argys, Laura M.
Argys, L.M., Rees, D.I., Averett S.L., & Witoonchart, B. (2006). Birth order and risky adolescent behavior. "Economic Inquiry", 44(2), 215-233 demonstrated that a strong link exists between birth order and adolescent risky behavior. Using data on 10th graders from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we extend the work of Argys et…
Monfardini, Chiara; See, Sarah Grace
Higher birth order positions are associated with poorer outcomes due to smaller shares of resources received within the household. Using a sample of Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement children, we investigate if the negative birth order effect we find in cognitive outcomes is due to unequal allocation of mother and father…
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Describes why birth order interests both parents and researchers, discussing what really causes apparent birth order effects on intelligence, examining problems with using cross-sectional intelligence data, and noting how to move beyond cross-sectional inferences. Explains the admixture hypothesis, which finds that family size is much more…
Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…
Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stephane
We examine the implications of being early in the birth order, and whether a pattern exists within large families of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order. Unlike other studies using U.S. data, we go beyond grade for age and look at racial differences. Drawing from OLS and fixed effects estimations, we find that being…
Gabriel, Chege Kimani
The study sought to investigate the impact of birth order on procrastination among college students in Eldoret town. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: (1) to find out the prevalence of procrastination among college students in Eldoret town, (2) to find out the relationship between birth order on procrastination among college…
Sudan, M; Kheifets, LI; Arah, OA; Divan, HA; Olsen, J
In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were included. We examined differences in exposures and behavioral problems between siblings and non-siblings and by birth order and birth year. We estimated associations between cell phone exposures and b...
Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C
The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.
Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko
Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.
Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela
Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler’s theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler’s birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) A...
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia
; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...
Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Vohr, Betty R; Wrage, Lisa; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J; Walsh, Michele C; Higgins, Rosemary D
Extremely low birth weight twins have a higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than singletons. Higher-order extremely low birth weight multiple births may have an even higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Extremely low birth weight (birth weight 401-1000 g) multiple births born in participating centers of the Neonatal Research Network between 1996 and 2005 were assessed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined by the presence of 1 or more of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy; mental developmental index score or psychomotor developmental index score less than 70; severe bilateral deafness; or blindness. Infants who died within 12 hours of birth were excluded. Maternal and infant demographic and clinical variables were compared among singleton, twin, and triplet or higher-order infants. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the association between singletons, twins, and triplet or higher-order multiples and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for confounding variables that may affect death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Our cohort consisted of 8296 singleton, 2164 twin, and 521 triplet or higher-order infants. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was increased in triplets or higher-order multiples when compared with singletons (adjusted odds ratio: 1.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.24]), and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27 [95% confidence: 0.95-1.71]). Triplet or higher-order births are associated with an increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age when compared with extremely low birth weight singleton infants, and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins.
Cockrill, Tonya; del Junco, Deborah J; Arnett, Frank C; Assassi, Shervin; Tan, Filemon K; McNearney, Terry; Fischbach, Michael; Perry, Marilyn; Mayes, Maureen D
Birth order has been valuable in revealing the role of environmental influences on the risk of developing certain diseases such as allergy and atopy. In addition, pregnancy has profound effects on the immune system such as short-term effects that permit fetal survival as well as longer-term effects that could influence late-onset diseases. In order to better evaluate these influences, we studied the association of birth order and gravidity/parity as risk factors for systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Data regarding SSc cases and their unaffected sibling controls were obtained from the Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository. The case-sibling design was used to minimize confounding due to differences in age, race, ethnicity, or calendar time. The gravidity/parity analysis was based on sibships with at least one SSc-affected and one unaffected sister. Birth order was examined in 974 sibships, comparing SSc cases (n = 987) with their unaffected siblings (n = 3,088). The risk of scleroderma increased with increasing birth order (odds ratio [OR] 1.25, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-1.50 for birth order 2-5; OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.57-3.15 for birth order 6-9; and OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.68-7.45 for birth order 10-15). Gravidity/parity was analyzed in 168 sibships (256 unaffected sisters, 172 SSc cases). We found an association between a history of one or more pregnancies and SSc (OR 2.8). Birth order and pregnancy were independently associated with a higher risk of developing SSc. These findings suggest that immune development in early childhood and/or pregnancy-associated events, including but not limited to microchimerism, plays a role in SSc susceptibility.
Faezeh Ghaderi; Soleiman Fijan; Shahram Hamedani
Statement of the Problem: Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child’s behavior in dental setting. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental...
Richiardi, Lorenzo; Akre, Olof; Lambe, Mats; Granath, Fredrik; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders
Several studies have reported an inverse association between birth order and testicular cancer risk, but estimates vary greatly and the biologic mechanism underlying the association is not established. We have evaluated the effect of birth order, sibship size, and the combined effect of these 2 variables in relation to risk for testicular cancer in a large, nested case-control study. Specifically, we compared 3051 patients with germ-cell testicular cancer (diagnosed between 1958 and 1998 and identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry) with 9007 population control subjects. Using record linkage with the Multi-Generation Register and the Census, we obtained information on number, order, and sex of the subjects' siblings, parental age, and paternal socioeconomic status. Both birth order and sibship size had an inverse and monotonically decreasing association with testicular cancer risk after adjusting for parental age, paternal socioeconomic status, and twin status. The associations were modified by subjects' cohort of birth and were not present among those born after 1959. The odds ratio for having at least 3 siblings, compared with none, was 0.63 (95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.75) among subjects born before 1960. Stratified analyses showed that birth order and number of younger siblings had a similar inverse association with the risk for testicular cancer. Sibship size, and not only birth order, is associated with testicular cancer risk. This suggests a higher prevalence of parental subfertility among patients with testicular cancer.
Choe, M K; Hao, H; Wang, F
Using data from the 1988 Two-Per-Thousand Survey of Fertility and Birth Control, this paper examines the effects of gender, birth order, and other correlates of childhood mortality in China. Controlling for family-level factors, childhood mortality is found to be associated with the child's gender and birth order. Among firstborn children the difference between male and female childhood mortality is not statistically significant, but among others, female children between ages 1 and 5 experience higher mortality than male children. Childhood mortality is slightly higher for children who have older brothers only than for those who have older sisters only, and it is highest for those who have both older brothers and sisters. Other factors affecting childhood mortality in China include mortality of older siblings, birth interval, urban/rural residence, mother's level of education, and mother's occupation. All interactive effects between gender and family-level characteristics are found to be statistically insignificant.
Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela
Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.
Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka I; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Divan, Hozefa A; Olsen, Jørn
In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were included. We examined differences in exposures and behavioral problems between siblings and non-siblings and by birth order and birth year. We estimated associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems while accounting for the random family effect among siblings. The association of behavioral problems with both prenatal and postnatal exposure differed between siblings (odds ratio (OR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-1.66) and non-siblings (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.36-1.74) and within siblings by birth order; the association was strongest for first-born siblings (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.86-3.42) and negative for later-born siblings (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.31-1.25), which may be because of increases in cell phone use with later birth year. Sibling analysis can be a powerful tool for (partially) accounting for confounding by invariant unmeasured within-family factors, but it cannot account for uncontrolled confounding by varying family-level factors, such as those that vary with time and birth order.
Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh
The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under
White, J; Campbell, L; Stewart, A
This study investigated the relations among psychological birth order, actual birth order, and lifestyle. The study also further examined the convergent validity of the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory. This inventory and Kern's Lifestyle Scale were administered to 126 individuals in a southeastern urban university. The several analyses of variance and canonical correlation analysis (1) supported a stronger relationship between psychological birth order and lifestyle than between actual birth order and lifestyle, (2) identified differential relationships between particular birth-order positions and lifestyle scales that were predicted and in accord with Adlerian theory, and (3) further supported the validity of the inventory. The results reaffirmed the lifestyle pattern and birth-order characterizations of Adlerian theory.
Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael
Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The experiment had 2 phases:During the first phase 19 sows were monitored during farrowing; the piglets were numbered according to birth order, they were weighed and there were recorded the time each piglet was born and when it first suckled. There was calculated the time from the beginning of the farrowing until the time each piglet was born (TNPP and the time from birth until the first suckle (TPS. A statistical correlation was established between these parameters.During the second experimental phase, for 49 piglets from 5 sows were determined: birth weight, TPS, glycemia at birth (G0 and after the first suckle (G1, rectal temperature at birth (T0 and after the first suckles (T1. This data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Respecting the birth order, TPS is shorter for piglets born last (p<0.05. Average TPS was 23.04±2.49 minutes; during this time glycemia rises from 58.35 mg% to 64.35 mg% and rectal temperature drops from 38.58°C to 37.35°C. T0 is positively correlated with G0 (p<0.01 with G1 (p<0.01 and T1 (p<0.01. G0 is highly correlated to G1 (r=0.8855; p=0.
... Women can choose from many different types of birth control methods. These include, in order of most effective to least effective at preventing pregnancy: Female and male sterilization (female tubal ligation or occlusion, male vasectomy) — Birth control that prevents pregnancy for the rest of ...
Velandia, W; Grandon, G M; Page, E B
The confluence theory, which hypothesizes a relationship between intellectual development birth order, and family size, was examined in a colombian study of more than 36,000 college applicants. The results of the study did not support the confluence theory. The confluence theory states that the intellectual development of a child is related to average mental age of the members of his family at the time of his birth. The mental age of the parents is always assigned a value of 30 and siblings are given scores equivalent to their chronological age at the birth of the subject. Therefore, the average mental age of family members for a 1st born child is 30, or 60 divided by 2. If a subject is born into a family consisting of 2 parents and a 6-year old sibling, the average mental age of family members tends, therefore, to decrease with each birth order. The hypothesis derived from the confluence theory states that there is a positive relationship between average mental age of a subject's family and the subject's performance on intelligence tests. In the Colombian study, data on family size, birth order and socioeconomic status was derived from college application forms. Intelligence test scores for each subject was obtained from college entrance exams. The mental age of each applicant's family at the time of the applicant's birth was calculated. Multiple correlation analysis and path analysis were used to assess the relationship. Results were 1) the test scores of subjects from families with 2,3,4, and 5 children were higher than test scores of the 1st born subjects; 2) the rank order of intelligence by family size was 3,4,5,2,6,1 instead of the hypothesized 1,2,3,4,5,6; and 3) only 1% of the variability in test scores was explained by the variables of birth order and family size. Further analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was a far more powerful explanatory variable than family size.
Despite the marked decline in Singapore's crude birth rate from 42.7/1000 population to 22.1/1000 population from 1957 to 1970, the government adopted a policy of sterilization by coercion with the passage in 1970 of the Voluntary Sterilisation Act. Although sterilization is supposedly voluntary, various regulations make it extremely difficult for couples who wish to retain their fertility. Couples under 40 years of age with more than 2 children must agree to accept sterilization or their children are assigned to a low priority category in regard to primary school admittance. An individual who wishes to marry a non-Singaporean cannot obtain a marriage application unless one of the parties to the marriage agrees to have a sterilization after the birth of their 2nd child. Singapore, with a population density of almost 4000/square kilometer, needs to be concerned about population growth; however, since the population had for the most part already adopted a 2 child family norm, these coercive policies appear to be blatantly excessive.
Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C
The idea that birth-order position has a lasting impact on personality has been discussed for the past 100 years. Recent large-scale studies have indicated that birth-order effects on the Big Five personality traits are negligible. In the current study, we examined a variety of more narrow personality traits in a large representative sample ( n = 6,500-10,500 in between-family analyses; n = 900-1,200 in within-family analyses). We used specification-curve analysis to assess evidence for birth-order effects across a range of models implementing defensible yet arbitrary analytical decisions (e.g., whether to control for age effects or to exclude participants on the basis of sibling spacing). Although specification-curve analysis clearly confirmed the previously reported birth-order effect on intellect, we found no meaningful effects on life satisfaction, locus of control, interpersonal trust, reciprocity, risk taking, patience, impulsivity, or political orientation. The lack of meaningful birth-order effects on self-reports of personality was not limited to broad traits but also held for more narrowly defined characteristics.
Mejbel, Hebah S; Simons, Andrew M
Environmental unpredictability is known to result in the evolution of bet-hedging traits. Variable dormancy enhances survival through harsh conditions, and is widely cited as a diversification bet-hedging trait. The floating aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed), provides an opportunity to study diversification because although partially reliable seasonal cues exist, its growing season is subject to an unpredictable and literally "hard" termination when the surface water freezes, and overwinter survival depends on a switch from production of normal daughter fronds to production of dense, sinking "turions" prior to freeze-over. The problem for S. polyrhiza is that diversified dormancy behavior must be generated among clonally produced, genetically identical offspring. Variation in phenology has been observed in the field, but its sources are unknown. Here, we investigate sources of phenological variation in turion production , and test the hypothesis that diversification in turion phenology is generated within genetic lineages through effects of parental birth order. As expected, phenotypic plasticity to temperature is expressed along a thermal gradient; more interestingly, parental birth order was found to have a significant and strong effect on turion phenology: Turions are produced earlier by late birth-order parents. These results hold regardless of whether turion phenology is measured as first turion birth order, time to first turion, or turion frequency. This study addresses a question of current interest on potential mechanisms generating diversification, and suggests that consistent phenotypic differences across birth orders generate life history variation.
Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko; Tynelius, Per; Berglind, Daniel; Rasmussen, Finn
Previous studies have shown that birth order is an important predictor of later life health as well as socioeconomic attainment. In this study, we examine the relationship between birth order and hospitalization for alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. We study the relationship between birth order and hospitalization related to alcohol and narcotics use before and after the age of 20 using Swedish register data for cohorts born 1987-1994. We apply Cox proportional hazard models and use sibling fixed effects, eliminating confounding by factors shared by the siblings. Before age 20 we find that later born siblings are hospitalized for alcohol use at a higher rate than first-borns, and there is a monotonic increase in the hazard of hospitalization with increasing birth order. Second-borns are hospitalized at a rate 47% higher than first-borns, and third-borns at a rate 65% higher. Similar patterns are observed for hospitalization for narcotics use. After age 20 the pattern is similar, but the association is weaker. These patterns are consistent across various sibling group sizes. Later born siblings are more likely to be hospitalized for both alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. These birth order effects are substantial in size, and larger than the estimated sex differences for the risk of hospitalization related to alcohol and drug use before age 20, and previous estimates for socioeconomic status differences in alcohol and drug abuse. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
... characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at ... and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected ...
This paper examines the net effect of birth order on child nutritional status in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2011 (BDHS). Analyses were restricted to 4,120 surviving, lastborn singleton children who were younger than 36 months at the time of the survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between birth order and child nutritional status. Results indicate 38.1% children are stunted and 8.2% children are fifth or higher order birth. Order of birth is one of the significant predictors of child being stunted. Third order, fourth order, and fifth or higher order children are 24%, 30%, and 72%, respectively, more likely to be stunted after adjusting for all other variables. Besides birth order, results also indicate that child age, size at birth, birth intention, maternal education, maternal body mass index, wealth index, place of residence and mass media access exert strong influences over child malnutrition. Reducing birth rates which limit number of births and birth order as well may reduce child malnutrition in Bangladesh.
Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony
We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…
Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Williams, Cathy
Visual impairment due to myopia is an important public health issue. A prior analysis of population-based cohorts aged 15 to 22 years recruited from the United Kingdom and Israel suggested myopia and high myopia were approximately 10% more common in first-born compared with later-born children. To examine whether myopia was associated with birth order in an earlier generation than studied previously and, if so, whether the association was attenuated after adjusting for education exposure, as predicted by the hypothesis that the education of children with later birth orders is less intense. Cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants recruited from 2006 to 2010. Analysis was restricted to participants aged 40 to 69 years who had a vision assessment, self-reported white ethnicity, and no history of eye disorders (N = 89,120). Myopia and high myopia were defined as autorefraction of -0.75 diopters (D) or less and -6.00 D or less, respectively. Birth order and information on potential confounders including highest educational qualification ascertained using a structured questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for myopia and high myopia by birth order, using logistic regression and adjusting for age and sex (model 1) or age, sex, and highest educational qualification (model 2). In model 1 (no adjustment for education), birth order was associated with both myopia and high myopia (eg, comparing first- vs second-born individuals; OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P = 1.40E-11 and OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11-1.30; P = 3.60E-06 for myopia and high myopia, respectively). The risk for myopia became progressively lower for later birth orders, suggesting a dose response. In model 2 (after adjusting for education), the effect sizes were attenuated by approximately 25% (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12; P = 1.30E-06 and OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25; P = 4.60E-04 for myopia and high myopia, respectively) and the apparent dose response was abolished. These data suggest that the
Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.; Blanchard, Ray; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.
Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands’ position (e.g., first-born, middle-born, last-born) within their sibships. Fraternal birth order refers to their position among male siblings only. Such research was extended in this study to a large group of early-onset gender dysphor...
Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir
BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis...... at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR¿=¿0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P¿=¿0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I(2)¿=¿67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed...
Badger, Julia; Reddy, Peter
The influence of birth order on personality and sibling rivalry is controversial; little research has been conducted into academic sibling rivalry, and none into the connection with personality traits. This study considers the interaction of all three factors. Firstborns (N=22) and lastborns (N=24) completed online personality tests and an…
This study investigated socio-economic status and birth-order as correlates of women spiritual help-seeking behavior. Five hundred women help-seekers were sampled from 10 spiritual houses within Ibadan metropolis. Their age ranged between 17-70 years. Fifty percent (50 %,) i.e. 250 of the total sample were singles; ...
Rammohan, Anu; Dancer, Diane
In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an…
Silles, Mary A.
This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…
Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir
The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous...
Dunkel, Curtis S.; Harbke, Colin R.; Papini, Dennis R.
The authors proposed that birth order affects psychosocial outcomes through differential investment from parent to child and differences in the degree of identification from child to parent. The authors conducted this study to test these 2 models. Despite the use of statistical and methodological procedures to increase sensitivity and reduce…
Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z
Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.
Schagen, S.E.E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blanchard, R.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands' position (e.g., first-born,
Buunk, Abraham (Bram)
The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else),
Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.
Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart
Van Volkom, Michele; Beaudoin, Elizabeth
The current study examined demographic factors (e.g., parental marital status) as well as sex and birth order effects on emerging adults' views of their sibling relationships. One hundred sixty-seven participants completed a demographic and sibling relationship questionnaire designed for the purposes of this study. Factors of the sibling…
Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.
The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…
Dudley, Gary E.
Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…
Zemanek, J E; Claxton, R P; Zemanek, W H
The relationship between the birth order and materialism scores was investigated using materialism conceptualized as a consumer value. Data were collected from 275 alumni of a major southwestern university. The analysis indicated that first-borns in this sample scored significantly lower on materialism than younger siblings.
McConaghy, Nathaniel; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Stevens, Carol; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Buhrich, Neil; Vollmer-Conna, Ute
Studies of the 2-3% of persons who identify as homosexual found men but not women had more older brothers than persons who identify as heterosexual. The present study investigated the birth order in the approximately 20% of men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings, few of whom identify as homosexual. The number of older brothers and sisters was investigated in seven cohorts: 319 male twins; and 49, 54, and 61 female and 66, 116, and 50 male medical students. Both women and men who anonymously reported homosexual feelings had a greater mean number of older brothers and sisters than did those who reported no homosexual feelings. The difference was stronger in relation to brothers than sisters. The birth order effect was not related to the strength of the subjects' degree of homosexual compared with heterosexual feelings. Its presence in women could not be accounted for by the widely accepted hypothesis that the birth order effect is due to a maternal immune reaction provoked only by male fetuses. The lack of relationship between the strength of the effect and degree of homosexual feelings in the men and women suggests the influence of birth order on homosexual feelings was not due to a biological, but a social process in the subjects studied. Investigating the neglected significant percentage of predominantly heterosexual men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings may aid in understanding the factors influencing sexual orientation, and identity.
Self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and birth order as predictors of academic performance among secondary school students in Kajola Local Government ... standardized scales and the data obtained was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Multiple Regression Statistical analysis of SPSS.
Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir
BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...
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U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....
Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Zucker, Kenneth J; Massuda, Raffael; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Borba, André Oliveira; Costa, Angelo Bradelli; Schneider, Maiko Abel; Mueller, Andressa; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; Da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues
Previous research has indicated that biological older brothers increase the odds of androphilia in males. This finding has been termed the fraternal birth order effect. The maternal immune hypothesis suggests that this effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens involved in fetal male brain masculinization. Exposure to these antigens, as a result of carrying earlier-born sons, is hypothesized to produce maternal immune responses towards later-born sons, thus leading to female-typical neural development of brain regions underlying sexual orientation. Because this hypothesis posits mechanisms that have the potential to be active in any situation where a mother gestates repeated male fetuses, a key prediction is that the fraternal birth order effect should be observable in diverse populations. The present study assessed the association between sexual orientation and birth order in androphilic male-to-female transsexuals in Brazil, a previously unexamined population. Male-to-female transsexuals who reported attraction to males were recruited from a specialty gender identity service in southern Brazil (n=118) and a comparison group of gynephilic non-transsexual men (n=143) was recruited at the same hospital. Logistic regression showed that the transsexual group had significantly more older brothers and other siblings. These effects were independent of one another and consistent with previous studies of birth order and male sexual orientation. The presence of the fraternal birth order effect in the present sample provides further evidence of the ubiquity of this effect and, therefore, lends support to the maternal immune hypothesis as an explanation of androphilic sexual orientation in some male-to-female transsexuals.
A recent article by Langevin, Langevin, and Curnoe (2007) reported mixed results regarding the fraternal birth order effect, that is, the repeatedly observed finding that older brothers correlate with homosexuality in later-born males. Using a fraternal birth order index computed as older brothers minus younger brothers, Langevin et al. found that the "homoerotic" probands were born later among their brothers than were the "heteroerotic" probands in their full sample (N = 1194) and in their subsample over age 19 (N = 1122), but not in their subsample over age 31 (N = 698) or in their subsample with mothers over age 46 at the proband's birth (N = 727). The present writer concluded that the results obtained with the larger samples are more reliable, based on analyses demonstrating that (1) the larger samples are unlikely to be seriously affected by incomplete sibships, and (2) the smaller samples have poor statistical power. A separate analysis, based on an approximate reconstruction of Langevin et al.'s raw data, indicated that their heteroerotic probands reported a ratio of 104 older brothers per 100 older sisters, which is close to the normative population value of 106, whereas their homoerotic probands reported a ratio of 137, indicating a statistically significant excess of older brothers. These results suggest that Langevin et al.'s data showed significant evidence of a fraternal birth order effect and that their data were consistent with previous studies of this phenomenon.
Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary
Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327). Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.
Man Ki Kwok
Full Text Available Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally.We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327.Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.23, -0.14, lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04, greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14 and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14, but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11, adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996, but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15, but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11, at 13 years, but similar blood pressure.Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.
... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing ...
Ahrens, Katherine A; Rossen, Lauren M; Thoma, Marie E; Warner, Margaret; Simon, Alan E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of death during the first year of life due to injury, such as unintentional injury and homicide, by birth order in the U.S. Using national birth cohort-linked birth-infant death data (births, 2000-2010; deaths, 2000-2011), risks of infant mortality due to injury in second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth or later-born singleton infants were compared with first-born singleton infants. Risk ratios were estimated using log-binomial models adjusted for maternal age, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education. The statistical analyses were conducted in 2016. Approximately 40%, 32%, 16%, 7%, and 4% of singleton live births were first, second, third, fourth, and fifth or later born, respectively. From 2000 to 2011, a total of 15,866 infants died as a result of injury (approximately 1,442 deaths per year). Compared with first-born infants (2.9 deaths per 10,000 live births), second or later-born infants were at increased risk of infant mortality due to injury (second, 3.6 deaths; third, 4.2 deaths; fourth, 4.8 deaths; fifth or later, 6.4 deaths). The corresponding adjusted risk ratios were as follows: second, 1.84 (95% CI=1.76, 1.91); third, 2.42 (95% CI=2.30, 2.54); fourth, 2.96 (95% CI=2.77, 3.16); and fifth or later, 4.26 (95% CI=3.96, 4.57). Singleton infants born second or later were at increased risk of mortality due to injury during their first year of life in the U.S. This study's findings highlight the importance of investigating underlying mechanisms behind this increased risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro
Each year, almost 1 million people die from suicide, which is among the leading causes of death in young people. We studied how birth order was associated with suicide and other main causes of death. A follow-up study based on the Swedish population register was conducted for sibling groups born from 1932 to 1980 who were observed during the period 1981-2002. Focus was on the within-family variation in suicide risk, meaning that we studied sibling groups that consisted of 2 or more children in which at least 1 died from suicide. These family-fixed effects analyses revealed that each increase in birth order was related to an 18% higher suicide risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.23, P = 0.000). The association was slightly lower among sibling groups born in 1932-1955 (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.21, P = 0.000) than among those born in 1967-1980 (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.57, P = 0.080). Further analyses suggested that the association between birth order and suicide was only modestly influenced by sex, birth spacing, size of the sibling group, own socioeconomic position, own marital status, and socioeconomic rank within the sibling group. Causes of death other than suicide and other external causes were not associated with birth order. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yokoyama, Y.; Jelenkovic, A.; Sund, R.; Sung, J.; Hopper, J.L.; Ooki, S.; Heikkilä, K.; Aaltonen, S.; Tarnoki, A.D.; Tarnoki, D.L.; Willemsen, G.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Saudino, K.J.; Cutler, T.L.; Nelson, T.L.; Whitfield, K.E.; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; He, M.; Ding, X.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sodemann, M.; Song, Y.M.; Yang, S.; Lee, K.; Jeong, H.U.; Knafo-Noam, A.; Mankuta, D.; Abramson, L.; Burt, S.A.; Klump, K.L.; Ordonana, J.R.; Sanchez-Romera, J.F.; Colodro-Conde, L.; Harris, J.R.; Brandt, I.; Sevenius Nilsen, T.; Craig, J.M.; Saffery, R.; Ji, F.; Ning, F.; Pang, Z.; Dubois, L.; Boivin, M.; Brendgen, M.; Dionne, G.; Vitaro, F.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dahl Aslan, A.K.; Tynelius, P.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Plomin, R.; Rebato, E.; Rose, R.J.; Goldberg, J.H.; Rasmussen, F.; Hur, Y.M.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kaprio, J.; Silventoinen, K.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of
Mathematicians have always been attracted to the field of genetics. I am especially interested in the mathematical aspects of research on homosexuality. Certain studies show that male homosexuality may have a genetic component that is correlated with female fertility. Other studies show the existence of the fraternal birth order effect, that is the correlation of homosexuality with the number of older brothers. This paper is devoted to the mathematical aspects of how these two phenomena are i...
Prime, Heather; Plamondon, André; Jenkins, Jennifer M
There is evidence for a laterborn sibling advantage in some social skills, although this has not been investigated in children's early capacities for cooperation. Using a within-family design, this study compared firstborn and laterborn (i.e., middle and youngest) siblings on their cooperative abilities when they were aged around 3 years. Further, the study investigated whether the association between children's birth order and cooperative abilities was dependent on the prosocial behaviour of other siblings in the home. The sample included 288 ethnically and sociodemographically diverse children clustered within 144 families. Cooperation was directly assessed using a problem-solving paradigm requiring two simultaneous and complementary actions of the child and adult tester to achieve a joint goal. Parents reported on the prosocial behaviour of up to four siblings in the home. Results of a multilevel analysis indicated that youngest children were more advanced in their cooperative abilities, compared to firstborn children, irrespective of their siblings' prosociality. Middle children, in contrast, were only advantaged over firstborn children if their siblings showed high levels of prosociality. The analysis accounted for a number of potential family-wide confounds, providing evidence that this is a child-specific effect related to birth order. Findings are discussed from a social constructivist perspective with an emphasis on the sibling relationship as a context for cooperative interactions that facilitate sociocognitive development. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There are individual differences in children's early capacities for cooperation. Children's early cooperation has not been considered in relation to birth order and/or sibling interaction quality. What does this study add? Youngest children are advantaged in their cooperation as compared to firstborn children. Middle children are also advantaged, but only if their
Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray; Paterson, Andrew D; Bogaert, Anthony F
In men, sexual orientation correlates with the number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. However, this phenomenon, the fraternal birth order effect, accounts for the sexual orientation of only a proportion of gay men. To estimate the size of this proportion, we derived generalized forms of two epidemiological statistics, the attributable fraction and the population attributable fraction, which quantify the relationship between a condition and prior exposure to an agent that can cause it. In their common forms, these statistics are calculable only for 2 levels of exposure: exposed versus not-exposed. We developed a method applicable to agents with multiple levels of exposure--in this case, number of older brothers. This noniterative method, which requires the odds ratio from a prior logistic regression analysis, was then applied to a large contemporary sample of gay men. The results showed that roughly 1 gay man in 7 owes his sexual orientation to the fraternal birth order effect. They also showed that the effect of fraternal birth order would exceed all other causes of homosexuality in groups of gay men with 3 or more older brothers and would precisely equal all other causes in a theoretical group with 2.5 older brothers. Implications are suggested for the gay sib-pair linkage method of identifying genetic loci for homosexuality.
Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir; Bulsara, Max K; Cinek, Ondrej; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Svensson, Jannet; Goldacre, Michael J; Waldhoer, Thomas; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Gimeno, Suely Ga; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Roberts, Christine L; Parslow, Roger C; Wadsworth, Emma Jk; Chetwynd, Amanda; Brigis, Girts; Urbonaite, Brone; Sipetic, Sandra; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E; Stoyanov, Denka; Buschard, Karsten; Radon, Katja; Glatthaar, Christopher; Patterson, Chris C
The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies. Relevant studies published before January 2010 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of studies provided individual patient data or conducted pre-specified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios (ORs), before and after adjustment for confounders, and investigate heterogeneity. Data were available for 6 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 11,955 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was no evidence of an association prior to adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for maternal age at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR = 0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P = 0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I² = 67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed that the association was stronger and more consistent in children birth order, particularly in children aged < 5 years. This finding could reflect increased exposure to infections in early life in later born children.
Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.
Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....
... from taking birth control pills include: Blood clots Heart attack High blood pressure Stroke Birth control pills without estrogen are much less likely to cause these problems. The risk is higher for women ...
... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...
Liu, Zhiwei; Coghill, Anna E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Kelly J; Niwa, Shelley; Brotzman, Michelle; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hildesheim, Allan
A small proportion of individuals infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) develop nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Timing of initial exposure could alter immunological responses to primary EBV infection and explain variation in cancer risk later in life. We measured early life family structure as a proxy for the timing of primary EBV infection to examine whether earlier age at infection alters NPC risk. We utilized data from 480 NPC cases and 1,291 unaffected siblings from Taiwanese NPC multiplex families (≥ 2 family members with NPC, N = 2,921). Information on birth order within the family was derived from questionnaires. We utilized logistic regression models to examine the association between birth order and NPC, accounting for correlations between relatives. Within these high-risk families, older siblings had an elevated risk of NPC. Compared with being a first-born child, the risk (95% CIs) of NPC associated with a birth order of two, three, four and five or more was 1.00 (0.71, 1.40), 0.88 (0.62, 1.24), 0.74 (0.53, 1.05) and 0.60 (0.43, 0.82), respectively (P for trend = 0.002). We observed no associations between NPC risk and the number of younger siblings or cumulative infant-years exposure. These associations were not modified by underlying genetic predisposition or family size. We observed that early life family structure was important for NPC risk in NPC multiplex families, with older siblings having a greater risk of disease. Future studies focusing on more direct measures of the immune response to EBV in early childhood could elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.
Full Text Available While other theoreticians of personality stressed only the influence of parents in early childhood, Adler paid particular attention to a psychological position of a child among brothers/sisters. There is some empirical evidence that birth order may influence vocational choice, characteristic style of interacting with others, affiliation, anxiety, perception of parents' authority, and even intellectual capabilities. Visual impairment of a family member affects a family system and a sibling subsystem in a specific way. The goal of the research was to determine whether birth order influences perception of dimensions of family functioning in families with a blind adolescent and in families with an adolescent of typical development. The sample included 32 blind (experimental group and 32 subjects of typical development (control group aged 14 to 26, who lived in complete families with two or three children and without serious personal, marrital or family problems. The groups were paired by sex, age, professional status and birth order of adolescents, number of children in the family, type of family (nuclear; extended and environment (rural; urban. A Questionnaire of socio-demographic information and a Questionnaire of situation and family relationships RADIR by Knežević were applied for data collection. First-borns made lower appraisals of each dimension of family functioning than second-born respondents. There were no statistically significant differences in the control group. Differences in the experimental group were statistically significant in the following dimensions: Activity, Democracy and Structuring time and activity. Thus, the results show that first-born child's 'dethronement' has more effect if it is associated with blindness. This can be explained by fact that it is more difficult for a blind first-born child to catch up with a second-born 'rival'.
Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others
Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)
Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.
Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de
This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's in this article? What Is ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...
Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn
Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (pbirth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.
Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn
Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...
Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.
of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...
Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C; Lähteenmäki, P; Träger, C; Stokland, T; Grell, K; Gustafson, G; Kogner, P; Sehested, A; Schüz, J
An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease. In a large case-control study nested in the populations of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland of 4.4 million children, we studied the association of birth order and seasonal variation of birth with subsequent risk for CNS tumours. We identified 3983 children from the national cancer registries, and information on exposure was obtained from the high-quality national administrative health registries. We investigated the association between childcare attendance during the first 2 years of life and the risk for CNS tumours in a subset of Danish children with CNS tumours, using information from the Danish Childcare database. We observed no association between birth order and risk of CNS tumours overall (odds ratio (OR) for second born or later born vs first born, 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10) or by histological subgroup, and children with CNS tumours did not show a seasonal variation of birth that was distinct from that of the background population. Childcare attendance compared with homecare showed a slightly increased OR (1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.86) for CNS tumours, with the highest risk observed in children attending a crèche. The strongest association was observed for embryonal CNS tumours. We found no effect of age at enrolment or duration of enrolment in childcare. These results do not support the hypothesis that the burden of exposure to infectious disease in early childhood has an important role in the aetiology of paediatric CNS tumours.
... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...
Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary
in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both......Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...
Research has repeatedly shown that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This phenomenon has been called the fraternal birth order effect. The most highly developed explanation of this phenomenon is the maternal immune hypothesis, which proposes that the fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunisation of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male foetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of anti-male antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male foetus. Recent studies indicate that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in right-handed males but not in non-right-handed males. The present article explores how the maternal immune hypothesis might be extended or modified to account for the apparent interaction of older brothers and handedness. Two possibilities are considered: (1) non-right-handed foetuses are insensitive to the presence of maternal anti-male antibodies, and (2) mothers of non-right-handed foetuses do not produce anti-male antibodies.
Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio
Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.
Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel
Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by
In men, sexual orientation correlates with an individual's number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. It has been hypothesized that this fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to Y-linked minor histocompatibility antigens (H-Y antigens) by each succeeding male fetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of such maternal immunization on the future sexual orientation of each succeeding male fetus. According to this hypothesis, anti-H-Y antibodies produced by the mother pass through the placental barrier to the fetus and affect aspects of sexual differentiation in the fetal brain. This explanation is consistent with a variety of evidence, including the apparent irrelevance of older sisters to the sexual orientation of later born males, the probable involvement of H-Y antigen in the development of sex-typical traits, and the detrimental effects of immunization of female mice to H-Y antigen on the reproductive performance of subsequent male offspring. The maternal immune hypothesis might also explain the recent finding that heterosexual males with older brothers weigh less at birth than heterosexual males with older sisters and homosexual males with older brothers weigh even less than heterosexual males with older brothers. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek
Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.
Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn
Background Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. Methods BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1 065 710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Results Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (p<0.001) lower BMI than first-born, respectively. The association pattern differed among muscle strengths. After adjustment for BMI, first-born presented lower elbow flexion and hand grip strength than second-born (−5.9 N and −3.8 N, respectively, p<0.001). Knee extension strength was inversely related to birth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Conclusions Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood. PMID:23696817
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI, muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. METHODS: BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. RESULTS: Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (p<0.001 lower BMI than first-born, respectively. The association pattern differed among muscle strengths. After adjustment for BMI, first-born presented lower elbow flexion and hand grip strength than second-born (-5.9 N and -3.8 N, respectively, p<0.001. Knee extension strength was inversely related to birth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.
Zou, Guobin; Sha, Xia
To evaluate the associations between birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery and childhood acute leukemia risk. Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies up to March 2013 using the search terms "childhood leukemia", "acute lymphoblastic leukemia", "acute myeloid leukemia","birth order", "abortion", "miscarriage", "cesarean", "birth characteristics" and "prenatal risk factor". Data from cohort and case-control studies were analyzed using the Stata software. Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis according to the selection criteria. No significant associations were identified for birth order and mode of delivery (birth order = 2: OR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.89-1.05; birth order = 3: OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.91-1.11; birth order ≥ 4: OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.87-1.20; mode of delivery: OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.96-1.15). However, there was a significant association between maternal abortion and childhood acute leukemia risk (spontaneous abortion: OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.05-1.41; induced abortion: OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.07-1.43). Furthermore, the stratified analysis by disease subtypes showed that spontaneous and induced abortions were significantly associated with the risks of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (OR = 1.71, 95%CI: 1.09-2.70) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42), respectively. This meta-analysis revealed that maternal abortion might contribute to the childhood acute leukemia risk.
Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia
Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jønsson, Viggo; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Johannesen, Tom B; Ly, Bernt; Olsen, Jørgen H; Yuille, Martin
To investigate the genetics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In 56 (7%) out of 800 CLL patients with concomitant malignant hematological disease, 51 families and 141 cases were ascertained. 106 cases (75%) of CLL, 27 cases (19%) of nonCLL and 8 cases (6%) of myeloproliferative disorders. Paternal disease was transmitted primarily to the youngest sons in the sibship while maternal disease was transmitted equally to all sibs, demonstrated by means of matrix conjugation and confirmed with Cox regression on parity and birth order (maternal-offspring combination: relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47 (0.89 - 2.43), p=0.12, compared with paternal-offspring combination: RR=3.25, 95% CI=(1.57-6.72), p<0.001). The B-cell expression in familial and sporadic CLL was indistinguishable. Parental genomic imprinting is pointed out as one possible mechanism behind this non-Mendelian genomic output.
Reimelt, Charlotte; Wolff, Nicole; Hölling, Heike; Mogwitz, Sabine; Ehrlich, Stefan; Martini, Julia; Roessner, Veit
The associations of birth order, number of siblings, and ADHD was examined. The analysis based on representative, epidemiological data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study ( N = 13,488). An increased risk for ADHD in firstborn versus youngest born children (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.09, 1.58]) and also versus children with no sibling (OR = 1.31, 95% CI [1.03, 1.68]) was revealed, while number of siblings was not associated with ADHD. Results remained stable after controlling for confounders. Firstborn children may receive simultaneously less parental resources and more responsibilities if younger siblings are born. This happens during the vulnerable developmental period of ADHD. In addition, due to higher levels of insecurity, parents are assumed to focus more on potential physical or psychological abnormities in their firstborn children. This may result in a diagnostic bias in firstborn children.
Cheng, C-C J; Wang, W-L; Sung, Y-T; Wang, Y-C; Su, S-Y; Li, C-Y
A child's gender and ordinal position within a family have varied implications on his or her personality and cognitive development. However, little is known about whether or not parental educational level may moderate the effects of birth order and gender. Basic Competence Test (BCT) scores of 290,588 young adolescents aged 15-16 years in Taiwan were analysed. Parental educational level was calculated as the highest educational attainment of the subjects' parents. The multiple linear regression model was used to assess the modification effects of parental educational levels on the associations of interest. After controlling for covariates, we noted a clear inverse relationship between birth order and BCT scores in Mandarin, Mathematics and Science. Additionally, boys had significantly lower mean scores in Mandarin, but had significantly higher mean scores in both Mathematics and Science. We also found the significant interactive effects of birth order, gender and parental educational attainment on BCT scores, in which the birth order and gender effects were more evident in higher-educated families than in lower-educated ones. This large cohort study confirmed that both birth order and gender may pose independent influences on BCT scores; moreover, such influences are significantly modified by parental educational attainment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... be possible, the delivery of triplets or higher order births usually requires cesarean section, with some risk to ... Reproductive Medicine, Patient Information Series. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Twins, Triplets, & Higher Order Multiples. 2004. Current Practices and Controversies in Assisted ...
Blanchard, R; Bogaert, A F
Homosexual men erotically attracted to physically mature partners typically have more older brothers than comparable heterosexual men. We investigated whether late fraternal birth positions also occur in homosexuals attracted to children or pubescents. Probands were 710 sex offenders from Gebhard et al.'s (1965) study of sexual offending. Homosexual offenders against adults and pubescents had later fraternal birth positions than heterosexual offenders against adults and pubescents, respectively; there was no difference between the homosexual and heterosexual offenders against children. Results provide some evidence that homosexuality in men attracted to immature males is etiologically related to homosexuality in men attracted to mature males.
Bogaert, Anthony F; Skorska, Malvina
In 1996, psychologists Ray Blanchard and Anthony Bogaert found evidence that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This "fraternal birth order" (FBO) effect has been replicated numerous times, including in non-Western samples. More recently, strong evidence has been found that the FBO effect is of prenatal origin. Although there is no direct support for the exact prenatal mechanism, the most plausible explanation may be immunological in origin, i.e., a mother develops an immune reaction against a substance important in male fetal development during pregnancy, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestation. This immune effect is hypothesized to cause an alteration in (some) later born males' prenatal brain development. The target of the immune response may be molecules (i.e., Y-linked proteins) on the surface of male fetal brain cells, including in sites of the anterior hypothalamus, which has been linked to sexual orientation in other research. Antibodies might bind to these molecules and thus alter their role in typical sexual differentiation, leading some later born males to be attracted to men as opposed to women. Here we review evidence in favor of this hypothesis, including recent research showing that mothers of boys develop an immune response to one Y-linked protein (i.e., H-Y antigen; SMCY) important in male fetal development, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each additional boy to which a mother gives birth. We also discuss other Y-linked proteins that may be relevant if this hypothesis is correct. Finally, we discuss issues in testing the maternal immune hypothesis of FBO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
effect on mothers' age at first birth (p < 0.001), the number of children born within the five years of the survey (p<0.001), and the total number of ... approach that compares reported numbers of births for settlers and non-settlers in ... 1Department of Geography, Sonoma State University, USA. 2. Department of Epidemiology ...
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Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel
In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.
hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...
Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Cruz, Kaliany Wanessa da; Barros, Letízia Monteiro de; Silveira, Marise Fernandes; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio
Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval), obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the SPSS 17.0 software. The results were analyzed with the relative risk for each variable, in order to estimate the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval, followed by a bivariate and multivariate analysis. among 200 children, 54% were males and 46% were females. As far as skin color is concerned most were brown, white and black, respectively. Cleft palates were the most common fissures found (54%), followed by lip cleft (30%) and palate cleft (16%). although with a limited sample, we noticed an association between maternal age and an increased risk for cleft lip and palate; however, paternal age, pregnancy order and interpregnancy interval were not significant.
Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka I.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Divan, Hozefa A.; Olsen, Jørn
In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were
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... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...
... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...
Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...
Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell
There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the…
This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…
Pollet, Thomas V.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Buunk, Abraham P.
The present study set out to examine the relationship between birth order and the dominance facet of extraversion in a community sample of around 1500 participants. In contrast, to Sulloway's (1995) predictions, the present study, using a between-family design, found firstborns to be less
Miller, E M
The survival of a human predisposition for homosexuality can be explained by sexual orientation being a polygenetic trait that is influenced by a number of genes. During development these shift male brain development in the female direction. Inheritance of several such alleles produces homosexuality. Single alleles make for greater sensitivity, empathy, tendermindedness, and kindness. These traits make heterosexual carriers of the genes better fathers and more attractive mates. There is a balanced polymorphism in which the feminizing effect of these alleles in heterosexuals offsets the adverse effects (on reproductive success) of these alleles' contribution to homosexuality. A similar effect probably occurs for genes that can produce lesbianism in females. The whole system survives because it serves to provide a high degree of variability among the personalities of offspring, providing the genotype with diversification and reducing competition among offspring for the same niches. An allele with a large effect can survive in these circumstances in males, but it is less likely to survive in females. The birth order effect on homosexuality is probably a by-product of a biological mechanism that shifts personalities more in the feminine direction in the later born sons, reducing the probability of these sons engaging in unproductive competition with each other.
This study was performed to assess the differences in the birth canal lacerations following the lateral and fours posture deliveries compared with those following the supine posture deliveries. We examined the birth canal lacerations of our "low risk" pregnant women under the midwife-led delivery care at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between April 2006 and March 2015. There were 3826, 1754 and 719 women who delivered with supine, lateral and fours postures. The rate of no laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.630, 95% CI 0.56-0.71, p < 0.01); however, the incidence of perineal laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.856, 95% CI 0.76-0.90, p < 0.01). The incidence of perineal laceration of third- or fourth-degree in the women who delivered with fours posture was significant higher than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.2-4.2, p < 0.01). The current results may be to help for self-determination of birthing postures in prenatal women.
Vivian Rosa Vázquez Martínez; Cristobal Jorge Torres González; Alina Luisa Díaz Dueñas; Grisel Torres Vázquez; Dariel Diaz Díaz; Rafael de la Rosa López
Background: congenital anomalies contribute significantly to mortality during early stages of life; they are the leading cause of infant death in developed countries.Objective: to determine the characteristics of congenital anomalies among live births. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos in 2012. Thirty-seven women who had live-born neonates with congenital anomalies were studied. The variables analyzed were: parental age, skin color, order of birth, famil...
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... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...
... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... discuss birth control methods with one’s sexual partner. General methods of contraception include: Barrier —physically interferes with ...
... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, ...
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Ford, Alexander C; Forman, David; Bailey, Alastair G; Goodman, Karen J; Axon, Anthony T R; Moayyedi, Paul
Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired mainly in childhood, with studies demonstrating this is related to living conditions. Effects of sibling number and birth order on prevalence of infection have not been extensively studied. The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of adults, aged between 50 and 59 years, previously involved in a community-screening programme for H. pylori in Leeds and Bradford, UK. Prevalence of H. pylori was assessed at baseline with urea breath test. All individuals who were alive, and could be traced, were contacted by postal questionnaire in 2003 obtaining information on number of siblings and birth order. Data concerning childhood socioeconomic conditions were stored on file from the original study. 3928 (47%) of 8407 original participants provided data. Prevalence of infection increased according to sibling number (20% in those with none vs 63% with eight or more). Controlling for childhood socioeconomic conditions and birth order using multivariate logistic regression, infection odds were substantially increased with three siblings compared with none [odds ratio (OR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.15], and a gradient of effect continued up to eight or more siblings (OR 5.70; 95% CI 2.92-11.14). Odds of infection also increased substantially with birth order, but the positive gradient disappeared on adjustment for sibling number and childhood socioeconomic conditions. : In this cross section of UK adults, aged 50-59 years, sibling number in the household, but not birth order, was independently associated with prevalence of H. pylori infection.
Polańska, Joanna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława
Parental age and birth order as risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus were investigated using data from the Regional Diabetic Center for Upper Silesia, Poland, in a population-based study of 398 children with type 1 DM aged 0-14 years born between 1979-1996. Noting differences in the proportions of children of different birth order between cases and controls, the data were stratified by birth order. For each stratum, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess risks related to the mother's age. The homogeneity of the odds ratios related to the mother's age between strata was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Risks related to mother's age and birth order were also estimated jointly by multivariable logistic regression. Decreased risk in later children compared with firstborns was noted. Increased maternal age was found to be a risk factor for type 1 DM. An increase in the mother's age by one year increases the risk of the child being affected by type 1 DM 1.07 times, and children born as the nth in the family are 1.59 times less exposed to the same risk than those born as the (n-1)th. Children of different birth order have different risks of being affected by type 1 DM. Increased maternal age at the time of delivery is a risk factor for type 1 DM in Upper Silesia, Poland. To avoid bias in estimating risks, the mother's age and child's sequence number should be analyzed jointly.
Tu, Shihfen; Mason, Craig A
Researchers and health officials are increasingly using electronic linkage of large-scale health data systems as a tool for assembling a comprehensive picture of birth defects at a population level. Current linkage and database techniques are limited to first-order linkage--linking information on a single individual in one database with information on that same individual in another database. For example, while current strategies may indicate whether a child with a certain birth defect also has a specific metabolic disorder or risk factor, they are unable to readily determine whether he or she also has any siblings or other relatives with the same pattern. In contrast, the current manuscript proposes a second-order linkage--one that organizes data so that individual-level data can readily be organized into families or extended family pedigrees across an entire population. The ability to link and organize population data into family pedigrees can have significant, broad impact upon health research and service delivery. This can lead to large-scale analysis of genetic factors and, with the linking of environmental data, the potential for large-scale studies of gene-environment interactions. In addition, it expands the potential for epidemiological research by readily allowing the examination of familial effects upon population rates of birth defects, and provides valuable information that can assist in applied public health. An example of a second order database incorporating an electronic birth defects registry is presented. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.
Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Obuchi, Ritsuko; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki
Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9-10 years) in Ina Town during 1999-2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents' age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects' height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14 and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16 significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend P for trend Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.
In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...
AJRH Managing Editor
order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing. (Afr J Reprod Health 2015; 19: 14-24). Keywords: birth ..... 25-38 months (reference), 39-59 months, and > 60 months. Figures presented are Relative Risk Ratio of birth interval category relative to 25-38 months, associated 95% Confidence Intervals,.
Mei-Dan, Elad; Shah, Jyotsna; Lee, Shoo; Shah, Prakesh S; Murphy, Kellie E
Objective This retrospective cohort study examined the effect of birth order on neonatal morbidity and mortality in very preterm twins. Study Design Using 2005 to 2012 data from the Canadian Neonatal Network, very preterm twins born between 24 0/7 and 32 6/7 weeks of gestation were included. Odds of morbidity and mortality of second-born cotwins compared with first-born cotwins were examined by matched-pair analysis. Outcomes were neonatal death, severe brain injury (intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or 4 or persistent periventricular echogenicity), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (> stage 2), necrotizing enterocolitis (≥ stage 2), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Multivariable analysis was performed adjusting for confounders. Result There were 6,636 twins (3,318 pairs) included with a mean gestational age (GA) of 28.9 weeks. A higher rate of small for GA occurred in second-born twins (10 vs. 6%). Mortality was significantly lower for second-born twins (4.3 vs. 5.3%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.95). RDS (66 vs. 60%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.29-1.52) and severe retinopathy (9 vs. 7%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.07-2.01) were significantly higher in second-born twins. Conclusion Thus, while second-born twins had reduced odds of mortality, they also had increased odds of RDS and ROP. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
The effects of birth order have been debated in many disciplines and have been shown to be important for a number of outcomes. However, studies examining the significance of birth order in language development and practices, particularly with regard to minority languages, are few. This article reports on two sets of data collected among Spanish…
Meller, Fernanda Oliveira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Schäfer, Antônio Augusto; Dahly, Darren Lawrence; Barros, Fernando Celso
The effect of both birth order and number of siblings on overweight and/or obesity has not been determined. Birth order and sibsize have been mathematically coupled to overweight and/or obesity, but thus far their respective effects have been estimated separately. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of both birth order and number of siblings on the risk of overweight/obesity. The electronic databases MEDLINE, Social Science, SocINDEX, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Academic Search Complete were searched systematically. Titles and abstracts of 1698 records were examined. After 1504 records were excluded, 2 authors independently assessed the full text of all remaining papers (n = 194); disagreements were resolved by discussion. A standardized form for assessment of study quality and evidence synthesis was used to extract data from the included studies. Twenty studies were included in the systematic review, 14 of which were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed that lower (vs higher) birth order and smaller (vs greater) number of siblings were associated with overweight and/or obesity, with ORs of 1.47 (95%CI, 1.12-1.93) and 1.46 (95%CI, 1.17-1.84), respectively. However, among the 9 studies that attempted to separate the effects of birth order and number of siblings in the same analysis, a higher risk of overweight/obesity was consistently found among individuals without siblings than among those with 1 or more siblings, rather than among firstborns more generally. The results show that both lower birth order and lower number of siblings are associated with risk of overweight/obesity, which suggests that only children are at a slightly increased risk of overweight/obesity. PROSPERO registration number CRD42014015135. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
birth weight data. This study was carried out to determine recall of birth weight and delivery complications among mothers in Unguja West District of Zanzibar. Methods: .... Considering confidence level of 95% and response rate of 90%, the ... delivery, delivery complications, child's birth date, birth's order and birth weight.
Lyerly, Anne Drapkin
The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.
Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean
and implications for practice: as images on the Internet inform and persuade society about stereotypical behaviours, the trends of our time and sociocultural norms, it is important to recognise images of the technological birth room on the Internet may be influential in dictating women's attitudes, choices......Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form...... of discourse analysis. Setting/participants: forty images of birth rooms were collected in 2013 from Google Images, Flickr, Wikimedia Commons and midwifery colleagues. The images were from obstetric units, alongside and freestanding midwifery units located in developed countries (Australia, Canada, Europe, New...
Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.
The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385
A researcher uses an econometric analysis to test his theory that economic developments influence birth rates in post World War II in Great Britain. The base of the analysis consists of a group of equilibrium relationships examining the levels of conditional birth rates (at each birth order and each mother's age) and the levels of economic variables, e.g., ratio of women's hourly wage after taxes. The leading cause of a decrease in births, especially after 1974, was an increase in women's net wages in comparison to men's net wages. Additional evidence suggested that higher women's wages increase the cost of an additional child by raising missed earnings, and this higher opportunity cost reduces the chance of another birth. On the other hand, if men's earnings are higher, couples have more children and at a young age. Further, the higher the real house prices the more likely women are to postpone starting a family and, in the case of 20-24 year old women, these high prices also deter them from having a 2nd child. Higher house prices do not affect higher order births, however. When all other things are equal, women from larger families have a tendency to begin having children in their 30s and produce smaller families than those women from smaller families. Large child allowances encourage 3rd-4th births and early motherhood. To increase fertility to replacement level over the long term, the current level of child allowances would have to double costing about 5 billion British pounds or 1.5% of the gross domestic product.
Feij, Jan A,
Full Text Available Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same factor, are related to biologically based impulsive disorders, and have a common genetic basis. Questionnaire and biographical data obtained from 532 female and 479 male young adults (age between 18 and 30 years were analyzed using structural modeling. The results show that participants who experienced little parental care and much control were more likely to have high scores on disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. It appears that these family factors may partly explain the previously reported effects of birth order and family size on sensation seeking.
Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm
AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....
Feij, Jan A,; Taris, Toon W.
Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same fa...
of enteral feeds in the first days of their life in order to prevent NEC. Uhing reported that preterm infants ... where: SS = required sample size; Z = 95% confidence interval. (standard value of 1.96); P ... The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been.
Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa
Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937
Ensuring that health professionals practise according to evidence-based standards is important since it affects the quality and cost of care patients receive. The purpose of this research was to use a focused change programme (the Better Births Initiative) to influence obstetric practice at 10 hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa.
Snowden, Jonathan M.; Tilden, Ellen L.; Snyder, Janice; Quigley, Brian; Caughey, Aaron B.; Cheng, Yvonne W.
Background The frequency of planned out-of-hospital birth in the United States has increased in recent years. The value of studies assessing the perinatal risks of planned out-of-hospital birth versus hospital birth has been limited by cases in which transfer to a hospital is required and a birth that was initially planned as an out-of-hospital birth is misclassified as a hospital birth. Methods We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all births that occurred in Oregon during 2012 and 2013 using data from newly revised Oregon birth certificates that allowed for the disaggregation of hospital births into the categories of planned in-hospital births and planned out-of-hospital births that took place in the hospital after a woman’s intrapartum transfer to the hospital. We assessed perinatal morbidity and mortality, maternal morbidity, and obstetrical procedures according to the planned birth setting (out of hospital vs. hospital). Results Planned out-of-hospital birth was associated with a higher rate of perinatal death than was planned in-hospital birth (3.9 vs. 1.8 deaths per 1000 deliveries, P = 0.003; odds ratio after adjustment for maternal characteristics and medical conditions, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 4.30; adjusted risk difference, 1.52 deaths per 1000 births; 95% CI, 0.51 to 2.54). The odds for neonatal seizure were higher and the odds for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit lower with planned out-of-hospital births than with planned in-hospital birth. Planned out-of-hospital birth was also strongly associated with unassisted vaginal delivery (93.8%, vs. 71.9% with planned in-hospital births; P<0.001) and with decreased odds for obstetrical procedures. Conclusions Perinatal mortality was higher with planned out-of-hospital birth than with planned in-hospital birth, but the absolute risk of death was low in both settings. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human
Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U
Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.
van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.
Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.
Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng
Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects
The fraternal birth order effect is the tendency for older brothers to increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This study compared the strength of the effect in subjects from small versus large families and in homosexual subjects with masculine versus feminine gender identities. Meta-analyses were conducted on 30 homosexual and 30 heterosexual groups from 26 studies, totaling 7140 homosexual and 12,837 heterosexual males. The magnitude of the fraternal birth order effect was measured with a novel variable, the Older Brothers Odds Ratio, computed as (homosexuals' older brothers ÷ homosexuals' other siblings) ÷ (heterosexuals' older brothers ÷ heterosexuals' other siblings), where other siblings = older sisters + younger brothers + younger sisters. An Older Brothers Odds Ratio of 1.00 represents no effect of sexual orientation; values over 1.00 are positive evidence for the fraternal birth order effect. Evidence for the reliability of the effect was consistent. The Older Brothers Odds Ratio was significantly >1.00 in 20 instances, >1.00 although not significantly in nine instances, and nonsignificantly <1.00 in 1 instance. The pooled Older Brothers Odds Ratio for all samples was 1.47, p < .00001. Subgroups analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in the 12 feminine or transgender homosexual groups than in the other 18 homosexual groups. There was no evidence that the magnitude of the effect differs according to family size.
McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline
Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...
To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...
Cantine, Anne Touhill
In this column, a mother shares the story of the birth of her first child. With confidence in the process of birth and in her ability to give birth, and with the support, confidence, and encouragement of her mother and sisters, Anne manages to cope with strong contractions through a busy day. Finally, her husband realizes how fast labor is progressing. Baby Joseph was born less than 2 hours after arrival at the hospital.
Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested
The term "fraternal birth order effect" denotes a statistical relation most commonly expressed in one of two ways: Older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later born males or, alternatively, homosexual men tend to have more older brothers than do heterosexual men. The demonstrability of this effect depends partly on the adequate matching of the homosexual and heterosexual study groups with respect to mean family size. If the homosexual group has too many siblings, relative to the heterosexual group, the homosexual group will tend to show the expected excess of older brothers but may also show an excess of other sibling-types (most likely older sisters); if the homosexual group has too few siblings, it will tend not to show a difference in number of older brothers but instead may show a deficiency of other sibling-types (most likely younger brothers and younger sisters). In the first part of this article, these consequences are illustrated with deliberately mismatched groups selected from archived data sets. In the second part, two slightly different methods for transforming raw sibling data are presented. These are intended to produce family-size-corrected variables for each of the four original sibling parameters (older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters). Both versions are shown to render the fraternal birth order effect observable in the deliberately mismatched groups. In the third part of the article, fraternal birth order studies published in the last 5 years were surveyed for failures to find a statistically significant excess of older brothers for the homosexual group. Two such studies were found in the nine examined. In both cases, the collective findings for older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters suggested that the mean family size of the homosexual groups was smaller than that of the heterosexual comparison groups. Furthermore, the individual findings for the four classes of siblings resembled those
J P SRIVASTAVA
Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his wellbeing and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.
Objective: Birth and emergency preparedness is a safe motherhood strategy which encourages early decision making and minimizes delays in health care seeking in the event of obstetric complications. The aim of this study was to determine individual level factors influencing birth and emergency preparedness. Methods: A ...
Shimakawa, Yusuke; Lemoine, Maud; Bottomley, Christian; Njai, Harr Freeya; Ndow, Gibril; Jatta, Abdoulie; Tamba, Saydiba; Bojang, Lamin; Taal, Makie; Nyan, Ousman; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark; Hall, Andrew J
Early age at infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases the risk of chronic infection. Moreover, early HBV infection may further independently increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond its effect on chronicity. The distribution of birth order, a proxy for mode and timing of HBV transmission, was compared in The Gambia between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases recruited from hospitals (n = 72) and two HBsAg-positive control groups without HCC: population-based controls from a community HBV screening (n = 392) and hospital-based controls (n = 63). HCC risk decreased with increasing birth order in the population-based case-control analysis. Using first birth order as the reference, the odds ratios were 0.52 (95% CI: 0.20-1.36), 0.52 (0.17-1.56), 0.57 (0.16-2.05) and 0.14 (0.03-0.64) for second, third, fourth and greater than fourth birth order respectively (P = 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed in the hospital-based case-control comparison (P = 0.04). Compared to controls, HCC cases had earlier birth order, a proxy for young maternal age and maternal HBV viraemia at birth. This finding suggests that in chronic HBV carriers perinatal mother-to-infant transmission may increase HCC risk more than horizontal transmission. Providing HBV vaccine within 24 h of birth to interrupt perinatal transmission might reduce the incidence of HCC in The Gambia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thoma, Marie E; Boulet, Sheree; Martin, Joyce A; Kissin, Dmitry
This report compares data on births resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures from 2011 birth certificates with data from the 2011 National ART Surveillance System (NASS) among the subset of jurisdictions that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate as of January 1, 2011, with information on ART. Birth certificate data are based on 100% of births registered in 27 states and the District of Columbia. NASS data included all ART cycles initiated in 2010 or 2011 for which a live birth in 2011 was reported. The same reporting area was used for both data sources and represents 67% of all births in the United States in 2011. A ratio was computed by dividing the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures for NASS data by the percentage for birth certificate data. A ratio of 1.0 represents equivalent levels of reporting. Because this reporting area is not a random sample of births, the results are not generalizable to the United States as a whole. Overall, the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures was 2.06 times higher for NASS data (1.44%) compared with birth certificate data (0.70%). The ratio for each jurisdiction varied from 1.04 for Utah and Wisconsin to 7.50 for Florida. Higher-risk groups had more consistent reporting. between data sources [e.g., triplet or higher-order multiples (1.36) compared with singletons (2.11)]. Births resulting from ART procedures appear to be underreported on the birth certificate; however, the magnitude of underreporting varied by jurisdiction and maternal-infant health characteristics.
Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio
The existing empirical evidence on the effects of birth order on wages does not distinguish between temporary and permanent effects. Using data from 11 European countries for males born between 1935 and 1956, we show that firstborns enjoy on average a 13.7% premium in their entry wage compared with later-borns. This advantage, however, is short-lived and disappears 10 years after labor market entry. Although firstborns start with a better job, partially because of their higher education, later-borns quickly catch up by switching earlier and more frequently to better-paying jobs. We argue that a key factor driving our findings is that later-borns have lower risk aversion than firstborns.
Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Lumezi, Besa
Previous studies reported that familial factors such as birth order and mothers atopy might influence cord blood levels and development of allergies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship of cord blood IgE and maternal IgE with birth order and mothers history of allergy in Albanian mother/neonate pairs. Study population represented 291 mother-infant pairs. Mothers were interviewed with a questionnaire for personal history of allergy and pregnancy history whereas serum IgE levels were determined using sandwich IRMA assay. The mean level of cIgE in neonates with detectable levels was 1.59 (n = 78). No significant difference in means of cIgE was found between first born and later born neonates (p = 0.232) and between neonates of mothers with a negative and positive history of allergy (p = 0.125). Also, no significant difference was found between means of mIgE by birth order, whereas there was a significant difference of mIgE between mothers with and without a history of allergy (p = 0.01). In a group of neonates with detectable cIgE levels, maternal IgE levels were moderately correlated with cIgE levels. Cord blood IgE is not affected by birth order and mothers history of allergy, whereas mothers IgE are affected by the history of allergy but not by birth order.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.
Kishida, Mariana; Rahman, Qazi
The present study explored whether there were relationships between number of older brothers, handedness, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and sexual orientation in men. We used data from previous British studies conducted in our laboratory (N = 1,011 heterosexual men and 921 gay men). These men had completed measures of demographic variables, number and sex of siblings, CGN, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The results did not replicate the fraternal birth order effect. However, gay men had fewer "other siblings" than heterosexual men (even after controlling for the stopping-rule and family size). In a sub-sample (425 gay men and 478 heterosexual men) with data available on both sibling sex composition and handedness scores, gay men were found to show a significantly greater likelihood of extreme right-handedness and non-right-handedness compared to heterosexual men. There were no significant effects of sibling sex composition in this sub-sample. In a further sub-sample (N = 487) with data available on sibling sex composition, handedness, and CGN, we found that men with feminine scores on CGN were more extremely right-handed and had fewer other-siblings compared to masculine scoring men. Mediation analysis revealed that handedness was associated with sexual orientation directly and also indirectly through the mediating factor of CGN. We were unable to replicate the fraternal birth order effect in our archived dataset but there was evidence for a relationship among handedness, sexual orientation, and CGN. These data help narrow down the number of possible neurodevelopmental pathways leading to variations in male sexual orientation.
Nichols, Hazel B; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L; Hampton, John M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A
Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and genetic hypotheses. Recent studies have also considered potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of women living in Wisconsin. Cases (n = 2016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002-2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (n = 1960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk-factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breast-fed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.72-0.96). In analyses restricted to breast-fed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (P = 0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breast-fed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (0.82-1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breast-fed women (for women with 3 or more older siblings compared with first-born women, OR = 0.58 [CI = 0.39-0.86]) but not among nonbreast-fed women (1.13 [0.81-1.57]). These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breast-feeding status in infancy.
I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively f...... explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates....
western Johannesburg and also at the. Donald Gordon Medical Centre. Neonatal skin, like the respiratory system, bears the brunt of the extreme change in external environment that characterises birth. NEONATES. 488 CME September 2004 Vol.22 No.9. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH). Fig. 1. Café-au-lait macule. Fig. 2.
Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify
Liu, Zhiwei; Fang, Fang; Chang, Ellen T; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ye, Weimin
The aetiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains enigmatic in endemic and non-endemic areas. Early-life infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may predispose to NPC development, whereas delayed primary infection with EBV may cause infectious mononucleosis (IM). We used Swedish population and health registers to investigate whether potential indicators of early EBV infection, such as birth order, sibship size, maternal age and paternal age, are related to the subsequent risks for NPC and IM. We conducted two nested case-control studies, one for each health outcome, based on 251 NPC case patients, 11 314 IM case patients and five population control subjects per case matched by birth year and sex. We used conditional logistic regression modelling to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NPC and IM. The multivariate-adjusted ORs of developing NPC increased with number of siblings; the ORs associated with having one, two and three or more siblings, compared with none, were 1.59 (95% CI = 0.97, 2.62), 1.94 (95% CI = 1.17, 3.22), and 2.03 (95% CI = 1.23, 3.35), respectively (Ptrend = 0.006). This increased risk of NPC was explained mainly by having older rather than younger siblings. In contrast, lower risks of IM were observed among individuals with an increasing number of older siblings, younger siblings and total siblings. Early-life social environment, possibly related to EBV infection, contributes to NPC pathogenesis in non-endemic areas. This hypothesis is further supported by the clearly contrasting findings between NPC and IM. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio
Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.
Rhine, W. Ray
This article reports an investigation in which the brith order, social class, and level of achievement arousal are the variables considered when fifth and sixth-grade girls make independent judgements in performing a set task. (JH)
Lowke, J. J.; Smith, D.; Nelson, K. E.; Crompton, R. W.; Murphy, A. B.
Many observations of ball lightning report a ball of light, about 10 cm in diameter, moving at about walking speed, lasting up to 20 s and frequently existing inside of houses and even aeroplanes. The present paper reports detailed observations of the initiation or birth of ball lightning. In two cases, navigation crew of aircraft saw ball lightning form at the windscreen inside the cockpit of their planes. In the first case, the ball lightning occurred during a thunderstorm, with much lightning activity outside of the plane. In the second case, large "horns" of electrical corona were seen outside of the plane at the surface of the radome, just prior to the formation of the ball lightning. A third case reports ball lightning formed inside of a house, during a thunderstorm, at a closed glass window. It is proposed, based on two-dimensional calculations of electron and ion transport, that ball lightning in these cases is driven and formed by atmospheric ions impinging and collecting on the insulating surface of the glass or Perspex windows. This surface charge can produce electric fields inside of the cockpit or room sufficient to sustain an electric discharge. Charges of opposite sign to those outside of the window accumulate on the inside surface of the glass, leaving a ball of net charge moving inside of the cockpit or room to produce a pulsed discharge on a microsecond time scale.
... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...
... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...
Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... to this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be ...
Birth - changes in the newborn ... heart and flows through the baby's body. At birth, the baby's lungs are filled with fluid. They ... gastrointestinal system doesn't fully function until after birth. In late pregnancy, the baby produces a tarry ...
... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...
Ankur Barua MD, PhD
Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.
Kragh, M; Larsen, J M; Thysen, A H; Rasmussen, M A; Wolsk, H M; Bisgaard, H; Brix, S
First-born children are at higher risk of developing a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of 'birth-order effects' on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. We studied the association between birth order and the functional response of stimulated cord blood T cells. Purified cord blood T cells were polyclonally activated with anti-CD3-/anti-CD28-coated beads in a subgroup of 28 children enrolled in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort. Expression levels of seven activation markers on helper and cytotoxic T cells as well as the percentage of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-10 was measured in the supernatants. IL-10 secretion (P = 0.007) and CD25 expression on CD4(+) helper T cells (P = 0.0003) in the activated cord blood T cells were selectively reduced in first-born children, while the percentage of circulating CD4(+) CD25(+) cord blood T cells was independent of birth order. First-born infants display a reduced anti-inflammatory profile in T cells at birth. This possible in utero 'birth-order' T-cell programming may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)
Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)
... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...
... Environmental public health tracking is the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data on environmental ... 2016) Key Findings: Gastroschisis – a Serious Birth Defect – Continues to Increase New CDC research shows that the ...
Dooley, William J.; Murphy, Timothy A.
The findings suggest that there may be no significant difference between the achievement of first-, only-, and last-born children. While middle-born children appeared to do less well in academic achievement, their occupational achievement did not differ significantly from the other birth-order groups. The findings suggest further that…
Blanchard, Ray; Bogaert, Anthony F
Homosexuality in men correlates with an individual's number of older brothers, greater numbers of older brothers being associated with a greater probability of homosexuality. There are reasons to believe that this relationship is causal rather than merely statistical, that is, that older brothers produce the increase in the probability of homosexuality for later-born males. It is possible, under this assumption, to estimate the proportion of homosexual men who can attribute their sexual orientation to their birth order among their brothers (fraternal birth order). This statistic, the population attributable fraction (PAF), was computed on the combined archival data of 2,256 heterosexual and 71 homosexual men examined in survey studies of sexual behavior in the UK and the USA. The PAF was 28.6%, with 95% confidence limits of 14.8% and 48.0%. These limits encompass the PAF of 15.1% previously estimated with a Canadian sample. The results indicate that the proportion of homosexual men whose sexual orientation is attributable to fraternal birth order constitutes a minority, but not a negligible minority, of all homosexual men. The fraternal birth order effect may reflect the progressive immunization of some mothers to Y-linked antigens by each succeeding male fetus, and the concomitantly increasing effects of antimale antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male fetus. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Louis, Preeti Tabitha; Kumar, Navin
Background: Perfectionism is a multifaceted concept. It had both advantages and disadvantages. Perfectionistic traits have been associated with leadership and very intellectual people. The present study is an attempt to understand if engineering students possess perfectionistic orientation and whether it influences self-efficacy, social connectedness, and achievement motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study adopts a random sampling design to evaluate the presence of perfectionism as a personality trait among undergraduate engineering students (N = 320). Standardized inventories such as Almost Perfect Scale-Revised were administered first to identify perfectionists and second to differentiate the adaptive from the maladaptive perfectionists. Scheduled interviews were conducted with students to obtain information regarding birth order and family functioning. Results: Findings from the study reveal that there were a significant number of maladaptive perfectionists and that they experienced higher levels of personal and societal demands leading to a negative emotional well-being in comparison to the adaptive perfectionists. We also observed that first-born children were more likely to display a perfectionistic self-presentation and from scheduled interviews, we understood that paternal influences were stronger when it came to decision-making and display of conscientiousness. Conclusion: The study draws on important implications for helping students to understand perfectionism and to respond to demands of the family and societal subsystems in a positive and an adaptive manner. PMID:27833225
Louis, Preeti Tabitha; Kumar, Navin
Perfectionism is a multifaceted concept. It had both advantages and disadvantages. Perfectionistic traits have been associated with leadership and very intellectual people. The present study is an attempt to understand if engineering students possess perfectionistic orientation and whether it influences self-efficacy, social connectedness, and achievement motivation. The present study adopts a random sampling design to evaluate the presence of perfectionism as a personality trait among undergraduate engineering students ( N = 320). Standardized inventories such as Almost Perfect Scale-Revised were administered first to identify perfectionists and second to differentiate the adaptive from the maladaptive perfectionists. Scheduled interviews were conducted with students to obtain information regarding birth order and family functioning. Findings from the study reveal that there were a significant number of maladaptive perfectionists and that they experienced higher levels of personal and societal demands leading to a negative emotional well-being in comparison to the adaptive perfectionists. We also observed that first-born children were more likely to display a perfectionistic self-presentation and from scheduled interviews, we understood that paternal influences were stronger when it came to decision-making and display of conscientiousness. The study draws on important implications for helping students to understand perfectionism and to respond to demands of the family and societal subsystems in a positive and an adaptive manner.
Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lou, Stina; Uldbjerg, Niels
and they relied extensively on their own or peers' experiences. Travel distance played a role, but some women were willing to incur longer travel times to give birth at a specialized hospital in order to try to reduce the risks (in case of unexpected events). The women associated the presence of specialized......OBJECTIVE: To investigate pregnant women's decision making in relation to their choice of birthing hospital and, in particular, their priorities regarding hospital characteristics. METHODS: The focus of this study was the choice of birthing hospital among pregnant women. A qualitative interview...... services and staff that were more qualified and experienced with increased safety. Other priorities included continuity of care (i.e., being seen by the same midwife) as well as service availability, which in this case referred to the possibility of a water birth and postnatal hoteling services...
Gender and birth order of child were the significant confounders factors in our adjusted models. Conclusions. We observed reduced birth weight in children whose mothers used high pollution fuels suggesting a negative effect of maternal exposure to biomass fuels on birth weight of the child. However, this reduction was not ...
Breathnach, Fionnuala M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Mahony, Rhona; Malone, Fergal D
To establish the level of birth weight discordance at which perinatal morbidity increases in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancy. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1,028 unselected twin pairs recruited over a 2-year period. Participants underwent two weekly ultrasonographic surveillance from 24 weeks of gestation with surveillance of monochorionic twins two-weekly from 16 weeks. Analysis using Cox proportional hazards compared a composite measure of perinatal morbidity (including any of the following: mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or sepsis) at different degrees of birth weight discordance with adjustment for chorionicity, gestational age, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, birth order, gender, and growth restriction. Perinatal outcome data were recorded for 977 patients (100%) who continued the study with both fetuses alive beyond 24 weeks, including 14 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Adjusting for gestation at delivery, twin order, gender, and growth restriction, perinatal mortality, individual morbidity, and composite perinatal morbidity were all seen to increase with birth weight discordance exceeding 18% for dichorionic pairs (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.9, Pbirth weights were appropriate for gestational age. : The threshold for birth weight discordance established by this prospective study is 18% both for dichorionic twin pairs and for monochorionic twins without twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This threshold is considerably lower than that defined by many retrospective series as pathologic. We suggest that an anticipated difference of 18% in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring.
Peng Chiong Tan
Conclusion: In women who have had prior vaginal birth attempting a trial of labor after cesarean, a vaginal delivery before cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor for repeat cesarean. Women with two or more prior vaginal births have a similar risk for repeat cesarean and neonatal admission to women with only one prior vaginal birth.
Hitzert, Marit F.; Hermus, Marieke A. A.; Boesveld, Inge I.C.; Franx, Arie; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Van Den Akker-Van Marle, Eiske M.E.
Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation
Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Franx, A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der; Steegers, E.E.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den
Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation
M.F. Hitzert (Marit); M.A.A. Hermus (Marieke A.A.); Boesveld, I.I.C. (Inge I.C.); A. Franx (Arie); K.M. van der Pal-De Bruin (Karin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Van Den Akker-Van Marle, E.M.E. (Eiske M.E.)
textabstractObjectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth. 3.209 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.209 Birth. Age or... abstract of the public record of birth. Such a record established more than 4 years after the birth will be...
... Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and ... ExpectDepo-Provera: An Injectable ContraceptiveTubal Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)Birth Control OptionsNatural Family PlanningBirth Control: How to Use ...
Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny Anne
The theory of Birth Territory describes, explains and predicts the relationships between the environment of the individual birth room, issues of power and control, and the way the woman experiences labour physiologically and emotionally. The theory was synthesised inductively from empirical data generated by the authors in their roles as midwives and researchers. It takes a critical post-structural feminist perspective and expands on some of the ideas of Michel Foucault. Theory synthesis was also informed by current research about the embodied self and the authors' scholarship in the fields of midwifery, human biology, sociology and psychology. In order to demonstrate the significance of the theory, it is applied to two clinical stories that both occur in hospital but are otherwise different. This analysis supports the central proposition that when midwives use 'midwifery guardianship' to create and maintain the ideal Birth Territory then the woman is most likely to give birth naturally, be satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post-birth period. These benefits together with the reduction in medical interventions also benefit the baby. In addition, a positive Birth Territory is posited to have a broader impact on the woman's partner, family and society in general.
Kennes, John; Knowles, John
Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...... the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers....
do Carmo Leal Maria
Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth
Becker, Charles M; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan
We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with children born to other mothers. The largest difference is between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the women involved but potentially also for their children.
Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B
Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.
Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.
After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878
Bliddal, Mette; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton
on all births in Denmark and comprises primarily of data from the Danish National Patient Registry supplemented with forms on home deliveries and stillbirths. It contains information on maternal age provided by the Civil Registration System. Information on pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking......The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used...
Beebe, Kathleen R
Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.
A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.
Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla
Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…
Full Text Available <B>Purpose:</B> The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. <B>Methods:</B> We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. <B>Results:</B> The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and >6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. <B>Conclusion:</B> The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.
Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla
In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Sabrina; Colmorn, Lotte B.; Schroll, Anne-Mette
INTRODUCTION: The safety of home births has been widely debated. Observational studies examining maternal and neonatal outcomes of home births have become more frequent, and the quality of these studies has improved. The aim of the present study was to describe neonatal outcomes of home births...... compared with hospital births and to discuss which data are needed to evaluate the safety of home births. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. Data on all births in Denmark (2003-2013) were collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (DMBR). The cohort included healthy women...... with uncomplicated pregnancies and no medical interventions during delivery. A total of 6,395 home births and 266,604 hospital births were eligible for analysis. Comparative analyses were performed separately in nulliparous and multiparous women. The outcome measures were neonatal mortality and morbidity. RESULTS...
Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.
Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Sadavarte, Vaishali S; Ashtekar, Ratna S
Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg) over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby’s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades. PMID:20922101
Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich
Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied...... programing may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings....
Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Frøkjær, Jens B
operating characteristic curves demonstrated a significantly higher performance of T2* (AUC of 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) than UtA PI (AUC of 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) in the prediction of low birth weight (p = 0.010). Placental pathological findings were closely related to the T2* values. CONCLUSIONS...... placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 100 singleton pregnancies included at 20-40 weeks......' gestation. Placental T2* was obtained using a gradient recalled multi-echo MRI sequence and UtA PI was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Placental pathological examination was performed in 57 of the pregnancies. Low birth weight was defined by a Z-score ≤ -2.0. RESULTS: The incidence of low birth weight...
Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G
UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...
birth attendants in their care of pregnant women are .... Postnatal care. The TBA normally visits any woman she has delivered during the traditional lying-in period of 8 days. She bathes the baby, gives him an enema when she considers this necessary, and offers ... instructed to kneel so that her heels press the wound edges ...
Although the exact date of birth of nuclear physics is difficult to set the author claims that 1932 was a year of great importance since it saw the discoveries of the neutron, the positron and the deuteron, together with the completion of the first particle accelerators. These breakthroughs and their crucial importance to the early development of nuclear physics are traced. (U.K.)
Martindale, Colin; Black, F. William
120 children, most with a diagnosisof chronic encephalopathy, were selected from the psychology department of a Boston hospital in this attempt to replicate Orme's findings. Results indicate a clear curvilinear relationship with modest temperatures in the birth month being associated with high IQ, while both higher and lower temperatures are…
Herrman, Judith W
To investigate teens' perceptions of the costs and rewards of teen births, potential interventions to prevent teen pregnancy, and the presence of someone with whom teens could discuss sexuality. Seventeen focus groups were conducted to solicit individual views, group interactions, and shared meanings. Purposive methods accessed a sample of teens considered at risk of teen pregnancy based on their membership in selected community service and teen groups. Teen parents and nonparents (n = 120), from 12 to 19 years of age, were asked about their lives and stresses and the costs and rewards related to teen births. This study yielded rich data about the consequences of teen births. Data were organized in the domains of Impact on relationships, Impact on vocation, and Impact on self. The data reflected the cost and reward themes in each domain. Though teens believed that there were positives of teen births, early childbearing was considered "hard" in many aspects. These perceptions may be used to guide programs, policies, messages, and curricula with the intent to prevent teen pregnancy. These initiatives may be more effective if informed by teens and guided by their perceptions.
CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort. Crossing BMI centiles and early adiposity rebound associated with adult metabolic syndrome. BMI gain in infancy and early childhood – associated more with adult lean mass. BMI gain in later childhood / adolescence – associated more with adult fat mass and constituents of ...
Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...
Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina
Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…
Mosli, R H; Miller, A L; Peterson, K E; Kaciroti, N; Rosenblum, K; Baylin, A; Lumeng, J C
This study aimed to examine the association of birth order and number and sex of siblings with overweight or obesity among 4- to 8-year-olds. This is a cross-sectional study involving 273 low-income mother-child dyads. Questionnaires and anthropometry were completed. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of birth order, having younger siblings, having older siblings, having at least one brother and having at least one sister with odds of overweight or obesity. Analyses were repeated to additionally include non-biological siblings. Models were adjusted for potential confounders and intermediate variables. Prevalence of child overweight or obesity was 42.5%. Adjusting for covariates, only children and youngest siblings had higher odds of overweight or obesity compared with oldest siblings (odds ratio [OR]: 4.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67, 10.46 and OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.41, 7.33, respectively). Having one or more younger siblings and having at least one brother were associated with lower odds (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.69 and OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.81, respectively). Including non-biological siblings did not meaningfully change the associations. Birth order and sibship composition are associated with overweight or obesity among 4- to 8-year-olds. Future studies identifying the underlying behavioural mechanism can help inform family-based intervention programmes. © 2015 World Obesity.
Crowther, Susan; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Deb
this literature review examines the experience of joy at birth and what that joy means. The premise is that the whole of the birthing experience has not been fully explicated in the literature and that something of significance remains unexplored and unspoken. It is argued that a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to reviewing literature provides unique insights and leads to deeper understandings about birth and the experience of joy that attunes at that moment. the philosophical underpinnings informed by Heidegger and Gadamer are central to this review and therefore the process of reviewing literature hermeneutically is described. Heideggerian phenomenology is used as the method to ask the questions of the literature in order that concealed and hidden experiences of joy at birth are made visible where they are gleaned from the literature. A hermeneutic lens is used to uncover relationships within the phenomenon of joy at birth and meaning. although a vast birth literature was reviewed joy at birth was often ignored, hidden or covered over. Reviewing the literature on relationships, professional presence, place of birth, birth satisfaction studies and birth as peak and spiritual experience provides glimpses of the phenomenon 'joy at birth'. it is argued that joy at birth remains largely neglected as a phenomenon worthy of consideration. Plausible interpretations are presented that suggest that joy at birth points to something significant and meaningful. Spiritual and sacred meaning is alluded to in the papers reviewed yet the majority of papers that investigate birth leave this meaning unspoken. The review highlights a need for further thinking and questioning about birth that would direct on-going investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an ‘obstetric dilemma’ whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate. PMID:25602069
Deswal B S
Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as â€˜casesâ€ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in â€˜controlâ€ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.
Martel, Marie-Jocelyne; MacKinnon, Catherine Jane
To provide evidence-based guidelines for the provision of a trial of labour (TOL) after Caesarean section. Fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) and repeat Caesarean section. MEDLINE database was searched for articles published from January 1, 1995, to February 28, 2004, using the key words "vaginal birth after Caesarean (Cesarean) section." The quality of evidence is described using the Evaluation of Evidence criteria outlined in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. VALIDATION: These guidelines were approved by the Clinical Practice Obstetrics and Executive Committees of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs
Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...
Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; Afzal, Rafia; Iqbal, Umair; Saleem, Sehrish Muhammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Waqas Abid; Shahid, Nazish
Birth asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn due to failure to breath or breathing poorly, leads to decrease oxygen perfusion to various organs. According to WHO, 4 million neonatal deaths occurred each year due to birth asphyxia. Our goal was to evaluate antepartum, intrapartum, and fetal risk factors of birth asphyxia. It was a Retrospective Case control study, conducted at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of pediatric ward (I, II, III) and in Gynecology wards (I, II, III) of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. Study was conducted from January 2011-November 2012. Neonates diagnosed with birth asphyxia were considered as "cases" while neonates born either with normal vaginal delivery or by cesarean section having no abnormality were considered as "control". Demographics of both the mother and neonate were noted and Questions regarding possible risk factors were asked from mother. Ethical issues were confirmed from Institutional review board of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Out of total 240 neonates, 123 were "cases" and 117 were "control". Mean maternal age in "case" group was 24.22 ± 3.38 while maternal age of control group was 24.30 ± 4.04. Significant antepartum risk factors were maternal age of 20-25 (OR 0.30 CI 95% 0.07-1.21), booking status (OR 0.20 CI 95% 0.11-0.37), pre-eclampsia (OR 0.94 CI 95% 0.90-0.98) and primigravidity (OR 2.64 CI 95% 1.56-4.46). Significant Intrapartum risk factors were breech presentation (OR 2.96 CI 95% 1.25-7.02), home delivery (OR 16.16 CI 95% 3.74-69.75) and maternal fever (OR 10.01 CI95% 3.78-26.52). Significant Fetal risk factors were resuscitation of child (OR 23 CI 95% 31.27-1720.74), pre-term babies(OR 0.34 CI 95% 0.19-0.58), fetal distress (OR 0.01 CI 95% 0.00-0.11) and baby weight (OR 0.13 CI 95% 0.05-0.32). Measures should be taken to prevent neonatal mortality with great emphasis on skilled attendance at birth
Fleming, Susan E; Donovan-Batson, Colleen; Burduli, Ekaterina; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Martin, Colin R
to explore the prevalence of birth satisfaction for childbearing women planning to birth in their home or birth centers in the United States. Examining differences in birth satisfaction of the home and birth centers; and those who birthed in a hospital using the 30-item Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and the 10-item Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R). a quantitative survey using the BSS and BSS-R were employed. Additional demographic data were collected using electronic linkages (Qualtrics ™ ). a convenience sample of childbearing women (n=2229) who had planned to birth in their home or birth center from the US (United States) participated. Participants were recruited via professional and personal contacts, primarily their midwives. the total 30-item BSS score mean was 128.98 (SD 16.92) and the 10-item BSS-R mean score was 31.94 (SD 6.75). Sub-scale mean scores quantified the quality of care provision, women's personal attributes, and stress experienced during labour. Satisfaction was higher for women with vaginal births compared with caesareans deliveries. In addition, satisfaction was higher for women who had both planned to deliver in a home or a birth centre, and who had actually delivered in a home or a birth center. total and subscale birth satisfaction scores were positive and high for the overall sample IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the BSS and the BSS-R provide a robust tool to quantify women's experiences of childbirth between variables such as birth types, birth settings and providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This work focuses on the largest text from the Ancient Greek Atomists - Lucretius' De Rerum Natura - and mobilizes knowledge about the related scientific work of the time (Archimedes, Epicurus et al) in order to demand a complete reappraisal of the legacy. Serres argues that the Greeks had all the mathematical resources to formulate an adequate picture of the physical principles acting on matter. Crucial to his reconception of the Atomists' thought is a recognition that their model of atomic matter is essentially a fluid one - they are describing the actions of turbulence. Recognition of this fact throws in relief the force of this ancient thought with respect to the disciplines of chaos and complexity. It explains the continuing presence of Lucretius in the work of such scientific giants as Nobel Laureates Schroedinger and Prigogine.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall...
Hitzert, M.; Hermes, M.A.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, L.C.; Wiegers, T.A.; Akker-van Marle, M.E.; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. de; Graaf, J.P. de
Objective to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ
Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, I.C.; Wiegers, T.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graal, J. P. de
Objective: to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design: this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ
van Doorn, Erik A.
We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis
Prinds, Christina Lange
Background: The moment of birth is seen as a miracle, a journey and even a religious act. Research stress how giving birth might facilitate interference with previous conceptions of how to make meaning of life existentially. However, birth as an existential life transformative event, has been exp...
Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios
Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn
and infant health) of a variety of exposures during pregnancy, as well as examples showing different methodological approaches in design and analyses of the studies, are presented. RESEARCH TOPICS: The exposures of interest include alcohol drinking, coffee intake, smoking, use of nicotine substitutes...... that this investment in epidemiologic infrastructure was well spent. The existence of the Danish National Birth Cohort together with other cohorts and national registers has given Denmark a leading position in reproductive epidemiology....
David M. Olson
Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.
Stewart, J.; Beyer, B. K.; Chadwick, K.; De Schaepdrijver, L.; Desai, M.; Enright, B.; Foster, W.; Hui, J. Y.; Moffat, G. J.; Tornesi, B.; Van Malderen, K.; Wiesner, L.; Chen, C. L.
The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee sponsored a pharmaceutical industry survey on current industry practices for contraception use during clinical trials. The objectives of the survey were to improve our understanding of the current industry practices for contraception requirements in clinical trials, the governance processes set up to promote consistency and/or compliance with contraception requirements, and the effectiveness of current contraception practices in preventing pregnancies during clinical trials. Opportunities for improvements in current practices were also considered. The survey results from 12 pharmaceutical companies identified significant variability among companies with regard to contraception practices and governance during clinical trials. This variability was due primarily to differences in definitions, areas of scientific uncertainty or misunderstanding, and differences in company approaches to enrollment in clinical trials. The survey also revealed that few companies collected data in a manner that would allow a retrospective understanding of the reasons for failure of birth control during clinical trials. In this article, suggestions are made for topics where regulatory guidance or scientific publications could facilitate best practice. These include provisions for a pragmatic definition of women of childbearing potential, guidance on how animal data can influence the requirements for male and female birth control, evidence-based guidance on birth control and pregnancy testing regimes suitable for low- and high-risk situations, plus practical methods to ascertain the risk of drug-drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives. PMID:27042398
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The space and time distribution of risk factors for allergic diseases may provide insights into disease mechanisms. Allergy is believed to vary by month of birth, but multinational studies taking into account latitude have not been conducted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A questionnaire was distributed in 54 centres to a representative sample of 20- to 44-y-old men and women mainly in Europe but also including regions in North Africa, India, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from 200,682 participants were analyzed. The median prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 22%, with a substantial variation across centres. Overall, allergic rhinitis decreased with geographical latitude, but there were many exceptions. No increase in prevalence during certain winters could be observed. Also, no altered risk by birth month was found, except borderline reduced risks in September and October. Effect estimates obtained by a multivariate analysis of total and specific IgE values in 18,085 individuals also excluded major birth month effects and confirmed the independent effect of language grouping. CONCLUSION: Neither time point of first exposure to certain allergens nor early infections during winter months seems to be a major factor for adult allergy. Although there might be effects of climate or environmental UV exposure by latitude, influences within language groups seem to be more important, reflecting so far unknown genetic or cultural risk factors.
The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way.
Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, Mehmet T
Birth characteristics such as birth order, birth weight, birth defects, and Down syndrome showed some of the first risk associations with childhood leukemia. Examinations of correlations between birth characteristics and leukemia risk markers have been limited to birth weight-related genetic polymorphisms. We integrated information on nongenetic and genetic markers by evaluating the relationship of birth characteristics, genetic markers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, and ALL risk together. The multiethnic study consisted of cases with childhood ALL (n=161) and healthy controls (n=261). Birth characteristic data were collected through questionnaires, and genotyping was achieved by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed risk associations for birth weight over 4000 g (odds ratios [OR]=1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.19), birth length (OR=1.18 per inch; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), and with gestational age (OR=1.10 per week; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). Only the HFE tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9366637 showed an inverse correlation with a birth characteristic, gestational age, with a gene-dosage effect (P=0.005), and in interaction with a transferrin receptor rs3817672 genotype (Pinteraction=0.05). This correlation translated into a strong association for rs9366637 with preterm birth (OR=5.0; 95% CI, 1.19-20.9). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of prenatal events in the development of childhood ALL. The inverse correlation of rs9366637 with gestational age has implications on the design of HFE association studies in birth weight and childhood conditions using full-term newborns as controls.
Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.
Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi
Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated i...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks.......Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...
Liberman, Rebecca F; Getz, Kelly D; Heinke, Dominique; Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Declercq, Eugene R; Chen, Xiaoli; Lin, Angela E; Anderka, Marlene
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with birth defects, but the contributions of multiple births and underlying subfertility remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of subfertility and mediation by multiple births on associations between ART and nonchromosomal birth defects. We identified a retrospective cohort of Massachusetts live births and stillbirths from 2004 to 2010 among ART-exposed, ART-unexposed subfertile, and fertile mothers using linked information from fertility clinics, vital records, hospital discharges, and birth defects surveillance. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mediation analyses were performed to deconstruct the ART-birth defects association into the direct effect of ART, the indirect effect of multiple births, and the effect of ART-multiples interaction. Of 17,829 ART-exposed births, 355 had a birth defect, compared with 162 of 9431 births to subfertile mothers and 6183 of 445,080 births to fertile mothers. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6) for ART and 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) in subfertile compared with fertile deliveries. We observed elevated rates of several birth defects with ART, including tetralogy of Fallot and hypospadias. Subfertility and multiple births affect these associations, with multiple births explaining 36% of the relative effect of ART on nonchromosomal birth defects. Although the risk of birth defects with ART is small, a substantial portion of the relative effect is mediated through multiple births, with subfertility contributing an important role. Future research is needed to determine the impact of newer techniques, such as single embryo transfer, on these risks. Birth Defects Research 109:1144-1153, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C
1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.
Howe, L D; Hallal, P C; Matijasevich, A; Wells, J C; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Lawlor, D A; Victora, C G; Smith, G D
Previous studies have found greater adiposity and cardiovascular risk in first born children. The causality of this association is not clear. Examining the association in diverse populations may lead to improved insight. We examine the association between birth order and body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in the 2004 Pelotas cohort from southern Brazil and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) from Bristol, south-west England, restricting analysis to families with two children in order to remove confounding by family size. No consistent differences in BMI, SBP or DBP were observed comparing first and second born children. Within the Pelotas 2004 cohort, first born females were thinner, with lower SBP and DBP; for example, mean difference in SBP comparing first with second born was -0.979 (95% confidence interval -2.901 to 0.943). In ALSPAC, first born females had higher BMI, SBP and DBP. In both cohorts, associations tended to be in the opposite direction in males, although no statistical evidence for gender interactions was found. The findings do not support an association between birth order and BMI or blood pressure. Differences to previous studies may be explained by differences in populations and/or confounding by family size in previous studies.
Smith, Gordon C S; Fleming, Kate M; White, Ian R
To determine the effect of birth order on the risk of perinatal death in twin pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, 1994-2003. 1377 twin pregnancies with one intrapartum stillbirth or neonatal death from causes other than congenital abnormality and one surviving infant. The risk of perinatal death in the first and second twin estimated with conditional logistic regression. There was no association between birth order and the risk of death overall (odds ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.1). However, there was a highly significant interaction with gestational age (Pbirth order and the risk of death among infants born before 36 weeks' gestation but there was an increased risk of death among second twins born at term (2.3, 1.7 to 3.2, Pbirths, there was a trend (P=0.1) towards a greater risk of the second twin dying from anoxia among those delivered vaginally (4.1, 1.8 to 9.5) compared with those delivered by caesarean section (1.8, 0.9 to 3.6). In this cohort, compared with first twins, second twins born at term were at increased risk of perinatal death related to delivery. Vaginally delivered second twins had a fourfold risk of death caused by intrapartum anoxia.
"There is, indeed, little doubt,” the formidable scholar James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps confidently explained to the Victorian readers of his Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare, “that the Birth-place did not become one of the incentives for pilgrimage until public attention had been specially directed to it at the time of the Jubilee.” That's broadly true. The earliest reference to the three-gabled, half-timbered house (two houses, originally) on Henley Street in Stratford-upon-Avon as th...
Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).
Kataoka, Yaeko; Eto, Hiromi; Iida, Mariko
the objective of this study was to describe and compare perinatal and neonatal outcomes of women who received care from independent midwives practicing home births and at birth centres in Tokyo. a retrospective cohort study. birth centres and homes serviced by independent midwives in Tokyo. of the 43 eligible independent midwives 19 (44%) (10 assisted birth at birth centres, nine assisted home birth) participated in the study. A total of 5477 women received care during their pregnancy and gave birth assisted by these midwives between 2001 and 2006. researchers conducted a retrospective chart review of women's individual data. Collected data included demographic characteristics, process of pregnancy and perinatal and neonatal outcomes. We also collected data about independent midwives and their practice. of the 5477 women, 83.9% gave birth at birth centres and 16.1% gave birth at home. The average age was 31.7 years old and the majority (70.6%) were multiparas. All women had vaginal spontaneous deliveries, with no vacuum, forceps or caesarean section interventions. No maternal fatalities were reported, nor were breech or multiple births. The average duration of the first and second stages of labour was 14.9 hours for primiparas and 6.2 hours for multiparas. Most women (97.1%) gave birth within 24 hours of membrane rupture. Maternal position during labour varied and family attended birth was common. The average blood loss was 371.3mL, while blood loss over 500mL was 22.6% and over 1000mL was 3.6%. Nearly 60% of women had intact perinea. There were few preterm births (0.6%) and post mature births (1.3%). Infant's average birth weight was 3126g and 0.5% were low-birthweight-infants, while 3.3% had macrosomia. Among primiparas, the birth centre group had more women experiencing an excess of 500mL blood loss compared to the home birth group (27.2% versus 17.6% respectively; RR 1.54; 95%CI 1.10 to 2.16). Multiparas delivering at birth centres were more likely to have a
This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.
maturity of the neonate and health status of the mother. It is also an important determinant of prenatal mortality, it is known to increase with successive birth order up to the fourth or fifth rank in other words, and babies tend to outweigh their immediate elder siblings. The birth weight of a newborn infant is influenced by various ...
Rodriguez, Maria I; Chang, Richard; Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike
Family planning is recommended as a strategy to prevent adverse birth outcomes. The potential contribution of postpartum contraceptive coverage to reducing rates of preterm birth is unknown. In this study, we examine the impact of contraceptive coverage and use within 18 months of a birth on preventing preterm birth in a Californian cohort. We identified records for second or higher-order births among women from California's 2011 Birth Statistical Master File and their prior births from earlier Birth Statistical Master Files. To identify women who received contraceptive services from publicly funded programs, we applied a probabilistic linking methodology to match birth files with enrollment records for women with Medi-Cal or Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment Program (PACT) claims. The length of contraceptive coverage was determined through applying an algorithm based on the specified method and the quantity dispensed. Preterm birth was defined as a birth occurring birth using subcategories defined by the World Health Organization: extremely preterm (birth and control for key covariates. The cohort consisted of 111,948 women who were seen at least once by a Medi-Cal or Family PACT provider within 18 months of delivery. Of the cohort, 9.75% had a preterm birth. Contraceptive coverage was found to be protective against preterm birth. For every month of contraceptive coverage, odds of a preterm birth confidence interval, 0.986-0.993). Improving postpartum contraceptive use has the potential to reduce preterm births. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Cederlöf, Linnea; Widén, Sara
The aim was to identify the proportion of fathers having a positive experience of a normal birth and to explore factors related to midwifery care that were associated with a positive experience. Research has mainly focused on the father's supportive role during childbirth rather than his personal experiences of birth. 595 new fathers living in a northern part of Sweden, whose partner had a normal birth, were included in the study. Data was collected by questionnaires. Odds Ratios with 95% confidence interval and logistic regression analysis were used. The majority of fathers (82%) reported a positive birth experience. The strongest factors associated with a positive birth experience were midwife support (OR 4.0; 95 CI 2.0-8.1), the midwife's ongoing presence in the delivery room (OR 2.0; 1.1-3.9), and information about the progress of labour (OR 3.1; 1.6-5.8). Most fathers had a positive birth experience. Midwifery support, the midwife's presence and sufficient information about the progress of labour are important aspects in a father's positive birth experience. The role of the midwife during birth is important to the father, and his individual needs should be considered in order to enhance a positive birth experience. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy
In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women's confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during primary and secondary education, as an alternative to mass-mediated information about birth, can be evaluated as an approach to reduce young women's childbirth fear.
Garel, M; Charlemaine, E; Blondel, B
Since the mid 1970s, the number of multiple births has dramatically increased in our country and most European countries. This paper summarizes the psychological consequences of multiple births based on a review of the literature and on our clinical experience. During pregnancy mothers experience great physical problems linked with increased medical risks for themselves and for the children. These risks cause psychological difficulties: hospitalisation and separation from the family, fear of a premature delivery and anxiety for the children. After delivery the children are often hospitalized, which makes the attachment process difficult. The mortality of multiple children is high and mourning for one child creates particular problems for parents who simultaneously face grieving and attachment processes. After hospital discharge, the overload of work mothers experience leads to physical and nervous fatigue, which does not make easier individual relationship with the children. Mothers have a high level of psychological vulnerability and an increased risk of depression. The satisfactory development of each twin or triplet child requires individualized relationship with his/her mother and his/her father. That is how he/she will be able to build his/her identity and future autonomy. It is important to be aware of the problems experienced by the families and to improve the way material help and psychological support are provided to them.
Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...
Background: The moment of birth is seen as a miracle, a journey and even a religious act. Research stress how giving birth might facilitate interference with previous conceptions of how to make meaning of life existentially. However, birth as an existential life transformative event, has been...... explored only briefly in empirical research. The aim of this study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore how first-time mothers experienced their first birth in relation to existential meaning-making. Secondly, to describe the relationship between considerations related to existential meaning-making and time...... of birth. Method: The study was based on a nationwide questionnaire, conducted among Danish first time mothers, who had given birth either preterm or full-term (n=517). The questionnaire consisted of 46 overall items. Eight core items were analysed in this study. Findings Preliminary findings show that new...
Full Text Available Sub–Saharan Africa and Southern Asia lag behind other regions in the provision of antenatal care and skilled attendance at birth (although typically attended by a family member or villager and over 32 million of the 40 million births not attended by skilled health personnel in 2012 occurred in rural areas. Overall, one–quarter of women in developing nations still birth alone or with a relative to assist them.
Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell
Although it remains rare in the United States, planned home birth has drawn increasing attention and criticism in the mainstream media and has come under attack from organized medicine. Yet, recent peer-reviewed studies contribute to the evidence base supporting home birth as a safe option for low-risk women attended by skilled midwives. The author of this editorial argues that home birth is an important cultural touchstone in the landscape of American maternity care.
Secher, Niels Jørgen
A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....
Murguía-González, Alejandrina; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Nava-Bermea, Manuel
The proper prenatal care for pregnant women is crucial to quickly identify risk factors for birth trauma. To identify risk factors for neonatal birth trauma. Case-control study that included a patient in the case group for every two controls. The following risk factors were identified: cephalopelvic disproportion, macrosomia, use of forceps, precipitated or prolonged labor, malpresentation, and the most common types of birth trauma. We used descriptive statistics and odds ratios. Statistically significant risk factors for birth trauma were: maternal age or = 30 years (OR = 2.5), first pregnancy (OR = 4.0), cephalopelvic disproportion (OR = 8.3), forceps delivery (OR = 9.4), birth weight greater than 3,800 g (OR = 6.6), and non-cephalic presentation (OR = 8.3). Found birth trauma types were: ecchymosis (40.4%), caput succedaneum (25%), erosion (15.4%), clavicle fracture (5.9%), brachial plexus paralysis (4.7%), inter alia. The perinatal outcome of 79 infants with birth trauma were compared to 158 healthy newborns. Risk factors associated with birth injuries were: Maternal (age, pregnancy), newborn (weight), and birth care (presentation, instrumentation and pelvic sufficiency).
Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A
Preterm birth is a complex disorder with a heritable genetic component. Studies of primarily White women born preterm show that they have an increased risk of subsequently delivering preterm. This risk of intergenerational preterm birth is poorly defined among Black women. Our objective was to evaluate and compare intergenerational preterm birth risk among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study, using the Virginia Intergenerational Linked Birth File. All non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers born in Virginia 1960 through 1996 who delivered their first live-born, nonanomalous, singleton infant ≥20 weeks from 2005 through 2009 were included. We assessed the overall gestational age distribution between non-Hispanic Black and White mothers born term and preterm (preterm (preterm birth, 34-36 weeks; and early preterm birth, preterm birth among all eligible births; and (2) suspected spontaneous preterm birth among births to women with medical complications (eg, diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia and thus higher risk for a medically indicated preterm birth). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth by maternal race and maternal gestational age after adjusting for confounders including maternal education, maternal age, smoking, drug/alcohol use, and infant gender. Of 173,822 deliveries captured in the intergenerational birth cohort, 71,676 (41.2%) women met inclusion criteria for this study. Of the entire cohort, 30.0% (n = 21,467) were non-Hispanic Black and 70.0% were non-Hispanic White mothers. Compared to non-Hispanic White mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have been born late preterm (6.8% vs 3.7%) or early preterm (2.8 vs 1.0%), P preterm were not at an increased risk of early or late preterm delivery compared to non-Hispanic White mothers born term. The risk of early preterm birth was most
Micali, N.; Larsen, P. Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, K.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eating disorders are associated with lower size at birth, symmetric growth restriction, and preterm birth; and whether pregnancy smoking explains the association between anorexia nervosa and fetal growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING...
Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.
Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation
Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian
predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...
Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.
Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control group was randomly selected from the cases with normal live births. Blood tests were performed for children suspected to suffer from genetic blood disorders. The principal BD as per the ...
Birth to Ten' is a birth cohort study currently being conducted in the Johannesburg-Soweto area. This paper describes the various pilot studies that were undertaken to investigate the feasibility of a cohort study in an urban area. These studies were designed to determine the monthly birth rate, the timing, frequency and ...
Adverse birth outcomes including low birth-weight and preterm birth are associated with long-term morbidity and health consequences at adult ages. Molecular mechanisms including epigenetic modification may have been involved in the adaptation to the stressful condition in peridelivery period whic...
DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
The analysis of a birth-death process using the z-transform was recently reported for processes hav- ing fixed transition probabilities ... model can be used to study practical queuing and birth-death systems where the arrival, birth, ser- vice and death rates may ..... John-Wiley & Sons, New York. Krogh, A., Brown, M. Mian, ...
Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill
In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...
Luquetti, Daniela Varela; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge
The aim of this study was to evaluate the coverage, validity and reliability of Brazil's Information System on Live Births (SINASC) for birth defects in a hospital in the city of Campinas (São Paulo State). The study population consisted of 2,823 newborn infants delivered in 2004 at the Women's Integrated Health Care Center (CAISM). A birth defect registry (ECLAMC) was used as the gold-standard. All birth defect cases reported at CAISM in 2004 (92 cases) were selected from SINASC data files. All 168 birth defect cases from the same city and year registered at ECLAMC were also retrieved. An underreporting of 46.8% was observed for all birth defects, and 36.4% when considering only the major birth defects. The ascertained sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 54.2% and 99.8%. The reliability of three and four-digit ICD-10 coding for birth defects was 0.77 and 0.55 respectively (kappa statistic). These results suggest that information provided by birth certificates in Campinas still presents limitations when seeking to ascertain accurate estimates of the prevalence of birth defects, hence indicating the need for improvements in the SINASC database to enable it to portray birth defect prevalence at birth in this city.
Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik
Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....
Meltem Daysal, N.; Trandafir, M.; van Ewijk, R.
Abstract: Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for
Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink
Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...
Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel
In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him. PMID:25364215
Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ
This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association
Sanders, Raymond S.; And Others
A one-year project on birth control education that used students as birth control educators was initiated to increase student awareness of the need for contraception. Support for this method of disseminating information was demonstrated. The project facilitated student use of the Gynecological Clinic of the Student Health Center. (Author)
... gov/ency/presentations/100107.htm Barrier methods of birth control - series—Female normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Birth Control A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...
Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.
This article examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to nonfamily services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing nonfamily activities and…
Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July......Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July...
Secher, Niels Jørgen
A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...
van Doorn, Erik A.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.
We present a survey of techniques for analysing the performance of a reservoir which receives and releases fluid at rates which are determined by the state of a background birth-death process. The reservoir is assumed to be infinitely large, but the state space of the modulating birth-death process
... Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and ... TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Vasectomy: What to ExpectProgestin-Only ... Control PillsDepo-Provera: An Injectable ContraceptiveTubal Sterilization (Tubal ...
Swift, Emma Marie; Gottfredsdottir, Helga; Zoega, Helga; Gross, Mechthild M; Stoll, Kathrin
To describe and analyse factors associated with natural birth intentions in a sample of pre-pregnant Icelandic women. An internationally validated tool was used to survey pre-pregnant women about their attitudes towards birth. The online survey was sent to all students at the University of Iceland in November 2014. Log binomial regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR a ), and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), for intentions of natural birth (defined as vaginal birth without epidural analgesia) by high, moderate and low childbirth fear and by high, moderate and low confidence in birth knowledge. Models were adjusted for socio-demographic and psychological factors. 410 eligible women completed the cross-sectional survey. Women with low fear of birth were more likely to have natural birth intentions when compared to women with moderate (RR a = 2.83; 95% CI; 1.48-5.41) and high (RR a = 4.86; 95% CI; 1.37-17.27) fear. Women with high confidence in their birth knowledge were more likely to have natural birth intentions compared to women with moderate (RR a = 2.81; 95% CI; 1.51-5.22) and low (RR a = 3.42; 95% CI; 1.43-8.18) confidence in their birth knowledge. Pre-pregnant women with low fear of birth and high confidence in their birth knowledge are more likely to have natural birth intentions. Addressing concerns about pain, safety, the perceived unpredictability of birth and worries about the physical impact of childbirth may strengthen natural birth intentions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
. While there is continued efforts to determine factors associated, there would be need to examine if birth order influences its prevalence. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among ...
) in order to determine occupational risk ... KEYWORDS: HIV, Traditional birth attendants, occupational risk factors, Zambia. [Afr J Health Sci. 2010; 17:5-9] ... + 5% and a confidence level of 95%, the required minimum sample would have been ...
Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.
Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla
Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil
Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...
Accompaniment by a birth companion and saving money were considered the most useful planning steps. Knowledge of danger signs was associated with birth and emergency planning, and birth and emergency planning was associated with reported birth outcome. Birth and emergency planning as a critical component of ...
Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik
One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.
Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio
Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o gênero e a ordem de nascimento como variáveis moderadoras das práticas educativas parentais e da percepção da preferência parental a partir do ponto de vista dos filhos. Participaram da pesquisa 322 adolescentes entre 13 e 17 anos. Foram utilizados dois instrumentos para a coleta de dados: Inventário de Estilos Parentais (IEP e um questionário desenvolvido pelos autores. Os dados foram analisados através da estatística não-paramétrica (Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. Através da análise dos resultados, constatou-se que: (a o gênero dos filhos interfere significativamente nos índices de estilo parental; (b as primogênitas apresentaram significativamente maior risco de sofrer com as práticas parentais negativas e (c a percepção da preferência parental é influenciada pelo gênero e ordem de nascimento dos filhos.This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.
Crowther, Susan; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Deb
there is something extraordinary in the lived experience of being there at the time of birth. Yet the meaning and significance of this special time, named Kairos time in this paper, have received little attention. to describe the lived-experience of Kairos time at birth and surface its meaning. this is an interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology study informed by the writings of Heidegger and Gadamer. 14 in-depth interviews with mothers, birth partners, midwives and obstetricians were transcribed and stories from the data were hermeneutically analysed. there is a time, like no other, at the moment of birth that is widely known and valued. This paper reveals and names this phenomenon Kairos time. This is a felt-time that is lineal, process and cyclic time and more. Kairos time describes an existential temporal experience that is rich in significant sacred meaning; a time of emergent insight rarely spoken about in practice yet touches everyone present. The notion of Kairos time in relation to the moment of birth is introduced as a reminder of something significant that matters. Kairos time is revealed as a moment in and beyond time. It has a temporal enigmatic mystery involving spiritual connectedness. Kairos time is a time of knowing and remembrance of our shared natality. In this time life is disclosed as extraordinary and beyond everyday personal and professional concerns. It is all this and more. Kairos time at birth is precious and powerful yet vulnerable. It needs to be safeguarded to ensure its presence continues to emerge. This means maternity care providers and others at birth need to shelter and protect Kairos time from the sometimes harsh realities of birth and the potentially insensitive ways of being there at the moments of birth. Those who find themselves at birth need to pause and allow the profundity of its meaning to surface and inspire their actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Igarashi, Toshiko; Wakita, Mariko; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Nakayama, Takeo
midwifery homes (similar to birth centres) are rich in midwifery wisdom and skills that differ from those in hospital obstetrical departments, and a certain percentage of pregnant women prefer birth in these settings. This study aimed to understand the organisation of the perinatal environment considered important by independent midwives in non-hospital settings and to clarify the processes involved. semi-structured qualitative interview study and constant comparative analysis. 14 independent midwives assisting at births in midwifery homes in Japan, and six independent midwives assisting at home births. Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, and Shiga, Japan. midwives assisting at non-hospital births organised the birth environment based on the following four categories: 'an environment where the mother and family are autonomous'; 'a physical environment that facilitates birth'; 'an environment that facilitates the movement of the mother for birth'; and 'scrupulous safety preparation'. These, along with their sub-categories, are presented in this paper. independent midwives considered it important to create a candid relationship between the midwife and the woman/family from the period of pregnancy to facilitate birth in which the woman and her family were autonomous. They also organised a distinctive environment for non-hospital birth, with preparations to guarantee safety. Experiential knowledge and skills played a major part in creating an environment to facilitate birth, and the effectiveness of this needs to be investigated objectively in future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine's Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth, and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r = 0.115, p history of disease during pregnancy (p computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p computers during pregnancy (p computers may have an effect on pre-term birth.
Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Jeff
Examines the relationship between barriers to using birth control and actual use of birth control among Mexican American adolescents (N=26,666). Results show that nonusers had significantly higher barrier scores compared with users of birth control. These results indicate that attitudes toward birth control are associated with actual birth control…
The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack.
... Guide Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth Print Email Ultrasound examinations are often done as ... What causes urinary tract abnormalities to occur before birth? In about one of 500 births, some abnormality ...
... Email Print How do health care providers diagnose birth defects? Diagnosis of birth defects depends on the specific problem and parts ... a physical examination of the baby immediately after birth. For other conditions, newborn screening or prenatal testing ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The birth outcomes of undocumented women have not been systematically studied on a large scale. The growing number of undocumented women giving birth in the United States has important implications for clinical care and public health policy. The objective of this study was to describe birth outcomes of undocumented immigrants in Colorado. Methods Retrospective descriptive study of singleton births to 5961 undocumented women using birth certificate data for 1998–1999. Results Undocumented mothers were younger, less educated, and more likely to be single. They had higher rates of anemia, were less likely to gain enough weight, and less likely to receive early prenatal care. They were much less likely to use alcohol or tobacco. Undocumented women had a lower rate of low birth weight (5.3% v 6.5%, P Conclusion Undocumented women have lower rates of preterm delivery and low birth weight infants, but higher rates of pregnancy related risk factors. Higher prevalence of some risk factors which are amenable to medical intervention reveals the need for improved prenatal care in this group.
Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.
Basha, Asma; Amarin, Zouhair; Abu-Hassan, Freih
To assess the incidence and outcome of neonatal long-bone fractures at a tertiary teaching hospital. A retrospective study of all neonates with long-bone fractures delivered at Jordan University Hospital between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. Among a total of 34 519 live births, 8 neonates had a long-bone fracture (incidence 0.23/1000 live births); of these, 6 had a femur fracture (0.17/1000 live births) and 2 had a humerus fracture (0.05/1000 live births). The route of delivery was emergency cesarean delivery for 6 infants, elective cesarean delivery for 1 infant, and the vaginal route for 1 infant. The mean birth weight was 2723g. All neonates weighed more than 2200g and their gestational age was more than 35weeks, with the exception of 1 neonate born at 31weeks weighing 1500g. The mean time interval from birth to fracture diagnosis was 1.5days. All fractures healed with no residual deformity. Emergency cesarean delivery carries a higher risk of long-bone fracture than vaginal delivery. Prematurity, malpresentation, abnormal lie, and multiple pregnancies may predispose to long-bone fractures. The prognosis of birth-associated long-bone fractures is good. © 2013.
Full Text Available Background: Neonate with abnormal weight is at risk of increased mortality and morbidity. Many factors affect pregnancy outcome. Because of the importance and vital role in birth weight, in this study, some of the factors associated with birth weight in a sample of Iranians neonates were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 245 newborns in a sample of Iranians neonates in the year 2013 were selected, and characteristics of neonate and their mothers were derived. Birth weights were registered by the neonatal scale. To identify the direct and indirect factors affecting birth weight, we used path analysis (PA and IBM AMOS and SPSS software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of weight in girls (3200 ± 421 g less than boys (3310 ± 444 g significantly (P = 0.04. Gestational age (P < 0.001, birth rank (P = 0.012, distance from a previous pregnancy (P = 0.028, and mother weight (P = 0.04 had a statistical significant relationship with birth weight. In the final PA model, gestational age has a highest total effect, type of delivery with gestational age-mediated had the highest indirect effect and type of delivery, and gestational age had the greatest total impact on the birth weight. Conclusion: Gestational age, sex, distance from a previous pregnancy, maternal weight, type of delivery, number of abortion, and birth rank were related with birth weight. Due to the termination of pregnancy and avoid unnecessary deliveries through cesarean section and other related factors should be further consideration by childbirth experts. In addition, factors affecting these variables are carefully identified and prevented as much as possible.
Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt
by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...... increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...
Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight and preterm birth are the major community health problems in developing countries. They are the major determinants of perinatal survival and infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and the maternal risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital deliveries in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Maternal risk factors like age, parity, ethnicity, history of previous abortion, history of previous cesarean section, antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were studied. Information on all births that occurred was extracted from maternity case notes and delivery registers. Results: During the study period, there were 685 singleton live births. Among these 78(11.4% were low birth weight and 47(6.9% were preterm birth. The mean birth weight was 2950±488 gm. The mean weight of female was statistically less compared to male babies (p=0.032. The signi cant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.25-3.58, Indo-Aryan ethnicity (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.12-3.45 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.08; 95%CI 1.17-8.12. As for PTB antepartum hemorrhage (OR 8.63; 95%CI 1.99-37.30 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.04-.89 were signi cant risk factors. Conclusions: Parity, ethnicity, and medical disorders were the main risk factors for low birth weight. Antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were signi cant risk factors for preterm birth. Keywords: low birth weight; preterm birth; risk factors.
"Life after Birth" considers the relationship between the Ku Klux Klan and cinema during the 1920s, highlighting how the Klan used, produced and protested against film in order to recruit members, generate publicity, and define itself as a traditional Protestant American organisation. In my opening chapter I reassess the significance of The Birth of a Nation in the development of the Klan, and introduce a number of other overlooked films, such as The Face at Your Window that Kleagles (Klan re...
... attend the birth. Some family doctors also offer prenatal care and deliver babies. Anesthesia, if needed, will be administered by an anesthesiologist . A variety of pain-control measures — including pain medicine and local, epidural , and ...
INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...
... also find sample birth plans and templates in books and websites for pregnant moms. Even if you ... Hawkins JL, Bucklin BA. Obstetrical anesthesia. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl ... Pregnancies. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...
Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne
BACKGROUND: There is concern about the safety of homebirths, especially in women transferred to hospital during or after labour. The scope of transfer in planned home births has not been assessed in a systematic review. This review aimed to describe the proportions and indications for transfer from...... home to hospital during or after labour in planned home births. METHODS: The databases Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl, Svemed+, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the MeSH term "home childbirth". Inclusion criteria were as follows: the study population was women who chose planned home birth...... at the onset of labour; the studies were from Western countries; the birth attendant was an authorised midwife or medical doctor; the studies were published in 1985 or later, with data not older than from 1980; and data on transfer from home to hospital were described. Of the 3366 titles identified, 83 full...
... again, you might be able to choose between scheduling a repeat C-section or attempting vaginal birth ... date You have an unusually large baby — suspected fetal macrosomia You've had two or more C- ...
... of methods of pain relief, including: Warm water immersion Freedom to walk and choose body positions that ... situation. At CABC accredited birth centers, the staff work hard to avoid such a dire situation. In ...
Cargill, Yvonne M; MacKinnon, Catherine Jane
To provide guidelines for operative vaginal birth in the management of the second stage of labour. Non-operative techniques, episiotomy, and Caesarean section are compared to operative vaginal birth. Reduced fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched using the key words ''vacuum" and "birth" as well as "forceps" and "birth" for literature published in English from january 1970 to June 2004. The level of evidence and quality of rec-ommendations made are described using the Evaluation of Evidence from the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. VALIDATION: The Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee and Executive and Council of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada approved these guidelines. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive pills. IUDs, devices which are implanted into the ... Medical Education and Research) Depo-Provera: An Injectable Contraceptive (American Academy ... Emergency Contraception (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in ...
Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard
Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... has not been studied. Aim We aimed to investigate the association between BW, GA, and infantile colic. Methods We studied 62,785 singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information on infantile colic symptoms and possible confounders was collected by computer-assisted telephone......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...
... at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 Years in the United States ... Do To Address Disparities Community-wide Initiatives Preventing teen pregnancy: Remarkable progress for many teens, but challenges ...
Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...
... Pinterest Email Print What is vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC)? VBAC refers to vaginal delivery of a baby after a previous pregnancy was delivered by cesarean delivery. In the past, pregnant women who had ...
... Birth parents can benefit from information about the advantages of open adoption for children. The number of ... mediator) are on the rise. In a 2012 survey of adoption agencies with infant adoption programs, agencies ...
Liu, Jun; Organ, Chris L; Benton, Michael J; Brandley, Matthew C; Aitchison, Jonathan C
Live birth has evolved many times independently in vertebrates, such as mammals and diverse groups of lizards and snakes. However, live birth is unknown in the major clade Archosauromorpha, a group that first evolved some 260 million years ago and is represented today by birds and crocodilians. Here we report the discovery of a pregnant long-necked marine reptile (Dinocephalosaurus) from the Middle Triassic (∼245 million years ago) of southwest China showing live birth in archosauromorphs. Our discovery pushes back evidence of reproductive biology in the clade by roughly 50 million years, and shows that there is no fundamental reason that archosauromorphs could not achieve live birth. Our phylogenetic models indicate that Dinocephalosaurus determined the sex of their offspring by sex chromosomes rather than by environmental temperature like crocodilians. Our results provide crucial evidence for genotypic sex determination facilitating land-water transitions in amniotes.
Bergsjø, P; Daltveit, A K
Between 1972 and 1993 the number of hospitals and maternity homes providing obstetric help in Norway fell from 158 to 67. Most of the decline is explained by the closing down of maternity homes and obstetrical units in small hospitals, partly due to a reduction in number of births and partly to a deliberate drive towards giving birth in larger units. 16 of the 19 counties of Norway contained four or fewer obstetric institutions in 1993. Nevertheless, most of the 60,000 births took place in institutions with between 500 and 2,999 births annually. Births at home accounted for 0.3%, and births during transport for 0.2% of the total in 1990 and 1993.
Howson, Christopher P; Kinney, Mary V; McDougall, Lori; Lawn, Joy E
Urgent action is needed to address preterm birth given that the fi rst country-level estimates show that globally 15 million babies are born too soon and rates are increasing in most countries with reliable time trend data. As the fi rst in a supplement entitled “Born Too Soon”, this paper focuses on the global policy context. Preterm birth is critical for progress on Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG) for child survival by 2015 and beyond, and gives added value to maternal health (MDG 5) investments also linking to non-communicable diseases. For preterm babies who survive, the additional burden of prematurity-related disability may aff ect families and health systems. Prematurity is an explicit priority in many high-income settings; however, more attention is needed especially in low- and middle-income countries where the invisibility of preterm birth as well as its myths and misconceptions have slowed action on prevention and care. Recent global attention to preterm birth hit a tipping point in 2012, with the May 2 publication of Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth and with the 2nd annual World Prematurity Day on November 17 which mobilised the actions of partners in many countries to address preterm birth and newborn health. Interventions to strengthen preterm birth prevention and care span the continuum of care for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health. Both prevention of preterm birth and implementation of care of premature babies require more research, as well as more policy attention and programmatic investment.
Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G
Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Gupta, R; Sharma, S B; Mathur, P; Agrawal, L D
Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is Waardenburg syndrome associated with Hirschsprung's disease. A 10-day-old full-term male neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presented with constipation since birth along with features of small bowel obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy revealed distended proximal jejunal and ileal loops along with microcolon; an ileostomy was performed. Postoperatively patient developed sepsis and died. Histopathology confirmed total colonic aganglionosis. Suspect familial Shah-Waardenburg syndrome in a neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presenting with constipation since birth or intestinal obstruction.
Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna
Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....
Squires , Claire
International audience; The knowledge on death, birth, masculinity and feminity’s popular beliefs and traditions and customs is enlightened by notions such a as unconscious motives, Oedipus, incest prohibition, generation differences. We will examine magical thinking in anthropological and psychoanalytic studies about maternity and birth. We will question whether trauma transmission and unresolved mourning are better understood by psychoanalytical interpretation of magical thinking. Then we w...
Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Colijn, Grant P; Amiot, Volodymyr; Vinish, Erin
Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during con...
Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...
Bushnik, Tracey; Yang, Seungmi; Kaufman, Jay S; Kramer, Michael S; Wilkins, Russell
Maternal socioeconomic disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. Few studies, however, have considered maternal education and income simultaneously to better understand the mechanisms underlying perinatal health disparities. This analysis examines both maternal education and income and their association with the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. The study is based on 127,694 singleton live births from the 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort, a national cohort of births registered from May 2004 to May 2006 that were linked to the 2006 long-form Census. Unadjusted rates of small-for-gestational-age birth (sex-specific birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age) and preterm birth (before 37 completed weeks of gestation) were estimated across selected maternal characteristics. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and covariate-adjusted risk ratios of both outcomes according to maternal education and income adequacy quintiles. Small-for-gestational-age birth was associated with both maternal education and income adequacy, while preterm birth was associated with maternal education only. These findings persisted after taking factors including maternal age, ethnicity, and marital status into account. The results suggest that the mechanism by which maternal education is associated with these outcomes is likely not through income, nor does income replace education as a potentially meaningful measure of socioeconomic position. The mechanisms underlying associations between socioeconomic position and perinatal health disparities are complex. The results of this study indicate that more than one socioeconomic factor may play a role.
Full Text Available Preterm births have been a challenge to obstetricians and paediatricians. Preterm births affect all population irrespective of age, race and economic status due to lack of seriousness and awareness among the pregnant women. Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality, amounting to billions of dollars each year, thus increasing the cost for health care. Proper awareness programs about preterm birth may help the women population to know and understand better the signs and symptoms of preterm labour. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality through this study.
Rousseau, Pierre Victor; Francotte, Jacques; Fabbricatore, Maria; Frischen, Caroline; Duchateau, Delphine; Perin, Marie; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Lahaye, Willy
To describe an immobility reaction (IR) that was not previously reported at or immediately after birth in human newborns. We analyzed 31 videos of normal term vaginal deliveries recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant. We searched for perinatal factors associated with newborn's IR. IR at birth was observed in 8 of the 31 newborns. The main features of their behavior were immobilization, frozen face, shallow breathing and bradycardia. One of the 8 newborns had sudden collapse 2h after birth. We found significant relationships between maternal prenatal stress (PS) and IR (p=.037), and a close to significant one between infants' lividness at Time 0 and IR (p=.053). The first breath of the 31 newborns occurred before and was not associated with the first cry (psyndrome. This first report of an IR reaction at birth in human infants could open up new paths for improving early neonatal care. Further research is needed for maternal PS, stress hormones, umbilical cord blood pH measurements in IR newborns. The challenge of education and support for parents of IR newborns is outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan
The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia
Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687
Zafman, Kelly B; Stone, Joanne L; Factor, Stephanie H
To characterize the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) contraindicated home births and the women who are receiving these births in hopes of identifying venues for intervention. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) birth certificate records from 1990 to 2015 were used. "Planned home births" were defined as those births in which birthplace was coded as "residence" and birth attendant was coded as "certified nurse midwife (CNM)" or "other midwife". Contraindicated home births were defined as "planned home births" from 1990 to 2015 that had one or more of the ACOG risk factors for home births, which include vaginal birth after prior cesarean delivery (VBAC), breech presentation and multiple gestations. A review of trends in contraindicated home births from 1990 to 2015 suggests that they are increasing in number (481-1396) and as a percentage of total births (0.01%-0.04%, P95%), which is most frequently initiated in the first trimester. The majority of home births were paid out-of-pocket (65%-69%). The increasing number of contraindicated home births in the United States requires public health action. Home births are likely a matter of choice rather than a lack of resources. It is unclear if women choose home births while knowing the risk or due to a lack of information. Prenatal education about contraindicated home births is possible, as almost all women receive prenatal care.
Hansen, Marie-Louise H; Stage, Louise; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.
and methods: The data are obtained by linking several national public registers in Denmark, using the unique personal identification number. Initially, a logistic regression analysis is employed in order to model the first birth probability in a given year. Secondly, the long-term effect of an induced......Objective: The focus of this paper is to study, on a national basis, how the event of an induced abortion modifies the transition to first birth for Danish women aged 20-39 years in the period 1982-2001, taking into account also educational level, family situation, and urbanisation. Data...... abortion is examined by cumulative first birth probabilities, derived from a life table analysis. Main findings and conclusion: Previous abortions increased the first birth probability, though this effect was almost entirely confined to single women. For cohabiting and married women, previous abortions had...
Background In Tanzania, half of all pregnant women access a health facility for delivery. The proportion receiving skilled care at birth is even lower. In order to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, the government has set out to increase health facility deliveries by skilled care. The aim of this study was to describe the weaknesses in the provision of acceptable and adequate quality care through the accounts of women who have suffered obstetric fistula, nurse-midwives at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities and local community members. Methods Semi-structured interviews involving 16 women affected by obstetric fistula and five nurse-midwives at maternity wards at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities, and Focus Group Discussions with husbands and community members were conducted between October 2008 and February 2010 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania and Temeke hospitals in Dar es Salaam, and Mpwapwa district in Dodoma region. Results Health care users and health providers experienced poor quality caring and working environments in the health facilities. Women in labour lacked support, experienced neglect, as well as physical and verbal abuse. Nurse-midwives lacked supportive supervision, supplies and also seemed to lack motivation. Conclusions There was a consensus among women who have suffered serious birth injuries and nurse midwives staffing both BEmOC and CEmOC maternity wards that the quality of care offered to women in birth was inadequate. While the birth accounts of women pointed to failure of care, the nurses described a situation of disempowerment. The bad birth care experiences of women undermine the reputation of the health care system, lower community expectations of facility birth, and sustain high rates of home deliveries. The only way to increase the rate of skilled attendance at birth in the current Tanzanian context is to make facility birth a safer alternative than home birth. The findings from this study
... the birth-mothers using phenomenological interviews. The study aimed at providing an in-depth understanding of the factors that impacted negatively on the birth-mothers' school performance in order to ultimately develop guidelines for helping birth-mothers cope better when returning to school. South African Journal of ...
Araz, N. C.
Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births
Baker, Emily; Hunter, Tiffany; Okun, Nanette; Farine, Dan
We sought to determine the interventions utilized by maternal-fetal medicine specialists in the prediction and prevention of preterm labor in higher-order multiple (HOM) gestations. Online questionnaires and email surveys were sent to all the maternal-fetal medicine specialists in Canada (n=122). Questionnaire items included interventions physicians routinely recommended for HOM gestations including: (1) bed rest; (2) cervical length measurement on transvaginal ultrasound; (3) corticosteroids use; (4) cerclage; and (5) tocolytic therapy. Response rate was 66% (81/122), with 68% of respondents in practice for >10 years. Of physicians, 91% did not routinely recommend bed rest (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7-97.2). In all, 82% (95% CI, 73.63-90.4%) recommended routine cervical length assessment with 32.3% (95% CI, 20.7-43.2) and 37.1% (95% CI, 25.3-48.6) of this group suggesting assessment at 16-18 and 19-21 weeks, respectively. Frequency of assessment varied from biweekly (53.3%; 95% CI, 40.9-65.0), to monthly (23.3%; 95% CI, 12.8-33.1), to a single measurement repeated only if abnormal (12.5%; 95% CI, 4.5-20.8). In all, 28% (95% CI, 18.2-37.8) recommended routine administration of corticosteroids for lung maturation. Timing of administration varied, with 24% initiating steroids between 24-26 weeks, 59% between 27-28 weeks, and 17% after 28 weeks. None reported routine cerclage placement. However, 71% (95% CI, 61.1-80.8) would perform cerclage based on history or ultrasound. Of respondents, 81% (95% CI, 72.4-89.5) would consider using tocolytic agents for threatened preterm labor including calcium channel blockers (94%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (5%), and nitroglycerin transdermal patch (24%). The variable practice guidelines and paucity of data for management of HOM pregnancy places the onus on individual practitioners to develop their own management schemes. This results in heterogeneous management, which is based on conflicting international
Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal
Murphy, M; Knudsen, L B
Using the Danish Fertility Database, we investigate intergenerational fertility transmission, including the relationship between the number of children born to those aged 25 and 26 years in 1994 and the number of their full sibs and half-sibs. We find that the fertility behaviour of parents and their children is positively correlated, and that half-sibs and full sibs have broadly similar effects. We do not find, in this complete national population, the strong birth order effects reported in some earlier studies. Nor do we find evidence of a weakening of intergenerational fertility transmission over time, perhaps because the greater flexibility of lifestyles in this post-transitional phase provides the extended social space within which intergenerational continuities can manifest themselves. We show that members of large families are over-represented in subsequent generations - that they have far more kin than those from smaller families - and that intergenerational continuities in fertility behaviour play a substantial role in keeping fertility higher than it would be in the absence of such transmission.
Hong, Rathavuth; Them, Rathnita
Cambodia faces major challenges in its effort to provide access to health care for all. Although there is a sharp improvement in health and health care in Cambodia, 6 in 10 women still deliver at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. This practice is associated with higher maternal and infant deaths. This article analyzes the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and deliveries at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. It is evident that babies in poorer households are significantly more likely to be delivered at home by an unskilled birth attendant than those in wealthier households. Moreover, delivery at home by an unskilled attendant is associated with mothers who have no education, live in a rural residence, and are farmers, and with higher birth order children. Results from this analysis demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality is still a major factor contributing to ill health in Cambodia. © 2011 APJPH.
Magnus et al. reported that paternal birth weight has a greater influence on offspring birth weight than maternal birth weight. In contrast, Grifith et al., in a more recent study, concluded that maternal weight contributed more significantly to offspring's birth weight than paternal weight. Such discrepancies might be a ...
Birth intervals (time between two successive live births) if short are associated with diverse complications. We assessed birth interval and its predictors among 613 married women who gave birth from January 1 to December 30, 2008. Data were collected in April 2012. Life table and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to ...
Mating, pregnancy diagnosis and determination of birth parameters followed immediately after the end ... The average live birth weight of the neonates measured was observed to be highest for Group A with average live birth weight of 6.27g, followed by Groups B and the control with average live birth weight of 5.83g and ...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of...
Owens, Kim Hensley
Through its analysis of birth plans, documents some women create to guide their birth attendants' actions during hospital births, this article reveals the rhetorical complexity of childbirth and analyzes women's attempts to harness birth plans as tools of resistance and self-education. Asserting that technologies can both silence and give voice,…
Differences in optimality index between planned place of birth in a birth centre and alternative planned places of birth, a nationwide prospective cohort study in The Netherlands: results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study
Hermus, M.A.A.; Hitzert, M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Franx, A.; Graaf, J.P. de; Lith, J.M.M. van; Steegers, E.E.; Wiegers, T.A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der
Objectives To compare the Optimality Index of planned birth in a birth centre with planned birth in a hospital and planned home birth for low-risk term pregnant women who start labour under the responsibility of a community midwife. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Low-risk pregnant women
Background: Birth weight is one of the key predictor for survival, health and future development of a child. In developing countries data on birth weights are limited to obtain due to difficulties in keeping records especially among rural women. Maternal recall of birth weight can therefore become a useful source of birth weight ...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study was conducted by eliciting history from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who w ere treated in Rani Chandra Mani Devi Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. De tailed history was taken from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who were treated in this hospital. History regarding the period of gestation at which the child was born (preterm or full term, any previous history of pre - term delivery or abortions, was obtained from the mothers and the data analyzed . RESULTS: From this study it was observed the proportional association of pre - term births to cerebral palsy is 33 out 99 i.e., about 33.33%, Of these 33 cerebral palsy children highest association being with birth at 28 wks gestation (51 %. This study also shows th at the mothers with a previous history of preterm delivery have 14.4 times higher risk of subsequent pre term delivery; those with previous history of abortions have 5.7 times risk of pre - term delivery than mothers without such history. CONCLUSION: From th is study it was concluded that the pre - term birth plays a major role as a risk factor in the development of cerebral palsy with mothers having previous pre term delivery and previous abortions adding further to this risk.
Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood. Data from the medical birth register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service and the national statistics agency, Statistics Norway. This study used the data on 346,609 registered males who were born at term in single birth without physical anomalies during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years). The relationship between paternal age at birth and the occurrence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) ) at conscription was examined using a multinomial logistic regression analysis with BMI birth but did not increase (P = 0.52) with maternal age at birth. Men born when their fathers were 50 years or older had a 55% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%, 110%) higher relative risk of obesity than men born when their fathers were younger than 20 years of age, after adjustment for age at conscription, birth order, birth year, maternal age at birth, the mother's total number of children, and maternal and paternal education levels. The risk of obesity in young Norwegian men increases with advancing paternal age at birth but does not increase with advancing maternal age at birth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita
In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Roos, Laura; Jensen, Hanne; Grønskov, Karen
-2012 with diagnoses of MO/AO or coloboma was identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR), and their ocular and extra-ocular diagnoses were reviewed. In order to assess the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort, the data were cross-referenced with the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry...... (DCCR). RESULTS: We identified 415 patients with MO/AO/coloboma in the DNPR. The total number of live births from 1995-2012 was 1,174,299, and the average birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma was 3.6/10,000 live births and of MO/AO was 1.2/10,000 live births. Extra-ocular abnormalities were observed in 32....... CONCLUSION: The birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma in Denmark has been steady at 3.6/10,000 live births during the last 17 years. The rate of syndromic cases was lower compared to other studies. A relatively high rate of pathogenic chromosomal aberrations was observed, suggesting an important role...
Cetin, Fatma Cosar; Sezer, Ayse; Merih, Yeliz Dogan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the validity and the reliability of Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and to adapt it into the Turkish language. This scale is used for measuring maternal satisfaction with birth in order to evaluate women’s birth perceptions. METHODS: In this study there were 150 women who attended to inpatient postpartum clinic. The participants filled in an information form and the BSS questionnaire forms. The properties of the scale were tested by conducting reliability and validation analyses. RESULTS: BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions. It was developed by Hollins Martin and Fleming. Total scale scores ranged between 30–150 points. Higher scores from the scale mean increases in birth satisfaction. Three overarching themes were identified in Scale: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships with health care professionals); personal attributes (ability to cope during labour, feeling in control, childbirth preparation, relationship with baby); and stress experienced during labour (distress, obstetric injuries, receiving sufficient medical care, obstetric intervention, pain, prolonged labour and baby’s health). Cronbach’s alfa coefficient was 0.62. CONCLUSION: According to the present study, BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions and evaluates women’s birth perceptions. The Turkish version of BSS has been proven to be a valid and a reliable scale. PMID:28058355
Full Text Available In the United States historically, births to older mothers have been more likely to be planned than births to younger mothers, and births to unmarried women have been less likely to be planned than births to married women. As the average age of mothers has increased and more births have occurred outside of marriage in the United States, the intersection of these trends may have weakened the traditional linkage between age and birth planning status. In this article, we examine differences by maternal age in planning status of births using The 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. We find that age is strongly associated with planning status, but the association is reduced in magnitude when controlling for relationship status and is stronger for first and second births than for higher-parity births. Further, the association between union status and the planning status of births varies by race-ethnicity.
Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.
Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men...... birth weight and adult height; for subjects with birth weight or = 4,501 g, mean height was 184.1 cm. A positive association was also found between birth length and adult height. For subjects with birth length ... adult height was 175.2 cm, increasing to 184.3 cm at birth length > 56 cm. The associations between birth length and adult height persisted after adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, and other confounders, while the associations between birth weight and adult height almost disappeared when...
Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J.J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.
In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have
Duncan, Jeffrey Dean
Exchanging patient-specific information across heterogeneous information systems is a critical but increasingly complex and expensive challenge. Lacking a universal unique identifier for healthcare, patient records must be linked using combinations of identity attributes such as name, date of birth, and sex. A state's birth certificate registry…
Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.
Savitz, David A; Murnane, Pamela
Epidemiologic studies of potential behavioral influences on preterm birth have proliferated and yet, with the exception of tobacco smoking, none can be considered an established cause. We conducted a comprehensive summary of the epidemiologic evidence on tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use, and physical, sexual, and occupational activity, to identify promising research directions, as well as research topics that are at an impasse based on currently available methods. Tobacco use is weakly but consistently associated with preterm birth-stronger for heavier smoking, and for spontaneous preterm birth and earlier preterm births. Weaker evidence suggests an adverse effect of environmental tobacco smoke, heavy alcohol or cocaine use, and physically strenuous work. Low levels of alcohol use, caffeine, sexual activity, and employment have generally not been found to be associated with preterm birth, and leisure-time physical activity has generated mixed results. Progress will require more detailed consideration of antecedents, new technologies for assessing exposure, and examination of biologic consequences of the behaviors of interest, focusing on pathways thought to mediate preterm delivery. New strategies-rather than more applications of the same approaches used in past studies-will move the research toward identifying causal relationships and, ultimately, may suggest preventive measures.
Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth
Hermus, M.A.A.; Boesveld, I.C.; Hilzert, M.; Franx, A.; Graaf, J.P. de; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wiegers, T.A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der
Background: During the last decade, a rapid increase of birth locations for low-risk births, other than conventional obstetric units, has been seen in the Netherlands. Internationally some of such locations are called birth centres. The varying international definitions for birth centres are not
Hermus, Marieke A. A.; Boesveld, I. C.; Hitzert, Marrit M; Franx, A.; de Graaf, J. P.; Steegers, E. A P; Wiegers, Therese A.; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.
Background: During the last decade, a rapid increase of birth locations for low-risk births, other than conventional obstetric units, has been seen in the Netherlands. Internationally some of such locations are called birth centres. The varying international definitions for birth centres are not
Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah
using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...
The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility
Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.
For many women, the essential ingredients for a safe and satisfying birth include a sense of empowerment and success in coping with or transcending the experience, in addition to having solid, positive encouragement from a support companion. The massage practitioner can enhance these ingredients by adding knowledgeable, caring touch which can decrease pain, increase relaxation, speed labor, and reduce medical interventions. Serving women in labor, witnessing a baby's birth, and positively influencing a mother's responsiveness to her infant are unique and powerful opportunities. Being invited to serve in this capacity indicates that you have skill in helping a woman feel at ease. Keep in mind that your presence and loving touch may have a deeper impact on your client than you even realize, as your presence will forever be a part of her and her child's birth story.
Dahlen, Hannah G; Barclay, Lesley M; Homer, Caroline S E
to explore first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia. a grounded theory methodology was used. Data were generated from in-depth interviews with women in their own homes. Sydney, Australia. 19 women were interviewed. Seven women who gave in a public hospital and seven women who gave birth for the first time at home were interviewed and their experiences were contrasted with two mothers who gave birth for the first time in a birth centre, one mother who gave birth for the first time in a private hospital and two women who had given birth more than once. three categories emerged from the analysis: preparing for birth, the novice birthing and processing the birth. These women shared a common core experience of seeing that they gave birth as 'novices'. The basic social process running through their experience of birth, regardless of birth setting, was that, as novices, they were all 'reacting to the unknown'. The mediating factors that influenced the birth experiences of these first-time mothers were preparation, choice and control, information and communication, and support. The quality of midwifery care both facilitated and hindered these needs, contributing to the women's perceptions of being 'honoured'. The women who gave birth at home seemed to have more positive birth experiences. identifying the novice status of first-time mothers and understanding the way in which they experience birth better explains previous research that reports unrealistic expectations and fear that may be associated with first-time birthing. It demonstrates how midwives can contribute to positive birth experiences by being aware that first-time mothers, irrespective of birth setting, are essentially reacting to the unknown as they negotiate the experience of birth. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Sveinsdottir, Herdis
to examine the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and birth outcomes, and whether women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected this relationship. a prospective cohort study. the study was set in Iceland, a sparsely populated island with harsh terrain, 325,000 inhabitants, high fertility and home birth rates, and less than 5000 births a year. a convenience sample of women who attended antenatal care in Icelandic health care centres, participated in the Childbirth and Health Study in 2009-2011, and expressed consistent attitudes towards home birth (n=809). of the participants, 164 (20.3%) expressed positive attitudes towards choosing home birth and 645 (79.7%) expressed negative attitudes. Women who had a positive attitude towards home birth had significantly more positive attitudes towards birth and more negative attitudes towards intervention than did women who had a negative attitude towards home birth. Of the 340 self-reported low-risk women that answered questionnaires on birth outcomes, 78 (22.9%) had a positive attitude towards home birth and 262 (77.1%) had a negative attitude. Oxytocin augmentation (19.2% (n=15) versus 39.1% (n=100)), epidural analgesia (19.2% (n=15) versus 33.6% (n=88)), and neonatal intensive care unit admission rates (0.0% (n=0) versus 5.0% (n=13)) were significantly lower among women who had a positive attitude towards home birth. Women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and oxytocin augmentation or epidural analgesia. the beneficial effect of planned home birth on maternal outcome in Iceland may depend to some extent on women's attitudes towards birth and intervention. Efforts to de-stigmatise out-of-hospital birth and de-medicalize women's attitudes towards birth might increase women׳s use of health-appropriate birth services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E
Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jacqueline M Melville
Full Text Available Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth.The immune systems of preterm infants have a smaller pool of monocytes and neutrophils, impaired ability of these cells to kill pathogens, and lower production of cytokines which limits T cell activation and reduces the ability to fight bacteria and detect viruses in cells, compared to term infants.Intrauterine inflammation is a major contributor to preterm birth, and causes premature immune activation and cytokine production. This can induce immune tolerance leading to reduced newborn immune function. Intrauterine inflammation is associated with an increased risk of early-onset sepsis and likely has long-term adverse immune consequences.Requisite medical interventions further impact on immune development and function. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment to prevent newborn respiratory disease is routine but may be immunosuppressive, and has been associated with febrile responses, reductions in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and increased risk of infection. Invasive medical procedures result in an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. Respiratory support can cause chronic inflammatory lung disease associated with increased risk of long-term morbidity.Colonisation of the infant by microorganisms at birth is a significant contributor to the establishment of the microbiome. Caesarean section affects infant colonisation, potentially contributing to lifelong immune function and wellbeing.Several factors associated with preterm birth alter immune function. A better understanding of perinatal modification of the preterm immune system will allow for the refinement of care to minimise lifelong adverse immune consequences.
Chaparro, M Pia; Koupil, Ilona; Byberg, Liisa
To investigate if the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring's body composition in late adolescence and young adulthood varies by offspring birth order and sex. Family cohort study, with data from registers, questionnaires and physical examinations. The main outcome under study was offspring body composition (percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage lean mass (%LM)) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Uppsala, Sweden. Two hundred and twenty-six siblings (first-born v. second-born; average age 19 and 21 years) and their mothers. In multivariable linear regression models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with daughter's %FM, with stronger estimates for first-born (β=0·97, 95 % CI 0·14, 1·80) v. second-born daughters (β=0·64, 95 % CI 0·08, 1·20). Mother's BMI before her first pregnancy was associated with her second-born daughter's body composition (β=1·05, 95 % CI 0·31, 1·79 (%FM)) Similar results albeit in the opposite direction were observed for %LM. No significant associations were found between pre-pregnancy BMI and %FM (β=0·59, 95 % CI-0·27, 1·44 first-born; β=-0·13, 95 % CI-0·77, 0·52 second-born) or %LM (β=-0·54, 95 % CI-1·37, 0·28 first-born; β=0·11, 95 % CI-0·52, 0·74 second-born) for sons. A higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher offspring %FM and lower offspring %LM in late adolescence and young adulthood, with stronger associations for first-born daughters. Preventing obesity at the start of women's reproductive life might reduce the risk of obesity in her offspring, particularly for daughters.
Swart, Jan M.
Roč. 47, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-14 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Intertwining of Markov process es * birth and death process * averaged Markov process * first passage time * coupling * eigenvalues Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/swart-intertwining of birth- and -death process es.pdf
Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley
During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross......-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net....
Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore
OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... was collected around gestational week 16. We established a JEM based on information from women, who were still pregnant when interviewed. The JEM provided mean total loads lifted per day within homogeneous exposure groups as informed by job and industry codes. All women were assigned an exposure estimate from...
Full Text Available Introduction: The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births – M/T has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Methods: Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by 137Cs were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Results: Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Discussion: Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.
Sadovsky, Ana Daniela Izoton de; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas
To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative) due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend<0.001). Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births - M/T) has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by ¹³⁷Cs) were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation). The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.
Wu, Chuansha; Huo, Wenqian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Wan, Yanjian; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhou, Aifen; Chen, Zhong; Qian, Minzheng; Zhu, Yingshuang; Jiang, Yangqian; Liu, Hongxiu; Hu, Jie; Chen, Xi; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing
Parabens are suspected to impair fetal growth because of their endocrine disrupting effects. Epidemiological studies regarding the effects of prenatal exposure to parabens on birth outcomes are limited. Our aim was to evaluate the association between prenatal paraben exposure and size of infants at birth. Within the longitudinal Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC) in Hubei Province, China, we randomly selected 1006 mother-infant pairs recruited in Wuhan City in 2014. Concentrations of parabens were measured in maternal urine collected before delivery. General linear models were used to analyze the associations of maternal parabens exposure levels with birth weight and birth length. The specific gravity adjusted geometric means for urinary concentrations of methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), and propyl paraben (PrP) were 5.41, 0.11, and 0.94 ng/mL, respectively. Maternal urinary concentrations of parabens tended to be positively associated with birth weight in boys, while opposite trends were found in girls, though these associations were not significant. Higher maternal urinary levels of MeP were positively associated with birth length in boys (β = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.58 for the medium tertile, and β = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.58 for the highest tertile compared to the lowest tertile); however, no significant associations with birth length were observed in girls. Maternal urinary levels of MeP were positively associated with length at birth in boys. Besides, we did not find strong associations of the current exposure levels of parabens in Chinese pregnant women with size of infants at birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Purisch, Stephanie E; Turitz, Amy L; Elovitz, Michal A; Levine, Lisa D
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior term birth on recurrent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) risk. Retrospective cohort study of 211 women with prior sPTB, comparing women with and without prior term births. The primary outcome was recurrent sPTB term births (28.9 vs. 37.7%, p = 0.2). Among women with prior second-trimester loss (16-23 6/7 weeks), those with a term birth had a decreased sPTB rate (15.4 vs. 43.2%, p = 0.02), which persisted after adjusting for age and 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate use. For women with prior sPTB ≥24 weeks, there was no difference in sPTB with and without prior term births (29.5 vs. 26.6%, p = 0.7). A term birth as the most recent delivery lowered, but did not eliminate, the sPTB risk (19.1 vs. 36.4%, p = 0.1). Prior term birth lowers the risk of recurrent sPTB for women with prior second-trimester loss, but not for women with prior sPTB ≥24 weeks. Women with prior preterm and term births should be counseled accordingly and all sPTB prevention strategies should be recommended. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Basso, O; Weinberg, C R; D'Aloisio, A A; Sandler, D P
Does maternal age at a daughter's birth predict her subsequent probability of lifelong childlessness? In this study population, women born to older mothers were more likely to be childless. Although maternal age at childbearing is increasing in many countries, there is limited evidence on whether being born to older parents may influence offspring fertility. This analysis included 43 135 women from the US-based Sister Study, a cohort study of 50 884 sisters of women with breast cancer recruited between 2003 and 2009. Participants had no breast cancer at baseline. Women were included in the analytic sample if they were born between 1930 and 1964 and were at least 44 years old at enrolment. Median age when reproductive history was last ascertained was 63.8 years. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% CI of lifelong childlessness as a function of maternal age at birth, using multivariable log-binomial models, including total number of siblings, birth order, socioeconomic indicators of the family of origin, race and birth cohort. We examined the association in different subgroups and in a sibling-matched analysis including 802 sister pairs discordant for childlessness. Compared with women born to 20-24-year-old mothers, those born to mothers aged 25-29, 30-34 and ≥35 years were more likely to be childless [RR (95% CI): 1.21 (1.14-1.29), 1.30 (1.22-1.39) and 1.40 (1.31-1.50), respectively]. The association was consistent in strata defined by birth cohort, number of siblings, birth order, and participant's educational level, as well as within sister pairs. Overall, we found weak evidence for an independent contribution of paternal age at birth to the daughter's probability of childlessness. All participants had at least one sister, and all information was self-reported. We had no knowledge of whether childlessness was intentional and found only a modest association between maternal age at birth and self-reported indicators of infertility. Still, the association with
Pries, Rose Mary; And Others
Designed for the general public, these three learning modules utilize text, illustrations, and exercises to describe various methods of birth control. The first module, "All about Contraception for the Teenage New Mother" by Rose Mary Pries, discusses the desirability of planned pregnancy and reviews the effectiveness and side effects of…
Vrijheid, M.; Casas, M.; Bergström, A.; Carmichael, A.; Cordier, S.; Eggesbø, M.; Eller, E.; Fantini, M. P.; Fernández, M. F.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Hohmann, C.; Karvonen, A. M.; Keil, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Koppen, G.; Krämer, U.; Kuehni, C. E.; Magnus, P.; Majewska, R.; Andersen, A. M. N.; Patelarou, E.; Petersen, M. S.; Pierik, F. H.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Santos, A. C.; Slama, R.; Šrám, Radim; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Toft, G.; Trnovec, T.; Vandentorren, S.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wright, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.
Roč. 120, č. 1 (2012), s. 29-37 ISSN 0091-6765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : environment pollution * child health * European birth cohorts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2012
Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana
This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...
van Wassenaer, Aleid G.; Kok, Joke H.
The concentration of thyroid hormone in preterm infants is lower than that in term infants. This phenomenon is referred to as transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity. Low thyroid hormone levels after very preterm birth are associated with worse developmental outcome in childhood, but only one
of care during the later postpartum or postnatal period. PERSISTENT MISSION HOME DELIVERY IN IBADAN: ATTRACTIVE ROLE OF. TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANTS. ABSTRACT. Background and objective: One of the major factors responsible for high maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and other developing.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them. Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/2/2013.
Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...
Jeffcoat, M K
The purpose of this two-part article is to review two major events in the life span of a woman. These include the putative relationship between oral health, pregnancy, and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Current knowledge about risk factors for preterm birth and for osteoporosis are discussed. The newest studies that address the relationship between oral and systemic health are also reviewed.
The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms ...
Abstract CustOITlS traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been docUITlented. An exploratory investiga- tion of the extent to which some of these tradi- tional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian. ITlothers living in ...
Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness of Pregnant Women Attending the Three Levels of Health Facilities in Ife Central Local Government, Nigeria. ... Only 24 (6.0%) had adequate knowledge of obstetric danger signs without prompting. Three hundred and forty (84.8%) and 312 (78.3%) women respectively had ...
Rana, Md Juel; Goli, Srinivas
The prevalence of child undernutrition in South Asia is high, as is also the unmet need for family planning. In previous literature, the biodemographic relationship of family planning, particularly birth order and birth spacing, and nutritional status of children have been assessed separately. The aim of this study was to work on the hypothesis that the planning of births comprising timing, spacing, and number of births improves child undernutrition, especially in the areas with high prevalence of stunting and underweight. We used recent Demographic and Health Survey data from four selected South Asian countries. Binary logistic regression models were applied to estimate the adjusted percentage of stunting and underweight by identified independent factors. Findings suggested that after controlling for other socioeconomic factors, children in the first birth order with >24 mo of interval between marriage and first birth have a lower risk for stunting (20%; p planning of births. The probability of child undernutrition is lower among children born with >24 mo of birth spacing than its counterpart in all birth orders, but the significance of birth spacing reduces with increasing birth orders. Appropriate planning of births using family planning methods in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce childhood undernutrition. Thus, the planning of births emerges as an important biodemographic approach to eradicate childhood undernutrition especially in developing regions like South Asia and thereby to achieve sustainable development goals by 2030. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Odhiambo, A; Rotich, E C; Chindia, M L; Macigo, F G; Ndavi, M; Were, F
The pattern of congenital oral and craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) in the Kenyan population remains unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of occurrence of CFAs at two hospitals in Nairobi. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital was carried out from November 2006 to March 2007. Mothers who delivered at the hospitals consented to an interview and physical examination of their babies within 48 h of delivery. The anomalies were classified for type and magnitude. Data were analysed to determine the association of these anomalies with ages of the mothers, gender, weight, birth order, mode of delivery and birth status of the babies. During the study period, 7989 babies were born. The CFAs manifested in 1.8% of the total births and were more common in female (1.4%) than in male (1.0%) live births. 12.8% of stillbirths had CFAs, with lesions manifesting more in males (16.7%) than in females (6.9%). The commonest CFA was preauricular sinus (4.3/1000) followed by hydrocephalus (1.9/1000) then preauricular tags and cleft lip and palate (1.5/1000 and 1.3/1000 total births, respectively). Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the
Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.
A scenario is proposed for the evolution of the universe, starting with the quantum birth of a closed world at a minimum in the self-consistent de Sitter cosmological solution with vacuum polarization. The closure of the universe and the permanently supercritical value of its density follow directly from a single condition: that quantum birth take place. The perturbations must be small in order that the de Sitter phase may be sufficiently prolonged to ensure a protracted Friedmann plasma-matter expansion. Thus a universe having the properties we observe may in fact have been singled out by the anthropogenic principle
Păsăricără, Alexandru; Nemescu, Dragoş; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Rotariu, Cristian
The monitoring and analysis of antepartum fetal and maternal recordings is a research area of notable interest due to the relatively high value of preterm birth. The interest stems from the improvement of devices used for monitoring. The current paper presents the spectral analysis of antepartum heart rate recordings conducted during a study in Romania at the Cuza Voda Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinical Hospital from Iasi between 2010 and 2014. The study focuses on normal and preterm birth risk subjects in order to determine differences between these two types or recordings in terms of spectral analysis.
Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.
This article explores the creation and ramifications of a stratified reproductive system under China's state control of reproduction. Within this system, an emerging group of "new rich" are able to circumvent birth regulations and have unplanned births because of their financial capabilities and social networks. While China's birth-planning policy is meant to be enforced equally for all couples, the unequal access to wealth and bureaucratic power as a result of China's widening social polarization has created disparate reproductive rights and experiences. This article identifies three ways in which reproductive privileges are created. It further explores how a stratified reproductive system under state population control reinforces social polarization. While many socially marginalized couples are unable to register their unplanned children for citizenship status and social benefits, the new rich are able to legitimate their births and transfer their privilege and status to their children, thus reproducing a new generation of elites. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.
Konheim-Kalkstein, Yasmine L; Kirk, Colleen P; Berish, Kristen; Galotti, Kathleen M
Our quantitative analysis examined what factors influence pregnant women to choose a vaginal birth after a caesarean (VBAC). There is growing concern over the high rates of caesarean section; much of the high rate is driven by repeat caesareans. A trial of labour after a previous caesarean is an option for many women increasingly supported by medical literature. Survey data from 173 pregnant women who had had only one birth by caesarean were analysed using a hierarchical binary logistic regression model. Desire for the experience of a vaginal birth strongly predicted choice of VBAC; however, this relationship was dampened among women with a high (versus low) powerful others (e.g. doctors and nurses) locus of control. Prior reason for a caesarean section and practical factors also play a role. Women may be more likely to choose VBAC if they are encouraged to believe that they can help control the outcome, especially if their desire for a vaginal birth experience is high.
Ana Daniela Izoton de Sadovsky
Conclusion: In a final model, economic inequities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies.
; P= 0.01). There is need of increasing promotion of reproductive health services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk fac- tors of LBW. Key words: Low birth weight, pregnancy, risk factors, hospital, Tanzania.
at 95% confidence level. Results: Most of the patients (185/205, ... to hospitals before complications develop. Keywords: Childbirth emergencies, Delay, Outcomes, Referrals, Trained traditional birth attendants ..... concoctions, and starving in order to reduce the fetal size so as. Table 2: Clinical history/signs observed in the ...
Apr 8, 2012 ... utilization of traditional birth attendants' services among mothers in Akinyele Local Government, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methodology: The study design was .... many countries in order to reduce maternal mortality. Despite the level of ... freedom at the desired confidence level (3.841). N = the population size (138).
Mar 31, 2014 ... the birth and emergency preparedness level of 250 pregnant women attending Antenatal Care (ANC) in a Primary. Health Care (PHC) ... obtained from the hypothesis method and based on the following assumption: 95% confidence level, prevalence .... order to reduce morbidity and mortality in pregnancy.
Conclusion: The study outcome suggests that cord serum zinc but not maternal serum zinc predicts birth weight. In spite of low maternal serum zinc level, ... Therefore, in order to ensure optimal fetal growth and development, ... info statistical software version 3.5.3. A 95% confidence interval was used and a p- value of less.