WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth marital status

  1. The joint influence of marital status, interpregnancy interval, and neighborhood on small for gestational age birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuquan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpregnancy interval (IPI, marital status, and neighborhood are independently associated with birth outcomes. The joint contribution of these exposures has not been evaluated. We tested for effect modification between IPI and marriage, controlling for neighborhood. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 98,330 live births in Montréal, Canada from 1997–2001 to assess IPI and marital status in relation to small for gestational age (SGA birth. Births were categorized as subsequent-born with short (intermediate (12–35 months, or long (36+ months IPI, or as firstborn. The data had a 2-level hierarchical structure, with births nested in 49 neighborhoods. We used multilevel logistic regression to obtain adjusted effect estimates. Results Marital status modified the association between IPI and SGA birth. Being unmarried relative to married was associated with SGA birth for all IPI categories, particularly for subsequent births with short (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–1.95 and intermediate (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.26–1.74 IPIs. Subsequent births had a lower likelihood of SGA birth than firstborns. Intermediate IPIs were more protective for married (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.47–0.54 than unmarried mothers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56–0.76. Conclusion Being unmarried increases the likelihood of SGA birth as the IPI shortens, and the protective effect of intermediate IPIs is reduced in unmarried mothers. Marital status should be considered in recommending particular IPIs as an intervention to improve birth outcomes.

  2. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  3. Marital status, health and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2012-12-01

    Marital status and living arrangements, along with changes in these in mid-life and older ages, have implications for an individual's health and mortality. Literature on health and mortality by marital status has consistently identified that unmarried individuals generally report poorer health and have a higher mortality risk than their married counterparts, with men being particularly affected in this respect. With evidence of increasing changes in partnership and living arrangements in older ages, with rising divorce amongst younger cohorts offsetting the lower risk of widowhood, it is important to consider the implications of such changes for health in later life. Within research which has examined changes in marital status and living arrangements in later life a key distinction has been between work using cross-sectional data and that which has used longitudinal data. In this context, two key debates have been the focus of research; firstly, research pointing to a possible selection of less healthy individuals into singlehood, separation or divorce, while the second debate relates to the extent to which an individual's transitions earlier in the life course in terms of marital status and living arrangements have a differential impact on their health and mortality compared with transitions over shorter time periods. After reviewing the relevant literature, this paper argues that in order to fully account for changes in living arrangements as a determinant of health and mortality transitions, future research will increasingly need to consider a longer perspective and take into account transitions in living arrangements throughout an individual's life course rather than simply focussing at one stage of the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Marital Status and Marital Transition With Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Fallah-ghohroudy, Arefeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most existing reports indicate that body weight gradually increases following marital status and thereby enhances health status and decreases mortality; however, the association between marital status and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been thoroughly investigated in a longitudinal study. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of marital status and marital transition on MetS during a 9.6-year follow-up in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. P...

  5. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  6. 22 CFR 146.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status..., or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related...

  7. 22 CFR 229.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status..., or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related...

  8. Marital Status and Occupation versus Serum Total Cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher mean serum ...

  9. 45 CFR 86.40 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.40 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy...

  10. 13 CFR 113.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marital or parental status. 113.530 Section 113.530 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.530 Marital...

  11. 13 CFR 113.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marital or parental status. 113.445 Section 113.445 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.445 Marital or parental...

  12. First-birth Timing, Marital History, and Women's Health at Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Addo, Fenaba; Frech, Adrianne

    2015-12-01

    Despite evidence that first-birth timing influences women's health, the role of marital status in shaping this association has received scant attention. Using multivariate propensity score matching, we analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to estimate the effect of having a first birth in adolescence (prior to age 20), young adulthood (ages 20-24), or later ages (ages 25-35) on women's midlife self-assessed health. Findings suggest that adolescent childbearing is associated with worse midlife health compared to later births for black women but not for white women. Yet, we find no evidence of health advantages of delaying first births from adolescence to young adulthood for either group. Births in young adulthood are linked to worse health than later births among both black and white women. Our results also indicate that marriage following a nonmarital adolescent or young adult first birth is associated with modestly worse self-assessed health compared to remaining unmarried. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  13. Marital Status and Persons With Dementia in Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Noelle L; Richardson, Virginia E; Schuman, Donna

    2017-03-01

    Despite the prevalence of dementia among residents in assisted living (AL), few researchers have focused on the length of stay (LOS) in AL among this population. Little is known about the factors that may contribute to LOS in these settings, particularly for residents with dementia. In the current study, a sub-set of AL residents with dementia (n = 112) was utilized to examine whether marital status was associated with LOS in AL as this has received sparse attention in previous research despite studies suggesting that marital status influences LOS in other health-care and long-term care settings. The Andersen-Newman behavioral model was used as a conceptual framework for the basis of this study of LOS, marital status, and dementia in AL. We hypothesized that persons with dementia who were married would have longer LOS than unmarried persons with dementia in AL. Cox regression was used to examine the association between marital status and LOS in AL of residents with dementia and whether activities of daily living were related to discharge from AL settings among married and unmarried residents with dementia. Main effects for marital status and the interaction between marital status and mobility with LOS were examined. Study findings provide information related to the psychosocial needs of AL residents with dementia and offer implications for assessing the on-going needs of vulnerable AL residents.

  14. 10 CFR 1042.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status generally. A... status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A...

  15. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at ... and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected ...

  16. Does Marital Status Influence the Parenting Styles Employed by Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…

  17. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  18. The Effects of Occupational Prestige, Marital Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the perceptions of mothers as a function of their marital status, prestige and technological level of their jobs. 320 university students and civil servants participated in the study. Each subject rated a briefly described working woman as a stimulus person on a 24 seven-point bipolar scales that describe ...

  19. Effect of gender and marital status on perceived organizational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the influence of gender and marital status on perceived organizational justice and perceived organizational support. Design of this study is cross-sectional as data were collected at one point in time. The research instrument was self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and three participants ...

  20. Age, Marital Status And Religion As Predictors Of Sexual Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... individual's religion and marital status will have significant impact on the sexual risk cognition of such an individual. Psychologists, Teachers and Counselors should therefore pay attention to these variables in helping students improve their sexual risk cognition. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ...

  1. Influence of Age, Educational Achievement and Marital Status on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore examined the influence of age, educational achievement and marital status on compliance behaviour of bank automobile drivers to traffic rules and regulations. The sample size consists of 555 randomly selected bank automobile drivers currently employed in 6 commercial banks in Lagos, Nigeria.

  2. 29 CFR 36.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.530 Marital or parental status. (a) General. A recipient... household or principal wage earner in such employee's or applicant's family unit. (b) Pregnancy. A recipient...

  3. Parental Marital Status Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Susan; Udry, J. Richard

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed white virgin junior high school students in 1980 and again in 1982. Found effects of parental marital status on sexual behavior and on age-graded deviance, suggesting general loss of parental control. Control loss was associated with disruption of two-parent household for boys and with the state of living in a fatherless household for…

  4. 6 CFR 17.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marital or parental status. 17.530 Section 17.530 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... all job-related purposes, including commencement, duration, and extensions of leave, payment of...

  5. Parental marital status and peer influence as corelates of teenage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of parental marital status and peer influence on the occurrence of teenage pregnancy among 324 female teens in south-south, Nigeria. The participants responded to a valid scale. The Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression procedures were used to investigate the predictive capacity of ...

  6. Marriage Meets the Joneses: Relative Income, Identity, and Marital Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…

  7. Marital Birth and Early Child Outcomes: The Moderating Influence of Marriage Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, the present study tested whether the benefits of a marital birth for early child development diminish as parents' risk of having a nonmarital birth increases (N = 2,285). It was hypothesized that a child's likelihood of being born to unmarried parents is partly a function of father…

  8. Men's economic status and marital transitions of fragile families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Sassler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men's ability to fill the provider role remains a consistent requirement for marriage across the class spectrum and cross-nationally. Fiscal concerns appear less salient for transitions to parenthood or to informal unions such as cohabitation. Objective: This paper evaluates whether marital expectations and marital transitions of new mothers are associated with the economic characteristics of father. Methods: Analyses are based on observed and imputed data on fathers from the first two waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Logistic regression models assess factors predicting mothers' initial expectations of marrying their baby's father, and transitions into marital unions by the second interview. Results: Most women expect to marry their baby's father, although estimates are lower when men's data are repaired by imputation. Multivariate analyses find mother's marital expectations are most strongly associated with men's educational attainment, but not with men's earnings at the child's birth. Transitions to marriage are positively associated with men's earnings levels, although estimates are considerably lower than previously reported thresholds. Furthermore, the odds of marrying do not increase monotonically as men's income level rises once missing data are imputed. Conclusions: Theories regarding prerequisites for marriage must better account for growing heterogeneity in the unmarried population. Standard economic predictors of marriage for the overall population are less applicable for this sample of new parents. Ultimately, this study highlights the importance of including information on missing fathers. Excluding them may produce misleading statistical associations between men's economic measures and women's marriage.

  9. Marital status of people with epilepsy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Kwon, Oh-Young; Cho, Yong-Won; Kim, Yosik; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Hoo-Won; Lee, Sang Kun; Jung, Ki-Young; Lee, Il Keun

    2010-11-01

    A multicentre face-to-face interview was conducted to identify factors contributing to the marital status of people with epilepsy (PWE) in Korea. The marriage rate of PWEs was only 80% and the divorce rate was more than double that in the general population. Among the single subjects, 34% replied that they were unmarried because of epilepsy, and 76% of divorced PWEs replied that epilepsy was the cause of the divorce. The factors affecting the single and divorced status in PWEs included gender, an earlier onset of seizure and seizure onset before marriage. Not informing the spouse of the disease before marriage for fear of discrimination was not related to disadvantage in marriage negotiation or to divorce. Social stigmatization of epilepsy continues and impacts on the marital status of PWEs in Korea. However, there is no correlation between the perceived and the enacted stigmas of epilepsy. Copyright © 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 5 CFR 720.901 - Equal opportunity without regard to politics or marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity without regard to politics or marital status. 720.901 Section 720.901 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Regard to Politics or Marital Status § 720.901 Equal opportunity without regard to politics or marital...

  11. Age, relationship status, and the planning status of births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hayford

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the United States historically, births to older mothers have been more likely to be planned than births to younger mothers, and births to unmarried women have been less likely to be planned than births to married women. As the average age of mothers has increased and more births have occurred outside of marriage in the United States, the intersection of these trends may have weakened the traditional linkage between age and birth planning status. In this article, we examine differences by maternal age in planning status of births using The 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. We find that age is strongly associated with planning status, but the association is reduced in magnitude when controlling for relationship status and is stronger for first and second births than for higher-parity births. Further, the association between union status and the planning status of births varies by race-ethnicity.

  12. Breastfeeding Initiation in Mothers with Repeat Cesarean Section: The Impact of Marital Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Graves, Whitney C; Masho, Saba W

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 90% of mothers with a primary C-section have a subsequent C-section. To date, research has demonstrated that primary C-sections are associated with breastfeeding noninitiation. However, it is unknown if this association persists after the primary C-section. Furthermore, literature has shown a differing relationship between breastfeeding initiations by marital status. Due to the high proportion of women who give birth while unmarried, investigating differences by marital status will add a significant contribution to breastfeeding literature. This study investigates the association between repeat C-section and breastfeeding initiation within marital status groups using a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Data from the 2004 to 2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System were analyzed. The sample was restricted to women with a previous singleton live birth who had C-section and whose infant was alive at the time of interview (N = 34,854). Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After adjusting for potential confounders, married women who had a repeat C-section were 2.2 times (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.69-2.77) more likely to never breastfeed compared to women with vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC). Similarly, the odds of breastfeeding noninitiation were 76% (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.47-2.12) higher among women with a repeat C-section compared to women with VBAC. No significant associations were exhibited among nonmarried women. Enhanced educational programs and counseling support may be needed to help families cope with delivery challenges and resulting stressors that may reduce their desire to initiate breastfeeding in the postpartum period.

  13. Marital Status, Lifestyle and Dementia: A Nationwide Survey in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Fan

    Full Text Available Evidence of an association between lifestyle and marital status and risk of dementia is limited in Asia.In this nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey, participants were selected by computerized random sampling from all 19 counties in Taiwan. A total of 10432 residents were assessed by a door-to-door in-person survey, among whom 7035 were normal and 929 were diagnosed with dementia using the criteria recommended by National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association. Premorbid lifestyle habits and demographic data including marital status were compared between normal subjects and participants with dementia.After adjustment for age, gender, education, body mass index, smoking, drinking, marital status, sleep habits, exercise, social engagement and co-morbidities including hypertension, diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases, an increased risk for dementia was found in people with widow or widower status (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.15-1.77 and people who used to take a nap in the afternoon (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.72. Decreased risk was found in people with the habit of regular exercise (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.09-0.16, adequate night sleep (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.39-0.76 and regular social engagement (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.36-0.77.Our results provide preliminary evidence of possible risk-reduction effects for dementia, including regular exercise even in modest amounts, social engagement and adequate night sleep, whereas people with the widow/widower status or who used to take an afternoon nap might have increased risk of dementia.

  14. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Greenleaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR], controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed patients. Results Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08–1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22–1.46], respectively and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00–1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03–1.29], respectively than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08–1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25–2.11], respectively than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P < 0.0001. Conclusions Even after controlling for other prognostic factors, married patients

  15. Fertility, birth timing and marital breakdown: a reinterpretation of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M J

    1984-10-01

    The conventional view that childlessness was associated with higher than average risk of marital breakdown was questioned on the basis of analysis of divorce records. The General Household Survey (GHS) is a large scale multipurpose continuous household survey in Great Britain. Since 1979, it has contained an expanded family information section addressed to women under 50 which, for ever-married women, collects information about numbers and dates of marriages, births (both inside and outside marriage) and, in the case of marriages which have ended, the reason for ending (death, divorce or separation), the date when cohabitation ceased and the date of absolute decree if available. In 1980, there were 5017 ever-married women aged 16-49 for whom marriage and fertility histories were obtained. Some results are shown for the interval between separation and divorce based on life table methods for women aged 50 and under. The marriage duration data suggest that, apart from very short and very long durations, the proportion of separation not followed by divorce by 10 years is reasonably constant, about 13%. The median interval is around 2.5 years, with short and long duration marriages having above-average intervals, partly due to restictions on divorce in the early years of marriage. The proportion of marriages breaking down at various marriage durations by the fertility status at the start of the year in question is shown. The proportion is calculated as the number of marriages which were intact at various specified marriage durations, but which had broken down in 1, 5 or 10 years and which could have experienced the full period in the absence of breakdown. At short durations, early childbearing (including premarital births) is associated with higher than average probabilities of breakdown. The impression given by these results is different from other studies. Retrospective multipurpose surveys such as the GHS appear to have many advantages over administrative records.

  16. Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…

  17. Marital birth and early child outcomes: the moderating influence of marriage propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, the present study tested whether the benefits of a marital birth for early child development diminish as parents' risk of having a nonmarital birth increases (N = 2,285). It was hypothesized that a child's likelihood of being born to unmarried parents is partly a function of father characteristics that predict his capacity to promote child development. Results partially supported hypothesis. A positive association emerged between parental marriage and cognitive outcomes at age 3 only for children whose parents were likely to be married at the child's birth, suggesting average differences between children in married and unmarried families may overestimate the benefit of marriage in subpopulations most impacted by nonmarital birth. © 2012 The Author. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Relationships between happiness and gender, age and marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Alarcón

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research examines the relationships between happiness and variables of gender, age and marital status as well as the degrees of happiness most frequently experienced by people. The sample was constituted by 163 males and females, between the ages of 20 and 60 years, single and married, and from middle class strata. They were administered the Scale of Satisfaction with Life, developed by Diener, with and added item to measure the degrees of happiness. There is no significan! statistically difference between genders; according to age the only significan contras! was between 30 and 50 years, with the notation that the highest means corresponded to ages 50 and 60 years old; married people were found to be happier than single ones. In general, the majority reported feeling happy, the other degrees contained very few frecuencies.

  19. 13 CFR 113.3-1 - Consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. 113.3-1 Section 113.3-1 Business Credit and... of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. (a) This regulation does not prohibit the consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national...

  20. Domestic violence, marital control, and family planning, maternal, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiksin, Rebecca; Meekers, Dominique; Thompson, Susan; Hagopian, Amy; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2015-06-01

    Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste provide a context that facilitates violence against women. More than a third of ever-married Timorese women report physical and/or sexual domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by their most recent partner. DV violates women's rights and may threaten their reproductive health. Marital control may also limit women's reproductive control and healthcare access. Our study investigated relationships between DV and marital control and subsequent family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using logistic regression, we examined 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,951 women in Timor-Leste. We controlled for age, education, and wealth. We limited our analyses of pregnancy- and birth-related outcomes to those from the 6 months preceding the survey. Rural women with controlling husbands were less likely than other rural women to have an unmet need for family planning (Adj. OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9). Rural women who experienced DV were more likely than other rural women to have an unplanned pregnancy (Adj. OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-4.8), fewer than four antenatal visits (Adj. OR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.1-4.9), or a baby born smaller than average (Adj. OR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.4-6.7). DV and marital control were not associated with the tested outcomes among urban women. Given high rates of DV internationally, our findings have important implications. Preventing DV may benefit both women and future generations. Furthermore, rural women who experience DV may benefit from targeted interventions that mediate associated risks of negative family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes.

  1. Marital status behavior of women in the former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherbov, S; Darsky, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses the most recent data and life table analysis to describe the marital behaviour of women in the republics of the former USSR. For the first time a multistate life table analysis was used to describe the marital careers of women from all the 15 republics. In the near future, such a

  2. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Marital Status on Nuclear Submarine Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This thesis develops multivariate logit models to estimate the impact of marital status and the independent effect of dependent children on nuclear submarine officer retention beyond the minimum service requirement (MSR...

  4. Influence of age, marital status and environment on sexism in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    05] and environment of living [t (777) = 3.21, p<.01] are significant factors influencing hostile sex discrimination (sexism) in Nigeria. Results also indicated that benevolent sex discriminations are not significantly influenced by age, marital status ...

  5. Association of Educational Level and Marital Status With Obesity: A Study of Chinese Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Li, Chunxiao; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2018-04-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing rapidly in many countries. Socioeconomic inequalities might be important for this increase. The aim of this study was to determine associations of body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity with educational level and marital status in Chinese twins. Participants were adult twins recruited through the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), aged 18 to 79 years, and the sample comprised 10,448 same-sex twin pairs. Current height, weight, educational attainment, and marital status were self-reported. Regression analyses and structural equation models were conducted to evaluate BMI, overweight, and obesity associated with educational level and marital status in both sexes. At an individual level, both educational level and marital status were associated with higher BMI and higher risk of being overweight and obesity in men, while in women the effects of educational level on BMI were in the opposite direction. In within-Monozygotic (MZ) twin-pair analyses, the effects of educational level on BMI disappeared in females. Bivariate structural equation models showed that genetic factors and shared environmental confounded the relationship between education and BMI in females, whereas marital status was associated with BMI on account of significant positive unique environmental correlation apart in both sexes. The present data suggested that marital status and BMI were associated, independent of familiar factors, for both sexes of this study population, while common genetic and shared environmental factors contributed to education-associated disparities in BMI in females.

  6. Infertile Individuals’ Marital Relationship Status, Happiness, and Mental Health: A Causal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Habiballah Ahmadi Forooshany

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relationship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78, who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results: Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05 and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05. Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05. These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individuals disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health.

  7. Nutritional status, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odencrants, Sigrid; Bjuström, Tomas; Wiklund, Nils; Blomberg, Karin

    2013-10-01

    To describe and compare nutritional status, pulmonary function, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic illness that can lead to poor nutritional status due to an increased energy requirements related to laboured breathing. Inadequate nutritional intake has often been described in this patient group. Nutritional support for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who suffer from nutritional problems is essential, both for their sense of well-being and for their survival with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study design was descriptive and comparative. Quantitative data collection was carried out among 81 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (47 women and 34 men) with an average age of 65 years (SD 3·5). The Mini Nutritional Assessment was used to assess nutritional status. Participants who lived alone had worse nutritional status than those who did not live alone, and female participants had worse nutritional status than their male counterparts. No significant correlation was found between pulmonary function and nutritional status. This study contributes knowledge of a potential correlation between nutritional status, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be at an increased risk of malnutrition. Despite the previous results showing malnutrition and underweight to be common, the present study found that many of the participants were overweight, which may reflect a global health trend regardless of disease. Early identification of patients at risk of malnutrition is important. Registered nurses should be aware that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are female or who live alone may be at an increased risk of nutritional problems. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be offered information and support

  8. Cohabitation and marital status as predictors of mortality--an eight year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens

    2002-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a random.......25(0.93-1.69), adjusted for the same covariates. Inclusion of the health behaviour variables--smoking, diet and physical activity--one by one to a model with functional ability, self-rated health and one of the three determinants (cohabitation status, living with/without partner, marital status) showed no effect....... We suggest that in future studies of social relations and mortality, cohabitation status is considered to replace marital status as this variable may account for more of the variation in mortality....

  9. An analysis of income differentials by marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Madalozzo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmarried cohabitation has become a more frequently observed phenomenon over the last three decades, and not only in the United States. The objective of this work is to examine income differentials between married women and those who remain single or cohabitate. The empirical literature shows that, while the marriage premium is verified in different studies for men, the result for women is not conclusive. The main innovation of my study is the existence of controls for selection. In this study, we have two sources of selectivity: into the labor force and into a marital status category. The switching regressions and the Oaxaca decomposition results demonstrate the existence of a significant penalty for marriage. Correcting for both types of selection, the difference in wages varies between 49% and 53%, when married women are compared with cohabiting ones, and favors non-married women. This result points to the existence of a marriage penalty.O casamento não oficializado, coabitação, tem se tornado cada vez mais freqüente nas últimas décadas. O objetivo deste trabalho é examinar a relação entre os salários das mulheres casadas e das solteiras ou coabitantes. A literatura a este respeito mostra que, enquanto o prêmio financeiro para o casamento é verificado em diversos estudos e países quando o objeto de estudo são os homens, o resultado para mulheres não é conclusivo. A principal inovação do presente estudo é a existência de controles para seleção, tanto na escolha em participar da força de trabalho como de alterar seu estado civil. Regressões "switching" e decomposição de Oaxaca mostram a existência de uma penalização financeira para mulheres casadas. Corrigindo para ambos os tipos de seleção, a diferença nos salários das mulheres casadas com relação às coabitantes varia entre 49% e 53%, favorecendo as coabitantes. Este resultado aponta para a existência de uma penalidade ao casamento.

  10. Mothers’ Employment, Marital Status and Educational Level on Students’ Academic Achievement in Business Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subuola Catherine Abosede

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mother’s personality is a build-up of demographic factors among which employment, marital status and educational level are prominent in shaping child’s abilities and aspirations. This study therefore, determines the influence of mothers’ employment, marital status and educational level on students’ academic achievement in Business studies. Ex-post facto survey design and stratified random sampling technique were adopted for the study.Structured Questionnaire (MEMSEL Scale, r= .76 and Business Studies Achievement Test (r=.80 with a section for demographic data were administered on a sample of Two Hundred and Fifty students from five (5 schools in Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria. Multiple regressionstatisticswas used for data analysisat 0.05 level of significance.The findings revealed thatthere was a significant but negative relationship between mothers' marital status and academic achievement of student's (r=-.195; p .05; academic achievement and educational level (r = .091; p >.05; employment status and marital status (r = -.033; p > .05 and marital status and educational level (r = .079; p > .05. However there was a significant combined contribution on the independent variables on students' academic achievement in Business Studies (Adj. R=.037; F(3,237=4.111;P <.05.Thus, it was recommended that parents should provide positive home environments for their children, while school operators should respond favourably and focus attention on the children’s needs.

  11. Marital status and twins' health and behavior: an analysis of middle-aged Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; McGue, Matt; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To disentangle the influences on health of selection processes related to genetic and rearing environmental factors from factors related to marriage benefits. We compared health status among same-sex male and female twin pairs who lived together during childhood and were discordant...... or concordant on adult marital status. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of middle-aged Danish twins was conducted in 1998 to 1999. This study included 1175 same-sex twin pairs (52.5% monozygotic (MZ) and 47.5% dizygotic (DZ)). Data were obtained on adult marital status and on height, body...

  12. Cohabitation and marital status as predictors of mortality--an eight year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens

    2002-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a rando...

  13. Impact of Marital Status on 20-Year Subjective Well-being Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Krause, James S; Saunders, Lee L; Clark, Jillian M R

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that marital status has a significant impact on subjective well-being (SWB). However, research examining the long-term influence of marital status on SWB after spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited. To identify the relationship between marital status and SWB trajectories over time, using 20 years of longitudinal data. We conducted a cohort study, including 1,032 participants surveyed 5 times in 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013. Participants were identified from outpatient records of 2 Midwestern hospitals and 1 Southeastern specialty hospital. The Life Situation Questionnaire-Revised (LSQ-R) was used to measure multiple aspects of SWB. A multilevel model was applied to analyze the 5 repeated measurements. The married or cohabitating participants enjoyed the best SWB at baseline, but their home satisfaction and global satisfaction declined over time and their social isolation increased slightly. For divorced, separated, or widowed people, the negative effects of marital loss attenuated over time. For single individuals, SWB, except for environmental barriers, did not change positively over time if they remained single. Using longitudinal data with 5 repeated measurements, our study showed a complicated relationship between marital and relationship status with SWB and how these relationships change over time for people with chronic SCI.

  14. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana; Christensen, Kaare; Gatz, Margaret; Johnson, Wendy; Kaprio, Jaako; Korhonen, Tellervo; Niederheiser, Jenae; Petersen, Inge; Rose, Richard J; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-14

    From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage as a source of resources that are associated with subjective health.

  15. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana

    2016-01-01

    genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance......From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate...... in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage...

  16. Marital Status, Relationship Distress, and Self-rated Health: What Role for "Sleep Problems"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Robert; Arber, Sara

    2015-09-01

    This paper analyzes data from a nationally representative survey of adults in the United Kingdom (Understanding Society, N = 37,253) to explore the marital status/health nexus (using categories that include a measure of relationship distress) and to assess the role that sleep problems play as a potential mediator. Findings indicate how it is not just the "form" marital status takes but also the absence or presence of relationship distress that is essential to self-rated health. We demonstrate two further findings that: (1) sleep problems act as a mediator of the link between marital status/relationship distress and self-rated health, most notably for those in cohabiting relationships with medium/high distress or who have a history of relationship loss, and (2) the mediating role of sleep problems differs for divorced men and women. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  17. Econometric analysis of the effect of marital status change on wages in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodionova, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    What effect does change of the marital status of the individual to his wages in Russia? We used matching estimators (simple matching estimator and propensity score matching) on RLMS data for 2000–2009. On the basis of estimates we analyzed different transitions of changing marital status («not married — registered marriage », «registered marriage — divorced», «divorced — civil marriage», «divorced — registered marriage», «registered marriage — widow (widower)», «registered marriage — civil ma...

  18. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Non-marital Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2011-12-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e. breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a non-marital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of these, 76% broke-up. Black mothers had the highest rates of dissolution. Maximum likelihood discrete-time event history results revealed that younger mothers were more likely to experience cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Fewer relationship-specific investments and more family chaos were also associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Mothers' multipartnered fertility and fewer relationship-specific investments were associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution with a continued romantic relationship. Post-dissolution, mothers who maintained a romantic relationship were more likely to reenter a union with their former partner while mothers whose union broke-up most often remained so.

  19. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Non-marital Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e. breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a non-marital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of these, 76% broke-up. Black mothers had the highest rates of dissolution. Maximum likelihood discrete-time event history results revealed that younger mothers were more likely to experience cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Fewer relationship-specific investments and more family chaos were also associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Mothers’ multipartnered fertility and fewer relationship-specific investments were associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution with a continued romantic relationship. Post-dissolution, mothers who maintained a romantic relationship were more likely to reenter a union with their former partner while mothers whose union broke-up most often remained so. PMID:22081737

  20. Using Marital Status and Continuous Marital Satisfaction Ratings to Predict Depressive Symptoms in Married and Unmarried Women With Systemic Sclerosis: A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Brooke; Rice, Danielle B; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D

    2016-08-01

    Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as satisfied versus unsatisfied, which reduces statistical power and does not generate clinically useful information on mental health across the satisfaction spectrum. Our objective was to demonstrate a novel regression approach to evaluate mental health in women with systemic sclerosis (SSc), comparing married and unmarried women, accounting for continuously measured marital satisfaction. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and marital satisfaction with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7. A single multiple linear regression model was used to predict CES-D scores from marital status and, among married women, continuously measured marital satisfaction, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Of 725 women, 494 (68%) were married or living as married. On average, married women had mean CES-D scores that were 2.0 points (0.19 SDs) lower than unmarried women (P = 0.013). Among married women, a 1.0 SD increase in marital satisfaction was associated with a 2.2 point (0.21 SDs) decrease in CES-D scores (P marital satisfaction scores were below the 19th percentile had greater predicted depressive symptoms than unmarried women. Married women's predicted CES-D scores ranged from 6.7 points lower to 6.9 points higher than those of unmarried women, depending on marital satisfaction. Comparisons of mental health in married and unmarried patients with rheumatic diseases should include continuously measured marital satisfaction. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Marital status and work-related health limitation: a longitudinal study of young adult and middle-aged Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Simpson, Gaynell M

    2016-01-01

    The literature establishes clearly the health benefit of marriage. Much less clear from published data is whether work-related health (dis)advantages accruing to marital transitions persist over time or are limited to the short term. Informed by the marital resources and marital crisis perspectives, this study sought links between marital status measured via three approaches and work-related health limitation, exploring these relationships across genders. The study employed data from eight recent waves (1996-2010) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It applied generalized estimating equations to estimate the impacts, on work-related health limitation, of current marital status; of marital transition 2 years in the past; and of marital transition 8 years in the past. Our gender-specific results indicated that lower likelihood of work-related health limitation was associated with a married status, a stable married status, and an entry into marriage. Results are consistent overall with the marital resources perspective. The use of three different approaches to evaluate the relationship of marital status to work-related health limitation may explain the gender-specific results.

  2. Marital Status, Ethnicity, Academic Achievement, and Adjustment Strains: The Case of Graduate International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel; Kavanaugh, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to empirically assess the relation of marital status, ethnicity and academic achievement in relation to the adjustment strains experienced by international graduate students. One hundred and forty nine international students attending five universities in the United States participated in the study. Correlational and multiple…

  3. Suicidal behaviour in adolescents: associations with parental marital status and perceived parent-adolescent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponnet, K.; Vermeiren, R; Jespers, I.; Mussche, B.; Ruchkin, V.; Schwab-Stone, M.; Deboutte, D.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Because equivocal findings exist with regard to the relationship between adolescents' suicidal behaviour and parental marital status, the aim of this study was to investigate this relationship and in particular the effect of the perceived parent-adolescent relationship on this

  4. The Influence of Sex, Marital Status, and Tenure of Service on Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Olatunji, S.O.. Department of Psychology, Faculty of the Social Sciences, ... England (1967) were employed to assess job stress and satisfaction respectively. ... The study of. Tyler Ellison (1994) illustrated the effect of marital status on job satisfaction. They found out that married individuals experience less. Vol. 8 (1) Serial ...

  5. Impacts of Marital Status and Parental Presence on the Material Hardship of Families with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Robert I.

    This study investigated how marriage, cohabitation, single parenthood, and the presence of biological parents affected the incomes and material hardships of children. Data from the 1997 and 1999 National Survey of America's Families were used to examine recent changes in the marital status and household structure of families with children, how…

  6. The influence of marital status on the social dysfunction of schizophrenia patients in community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-jie Li

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirmed that bad marital status is associated with higher odds of social dysfunction among patients with schizophrenia living in the community. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders.

  7. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.

  8. Impact of job burnout, age and marital status on job involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of job burnout, age and marital status on job involvement among banking personnel. The sample consists of 100 employees working in banks of Eritrea, Asmara, North East Africa, selected randomly. Job involvement scale developed by Lodhal and Kejner (1965) and ...

  9. Marital status and risk of HIV infection in slum settlements of Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the association between marital status and risk of HIV infection in urban slums of Nairobi. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population-based survey nested in an ongoing Demographic Surveillance System in two urban slums in Nairobi. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression ...

  10. Marital Status, Home Environments, and Family Strain: Complex Effects on Preschool Children's School Readiness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, SeungHee Claire; Peterson, Mieko Fuse

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the complex associations among marital status, home environments, and family strain (i.e. income, maternal depressive symptoms, social support, and parenting stress), as they predict preschool children's pre-academic and social skills at 36 and 54 months. Findings from the [National Institute of Child Health and Human…

  11. Depressive symptoms among older adults: the impact of early and later life circumstances and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yumiko; Doyle, Martha; Henretta, John C; Timonen, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on depression and the life course by examining the impact of both early and later life circumstances on depressive symptoms among men and women aged 65 and over in Ireland. Data are from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a nationally representative sample of 8504 community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older. About 3507 respondents aged 65 years and over were included in the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the childhood and early adult life circumstances associated with marital status. A series of nested models were estimated to evaluate which childhood and adulthood circumstances are associated with depressive symptoms. Models were estimated separately for men and women. Ill health in childhood and in later life has a strong and direct effect on depression in later life for both men and women. Other early stressors are mediated by later circumstances. Marital status is a significant independent predictor of depression in later life. Later life circumstances mediate between some marital statuses and depressive symptoms. When later life circumstances are included, widowhood and, for men, divorce, are directly associated with depression, but singlehood is not. Income in later life is strongly associated with depressive symptoms for women. Both early and later life circumstances affect late-life depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that previous studies which did not consider both may have underestimated or overestimated the effect of marital status, education, current health and education on depressive symptoms.

  12. The effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in diabetes mortality in Andalusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; Córdoba Doña, Juan Antonio; Goicolea Julían, Isabel; Rodríguez, Gabriel Jesús; Santos Sánchez, Vanesa; Mayoral Sánchez, Eduardo; Aguilar Diosdado, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To assess the modifying effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) in Andalusia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Andalusian Longitudinal Population Database. DM deaths between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed by educational level and marital status. Age-adjusted rates (AARs) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were calculated using Poisson regression models, controlling for several social and demographic variables. The modifying effect of marital status on the association between educational level and DM mortality was evaluated by introducing an interaction term into the models. All analyses were performed separately for men and women. There were 18,158 DM deaths (10,635 women and 7,523 men) among the 4,229,791 people included in the study. The risk of death increased as the educational level decreased. Marital status modified social inequality in DM mortality in a different way in each sex. Widowed and separated/divorced women with the lowest educational level had the highest MRRs, 5,1 (95%CI: 3,6-7,3) and 5,6 (95% CI:3,6-8,5) respectively, while single men had the highest MRR, 3,1 (95%CI: 2,7-3,6). Educational level is a key determinant of DM mortality in both sexes, and is more relevant in women, while marital status also plays an outstanding role in men. Our results suggest that in order to address inequalities in DM mortality, the current focus on individual factors and self-care should be extended to interventions on the family, the community, and the social contexts closest to patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Wife's employment status and marital duration in a population filing for divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R P; Maneker, J S

    1987-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2% random sample of all couples who filed for divorce/dissolution in California in each of the 6 years, 1966-1971, in order to examine the relationship between wife's employment status and marital duration to separation. Using exchange theory, anomie theory, and role conflict as basic theoretical perspectives, the elaboration analysis of the zero order relationship is discussed vis a vis the findings that housewives are likely to be married longer before separation than employed wives, except when they marry very young. The analysis shows the enhancement of our zero order relationship for housewives marrying in their 20's, having an education of high school or above, and having been previously married. Furthermore, a causal linkage is posited between wife's employment status, presence of children, and marital duration to separation, which shows the zero order relationship to be non-spurious through the interpretation that occurred when controlling on presence of children.

  14. Effect of marital status on duration of treatment for mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Penning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-established link between marital status and mental health, but previous research has produced mixed results about the reasons for this relationship. Some studies propose that marriage provides protection from stressors and increases personal coping abilities (the causation perspective, whereas other studies argue that marriage markets “weed out” individuals predisposed to illness (the selection perspective. This article addresses the causation-versus-selection debate by examining the effect of marital status on duration of treatment for mental illness. The empirical analysis uses longitudinal data and GEE models to estimate group-level differences in duration of treatment. The results suggest that marriage does not appear to confer a health advantage in terms of duration of treatment. However, the study demonstrates that the never-married experience longer treatment time than the married, divorced, and widowed.

  15. Effect of marital status on duration of treatment for mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-established link between marital status and mental health, but previous research has produced mixed results about the reasons for this relationship. Some studies propose that marriage provides protection from stressors and increases personal coping abilities (the causation perspective, whereas other studies argue that marriage markets “weed out” individuals predisposed to illness (the selection perspective. This article addresses the causation-versus-selection debate by examining the effect of marital status on duration of treatment for mental illness. The empirical analysis uses longitudinal data and GEE models to estimate group-level differences in duration of treatment. The results suggest that marriage does not appear to confer a health advantage in terms of duration of treatment. However, the study demonstrates that the never-married experience longer treatment time than the married, divorced, and widowed.

  16. The Rise in Female Participation in Colombia: Children, Education or Marital Status

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Raquel; Peña, Ximena; Amador, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Colombia has experienced a secular increase in female labor participation, which passed from nearly 47% in 1984 to 65% in 2006. We decompose the evolution of participation into changes in the composition of the population and changes in the participation rates by groups (defined according to the variables that appear most relevant: educational attainment, fertility and marital status). The increase in participation is driven by the increase in the participation rate of women who were married ...

  17. Marital status and survival in pancreatic cancer patients: a SEER based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Baine

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that marital status affects survival in patients with different types of cancer. However, its role in the survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether there was an association between marital status and overall survival (OS in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC.Adult patients diagnosed with PDAC between 1998 and 2003 with known marital statuses were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of the National Cancer Institute. OS for these patients was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparative risks of mortality were evaluated by using univariate and multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models.Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that the median overall survival of patients was 4 months and 3 months (p<0.001 for married and unmarried patients, respectively. Subgroup analysis on patients with cancer-directed surgery showed that the median survival was 16 months and 13 months (P<0.0005 for married and unmarried groups, respectively. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age, race, sex, stage, year of diagnosis, radiation therapy and cancer-directed surgery showed that patients who were married at the time of diagnosis had a significantly decreased risk of death at both 2 months (15% risk reduction and 3 years (13% risk reduction post diagnosis.Marital status is an independent prognostic factor of both perioperative and long-term survival in patients with PDAC. This observation may suggest a suboptimally met psychosocial need among PDAC patients that is partially fulfilled by the support system provided by marriage.

  18. Parents’ marital status and child physical abuse potential: the mediation of depression symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2017-01-01

    Informed by a social interactional framework of stress and parenting, the aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of depression symptoms on the asso- ciation between parents’ marital status (married and divorced parents) and child physical abuse potential, in a Portuguese community sample. It was hypothesized that the possible observed differences between divorced and married parents in the child physical abuse potential would be explained by their depression symptoms. Parents (...

  19. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict Among Employed Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M

    2012-03-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents. Findings indicate that single mothers feel more home-to-job conflict than single fathers, married mothers, and married fathers. Some predictors of home-to-job conflict vary by marital status and gender. Job pressure is related to home-to-job conflict more for single parents than for married parents. Age of children is related to conflict for single fathers only. Whereas an unsupportive workplace culture is related to conflict, especially for married fathers, the lack of spouses' share of domestic responsibilities is related to conflict, especially for married mothers. These findings indicate that marital status and gender create distinct contexts that shape employed parents' perceived home-to-job conflict.

  20. Parental socioeconomic status and birth weight distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Birth weight is one of the most impor- tant determinants of perinatal well. -being and survival. It may be influenced by socioeconomic status among other factors. Objective: To evaluate the influ- ence of parental socioeconomic status on birth weight distribution of term infants. Patients ...

  1. Status of Birth Outcomes in Clients of the Nurse-Family Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorland, William; Currie, Dustin W

    2017-05-01

    Background The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is a national, evidence-based home visiting program currently serving over 30,000 first-time, low-income mothers. Prior to public implementation, three foundational randomized controlled trials demonstrated program effectiveness in achieving beneficial birth, child development, and maternal life-course outcomes. This study describes birth outcomes of contemporary NFP clients compared to a reference cohort, providing the first evidence of program effect on a nation-wide basis during scale-up. Methods A cohort of NFP clients beginning the program between 7/1/2007-6/30/2010 was compared to a reference cohort of first-time mothers from publicly available birth data (US Natality Data). Employing propensity score matching, NFP clients (n = 27,195) were each matched to three controls based on maternal age, race-ethnicity, smoking status, education, and marital status. Measures of low birth weight and preterm birth were compared between clients and controls using McNemar's Tests. Results Similar to the foundational trials, no significant difference in low birth weight was observed (NFP 9.4%, matched controls 9.6%, p = 0.20). However, in contrast to the foundational trials, the incidence of preterm births in NFP clients was significantly lower than in matched controls (8.7% vs. 12.3%, respectively; p NFP birth outcomes employing data pooling techniques (overcoming the statistical power limitations of the original foundational trials) has shown a trend toward a favorable program effect in the incidence of preterm births. The present study provides evidence of such an effect in a well-powered evaluation of recent clients during nation-wide scale-up, with these results meriting further confirmation.

  2. Education, marital status, and risk of hip fractures in older men and women: the CHANCES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetou, V; Orfanos, P; Feskanich, D; Michaëlsson, K; Pettersson-Kymmer, U; Ahmed, L A; Peasey, A; Wolk, A; Brenner, H; Bobak, M; Wilsgaard, T; Schöttker, B; Saum, K-U; Bellavia, A; Grodstein, F; Klinaki, E; Valanou, E; Papatesta, E-M; Boffetta, P; Trichopoulou, A

    2015-06-01

    The role of socioeconomic status in hip fracture incidence is unclear. In a diverse population of elderly, higher education was found to be associated with lower, whereas living alone, compared to being married/cohabiting, with higher hip fracture risk. Educational level and marital status may contribute to hip fracture risk. The evidence on the association between socioeconomic status and hip fracture incidence is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the potential association of education and marital status with hip fracture incidence in older individuals from Europe and USA. A total of 155,940 participants (79 % women) aged 60 years and older from seven cohorts were followed up accumulating 6456 incident hip fractures. Information on education and marital status was harmonized across cohorts. Hip fractures were ascertained through telephone interviews/questionnaires or through record linkage with registries. Associations were assessed through Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting for several factors. Summary estimates were derived using random effects models. Individuals with higher education, compared to those with low education, had lower hip fracture risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.84, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.95]. Respective HRs were 0.97 (95 % CI 0.82-1.13) for men and 0.75 (95 % CI 0.65-0.85) for women. Overall, individuals living alone, especially those aged 60-69 years, compared to those being married/cohabiting, tended to have a higher hip fracture risk (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.02-1.22). There was no suggestion for heterogeneity across cohorts (P heterogeneity > 0.05). The combined data from >150,000 individuals 60 years and older suggest that higher education may contribute to lower hip fracture risk. Furthermore, this risk may be higher among individuals living alone, especially among the age group 60-69 years, when compared to those being married/cohabiting.

  3. Parents' Marital Distress, Divorce, and Remarriage: Links with Daughters' Early Family Formation Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used data from the Add Health study to estimate the effects of parents' marital status and relationship distress on daughters' early family formation transitions. Outcomes included traditional transitions (marriage and marital births) and nontraditional transitions (cohabitation and nonmarital births). Relationship distress among…

  4. Workload and the trajectory of marital satisfaction in newlyweds: job satisfaction, gender, and parental status as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R

    2011-06-01

    Stress, on average, is bad for relationships. Yet stress at work is not always associated with negative relationship outcomes. The premise of the current study was that associations between workload and trajectories of marital satisfaction depend on circumstances that may constrain or facilitate partners' ability to negotiate their multiple roles. We hypothesized that the covariance between changes in workload and marital satisfaction over time should be moderated by (a) the extent to which spouses like their work, (b) their parental status, and (c) their gender. Analyses drawing upon eight waves of data on workload, work satisfaction, and marital satisfaction from 169 newlywed couples assessed over four years confirmed these predictions. Specifically, across couples, demands at work covaried positively with marital satisfaction for spouses who were more satisfied with their jobs. For nonparent couples, increases in husbands' workload covaried with increases in marital satisfaction for both spouses. For parent couples, however, increases in husbands' workload covaried with declines in marital satisfaction for both spouses. Unexpectedly, for parent couples, increases in wives' workload corresponded with increased marital satisfaction. Finally, consistent with predictions, wives were more affected by their husbands' workload than vice versa. Thus, tension between work and marriage is not inevitable, instead depending on circumstances that facilitate or impair performance in multiple roles. Couples, employers, and practitioners should recognize the role that external circumstances play in determining how work and marital life interact. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Marital quality and loneliness as predictors for subjective health status in cardiac rehabilitation patients following percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roijers, Joost; Sunamura, Madoka; Utens, Elisabeth Mwj; Dulfer, Karolijn; Ter Hoeve, Nienke; van Geffen, Myrna; Draaijer, Jan; Steenaard, Rebecca; van Domburg, Ron T

    2016-08-01

    Low marital quality is associated with adverse health outcomes and lower personal well-being. Loneliness increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality and predicts poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between marital quality and loneliness and subjective health status in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) patients who underwent cardiac rehabilitation (CR). In a prospective cohort study, pPCI patients that followed CR were included between 2009-2011. A total of 223 patients responded to the Short Form 12 (SF-12) (subjective health status), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ-6) (marital quality) and University of California, Los Angeles - Revised (UCLA-R) questionnaires at baseline (pre-CR) and at three months (post-CR) or at 12 months follow-up. Subjective health status is displayed by a physical component summary (PCS) score and a mental component summary (MCS) score. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses were performed to test improvements in subjective health status. Changes over time in subjective health status scores were similar between patients with optimal marital quality vs patients with less optimal marital quality and non-lonely patients vs lonely patients. The MCS level at one-year follow-up of both patients with less optimal marital quality and lonely patients was lower compared with a healthy Dutch population (respectively; mean MCS score 47.3 (standard deviation (SD) 10.5); p = 0.013 and mean MCS score 46.1 (SD 11.2); p = 0.010). Both patients with less optimal marital quality and lonely patients did not reach the MCS level of a healthy Dutch population. Therefore, extra care and support should be given to these patients in a CR programme. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  6. Trends in total and cause-specific mortality by marital status among elderly Norwegian men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berntsen Kjersti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown large and increasing relative differences in mortality by marital status in several countries, but few studies have considered trends in cause-specific mortality by marital status among elderly people. Methods The author uses discrete-time hazard regression and register data covering the entire Norwegian population to analyze how associations between marital status and several causes of death have changed for men and women of age 75-89 from 1971-2007. Educational level, region of residence and centrality are included as control variables. There are 804 243 deaths during the 11 102 306 person-years of follow-up. Results Relative to married persons, those who are never married, divorced or widowed have significantly higher mortality for most causes of death. The odds of death are highest for divorcees, followed by never married and widowed. Moreover, the excess mortality among the non-married is higher for men than for women, at least in the beginning of the time period. Relative differences in mortality by marital status have increased from 1971-2007. In particular, the excess mortality of the never married women and, to a lesser extent, men has been rising. The widening of the marital status differentials is most pronounced for mortality resulting from circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases (women, other diseases and external deaths (women. Differences in cancer mortality by marital status have been stable over time. Conclusions Those who are married may have lower mortality because of protective effects of marriage or selection of healthy individuals into marriage, and the importance of such mechanisms may have changed over time. However, with the available data it is not possible to identify the mechanisms responsible for the increasing relative differences in mortality by marital status in Norway.

  7. Work and marital status in relation to depressive symptoms and social support among women with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, May; Georgiades, Anastasia; László, Krisztina D; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Janszky, Imre; Ahnve, Staffan

    2007-11-01

    Work and marital status have been shown to be associated with health outcome in women. However, the effect of employment and marriage on psychosocial functioning has been studied predominantly in healthy subjects. We investigated whether work and marital status are associated with depressive symptoms, social support, and daily stress behavior in women with coronary artery disease (CAD). Data of 105 women with CAD and of working age were analyzed. General linear models were used to determine the association between work and marital status and depressive symptoms, social support, and daily stress behavior. Women who were working at the time of measurement had lower levels of depressive symptoms (7.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 12.1 +/- 0.9, p women, whereas marital status was not related to any of the outcome variables. Results were similar after adjusting for potential confounders, that is, age, education, self-reported health, and risk factors for CAD. There was no significant interaction between marital status and working status on depressive symptoms, social support, or daily stress behavior. In women with CAD, all working had lower levels of depressive symptoms and a better social integration than those not working, regardless of reason for being nonemployed. Daily stress behavior, depression, and social support did not differ between cohabiting and not cohabiting women. Future interventions should take into consideration that women with CAD who are unemployed may have a higher risk for depression and social isolation and, therefore, poor clinical outcomes.

  8. The effect of marital status on breast cancer-related outcomes in women under 65: A SEER database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinyard, Leslie; Wirth, Lorinette Saphire; Clancy, Jennifer M; Schwartz, Theresa

    2017-04-01

    Marital status is strongly associated with improved health and longevity. Being married has been shown to be positively associated with survival in patients with multiple different types of malignancy; however, little is known about the relationship between marital status and breast cancer in younger women. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of marital status on diagnosis, and survival of women under the age of 65 with breast cancer. The SEER 18 regions database was used to identify women between the ages of 25-64 diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the years 2004-2009. Logistic regression was used to predict later stage diagnosis by marital status and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare breast cancer-related and all-cause survival by marital status classification. Models were stratified by AJCC stage. After adjusting for age, race, and ER status, unmarried women were 1.18 times more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage than married women (95% CI 1.15, 1.20). In adjusted analysis unmarried women were more likely to die of breast cancer and more likely to die of all causes than married women across all AJCC stages. Younger unmarried women with breast cancer may benefit from additional counseling, psychosocial support and case management at the time of diagnosis to ensure their overall outcomes are optimized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational group, educational level, marital status and deleterious habits among individuals with maxillofacial fractures: retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esses, Diego-Felipe-Silveira; Sá, Carlos-Diego-Lopes; Silva, Paulo-Goberlânio-de Barros; Bezerra, Thâmara-Manoela-Marinho; Carvalho, Francisco-Samuel-Rodrigues; de Medeiros, José-Rômulo; Soares, Eduardo-Costa-Studart

    2018-01-01

    Background To investigate the occupational profile, educational level, marital status and deleterious habits to the health of patients with maxillofacial fractures of a population of northeastern Brazil. Material and Methods A retrospective study of patients records admitted to the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital (Fortaleza, Brazil) who sustained maxillofacial fractures was conducted in the period between 2006 and 2015. Results A total of 338 patients rendered 355 fractures. Males were the most affected (pmaxillofacial fractures in a Brazilian population during the study period. Key words:Epidemiological studies, trauma, facial bones. PMID:29274150

  10. Effect of marital status on the outcome of patients undergoing elective or urgent coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Israel M; Gaglia, Michael A; Torguson, Rebecca; Minha, Sa'ar; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2013-10-01

    Marriage confers various health advantages in the general population. However, the added value of marriage among patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) beyond the standard cardiovascular risk factors is not clear. This study aimed to assess the effects of marital status on outcomes of patients undergoing elective or urgent PCI. Clinical observational analysis of consecutive patients undergoing elective or urgent PCI from 1993 to 2011 was performed. Patients were stratified by marital status, comparing married to unmarried patients. Clinical outcome up to 12 months was obtained by telephone contact or office visit. A total of 11,216 patients were included in the present analysis; 55% were married and 45% unmarried. Significant differences in baseline characteristics were noted, including a lower prevalence of hypertension (86% vs 88%), diabetes (34% vs 38%), and smoking (19% vs 25%) among married vs unmarried patients, respectively (P < .001). However, married patients had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and family history of coronary artery disease. Early and late major adverse cardiac event rates were significantly lower for married vs unmarried patients up to 1 year (13.3% vs 8.2%, P < .001). Married status was independently associated with improved outcome in multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9). Married patients who undergo urgent or elective PCI have superior short- and long-term outcomes up to 1 year when compared with unmarried patients. These benefits persist after adjustment for multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors. © 2013.

  11. the relationship of birth status and early reproductive performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of selection for improvement in reproductive performance of sheep depends on measure- ment at any early age. For this reason selection of rams and ewes on their birth status, (single or twin), (Kennedy,. 1967; Turner, Hayman, Triffitt and Prunster, 1969), and ewes having multiple births during their first or ...

  12. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....

  13. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....

  14. LEADERSHIP POWER PERCEPTION OF AMATEUR AND PROFESSIONAL SOCCER COACHES ACCORDING TO THEIR MARITAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Konter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the leadership power perception of amateur and professional soccer coaches according to their marital status. Data were collected from 165 male soccer coaches (n=71 technical director-manager and A license, n=46 B license, n=48 amateur license. An adapted Turkish version of Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Self (PSQ-S for coaches and an information form were used for the data collection [21]. Cronbach reliability alphas of PSQ-S range between 0.65 and 0.84. Coaches’ data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of PSQ-S revealed significant differences between leadership power perception of amateur and professional soccer coaches according to their marital status related to Referent Power (RP [χ[sup]2[/sup] (3 = 9.61, p0.05. The results indicated that married coaches have higher perception of RP than single coaches, irrespective of being an amateur or a professional. Comparison of professional and amateur coaches suggests that while single professional coaches have higher perception of EP than married professional coaches, the results are the reverse for amateur coaches; in other words, amateur married coaches have higher perception of EP than amateur single coaches. There is a lack of research to draw more certain conclusions. Future researchers should also take into consideration personality, psychological skills, sport experience, age, taking responsibility, attributions, expectations, emotions, perception of achievement, etc.

  15. Marital Status and Problem Gambling Among Australian Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterill, Emma; Gill, Peter Richard; McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status-problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women. A community sample of Australian men (n = 92) and women (n = 91) gamblers aged from 60 to 90 years (M = 69.75, SD = 7.28) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results supported the moderated mediation model, with loneliness mediating the relationship between marital status and problem gambling for older men but not for older women. It appears that felt loneliness is an important predictor of problem gambling in older adults, and that meeting the social and emotional needs of un-partnered men is important.

  16. Cohabitation and marital status as predictors of mortality - an eight year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens Simon; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2002-01-01

    on the association with mortality. Hereby, we found no evidence of an indirect effect of health behaviours on the association between living arrangements and mortality. In contrast to many previous studies, we found no significant gender and age differences in the association between living arrangement and mortality...... sample of people born in 1920, 1930 and 1940 with baseline in 1990. Survival time for all individuals were established during the next 8 years until May 1998. Multivariate Cox analysis stratified by age and gender showed that individuals living alone experienced a significantly increased mortality......In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a random...

  17. The age structures and marital status differences of married and not married male suicide rates: 12 developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Male suicide rates, circa 1960, specific to age and marital status for 12 developed countries show married men with lower suicide rates than not married men. This results in differences in the age structures of married and not married suicide rates. We test three explanations of lower married than not married suicide rates: 1) Gibbs and Martin's (1964) marital status integration hypothesis; 2) marital status differences in norms regarding the acceptability of suicide; and 3) Durkheim's societal integration theory. All three explanations are supported by multivariate regressions. The strongest support is for societal integration. The models explain over 80% of the variance in both married and not married male age-specific suicide rates. These regression equations generate predicted suicide rates and these predicted rates are then used to see if they account for the observed age structures of married and not married men. They do in 19 of 24 tests.

  18. Status of Women in Society and Life Expectancy at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Novak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the status of women in society over life expectancy at birth. Based on the data of some of the socio-economic variables for 187 countries worldwide, collected by the United Nations within United Nations Development Programme – Human Development Report, we developed a regression model of life expectancy factors. Through empirical testing of the three hypotheses which refer to different aspects of the status of women in society, we found that the employment ratio between women and men has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth, which is, at least at first glance, unexpected. At the same time, the number of teenage births per 100 women aged 15–19 as well as gender inequality has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth.

  19. Marital and cohabitation status as predictors of mortality: a 10-year follow-up of an Italian elderly cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafato, Emanuele; Galluzzo, Lucia; Gandin, Claudia; Ghirini, Silvia; Baldereschi, Marzia; Capurso, Antonio; Maggi, Stefania; Farchi, Gino; For The Ilsa Working Group

    2008-11-01

    The relationship between mortality and marital status has long been recognized, but only a small number of investigations consider also the association with cohabitation status. Moreover, age and gender differences have not been sufficiently clarified. In addition, little is known on this matter about the Italian elderly population. The aim of this study is to examine differentials in survival with respect to marital status and cohabitation status in order to evaluate their possible predictive value on mortality of an Italian elderly cohort. This paper employs data from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ILSA), an extensive epidemiologic project on subjects aged 65-84 years. Of the 5376 individuals followed-up from 1992 to 2002, 1977 died, and 1492 were lost during follow-up period. The baseline interview was administered to 84% of the 5376 individuals and 65% of them underwent biological and instrumental examination. Relative risks of mortality for marital (married vs. non-married) and cohabitation (not living alone vs. living alone) categories are estimated through hazard ratios (HR), obtained by means of the Cox proportional hazards regression model, adjusting for age and several other potentially confounding variables. Non-married men (HR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52) and those living alone (HR=1.42; 95% CI: 1.05-1.92) show a statistically significant increased mortality risk compared to their married or cohabiting counterparts. After age-adjustment, women's survival is influenced neither by marital status nor by cohabitation status. None of the other covariates significantly alters the observed differences in mortality, in either gender. Neither marital nor cohabitation status are independent predictors of mortality among Italian women 65+, while among men living alone is a predictor of mortality even stronger than not being married. These results suggest that Italian men benefit more than women from the protective effect of living with someone.

  20. Influence of Marital Status on Attitude of Midwives towards OSCE and Their Performance in the Examination in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Emon Umoe; Mgbekem, Mary Achi; Nsemo, Alberta David; Ojong-Alacia, Mary Manyo; Nkwonta, Chigozie A.; Mobolaji-Olajide, O. M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the influence of marital status on the midwives' attitude towards OSCE and how this affects their performance in the examination. Two hypotheses guided the study. HO 1 sort to find out if there exist a significant influence of marital status of midwives on their attitude towards OSCE as well as performance in…

  1. Marital Status and Female and Male Contraceptive Sterilization in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke Carine Wim

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine female and male sterilization patterns in the United States based on marital status, and to determine if sociodemographic characteristics explain these sterilization patterns. Design Survival analysis of cross-sectional data from the female and male samples of the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Setting A trained female interviewer conducted in-home interviews. Patient(s) The 2006–2010 NSFG is designed to be representative of the U.S. civilian non-institutionalized population ages 15–44. Intervention(s) None. Main outcome measure(s) Vasectomy and tubal sterilization. Result(s) In the United States, vasectomy is the near exclusive domain of married men. Never- and ever-married single men and never-married cohabiting men had a low relative risk of vasectomy (RRs=0.1, 0.3, and 0.0, respectively) when compared to men in first marriages. Tubal sterilization was not limited to currently married, or even to ever-married women, though it was less common among never-married single women (RR=0.2) and more common among women in higher-order marriages (RR=1.8), as compared to women in first marriages. In contrast to vasectomy, differential use of tubal sterilization by marital status was driven in large part by differences in parity. Conclusion(s) This study shows that being unmarried at sterilization—an important risk factor for post-sterilization regret—was much more common among women than men. In addition to contributing to the predominance of female versus male sterilization, this pattern highlights the importance of educating women on the permanency of sterilization, as well as an opportunity to increase reliance on long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. PMID:25881875

  2. Organizational Commitment of Teachers: A Meta-Analysis Study for the Effect of Gender and Marital Status in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çogaltay, Nazim

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes the influence of Turkish teacher's gender and marital status on their perception of organizational commitment. In total, 30 independent research studies conducted across the country are investigated to analyze the relations between gender and organizational commitment, i.e., a sample group of 11,724 participants. In…

  3. Post maritalpost-marital return to natal home to have the first birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the tradition undermines survivorship status of mothers and their babies. Protracted spousal separation reduces partner(s)' involvement in childcare, increases vulnerability of women to STIs, HIV/AIDS infection, abandonment and union dissolution. . Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review Vol. 22(2) 2006: 51-64 ...

  4. Income inequality, parental socioeconomic status, and birth outcomes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.

  5. Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in Atwima ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.

  6. Using marital status and continuous marital satisfaction ratings to predict depressive symptoms in married and unmarried women with systemic sclerosis: A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, B.; Rice, D.B.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Steele, R.J.; Hagedoorn, M.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  7. Using Marital Status and Continuous Marital Satisfaction Ratings to Predict Depressive Symptoms in Married and Unmarried Women With Systemic Sclerosis : A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, Brooke; Rice, Danielle B.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective. Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  8. On the Relationship between Marital Opportunity and Teen Pregnancy: The Sex Ratio Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Used United Nations cross-national data to examine the relationship between low sex ratio, marital opportunity, and teen pregnancy. Geographical region, per capita gross national product, marital rate, and urban and rural status were used as control variables in analyses that utilized sex ratios to predict teen births. Overall, early childbearing…

  9. Marital status, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunction: a controlled study of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha C; McCormick, Brett A; Allen, Jeff

    2012-10-01

    Pathological gambling is a prevalent public health problem associated with depression, substance misuse, crime, and suicide. Despite these challenges, little attention has been directed to examining its negative consequences on families and marriages, including divorce rates, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunction. From February 2005 to June 2010, subjects with DSM-IV-defined pathological gambling and community controls were assessed for marital and family variables and indices of childhood maltreatment. The Family Assessment Device (FAD) was used to evaluate family functioning. Ninety-five subjects with DSM-IV pathological gambling and 91 control subjects without pathological gambling were recruited and assessed. They were similar in age, gender, and employment status. Persons with pathological gambling were more likely than controls to have ≥ 1 divorce (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56; 95% CI, 1.35-4.87; P = .004), to live alone (OR = 4.49; 95% CI, 1.97-10.25; P childhood maltreatment (OR = 4.02; 95% CI, 2.12-7.64; P divorce, childhood maltreatment, and the FAD roles subscale. People with pathological gambling are more likely than controls to have been divorced, to live alone, and to report having experienced childhood maltreatment than controls. They also report greater family dysfunction. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Women of the 1950s and the "normative" life course: the implications of childlessness, fertility timing, and marital status for psychological well-being in late midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Pienta, Amy Mehraban; Brown, Tyson H

    2007-01-01

    We explore women's psychological well-being in late midlife in relation to childlessness and timing of entry into motherhood. Using two U.S. surveys, Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (1992) and National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) (Sweet, Bumpass, & Call, 1988), we assess the well-being of childless women in their 50s compared to mothers with early, delayed, or normatively timed first births. We focus on the cohorts born between 1928 and 1941, who experienced strong normative pressures during the baby boom with regard to marriage and child-bearing. We find few differences among childless women but lower well-being among early mothers, related to singlehood and poorer socioeconomic status. Unmarried mothers are significantly disadvantaged regardless of maternal timing, controlling for socioeconomic status. Current maternal demands are independently related to well-being and help to explain observed differences in family satisfaction. Overall, childlessness and off-time child-bearing are related to midlife well-being through their link with more proximate factors, particularly current marital status, health, and socioeconomic status.

  11. A social work study on impact of gender, marital status and employment status on internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.

  12. Individual versus Household Migration Decision Rules: Gender and Marital Status Differences in Intentions to Migrate in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Bina; De Jong, Gordon F

    2009-03-01

    This research tests the thesis that the neoclassical micro-economic and the new household economic theoretical assumptions on migration decision-making rules are segmented by gender, marital status, and time frame of intention to migrate. Comparative tests of both theories within the same study design are relatively rare. Utilizing data from the Causes of Migration in South Africa national migration survey, we analyze how individually held "own-future" versus alternative "household well-being" migration decision rules effect the intentions to migrate of male and female adults in South Africa. Results from the gender and marital status specific logistic regressions models show consistent support for the different gender-marital status decision rule thesis. Specifically, the "maximizing one's own future" neoclassical microeconomic theory proposition is more applicable for never married men and women, the "maximizing household income" proposition for married men with short-term migration intentions, and the "reduce household risk" proposition for longer time horizon migration intentions of married men and women. Results provide new evidence on the way household strategies and individual goals jointly affect intentions to move or stay.

  13. Influence of marital status on testosterone levels-A ten year follow-up of 1113 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Stine A; Priskorn, Lærke; Jørgensen, Niels; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Linneberg, Allan; Juul, Anders; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2017-06-01

    Based on a large population of 1113 men aged 30-60 at baseline (mean: 44.1 years, standard deviation: 10.5), we investigated whether intra-individual changes in testosterone (T) and related reproductive hormones during a ten year period were dependent of marital status at baseline and follow-up. The studied men were part of a health survey in Denmark, conducted between 1982 and 1984 with a follow-up examination approximately ten years later. Data on reproductive hormones, measured in serum, and lifestyle and marital status were obtained at both time points. As expected, an age-related decline in testosterone was observed. However, independent of age and lifestyle, we observed that men who went from unmarried to married (n=81) during the study period experienced an accelerated age-related decline in testosterone (-6.6nmol/L) whereas men who went from married to unmarried (n=67) experienced an attenuated age-related decline (-2.3nmol/L). Men who were either married or unmarried at both time points (n=167, n=798, respectively) had a testosterone decline in between (-3.7nmol/L and -4.6nmol/L, respectively). Changes in T/LH ratio did not differ according to marital status indicating that the lowered T level is not compensated by increasing LH levels. This could suggest a modification of the gonadostat due to an adaptation to changing life circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Nutritional status of pregnant women and birth outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaim, Irena; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Pac, Agnieszka; Basta, Antoni; Jedrychowski, Wiesław

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional status of pregnant women influences the birth outcome. A prospective study, conducted in Krakow, in 382 non-smoking, no obese pregnant women between the ages of 18 - 35. The course of pregnancy was uncomplicated, finished with natural labor, in biological time limits. The impact of mother's nutritional status before pregnancy and weight gain on newborns weight, length and head circumference was estimated by multivariate linear regression. The infant birth weight depended on mothers nutritional status before pregnancy and was lower in the group of underweight subjects (3381.6 g vs. 3479.9 g, p = 0.022). Women with low increase in body mass during pregnancy delivered newborns with lower anthropometrics parameters. The increase in body weight of one category resulted in statistically significant increase of birth weight by 140.9 g, increase of length by 0.51 cm and in head circumference by 0.27 cm. Increase in body mass during pregnancy is particularly important in the group of women underweight before pregnancy. Change of nutritional habits before and in the course of pregnancy may have beneficial effects for intrauterine fetal development.

  15. The relationship of women's status and empowerment with skilled birth attendant use in Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Kyoko; Gipson, Jessica D

    2015-07-24

    Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa with 179,000 deaths occurring each year, accounting for 2-thirds of maternal deaths worldwide. Progress in reducing maternal deaths and increasing Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) use at childbirth has stagnated in Africa. Although several studies demonstrate the important influences of women's status and empowerment on SBA use, this evidence is limited, particularly in Africa. Furthermore, few studies empirically test the operationalization of women's empowerment and incorporate multidimensional measures to represent the potentially disparate influence of women's status and empowerment on SBA use across settings. This study examined the relationship of women's status and empowerment with SBA use in two African countries--Senegal and Tanzania--using the 2010 Demographic and Health Surveys (weighted births n = 10,688 in SN; 6748 in TZ). Factor analysis was first conducted to identify the structure and multiple dimensions of empowerment. Then, a multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between these empowerment dimensions and SBA use. Overall, women's status and empowerment were positively related to SBA use. Some sociodemographic characteristics showed similar effects across countries (e.g., age, wealth, residence, marital relationship, parity); however, women's status and empowerment influence SBA use differently by setting. Namely, women's education directly and positively influenced SBA use in Tanzania, but not in Senegal. Further, each of the dimensions of empowerment influenced SBA use in disparate ways. In Tanzania women's higher household decision-making power and employment were related to SBA use, while in Senegal more progressive perceptions of gender norms and older age at first marriage were related to SBA use. This study provides evidence of the disparate influences of women's status and empowerment on SBA use across settings. Results indicate that efforts to

  16. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  17. Marital status, education, and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Mainland China: the INTER-HEART study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Li, Wei; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of marital status and education on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a large-scale case-control study in China. This study was part of the INTER-HEART China case-control study. The main outcome measure was first AMI. Incident cases of AMI and control patients with no past history of heart disease were recruited. Controls were matching by age (±5 years) and sex. Marital status was combined into 2 categories: single and not single. Education level was classified into 2 categories: 8 years or less and more than 8 years. From 1999 to 2002, we recruited 2909 cases and 2947 controls from 17 cities. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, psychosocial factors, lifestyle, other factors, and mutually for other risk factors, the odds ratio (OR) for AMI associated with being single was 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.93) overall, 1.19 (0.84-1.68; P = 0.072) in men and 2.00 (1.39-2.86; P sex and marital status was statistically significant (P = 0.045). Compared with a high education level, a low education level increased the risk of AMI (1.45, 1.26-1.67); the odds ratios in men and women were 1.29 (1.09-1.52) and 1.55 (1.16-2.08), respectively. Single women with a low education level had a high risk of AMI (2.95, 1.99-4.37). Being single was consistently associated with an increased risk for AMI, particularly in women. In addition, as compared with high education level, low education level was associated with a higher risk of AMI in both men and women.

  18. An exploratory study of Japanese fathers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HPV and HPV vaccination: does marital status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Sharon Janet Bruce; Yoshioka, Eiji; Ito, Yoshiya; Konno, Ryo; Sasaki, Yuri; Kishi, Reiko; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    No studies on male attitudes towards HPV and HPV vaccination have been conducted in Japan, and little is known globally whether attitudes of single fathers differ to those living with a female partner. This exploratory study assessed whether Japanese fathers were likely to have their daughter vaccinated against HPV in a publically funded program and whether any differences existed regarding attitudes and knowledge about HPV according to marital status. Subjects were 27 fathers (16 single; 11 married) who took part in a study on HPV vaccine acceptability aimed at primary caregivers of girls aged 11-14 yrs in three Japanese cities between July and December 2010. Knowledge about HPV was extremely poor (mean score out of 13 being 2.74 ± 3.22) with only one (3.7%) participant believing he had been infected with HPV and most (81.4%) believing they had no or low future risk. No difference existed regarding knowledge or awareness of HPV according to marital status. Concerning perceived risk for daughters, single fathers were significantly more likely to believe their daughter was at risk for both HPV (87.5% versus 36.4%; p=0.01) and cervical cancer (75.0% versus 27.3%; p=0.02). Acceptability of free HPV vaccination was high at 92% with no difference according to marital status, however single fathers were significantly more likely (p=0.01) to pay when vaccination came at a cost. Concerns specific to single fathers included explaining the sexual nature of HPV and taking a daughter to a gynecologist to be vaccinated. Knowledge about HPV among Japanese fathers is poor, but HPV vaccine acceptability is high and does not differ by marital status. Providing sexual health education in schools that addresses lack of knowledge about HPV as well as information preferences expressed by single fathers, may not only increase HPV vaccine acceptance, but also actively involve men in cervical cancer prevention strategies. However, further large-scale quantitative studies are needed.

  19. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  20. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The Decoupling of Marriage and Parenthood? Trends in the Timing of Marital First Births, 1945–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Smock, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Family formation changed dramatically over the twentieth century in the United States. The impact of these changes on childbearing has primarily been studied in terms of nonmarital fertility. However, changes in family formation behavior also have implications for fertility within marriage. We use data from ten fertility surveys to describe changes in the timing of marital childbearing from the 1940s through the 21st century for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women. Based on harmonized data from the Integrated Fertility Survey Series, our results suggest increasing divergence in fertility timing for white women. A growing proportion of marriages begin with a premarital conception; at the same time, an increasing proportion of white women are postponing fertility within marriage. For black women, marital fertility is increasingly postponed beyond the early years of marriage. Evaluating the sequencing of marriage and parenthood over time is critical to understanding the changing meaning of marriage. PMID:24791019

  2. Education, Employment, Income, and Marital Status Among Adults Diagnosed With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases During Childhood or Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matary, Wael; Dufault, Brenden; Moroz, Stan P; Schellenberg, Jeannine; Bernstein, Charles N

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to assess levels of education attained, employment, and marital status of adults diagnosed with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) during childhood or adolescence, compared with healthy individuals in Canada. We performed a cross-sectional study of adults diagnosed with IBD in childhood or adolescence at Children's Hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba from January 1978 through December 2007. Participants (n = 112) answered a semi-structured questionnaire on educational achievements, employment, and marital status. Patients were matched for age and sex with random healthy individuals from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (controls, 5 per patient). Conditional binary logistic regression and random-effects ordinal logistic regression models were used for analysis. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 14.3 years (range, 3.1-34.5 years). Persons with IBD were more likely to earn more money per annum and attain a post-secondary school degree or receive a diploma than controls (odds ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.60; P education levels than individuals without IBD. This observation should provide reassurance to children with IBD and their parents. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02152241. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of marital status on testosterone levels-A ten year follow-up of 1113 men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine A; Priskorn, Lærke; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Based on a large population of 1113 men aged 30-60 at baseline (mean: 44.1 years, standard deviation: 10.5), we investigated whether intra-individual changes in testosterone (T) and related reproductive hormones during a ten year period were dependent of marital status at baseline and follow...... in testosterone was observed. However, independent of age and lifestyle, we observed that men who went from unmarried to married (n=81) during the study period experienced an accelerated age-related decline in testosterone (-6.6nmol/L) whereas men who went from married to unmarried (n=67) experienced...... an attenuated age-related decline (-2.3nmol/L). Men who were either married or unmarried at both time points (n=167, n=798, respectively) had a testosterone decline in between (-3.7nmol/L and -4.6nmol/L, respectively). Changes in T/LH ratio did not differ according to marital status indicating that the lowered...

  4. Eating patterns may mediate the association between marital status, body mass index, and blood cholesterol levels in apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pitsavos, Christos; Skoumas, Yannis; Stafanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-06-01

    Marital status has been recognized as a significant health-influencing factor, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate whether eating habits mediate the relationship between marital status and levels of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA Study. During 2001-2002, we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) from the Attica area, Greece; the sampling was stratified by the age-gender distribution of the region. Participants underwent clinical, anthropometric and psychological assessment. Food consumption was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as never married, married, divorced and widowed. Discriminant analysis revealed that vegetable consumption, followed by red meat, potatoes, poultry, and soft drinks were the factors with the higher discriminating ability among the food groups studied. In particular, dietary patterns of never married participants were characterized by the consumption of potatoes and red meat, those of married participants by nuts, legumes and fish, those of divorced participants by fruits, cereals and soft drinks, whereas those of widowed participants by dairy, vegetables, sweets and poultry. In addition, never married and divorced participants reported eating fast-foods more frequently and drink less alcohol compared to married or widowed participants. After controlling for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, physical activity, anxiety score and smoking habits), the reported marital status of the participants was associated only with body mass index and total serum cholesterol levels. When the analysis was repeated after taking into account the information on dietary habits by creating four "new" dietary-adjusted marital status groups, no significant association was revealed between marital status and body mass index and blood cholesterol levels. This finding

  5. Marital status as a predictor of survival in patients with human papilloma virus-positive oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Samuel J; Kirke, Diana N; Ezzat, Waleed H; Truong, Minh T; Salama, Andrew R; Jalisi, Scharukh

    Determine whether marital status is a significant predictor of survival in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer. A single center retrospective study included patients diagnosed with human papilloma virus-positive oropharyngeal cancer at Boston Medical Center between January 1, 2010 and December 30, 2015, and initiated treatment with curative intent at Boston Medical Center. Demographic data and tumor-related variables were recorded. Univariate analysis was performed using a two-sample t-test, chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and Kaplan Meier curves with a log rank test. Multivariate survival analysis was performed using a Cox regression model. A total of 65 patients were included in the study with 24 patients described as married and 41 patients described as single. There was no significant difference in most demographic variables or tumor related variables between the two study groups, except single patients were significantly more likely to have government insurance (p=0.0431). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in 3-year overall survival between married patients and single patients (married=91.67% vs single=87.80%; p=0.6532) or 3-year progression free survival (married=79.17% vs single=85.37%; p=0.8136). After adjusting for confounders including age, sex, race, insurance type, smoking status, treatment, and AJCC combined pathologic stage, marital status was not a significant predictor of survival [HR=0.903; 95% CI (0.126,6.489); p=0.9192]. Although previous literature has demonstrated that married patients with head and neck cancer have a survival benefit compared to single patients with head and neck cancer, we were unable to demonstrate the same survival benefit in a cohort of patients with human papilloma virus-positive oropharyngeal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Racial, Income, and Marital Status Disparities in Hospital Readmissions Within a Veterans-Integrated Health Care Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Crystal Dea; Gao, Kelly; Shulan, Mollie

    2015-12-01

    Hospital readmission is an important indicator of health care quality and currently used in determining hospital reimbursement rates by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Given the important policy implications, a better understanding of factors that influence readmission rates is needed. Racial disparities in readmission have been extensively studied, but income and marital status (a postdischarge care support indicator) disparities have received limited attention. By employing three Poisson regression models controlling for different confounders on 8,718 patients in a veterans-integrated health care network, this study assessed racial, income, and martial disparities in relation to total number of readmissions. In contrast to other studies, no racial and income disparities were found, but unmarried patients experienced significantly more readmissions: 16%, after controlling for the confounders. These findings render unique insight into health care policies aimed to improve race and income disparities, while challenging policy makers to reduce readmissions for those who lack family support. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melani Carla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare. Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1 codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence on regional databases; 2 demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall. Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60 in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45 in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts. Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population.

  8. Marital Satisfaction Across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Erika; Cobb, Rebecca J.; Rothman, Alexia D.; Rothman, Michael T.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to discriminate between the 2 dominant perspectives governing research on the nature of marital change over the transition to parenthood. Progress can be made in understanding this transition by recognizing the role of uncontrolled sources of variability in research designs, defining and using control groups, and timing of data collection around the child’s arrival, and the authors conducted a study incorporating these methodological refinements. Growth curve analyses were conducted on marital satisfaction data collected twice before and twice after the birth of the 1st child and at corresponding points for voluntarily childless couples (N = 156 couples). Spouses who were more satisfied prior to pregnancy had children relatively early in marriage, and parents experienced greater declines in marital satisfaction compared to nonparents. Couples with planned pregnancies had higher prepregnancy satisfaction scores, and planning slowed husbands’ (but not wives’) postpartum declines. In sum, parenthood hastens marital decline—even among relatively satisfied couples who select themselves into this transition—but planning status and prepregnancy marital satisfaction generally protect marriages from these declines. PMID:18266531

  9. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  10. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  11. Marital status and living situation during a 5-year period are associated with a subsequent 10-year cognitive decline in older men: The FINE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van B.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Kalmijn, S.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the association between marital status and living situation (over 5 years) on 10-year subsequent cognitive decline. The study population consisted of 1,042 men aged 70-89 years in 1990, who participated in the longitudinal Finland, Italy, the Netherlands Elderly (known as FINE) Study.

  12. Live long and prosper? Childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid-life: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin; Lundberg, Olle

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of childhood living conditions, marital status, and social class in adulthood on the risk of mortality during mid-life. Two questions were addressed: Is there an effect of childhood living conditions on mortality risk during mid-life and if so, is the effect mediated or modified by social class and/or marital status in adulthood? A nationally representative, Swedish, level of living survey from 1968 was used as baseline. The study included those aged 25-69 at baseline (n = 4082). Social conditions in childhood and adulthood were assessed using self-reports. These individuals were then followed for 39 years using registry data on mortality. The results showed associations between childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid life. Social class and familial conditions during childhood as well as marital status and social class in adulthood all contributed to the risk of mortality during mid-life. Individuals whose father's were manual workers, who grew up in broken homes, who were unmarried, and/or were manual workers in adulthood had an increased risk of mortality during mid life. The effects of childhood conditions were, in part, both mediated and modified by social class in adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that there are structural, social conditions experienced at different stages of the life course that affect the risk of mortality during mid-life.

  13. HEALTH STATUS OF EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN AT AGE 8 YEARS: CHILD AND PARENT PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen; Forrest, Christopher B; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H. Gerry; Drotar, Dennis; Holmbeck, Grayson; Andreias, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Context Parental proxy reports have indicated poorer health for preterm children as compared to normal birth weight controls. The perspective of their children may however differ. Objective To compare the self reported health of preterm children to normal birth weight controls and the children’s perspective to that of their parents. Design Study of extremely low birth weight (<1kg) and normal birth weight children and their parents conducted 2006–2009. Setting Children’s hospital. Participants Eight year old extremely low birth weight (n=202) and normal birth weight (n=176) children of similar sociodemographic status. Main Outcome Measures The Child Health and Illness Profile child and parent reports. Results There was poor agreement between the parent and child ratings of health for both the extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight cohorts. Extremely low birth weight children rated their health similar to normal birth weight children. In contrast parents of extremely low birth weight children reported significantly poorer health for their children than parents of normal birth weight controls including poorer Satisfaction with health, Comfort and Achievement and less Risk avoidance. Conclusion There is poor agreement between child and parent reports of health. Eight year old extremely low birth weight children rate their health similar to that of normal birth weight controls. Their parents however report significantly poorer health. Both child and parent perspective needs to be considered when making health care decisions. PMID:21969395

  14. Influence of insurance and marital status on outcomes of adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintel, Andrew E; Jamy, Omer; Martin, Mike G

    2015-06-01

    Although outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are worse when treated according to adult rather than pediatric protocols, one criticism is that this may be due to the emancipation of young adults. Using case listing session of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 (1973-2010), we examined outcomes for AYA with ALL defined similar to Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 10,403 criteria (age 18-30) predicated on marital and insurance status as surrogates for emancipation (limiting analysis to 2007-2010). Analyses were conducted with SEER*Stat 8.1.2, Microsoft Excel 2007, and GraphPad Prism 6. Comparisons were made by the Fisher exact test and log rank test (Mantel-Cox); all P values were 2-sided. Although age (24 and younger vs. 25 and older) was predictive of median overall survival (OS) (not reached vs. 33; P = .0029) (3-year OS 66% vs. 49%), social factors were not. Three-year OS for insured versus uninsured patients was 61% versus 50%, and median OS was not reached versus 30 months (P = .2334). Three-year OS for single versus married patients was 62% versus 55%, with median OS not reached for both groups (P = .1084). Insurance status and marriage did not influence outcomes for AYA with ALL, suggesting that intrinsic differences in disease and disease-specific therapies are more important than social issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Marital Violence and Women's Employment and Property Status: Evidence from North Indian Villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); A. Chhachhi (Amrita); M. Bhattacharyya (Manasi)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDominant development policy approaches recommend women’s employment on the grounds that it facilitates their empowerment, which in turn is believed to be instrumental in enhancing women’s well-being. However, empirical work on the relationship between women’s employment status and

  16. Sexual function, depressive symptoms and marital status in nonseminoma testicular cancer patients : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Marrit A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Vidrine, Damon J.; Gritz, Ellen R.; Sleijfer, Dirk Th.; Fleer, Joke; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    Goal: To longitudinally investigate sexual functioning in testicular cancer patients during the first year, and examine the effect of relationship status (with a partner or single) and depressive symptoms on sexual functioning. Patients and methods: 93 testicular cancer patients (39% single) treated

  17. Changes in Family Composition and Marital Status in Families with a Young Child with Cognitive Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Graham, Hilary; Blacher, Jan; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated parental separation, partnering and re-partnering among population-based cohorts of children at risk of intellectual or developmental disabilities. Methods: Secondary analysis of data extracted from Waves 1-3 of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. Information on the residence status of parents at Waves 1, 2…

  18. Is there something unique about marriage? The relative impact of marital status, relationship quality, and network social support on ambulatory blood pressure and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Birmingham, Wendy; Jones, Brandon Q

    2008-04-01

    Having close social relationships and being married specifically have been reliably associated with health benefits including lower morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of marital status, relationship quality, and network support on measures of psychological and cardiovascular health. We examined ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among 204 married and 99 single males and females (N = 303). We found that both marital status and marital quality were important. Married individuals had greater satisfaction with life (SWL) and blood pressure dipping than single individuals. High marital quality was associated with lower ABP, lower stress, less depression, and higher SWL. Importantly, contrasting those who are unmarried with those in low-quality marriages, we find that single individuals had lower ABP-suggesting that single individuals fare better than their unhappily married counterparts. Likewise, having a supportive network did not moderate (i.e., buffer) the effects of being single or unhappily married. Findings indicate being married per se is not universally beneficial, rather, the satisfaction and support associated with such a relationship is important. However, marriage may be distinctive, as evidence further suggests that support from one's network does not compensate for the effect of being single. These results highlight the complexities in understanding the influence of social relationships on long-term health, and they may help clarify the physiological pathways by which such associations exist.

  19. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

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    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  20. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  1. Marital status, duration of cohabitation, and psychosocial well-being among childbearing women: a canadian nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; O'Campo, Patricia J; Ray, Joel G

    2013-02-01

    We examined the joint associations of marital status and duration of cohabitation on self-reported intimate partner violence, substance use, and postpartum depression among childbearing women. We analyzed data from the 2006-2007 Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey, a cross-sectional nationwide sample of 6421 childbearing women. Cohabiting women were married or nonmarried women living with a partner; noncohabiters were single, divorced, or separated women. We further categorized cohabiters by their duration of cohabitation (≤ 2, 3-5, or > 5 years). We used logistic regression to generate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. About 92% of women were cohabiters. Compared with married women living with a husband more than 5 years, unmarried women cohabiting for 2 years or less were at higher odds of intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85, 7.56), substance use (AOR = 5.36; 95% CI = 3.06, 9.39), and postpartum depression (AOR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.25, 2.80); these risk estimates declined with duration of cohabitation. Research on maternal and child health would benefit from distinguishing between married and unmarried cohabiting women, and their duration of cohabitation.

  2. A social work study on effects of pre-marriage relationship on long-term marital status

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    Seyed Esmael Mosavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is one of the most important events of people's lives and when it happens, it could have both positive and negative consequences. There are different types of marriage such as traditional and modern ones. In traditional marriage, there are some marriage arrangements where man and woman can meet and talk for a short time and in case both parties are interested, marriage is initiated. There is also another type of marriage where girl and boy meet each other for a while, in some events, they may have some limited or unlimited relationships, and once they are interested in each other, they may marry each other. This relatively new type of marriage is popular in many western countries but it is still a controversial type of marriage in eastern countries. In this paper, we perform an empirical study on the effect of pre-marriage relationship on long-term marital status. The results indicate that pre-marriage relationship can reduce after marriage conflicts. The people who had pre-marriage had less aggressive behavior compared with the people who did not.

  3. The relationship of marital status and clinical characteristics in middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyer, Maren; Kasckow, John; Fellows, Ian; Lawrence, Edith C; Golshan, Shah; Solorzano, Ellen; Zisook, Sidney

    2010-08-01

    This study examines the relationship of marital status to depression, positive and negative symptoms, quality of life, and suicidal ideation among 211 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and subsyndromal depressive symptoms. We hypothesized that single participants would have more severe symptomatology than married and cohabitating participants. Outpatients, age 40 or older, were diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders using the MINI Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis 1 Disorders. Participants exhibited a score of >8 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression but did not meet criteria for a major depressive episode. Participants who were married or cohabitating had a later age of onset of first psychotic episode or hospitalization than those who were single (age, 29.35 vs 24.21). Married participants rated their quality of life higher than those who were single (mean Quality of Life Scale scores, 72.28 vs 53.87) and had less suicidal ideation than those who were divorced, widowed, or separated (7.4% vs 29.2%). In middle-aged and older individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and depressive symptoms, marriage appeared to enhance quality of life and protect against suicidal ideation. Efforts that focus on providing additional support for those who are experiencing divorce or separation could prove to be lifesaving for these individuals.

  4. The Possible Protective Effect of Marital Status in Quality of Life Among Elders in a U.S.-Mexico Border City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Vega, Marisela; Esparza-Del Villar, Oscar Armando; Carrillo-Saucedo, Irene Concepción; Montañez-Alvarado, Priscila

    2017-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine how marital status may have an impact on quality of life in a group of older adults living in a U.S.-Mexico border city. Two-hundred and seventy-six older adults completed the Spanish version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment, composed of four domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Participants answered a measure of sociodemographic variables. In the psychological health component of quality of life, single and married older adults had the highest scores as compared to widowed and divorced. Similarly, married older adults had the highest quality of life in social relationships. Marital status may play an important role when analyzing quality of life among older adults, this study suggests that being married may offer a protective mechanism against depressive symptoms and therefore against mental illnesses during late adulthood.

  5. Declining health disadvantage of non-marital children: Explanation of the trend in the Czech Republic 1990-2010

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    Martina Stipkova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a rapid spread of non-marital childbearing in the Czech Republic during the last two decades. At the same time, the low birth weight rates of children born to married and unmarried mothers have converged. Objective: The goal is to explain the diminishing gap in low birth weight. Two explanations are assessed: the changing selection of unmarried mothers from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups, and increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Methods: Data from birth register are analysed. Marital status (married vs. unmarried disparities in low birth weight are modelled using logistic regression. Further analyses are then performed with a detailed measurement of partnership status. This detailed variable is partially missing and is thus supplemented with multiple imputation. Results: The main explanation for the narrowing gap between the outcomes of children born to married and unmarried mothers is the increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Unmarried motherhood has become less detrimental to a child's birth weight net of maternal demographic characteristics. The decline in selection from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups has also contributed to the convergence. However, the convergence of birth weight trends towards marital children seems to refer mostly to children of partnered mothers, with children of single mothers lagging behind. Conclusions: The positive trends in the health of non-marital children are interpreted as being the result of the increasing institutionalisation of parenthood in non-marital unions. However, this does not apply to unpartnered motherhood, which continues to represent a health disadvantage.

  6. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith G B

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N = 17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive compared to all other marital spouses groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV-positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouses compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socio-economic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships.

  7. Marital Status, Career and Income as Indicators of Life Satisfaction Among Middle-aged Career Women in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia

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    Siti Marziah Zakaria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Life satisfaction is a subjective construct that varies according to gender, education level, age, income, marital status, and other demographic factors. Life satisfaction is an important issue among middle-aged women. They face various responsibilities, roles and expectation at this age. The objective of this article is to identify the differences in life satisfaction among middle-aged Malay women from different educational level, marital status, career and income. This study applied a survey technique, which is a set of questionnaire which consisted of socio-demographic scale and life satisfaction scale (based on Life Satisfaction Index - Short Form by Barrette and Murk, 2006. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling have been used to obtain the responses. A total of 410 middle-aged career women in Hulu Langat, Selangor have participated in this study. The finding showed that life satisfactions among middle-aged women are different depending on their marital status, career and income. This was based on the result of ANOVA. Single women and widower who are working in private sector and of low-income level reported to have the lowest life satisfaction. This finding may provide input to the planning of programs to enhance the well-being and life satisfaction among middle aged career women.

  8. A social work study on measuring the impact of gender and marital status on stress: A case study of hydro-power employees

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    Akbar Iravani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study performs an empirical survey to measure the impact of stress among people with various gender and marital status in a hydropower unit located in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study performs the survey among all 81 people who were working for customer service section of this company and consists of two parts, in the first part; we gather all private information such as age, gender, education, job experience, etc. through seven important questions. In the second part of the survey, there were 66 questions, which included all the relevant factors impacting employees' stress. We implement two Levin and t-student tests to see whether gender or marital status has any meaningful influences on creating stress among people. The results indicate that gender has no meaningful impact on creating stress among employees who worked for this hydro plant except difficulty of job conditions. The other findings of this paper is that stress posed from management team had different impacts on employees with various marital status but there were no meaningful differences between married and single couples in terms of other factors posing stress such as unsuitable working conditions, fear of job stability or difficulty of job conditions.

  9. The relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy on birth outcomes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Melissa F; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Addo, O Yaw; Hao, Wei; Nguyen, Hieu; Pham, Hoa; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to: (1) examine the role of multiple measures of prepregnancy nutritional status (weight, height, body composition) on birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm, birth weight, birth length, infant head circumference and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)); (2) assess relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during (gestational weight gain) pregnancy on birth outcomes. We used prospective data on maternal body size and composition collected from women who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of preconceptional micronutrient supplements (PRECONCEPT) on birth outcomes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam (n=1436). Anthropometric measurements were obtained before conception through delivery by trained health workers. The relationship between prepregnancy nutritional status indicators, gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth outcomes were examined using generalized linear models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Maternal prepregnancy weight (PPW) was the strongest anthropometric indicator predicting infant birth size. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PPW (5.4kg) was associated with a 283g (95%CI: 279-286) increase in birthweight. A similar and independent association was observed with birthweight for an increase of 1 SD in gestational weight gain (4kg) (250g; 95% CI: 245-255). Women with a PPW maternal nutrition both before and during pregnancy. Women with a PPW <43kg or a GWG <8kg are at greatest risk for poor birth outcomes in this setting. Preconception counseling and clinical care to obtain a healthy weight prior to pregnancy along with routine obstetric care on gestational weight gain is critical to improve birth outcomes. NCT01665378 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01665378). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. The Status of Women's Reproductive Rights and Adverse Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve Ellen; Evans, Melissa Goldin; Theall, Katherine

    Reproductive rights-the ability to decide whether and when to have children-shape women's socioeconomic and health trajectories across the life course. The objective of this study was to examine reproductive rights in association with preterm birth (PTB; reproductive rights composite index score was assigned to records from each state based on the following indicators for the year before birth (2011): mandatory sex education, expanded Medicaid eligibility for family planning services, mandatory parental involvement for minors seeking abortion, mandatory abortion waiting periods, public funding for abortion, and percentage of women in counties with abortion providers. Scores were ranked by tertile with the highest tertile reflecting states with strongest reproductive rights. We fit logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PTB and LBW associated with reproductive rights score controlling for maternal race, age, education, and insurance and state-level poverty. States with the strongest reproductive rights had the lowest rates of LBW and PTB (7.3% and 10.6%, respectively) compared with states with more restrictions (8.5% and 12.2%, respectively). After adjustment, women in more restricted states experienced 13% to 15% increased odds of PTB and 6% to 9% increased odds of LBW compared with women in states with the strongest rights. State-level reproductive rights may influence likelihood of adverse birth outcomes among women residents. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Marital status, widowhood duration, gender and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study among older adults in India

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    Jessica M. Perkins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated health benefits of marriage and the potential for worse outcomes during widowhood in some populations. However, few studies have assessed the relevance of widowhood and widowhood duration to a variety of health-related outcomes and chronic diseases among older adults in India, and even fewer have examined these relationships stratified by gender. Methods Using a cross-sectional representative sample of 9,615 adults aged 60 years or older from 7 states in diverse regions of India, we examine the relationship between widowhood and self-rated health, psychological distress, cognitive ability, and four chronic diseases before and after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, living with children, and rural–urban location for men and women, separately. We then assess these associations when widowhood accounts for duration. Results Being widowed as opposed to married was associated with worse health outcomes for women after adjusting for other explanatory factors. Widowhood in general was not associated with any outcomes for men except for cognitive ability, though men who were widowed within 0–4 years were at greater risk for diabetes compared to married men. Moreover, recently widowed women and women who were widowed long-term were more likely to experience psychological distress, worse self-rated health, and hypertension, even after adjusting for other explanatory variables, whereas women widowed 5–9 years were not, compared to married women. Conclusions Gender, the duration of widowhood, and type of outcome are each relevant pieces of information when assessing the potential for widowhood to negatively impact health. Future research should explore how the mechanisms linking widowhood to health vary over the course of widowhood. Incorporating information about marital relationships into the design of intervention programs may help better target potential

  12. Emotional eating, marital status and history of physical abuse predict 2-year weight loss in weight loss surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Sharlene; Madan, Alok; Correll, Jennifer; Crowley, Nina; Malcolm, Robert; Karl Byrne, T; Borckardt, Jeffrey J

    2014-12-01

    Weight loss surgery (WLS) is an effective weight loss treatment for individuals with severe obesity. Psychosocial factors can affect short-term WLS outcomes. This study sought to identify psychosocial predictors of medium-term outcomes. In this prospective study, 250 consecutive WLS candidates were evaluated between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010. Each completed baseline medical, surgical, and psychological evaluations as part of standard of care. Two hundred and four patients had surgery (81.6%). Successful surgical outcome was defined as ≥50% excess weight loss two years post-surgery. Comparison of study sample (n=80) and those lost to follow-up (n=124) revealed negligible differences across baseline characteristics. At follow-up, 60% (n=48) of the sample was classified as a success with an average of 72.58% (std dev=13.01%) excess weight lost. The remaining 40% (n=32) was classified as a failure with an average of 33.98% (std dev=13.19%) excess weight lost. Logistic regression revealed that pre-surgical marital status, emotional eating, and history of physical abuse were independently associated with outcome variables, pemotionally driven disordered eating patterns are associated with 7.4 times increased odds of medium-term WLS success. A history of physical abuse is associated with an 84% decreased odds of successful medium-term outcomes. Further research that studies both the quality and impact of spousal support on weight loss as well as longer-term effects of emotional eating on outcomes is needed. Addressing longer-standing consequence of abuse may improve WLS outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Neonatal outcomes after preterm birth by mothers’ health insurance status at birth: a retrospective cohort study

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    Einarsdóttir Kristjana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. Methods The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32–36 weeks gestation from Western Australia during 1998–2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time until establishment of unassisted breathing (>1 minute, neonatal resuscitation (endotracheal intubation or external cardiac massage and admission to a neonatal special care unit. Results Compared with infants of privately insured women, infants of publicly insured women were more likely to receive a low Apgar score (ARR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.06-6.52 and take longer to establish unassisted breathing (ARR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, yet, they were less likely to be admitted to a special care unit (ARR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.80-0.87. No significant differences were evident in neonatal resuscitation between the groups (ARR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54-2.67. Conclusions The underlying reasons for the lower rate of special care admissions in infants of publicly insured women compared with privately insured women despite the higher rate of low Apgar scores is yet to be determined. Future research is

  15. A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

  16. Influence of education, marital status, occupation, and the place of living on skeletal status, fracture prevalence, and the course and effectiveness of osteoporotic therapy in women in the RAC-OST-POL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskiewicz, Wojciech; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czekajło, Aleksandra; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Drozdzowska, Bogna

    2014-01-01

    The RAC-OST-POL population-based, epidemiological study provided data concerning the influence of education, marital status, occupation, and the place of living (residence) on skeletal status, fracture prevalence, and the course and effectiveness of osteoporotic therapy in 625 women older than 55 years, all of them recruited from the District of Raciborz in Poland. Their mean age was 66.4 ± 7.8 years. All the women completed a specially designed questionnaire. The skeletal status was assessed by femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) densitometry, using a Lunar DPX system (USA). In univariate analyses, taking into consideration the age differences, bone mineralization was dependent on marital status (Z score for FN and TH was significantly higher in widows than in divorcees; p education was associated with a more frequent use of vitamin D (χ(2) = 8.49, df = 3, p women (30%) and least commonly by divorcees (11.8%) (χ(2) = 11.7, df = 3, p = 0.01). Vitamin D was more often used among women from the urban area of Raciborz than by those from surrounding rural areas (χ(2) = 9.2, df = 1, p Women with sedentary jobs demonstrated the highest frequency of intake for vitamin D (χ(2) = 9.92, df = 3, p education, marital status, place of living, and type of occupation may have impacts on implementation of osteoporosis-preventing health programs.

  17. Does inclusion of education and marital status improve SCORE performance in central and eastern europe and former soviet union? findings from MONICA and HAPIEE cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vikhireva

    Full Text Available The SCORE scale predicts the 10-year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD, based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk version of SCORE is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU, due to high CVD mortality rates in these countries. Given the pronounced social gradient in cardiovascular mortality in the region, it is important to consider social factors in the CVD risk prediction. We investigated whether adding education and marital status to SCORE benefits its prognostic performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts.The WHO MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease cohorts from the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg, Lithuania (Kaunas, and Russia (Novosibirsk were followed from the mid-1980s (577 atherosclerotic CVD deaths among 14,969 participants with non-missing data. The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow, and Russian (Novosibirsk cohorts from 2002-05 (395 atherosclerotic CVD deaths in 19,900 individuals with non-missing data.In MONICA and HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline strongly and significantly predicted fatal CVD both before and after adjustment for education and marital status. After controlling for SCORE, lower education and non-married status were significantly associated with CVD mortality in some samples. SCORE extension by these additional risk factors only slightly improved indices of calibration and discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement <5% in men and ≤1% in women.Extending SCORE by education and marital status failed to substantially improve its prognostic performance in population-based CEE/FSU cohorts.

  18. Does inclusion of education and marital status improve SCORE performance in central and eastern europe and former soviet union? findings from MONICA and HAPIEE cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhireva, Olga; Broda, Grazyna; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pająk, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Skodova, Zdena; Simonova, Galina; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    The SCORE scale predicts the 10-year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk version of SCORE is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), due to high CVD mortality rates in these countries. Given the pronounced social gradient in cardiovascular mortality in the region, it is important to consider social factors in the CVD risk prediction. We investigated whether adding education and marital status to SCORE benefits its prognostic performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. The WHO MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) cohorts from the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s (577 atherosclerotic CVD deaths among 14,969 participants with non-missing data). The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002-05 (395 atherosclerotic CVD deaths in 19,900 individuals with non-missing data). In MONICA and HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline strongly and significantly predicted fatal CVD both before and after adjustment for education and marital status. After controlling for SCORE, lower education and non-married status were significantly associated with CVD mortality in some samples. SCORE extension by these additional risk factors only slightly improved indices of calibration and discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement <5% in men and ≤1% in women). Extending SCORE by education and marital status failed to substantially improve its prognostic performance in population-based CEE/FSU cohorts.

  19. Birth Weight, Nutritional Status and Body Composition among Malaysian Children Aged 7 to 10 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ang, Yeow Nyin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Studies have indicated that lower birth weight is associated with lower body mass index, but the use of birth weight in predicting later nutritional status and adiposity remains inconsistent. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the relationship between birth weight and nutritional status with body composition among Malaysian children. This study is part of the Nutritional Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). Subjects comprising 398 boys and 389 girls from the main ethnic groups, namely Malays, Chinese, Indians, Sabah and Sarawak natives, were recruited using a stratified random sampling. Anthropometric measurements comprised body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat (BF). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) adjusted with height were included, and birth weight was obtained by parental report. Nutritional status such as weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were determined using the WHO growth reference for 5–19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Mean birth weight, height, weight, and BF were 3.1±0.5kg, 128.0±8.1cm, 28.4±8.9kg, and 27.9±9.1% respectively. Boys (20.4±4.2kg) had higher FFM (p<0.05) as compared to girls (19.4±4.9kg). Overall, the prevalence of stunting, underweight and thinness were 6.7%, 9.8% and 6.4%, respectively; while the prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher at 11.9% and 15.6%, respectively. Significant differences between the sexes (p<0.05) were found in HAZ (boys: -0.43±0.99; girls: -0.42±1.17) and BAZ (boys: 0.26±1.76; girls: 0.09±1.48). Children born low birth weight (<2.5kg) had lower nutritional status (WAZ:0.59±1.62; HAZ:-0.83±0.96) as compared to those with normal birth weight (WAZ: -0.05±1.62; HAZ: -0.40±1.09) and high birth weight (>4.0kg) (WAZ: 0.51±1.35; HAZ: -0.07 ± 0.67) at p<0

  20. Independent roles of country of birth and socioeconomic status in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirgaran, Seyed Morteza; Jorm, Louisa; Bambrick, Hilary; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2013-12-23

    There is strong evidence based on previous studies that ethnicity and socioeconomic status are important determinants of diversity in the occurrence of diabetes. However, the independent roles of socioeconomic status, country of birth and lifestyle factors in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes have not been clearly identified. This study investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status, country of birth and type 2 diabetes in a large diverse sample of residents of New South Wales, Australia, and aged 45 years and over. The analysis used self-reported baseline questionnaire data from 266,848 participants in the 45 and Up Study. Educational attainment, work status and income were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Logistic regression models were built to investigate associations between socioeconomic status, country of birth and type 2 diabetes. The adjusted odds of type 2 diabetes were significantly higher for people born in many overseas countries, compared to Australian-born participants. Compared with participants who had a university degree or higher qualification, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for diabetes was higher in all other educational categories. Diabetes was more prevalent in people who were retired, unemployed or engaged in other types of work, compared with people who were in paid work. The prevalence of diabetes was higher in people with lower incomes. Compared with people who earned more than $50,000, the adjusted OR for diabetes was 2.05 (95% CI 1.95-2.14) for people who had an income less than $20,000 per annum. The relationships between socioeconomic factors and country of birth and diabetes were attenuated slightly when all were included in the model. Addition of smoking, obesity and physical activity to the model had marked impacts on adjusted ORs for some countries of birth, but relationships between diabetes and all measures of socioeconomic status and country of birth remained strong and significant. Country of birth and

  1. Maternal Eating Disorders Influence Sex Ratio at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-01-01

    We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...

  2. Workload and the trajectory of marital satisfaction in newlyweds: Job satisfaction, gender, and parental status as moderators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, E.F. van; Kluwer, E.S.; Karney, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Stress, on average, is bad for relationships. Yet stress at work is not always associated with negative relationship outcomes. The premise of the current study was that associations between workload and trajectories of marital satisfaction depend on circumstances that may constrain or facilitate

  3. Factors affecting the physical and mental health of older adults in China: The importance of marital status, child proximity, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Williams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women, and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men. Our study contributes to the literature on social

  4. Socio-Economic Status And Birth-Order As Correlates Of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated socio-economic status and birth-order as correlates of women spiritual help-seeking behavior. Five hundred women help-seekers were sampled from 10 spiritual houses within Ibadan metropolis. Their age ranged between 17-70 years. Fifty percent (50 %,) i.e. 250 of the total sample were singles; ...

  5. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl L. Coley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income, maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56. Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17–19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers.

  6. Race, Age, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status in Low Birth Weight Disparities Among Adolescent Mothers: An Intersectional Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies examined socioeconomic contributors to racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes between African-American and Caucasian adolescent mothers. This cross-sectional study examined the intersections of maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status in explaining these disparities in low birth weight outcomes across a statewide sample of adolescent mothers. Using data from the North Carolina State Center of Health Statistics for 2010-2011, birth cases for 16,472 adolescents were geocoded by street address and linked to census-tract information from the 2010 United States Census. Multilevel models with interaction terms were used to identify significant associations between maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income) and low birth weight outcomes across census tracts. Significant racial differences were identified in which African-American adolescents had greater odds of low birth weight outcomes than Caucasian adolescents (OR=1.88, 95% CI 1.64, 2.15). Although racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes remained significant in context of maternal age and neighborhood socioeconomic status, the greatest disparities were found between African-American and Caucasian adolescents that lived in areas of higher socioeconomic status (psocioeconomic status. Further investigations using intersectional frameworks are needed for examining the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status and birth outcome disparities among infants born to adolescent mothers.

  7. Parenthood and Marital Satisfaction: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith; Foster, Craig A.

    2003-01-01

    This meta-analysis finds that parents report lower marital satisfaction compared with nonparents. There is also a significant negative correlation between marital satisfaction and number of children. The data suggest that marital satisfaction decreases after the birth of a child due to role conflicts and restriction of freedom. (Contains 30…

  8. The influence of refugee status and secondary migration on preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigaratne, Susitha; Cole, Donald C; Bassil, Kate; Hyman, Ilene; Moineddin, Rahim; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is elevated for forced (refugee) international migrants and whether prolonged displacement amplifies risk. While voluntary migrants who arrive from a country other than their country of birth (ie, secondary migrants) have favourable birth outcomes compared with those who migrated directly from their country of birth (ie, primary migrants), secondary migration may be detrimental for refugees who experience distinct challenges in transition countries. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether refugee status was associated with PTB and (2) whether the relation between refugee status and PTB differed between secondary and primary migrants. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study. Ontario immigration (2002-2010) and hospitalisation data (2002-2010) were linked to estimate adjusted cumulative odds ratios (ACOR) of PTB (22-31, 32-36, 37-41 weeks of gestation), with 95% CIs (95% CI) comparing refugees with non-refugees. We further included a product term between refugee status and secondary migration. Overall, refugees (N=12 913) had 17% greater cumulative odds of short gestation (ACOR=1.17, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.28) compared with non-refugees (N=110 640). Secondary migration modified the association between refugee status and PTB (p=0.007). Secondary refugees had 58% greater cumulative odds of short gestation (ACOR=1.58, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.00) than secondary non-refugees, while primary refugees had 12% greater cumulative odds of short gestation (ACOR=1.12, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.23) than primary non-refugee immigrants. Refugee status, jointly with secondary migration, influences PTB among migrants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  10. Investigation of quality of life in mothers of children withcerebral palsy in Iran: association with socio-economic status,marital satisfaction and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh, Mohammad Mahani; Rostami, Hamid Reza; Amirsalari, Susan; Karimloo, Masood

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL) of Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy (MCCPs) with mothers of Typically Developing (TD) children as a Control Group (CG). The association of the mediating variables including socio-economic status (SES), marital satisfaction and fatigue with maternal QOL was also evaluated. The MCCPs group consisted of 120 mothers (mean age: 30.3 ± 5.5 years) of children with CP. The CG included 100 mothers (mean age: 29.9 ± 4.5 years) of TD children. Demographic characteristics of the participants were recorded and the data was collected by World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), SES Questionnaire, Index of Marital Satisfaction (IMS) and Fatigue Severity Scale-Persian (FSS-P). Data analysis was done by SPSS version 16.0. The QOL and SES were lower, while FSS-P and IMS were higher in MCCPs group than CG (p marital satisfaction and fatigue so, maternal empowerment in terms of these mediators and family-centered approach are recommended. • Improper activity of trapezius muscle motor units can be a reason of the cervicogenic headache. • Increased muscle tension at rest can lead to decrease of its contractile properties. • Rehabilitation of patients is effective when includes first postisometric relaxation procedures and myofascial mobilization of trigger points, then head protraction and retraction exercises according to McKenzie therapy and finally muscles strengthening exercises supplemented with self-control of the correct body posture.

  11. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

    1999-01-01

    The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.

  12. The Study of Mothers’ Periodontal Status and Newborn’s Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirinzad

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recent studies have presented evidence that periodontal disease in pregnant women may be a determining factor for newborn’s low birth weight. The present investigation was carried out to verify whether there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight of newborns.Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 330 women, containing 110 mothers having live newborns with weight 2500 g (control group. The existence of an association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight was evaluated by means of analytic statistics that considered other risk factors for low weight. The two groups were compared with regard to urinary infection, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, primiparous, smoking, age, height, socioeconomic status and periodontal disease.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups for any of the covariables (P>0.05, but there was significant differences for principal independent variable (periodontal disease P<0.05.Conclusion: Results indicated a positive association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight. Thus periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for low birth weight.

  13. A multilevel non-hierarchical study of birth weight and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the socioeconomic status (SES of the community of residence has a substantial association with infant birth weight. We used multilevel models to examine associations of birth weight with family- and community-level SES in the Cape Cod Family Health Study. Data were collected retrospectively on births to women between 1969 and 1983 living on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The sample included siblings born in different residences with differing community-level SES. Methods We used cross-classified models to account for multiple levels of correlation in a non-hierarchical data structure. We accounted for clustering at family- and community-levels. Models included extensive individual- and family-level covariates. SES variables of interest were maternal education; paternal occupation; percent adults living in poverty; percent adults with a four year college degree; community mean family income; and percent adult unemployment. Results Residual correlation was detected at the family- but not the community-level. Substantial effects sizes were observed for family-level SES while smaller magnitudes were observed for community-level SES. Overall, higher SES corresponded to increased birth weight though neither family- nor community-level variables had significant associations with the outcome. In a model applied to a reduced sample that included a single child per family, enforcing a hierarchical data structure, paternal occupation was found to have a significant association with birth weight (p = 0.033. Larger effect sizes for community SES appeared in models applied to the full sample that contained limited covariates, such as those typically found on birth certificates. Conclusions Cross-classified models allowed us to include more than one child per family even when families moved between births. There was evidence of mild associations between family SES and birth weight. Stronger associations between paternal

  14. Age at First Birth and Social Dimensions of Under-5 Child Mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings of the study show significant relationships between maternal age at first birth and childhood mortality level within the socio-demographic characteristics of women (such as place of residence, current age, occupational status, educational level, marital status, form of marriage and number of children ever born).

  15. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Arafat, Hassan A.; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-01

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe

  16. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Arafat, Hassan A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-01

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.

  17. Associations among family socioeconomic status, EEG power at birth, and cognitive skills during infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie H. Brito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Past research has demonstrated links between cortical activity, measured via EEG power, and cognitive processes during infancy. In a separate line of research, family socioeconomic status (SES has been strongly associated with children’s early cognitive development, with socioeconomic disparities emerging during the second year of life for both language and declarative memory skills. The present study examined associations among resting EEG power at birth, SES, and language and memory skills at 15-months in a sample of full-term infants. Results indicate no associations between SES and EEG power at birth. However, EEG power at birth was related to both language and memory outcomes at 15-months. Specifically, frontal power (24–48 Hz was positively correlated with later Visual Paired Comparison (VPC memory scores. Power (24–35 Hz in the parietal region was positively correlated with later PLS-Auditory Comprehension language scores. These findings suggest that SES disparities in brain activity may not be apparent at birth, but measures of resting neonatal EEG power are correlated with later memory and language skills independently of SES.

  18. Relation between prenatal lipid-soluble micronutrient status, environmental pollutant exposure, and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Elizabeth T; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Camann, David; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P

    2007-10-01

    Adverse postnatal health effects have been associated with compromised fetal growth, which makes it essential to understand its determinants. Significant effects of environmental pollutants on birth outcomes have been observed in our study population, and nutritional status may be an additional factor influencing fetal development and effects of environmental toxins. The objective of the study was to examine the relations between birth outcomes and lipid-soluble plasma micronutrient concentrations and to explore interactions between micronutrients and environmental pollutant exposure in newborns in Krakow, Poland. In this prospective cohort study, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and carotenoids were measured in maternal and cord blood samples obtained at delivery (251 maternal-newborn pairs), and birth weight, birth length, head circumference (HC), and gestational age were evaluated. Linear regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of micronutrients while covariates were controlled for. Interaction terms assessed whether the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), common environmental pollutants, varied by nutrient status. Infants whose mothers had low plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations (below the median) weighed 92.9 g less and had 0.41-cm smaller HCs than did infants whose mothers had high alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Infants with low plasma retinol (below the median) weighed 125.9 g less and had 0.31-cm smaller HCs. There was no evidence of an interaction between PAHs and micronutrients, although power was limited. Maternal alpha-tocopherol and cord retinol concentrations were significantly and positively associated with BW and HC. These micronutrients may have direct effects or may be markers for other underlying determinants of these pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  20. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  1. Socio-behavioral predictors of changes in dentition status: a prospective analysis of the 1942 Swedish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrøm, Anne N; Ekback, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Unell, Lennart

    2011-08-01

    Using a prospective cohort design, this study assessed loss of natural teeth between ages 50 and 65. Guided by a conceptual framework grouping variables according to the life-course stage at which they would be expected to operate, this study assessed the impacts of socio-behavioral and disease-related factors on tooth loss between ages 50 and 65. In 1992, all 50-year-olds in two counties of Sweden were invited to participate in a longitudinal questionnaire survey. Of the total population of 8,888 subjects, 6,346 responded (71.4%). Of the 6346 subjects who completed the 1992 questionnaire, 4,143 (65%) completed postal follow-ups at ages 55, 60 and 65. For the total sample, the prevalence of having lost at least some teeth increased from 76% at age 50-85.5% at age 65. A total of 14% women and 13% men changed from having all teeth in 1992 to having tooth loss in 2007. Stepwise logistic regression analyses focused on predictors of tooth loss between 1992 and 2007. The following life-stage predictors achieved or approached statistical significance with respect to overall tooth loss; country of birth and education (early life and young adult life stage), marital status, dental care avoidance because of high cost, smoking and reporting consistent pain (middle-age and early-old-age life stage). Fewer substantial proportions of the 1942 cohort experienced tooth loss between ages 50 and 65. Tooth loss was highly prevalent from age 50 and increased moderately with increasing age. Oral disease-related factors and socio-behavioral characteristics such as refraining from dental care because of financial limitations, acting at earlier and later life-course stages were major risk factors for having tooth loss. Early primary prevention of smoking and increased equitable access to dental care might improve tooth retention throughout the transition from middle age to early-older age. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  3. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Children from Rural Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice N. Toko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD status and its association with pregnancy outcomes in malaria holoendemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa is poorly defined. We examined this association and any potential interaction with malaria and helminth infections in an ongoing pregnancy cohort study in Kenya. The association of maternal plasma 25(OHD status with pregnancy outcomes and infant anthropometric measurements at birth was determined in a subset of women (n = 63. Binomial and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between maternal plasma 25(OHD and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fifty-one percent of the women had insufficient (<75 nmol/L and 21% had deficient (<50 nmol/L plasma 25(OHD concentration at enrollment. At birth, 74.4% of the infants had insufficient and 30% had deficient plasma 25(OHD concentrations, measured in cord blood. Multivariate analysis controlling for maternal age and body mass index (BMI at enrollment and gestational age at delivery found that deficient plasma 25(OHD levels were associated with a four-fold higher risk of stunting in neonates (p = 0.04. These findings add to the existing literature about vitamin D and its association with linear growth in resource-limited settings, though randomized clinical trials are needed to establish causation.

  4. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Breast cancer, sickness absence, income and marital status. A study on life situation 1 year prior diagnosis compared to 3 and 5 years after diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Eaker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Improved cancer survival poses important questions about future life conditions of the survivor. We examined the possible influence of a breast cancer diagnosis on subsequent working and marital status, sickness absence and income. MATERIALS: We conducted a matched cohort study including 4,761 women 40-59 years of age and registered with primary breast cancer in a Swedish population-based clinical register during 1993-2003, and 2,3805 women without breast cancer. Information on socioeconomic standing was obtained from a social database 1 year prior and 3 and 5 years following the diagnosis. In Conditional Poisson Regression models, risk ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to assess the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis. FINDINGS: Three years after diagnosis, women who had had breast cancer more often had received sickness benefits (RR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.40-1.58 or disability pension (RR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.37-1.58 than had women without breast cancer. We found no effect on income (RR = 0.99, welfare payments (RR = 0.98, or marital status (RR = 1.02. A higher use of sickness benefits and disability pension was evident in all stages of the disease, although the difference in use of sickness benefits decreased after 5 years, whereas the difference in disability pension increased. For woman with early stage breast cancer, the sickness absence was higher following diagnosis among those with low education, who had undergone mastectomy, and had received chemo- or hormonal therapy. Neither tumour size nor presence of lymph nodes metastasis was associated with sickness absence after adjustment for treatment. INTERPRETATION: Even in early stage breast cancer, a diagnosis negatively influences working capacity both 3 and 5 years after diagnosis, and it seems that the type of treatment received had the largest impact. A greater focus needs to be put on rehabilitation of breast cancer patients, work-place adaptations and

  6. Breast Cancer, Sickness Absence, Income and Marital Status. A Study on Life Situation 1 Year Prior Diagnosis Compared to 3 and 5 Years after Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Sonja; Wigertz, Annette; Lambert, Paul C.; Bergkvist, Leif; Ahlgren, Johan; Lambe, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Background Improved cancer survival poses important questions about future life conditions of the survivor. We examined the possible influence of a breast cancer diagnosis on subsequent working and marital status, sickness absence and income. Materials We conducted a matched cohort study including 4,761 women 40–59 years of age and registered with primary breast cancer in a Swedish population-based clinical register during 1993–2003, and 2,3805 women without breast cancer. Information on socioeconomic standing was obtained from a social database 1 year prior and 3 and 5 years following the diagnosis. In Conditional Poisson Regression models, risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis. Findings Three years after diagnosis, women who had had breast cancer more often had received sickness benefits (RR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.40–1.58) or disability pension (RR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.37–1.58) than had women without breast cancer. We found no effect on income (RR = 0.99), welfare payments (RR = 0.98), or marital status (RR = 1.02). A higher use of sickness benefits and disability pension was evident in all stages of the disease, although the difference in use of sickness benefits decreased after 5 years, whereas the difference in disability pension increased. For woman with early stage breast cancer, the sickness absence was higher following diagnosis among those with low education, who had undergone mastectomy, and had received chemo- or hormonal therapy. Neither tumour size nor presence of lymph nodes metastasis was associated with sickness absence after adjustment for treatment. Interpretation Even in early stage breast cancer, a diagnosis negatively influences working capacity both 3 and 5 years after diagnosis, and it seems that the type of treatment received had the largest impact. A greater focus needs to be put on rehabilitation of breast cancer patients, work

  7. Screening for distress, the 6th vital sign: common problems in cancer outpatients over one year in usual care: associations with marital status, sex, and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giese-Davis Janine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies examine the longitudinal prevalence of problems and the awareness or use of clinical programs by patients who report these problems. Of the studies that examine age, gender and marital status as predictors of a range of patient outcomes, none examines the interactions between these demographic variables. This study examined the typical trajectory of common practical and psychosocial problems endorsed over 12 months in a usual-care sample of cancer outpatients. Specifically, we examined whether marital status, sex, age, and their interactions predicted these trajectories. We did not actively triage or refer patients in this study in order to examine the natural course of problem reports. Methods Patients completed baseline screening (N = 1196 of 1707 approached and the sample included more men (N = 696 than women (N = 498, average age 61.1 years. The most common diagnoses were gastrointestinal (27.1%, prostate (19.2%, skin (11.1% and gynecological (9.2%. Among other measures, patients completed a Common Problem Checklist and Psychosocial Resources Use questions at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months using paper and pencil surveys. Results Results indicated that patients reported psychosocial problems more often than practical and both decreased significantly over time. Younger single patients reported more practical problems than those in committed relationships. Younger patients and women of all ages reported more psychosocial problems. Among a number of interesting interactions, for practical problems, single older patients improved more; whereas among married people, younger patients improved more. For psychosocial problems we found that older female patients improved more than younger females, but among males, it was younger patients who improved more. Young single men and women reported the most past-and future-use of services. Conclusions Younger women are particularly vulnerable to experiencing

  8. The increase in cohabitation and the role of marital status in family policies: A comparison of 12 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez Gassen, N.; Perelli-Harris, B.

    2015-01-01

    The role of union status, or whether people are married, cohabiting or single, is seldom considered in welfare state research. This perspective, however, is important, since many welfare state policies focus on marriage and do not apply to unmarried cohabitants. This lack of legal regulation may

  9. Socioeconomic status and sex ratios at birth in Sweden: No evidence for a Trivers-Willard effect for a wide range of status indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Schnettler, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This study examines if there exists a positive association between socioeconomic status and the proportion of male births in humans, as proposed by Trivers and Willard in 1973, using individual-level data drawn from the complete population of Sweden. We examine more than 3,000,000 births between 1960 and 2007 using administrative register data with comprehensive information on various dimensions of socioeconomic status. We use six different operationalizations of socioeconomic status, including earnings, post-transfer income (including government allowances), wealth, parental wealth, educational level, and occupational class. We apply regression models that compare both changes in status for the same woman over time and differences in status across different women. We also measure socioeconomic status both at the year of child birth and the year of conception. Our results show the absence of any relationship between socioeconomic status and sex ratios, using a large number of different operationalizations of status. We conclude that no substantive relationship between socioeconomic status and sex ratios exists for the population and period of our study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Marital status as a candidate moderator variable of male-female differences in sexual jealousy: the need for representative population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, M

    2001-04-01

    Evolutionary psychological theories predict pronounced and universal male-female differences in sexual jealousy. Recent cross-cultural research, using the forced-choice jealousy items pioneered by Buss, et al., 1992, repeatedly found a large sex differential on these self-report measures: men significantly more often than women choose their mate's imagined sexual infidelity to be more distressing or upsetting to them than an imagined emotional infidelity. However, this body of evidence is solely based on undergraduate samples and does not take into account demographic factors. This study examined male-female differences in sexual jealousy in a community sample (N = 335, Eastern Austria). Within a logistic regression model, with other variables controlled for, marital status was a stronger predictor for sexual jealousy than respondents' sex. Contrary to previous research, the sex differential's effect size was only modest. These findings stress the pitfalls of prematurely generalizing evidence from undergraduate samples to the general population and the need for representative population samples in this research area.

  11. Maternal Literacy, Facility Birth, and Education Are Positively Associated with Better Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices and Nutritional Status among Ugandan Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Scott B; Hurst, Taylor E; Flax, Valerie L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Understanding maternal factors that influence child feeding is necessary to inform intervention planning in settings in which mothers experience substantial social vulnerabilities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess maternal sociodemographic factors that may constrain women’s caring capabilities and subsequent child nutrition in Uganda. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2006 and 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys to model the associations between maternal sociodemographic factors, child feeding practices, and anthropometry with multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The proportion of children fed according to recommended guidelines declined in Uganda from 2006 to 2011. Mothers who lacked literacy skills were less likely to achieve recommended complementary feeding indicators; however, literacy was not associated with breastfeeding practices. Mothers in the upper 60% wealth percentile were more likely to meet minimum meal frequency, diversity, and adequacy indicators. Mothers who gave birth at health facilities (2006 OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.91; P maternal education, and infant and young child feeding practices. Women with a formal education had children with lower stunting and underweight probabilities in both time periods (OR range: 0.43–0.74). Women who delivered in childbirth facilities were less likely to have a child with low weight-for-age, length-for-age, or weight-for-length z scores (OR range: 0.59–0.82). Marital status, the age at first child birth, not accepting domestic violence, freedom to travel away from home, and involvement in household and reproductive decisions were not associated with child anthropometry in either time period. Conclusions: Mothers with low literacy skills, who deliver their children at home, and who lack formal education are particularly at risk of poor child feeding and represent a group that may benefit from enhanced interventions that address their particular

  12. Early life growth, socioeconomic status, and mammographic breast density in an urban US birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Tehranifar, Parisa; Flom, Julie D; Liao, Yuyan; Wei, Ying; Terry, Mary Beth

    2016-08-01

    Rapid infant and childhood growth has been associated with chronic disease later in life, including breast cancer. Early life socioeconomic status (SES) influences childhood growth, but few studies have prospective measures from birth to consider the effects of early life growth and SES on breast cancer risk. We used prospectively measured early life SES and growth (percentile weight change in height and weight between each pair of consecutive time points at birth, 4 months, 1 and 7 years). We performed linear regression models to obtain standardized estimates of the association between 1 standard deviation increase in early life SES and growth and adult mammographic density (MD), a strong risk factor for breast cancer, in a diverse birth cohort (n = 151; 37% white, 38% black, 25% Puerto Rican; average age at mammogram = 42.4). In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, prenatal factors, birthweight, infant and childhood growth, and adult body mass index, percentile weight change from 1 year to 7 years was inversely associated with percent MD (standardized coefficient (Stdβ) = -0.28, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.01), and higher early life SES was positively associated with percent MD (Stdβ = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.04-0.43). Similar associations were observed for dense area, but those estimates were not statistically significant. These results suggest opposite and independent effects of early life SES and growth on MD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Birth Order and Sex on Perceptions of the Sibling Relationship among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele; Beaudoin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined demographic factors (e.g., parental marital status) as well as sex and birth order effects on emerging adults' views of their sibling relationships. One hundred sixty-seven participants completed a demographic and sibling relationship questionnaire designed for the purposes of this study. Factors of the sibling…

  14. Anthropometry at birth as a strong determinant factor of young women bone status: influence of high-level physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréban, Sophie; Chappard, Christine; Jaffré, Christelle; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the influence of anthropometry at birth on bone status and physical activity aptitudes of adult women. Our population was composed of 70 women (17-29 years): 40 athletes and 30 controls. Athletes participated in various long-lasting and high-level weight-bearing sports (10.2 ± 2.2h ours/week). Birth weight and height were collected. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured by DXA, at whole body, lumbar spine, non dominant femur (total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN)) and tibia. The Hip Structural Analysis software was applied to assess cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), section modulus (Z) and cortical thickness of three regions of the proximal femur: intertrochanter, narrow neck and femoral shaft. BMD and HSA measurements at all sites were significantly higher in athletes versus controls, as well as birth height (P = 0.009) and weight (P = 0.02). For the whole population, we found significant positive correlations between birth weight and BMDs (0.30 anthropometry, which can be used to predict fracture risk in later life. Predisposition to practice a weight-bearing sport could be related to the greater birth anthropometry described in athletes. The benefits of birth anthropometry on adult bone status appear to be maintained by sports. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Mindfulness and Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Ellen; Burpee, Leslie C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among mindfulness, marital satisfaction, and perceived spousal similarity. All 95 subjects responded to a questionnaire measuring each of these variables, and an additional series of demographic variables. A significant positive relationship was found between mindfulness and marital satisfaction, with no statistically significant relationship found between perceived spousal similarity and marital satisfaction. There was a stronger correlation between ...

  16. Exploring the Relationship Between Spiritual Well-Being and Death Anxiety in Survivors of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Moderating Role of Sex, Marital Status and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Sharif, Saeed Pahlevan; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Yeoh, Ken Kyid; Panarello, Bianca

    2018-04-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that both spiritual well-being (SWB) and death anxiety (DA) significantly affect the mental health of patients with acute diseases. In this regard, our paper contributes to the extant literature by scrutinizing the conditional relationship between SWB and DA as well as the various mechanisms underpinning such a relationship in patients with acute myocardial infraction (AMI). A descriptive, correlational methodology was utilized. Our main sample consisted of 300 patients with acute myocardial infraction who were hospitalized in a specialized medical institution in Iran throughout a two-month period (i.e. August-October 2015). Patients completed Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) and Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Even though our study showed that the relationship between SWB and DA in patients with AMI is non-significant, we found that (1) single patients with higher SWB have lower DA, (2) single patients with higher SWB as well as social support have significantly lower DA, and (3) for single men/men without social support, there is a negative relationship between SWB and DA. The relationship between SWB and DA is influenced by factors such as sex, marital status and social support. In addition, the specific nature of this relationship (i.e. strength and sign) is dependent upon the sociodemographic characteristics of patients as well as other contextual influences. Result revealed that although relationship between SWB and DA is non-significant, this is influenced by factors such as sex and social support. In addition, the specific nature of this relationship (i.e. strength and sign) is dependent upon the sociodemographic characteristics of patients as well as other contextual influences.

  17. Sex differences in treatment-seeking behavior by education and marital status before and after admission to hospital. A register-based cohort study of the Danish population aged 50+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, Andreas; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland

    to hospital between 1999 and 2008. For this population, we identified all contacts with GPs between 1996 and 2011 to quantify the sex differences in treatment-seeking behavior within the 3-year periods before and after hospitalization, and to estimate the impact of the civil and educational status on the sex...... differentials in treatment-seeking. We found women having consistently more GP contacts across all ages, but a narrowing of the treatment-seeking behavior shortly before and after admission to hospital. We moreover found a gradient of the educational and the marital status, suggesting that groups with higher...

  18. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized pla...

  19. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin B; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-04-01

    A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother's Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shafiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW despite its high prevalence (36%. This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children.Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (-2SD from median of WHO's reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR, which controls for potential confounders such as child's age and sex, mother's education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder.The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%. While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16-1.30, 1.71 (95% CI:1.53-1.92 and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38-1.56 for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of mother, better household socio

  1. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  2. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979-2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.M.; Niu, X.; Pawlish, K.S.; Henry, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologists and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques

  3. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Roche

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES in New Jersey (NJ, a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques.

  4. Marital status and cardiovascular risk in French and Swedish automotive industry workers--cross sectional results from the Renault-Volvo Coeur study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlin, L; Latscha, G; Orth-Gomér, K; Dimberg, L; Lanoiselée, C; Simon, A; Eriksson, B

    2001-04-01

    To compare the coronary risk profiles in a sample of the French and Swedish automotive industry employees who were married/cohabitant, divorced or single (never married). A cross-sectional study comparison from biological and questionnaire data between the French and Swedish samples. Occupational health departments at Renault (employees from the north-west of France) and Volvo (employees from the south-west of Sweden). Two random samples of males aged between 45 and 50 years were examined in 1993, from Renault 1000, and from Volvo 1000. Biological data including cholesterol, blood pressure as well as the Framingham risk index. Self reported information regarding marital status, smoking, exercise, alcohol habits, and work stress assessed by the Karasek method, private social support indices, and type A behaviour according to the Bortner scale. More employees were married/cohabitant and fewer divorced or single at Renault. Apart from waist/hip ratio being marginally lower in Swedish single men, compared with married and divorced, no significant difference in biological cardiac risk factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure or Framingham risk index) was seen between the subgroups from any of the two countries. Compared with married/cohabitant men, it was shown that in men living alone smoking was more prevalent at Renault and Volvo. These men also showed less type A behaviour, a lower work control and a lower work support and fewer close friends. Alcohol consumption was reported in smaller amounts for Volvo employees living alone compared with married or divorced employees. Married/cohabitant and divorced staff showed similar values regarding all measured variables when compared within each country. Employees living alone in both France (Renault) and Sweden (Volvo) automotive companies seem to have increased nontraditional cardiac risk factors pertaining to life style and social network compared with married or divorced men. These results, in combination with the

  5. Maternal nutritional status predicts adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected rural Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera; Murray, Katherine; Mwesigwa, Julia; Natureeba, Paul; Osterbauer, Beth; Achan, Jane; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Clark, Tamara; Ades, Veronica; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Ruel, Theodore; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Cohan, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of birth outcomes, yet little is known about the nutritional status of HIV-infected pregnant women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We therefore examined the relationship between maternal BMI at study enrollment, gestational weight gain (GWG), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) among 166 women initiating cART in rural Uganda. Prospective cohort. HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women were enrolled between 12 and 28 weeks gestation and treated with a protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination regimen. Nutritional status was assessed monthly. Neonatal anthropometry was examined at birth. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariate analysis. Mean GWG was 0.17 kg/week, 14.6% of women experienced weight loss during pregnancy, and 44.9% were anemic. Adverse fetal outcomes included low birth weight (LBW) (19.6%), preterm delivery (17.7%), fetal death (3.9%), stunting (21.1%), small-for-gestational age (15.1%), and head-sparing growth restriction (26%). No infants were HIV-infected. Gaining Maternal weight at 7 months gestation predicted LBW. For each g/dL higher mean Hb, the odds of small-for-gestational age decreased by 52%. In our cohort of HIV-infected women initiating cART during pregnancy, grossly inadequate GWG was common. Infants whose mothers gained <0.1 kg/week were at increased risk for LBW, preterm delivery, and composite adverse birth outcomes. cART by itself may not be sufficient for decreasing the burden of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00993031.

  6. Maternal nutritional status predicts adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected rural Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sera Young

    Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of birth outcomes, yet little is known about the nutritional status of HIV-infected pregnant women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal BMI at study enrollment, gestational weight gain (GWG, and hemoglobin concentration (Hb among 166 women initiating cART in rural Uganda.Prospective cohort.HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women were enrolled between 12 and 28 weeks gestation and treated with a protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination regimen. Nutritional status was assessed monthly. Neonatal anthropometry was examined at birth. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariate analysis.Mean GWG was 0.17 kg/week, 14.6% of women experienced weight loss during pregnancy, and 44.9% were anemic. Adverse fetal outcomes included low birth weight (LBW (19.6%, preterm delivery (17.7%, fetal death (3.9%, stunting (21.1%, small-for-gestational age (15.1%, and head-sparing growth restriction (26%. No infants were HIV-infected. Gaining <0.1 kg/week was associated with LBW, preterm delivery, and a composite adverse obstetric/fetal outcome. Maternal weight at 7 months gestation predicted LBW. For each g/dL higher mean Hb, the odds of small-for-gestational age decreased by 52%.In our cohort of HIV-infected women initiating cART during pregnancy, grossly inadequate GWG was common. Infants whose mothers gained <0.1 kg/week were at increased risk for LBW, preterm delivery, and composite adverse birth outcomes. cART by itself may not be sufficient for decreasing the burden of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00993031.

  7. The sexual division of labour within couples in France according to their marital status:A study based on time - use surveys from 1985-1986, 1998-1999, and 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kandil, Lamia; Périvier, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the division of domestic tasks within the couple according to their marital status as well as how this has changed since the 1980s based on three INSEE time-use surveys (1985-86, 1998-99 and 2009-10). The ordinary least squares (OLS) method is complemented by the matching method, which is used to account for the self-selection of the couples in terms of their observable characteristics in different forms of union (marriage, cohabitation an...

  8. Grade Retention in Primary Education Is Associated with Quarter of Birth and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Betancor, Sara M; López-Puig, Alexis J

    2016-01-01

    Grade retention is still common practice in some countries though longstanding experience tells us that it is a highly criticised practice for its unclear benefits, its important costs for the educational systems and its relation with school dropout. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyse which variables increase the probability of being retained in primary education differentiating between being retained in second or in fourth grade, and paying special attention to the role of the socioeconomic status of the families. By knowing which analysed variables are related to grade retention, and how, we may offer some suggestions to reduce it. We use a national dataset with more observations for Spain than any other international ones, called 'Evaluación General de Diagnóstico', conducted in Spain in 2009 with the participation of 28708 students of fourth grade of primary education from 874 schools, considered to be representative for every Spanish autonomous region. This assessment focused on four competences and includes information about the learning context collected through questionnaires for students, families, school management and teachers. Estimating different multilevel random-intercept logistic regressions we obtain the following three main findings: 1) the existence of a 'quarter of birth' effect, that nearly doubles the probability of grade retention in second grade of primary -compared to the probability of grade retention in fourth grade-, for the youngest students of their same age cohort (OR = 1.93 vs. OR = 1.53, both plevel influences more than the fathers' one -especially in second grade (OR = 0.20 vs. OR = 0.45, both pgrade retention much more than having an unemployed mother -especially in second grade (OR = 1.48, p0.05)-.

  9. Predicting Marital Therapy Dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Scot M.; Crane, D. Russell

    1991-01-01

    Attempted to predict therapy dropouts using data gathered at marital therapy intake with 474 couples seeking marital therapy who attended at least 1 session. Significant predictors of dropping out included having less than two children, having a male intake clinician, and presenting problem relating only to one spouse. (Author/ABL)

  10. Type T Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Frank; Carlson, Jon

    1991-01-01

    Briefly reviews Farley's Type T theory of personality and then considers a range of issues in marital therapy from the perspective of Type T. Suggests that Type T theory may be relevant in dealing with infidelity, sexual problems, love, marital abuse, child rearing, drug and alcohol use, money, division of household labor, recreation, and…

  11. Sex differences in treatment-seeking behavior by education and marital status before and after admission to hospital. A register-based cohort study of the Danish population aged 50+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, Andreas; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland

    A large body of previous research has shown that men tend to seek medical help less than women, which can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment, and might explain a portion of the female advantage in survival. Using Danish register data, we identified all individuals aged 50+ who were admitted...... to hospital between 1999 and 2008. For this population, we identified all contacts with GPs between 1996 and 2011 to quantify the sex differences in treatment-seeking behavior within the 3-year periods before and after hospitalization, and to estimate the impact of the civil and educational status on the sex...... differentials in treatment-seeking. We found women having consistently more GP contacts across all ages, but a narrowing of the treatment-seeking behavior shortly before and after admission to hospital. We moreover found a gradient of the educational and the marital status, suggesting that groups with higher...

  12. Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents' conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over 4 years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status,…

  13. Demographic Characteristics, Health Behaviors before and during Pregnancy, and Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes in Mothers with different Pregnancy Planning Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lee, Yung Seng; Yap, Fabian; Yen Chan, Jerry Kok; Lek, Ngee

    2016-01-01

    Studies on pregnancy intentions and their consequences have yielded mixed results. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the maternal characteristics, health behaviors before and during pregnancy, as well as pregnancy and birth outcomes, across three different pregnancy planning status in 861 women participating in an ongoing Asian mother-offspring cohort study. At 26-28 weeks’ gestation, the women’s intention and enthusiasm towards their pregnancy were used to classify their pregnancy into planned or unplanned, and unplanned pregnancy was further subdivided into mistimed or unintended. Data on maternal characteristics, health behaviors, and pregnancy outcomes up to that stage, were recorded. After delivery, birth outcomes of the offspring were recorded. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Overall, 56% had a planned pregnancy, 39% mistimed, and 5% unintended. Compared to women who planned their pregnancy, women with mistimed pregnancy had higher body mass index, and were more likely to have cigarette smoke exposure and less likely to have folic acid supplementation. At 26-28 weeks’ gestation, unintended pregnancy was associated with increased anxiety. Neonates of mistimed pregnancy had shorter birth length compared to those of planned pregnancy, even after adjustment for maternal baseline demographics. These findings suggest that mothers who did not plan their pregnancy had less desirable characteristics or health behaviors before and during pregnancy, and poorer pregnancy and birth outcomes. Shorter birth length in mistimed pregnancy may be attributed to maternal behaviors before or in the early stages of pregnancy, therefore highlighting the importance of preconception health promotion and screening for women of child-bearing age. PMID:27577198

  14. Reassessing the link between premarital cohabitation and marital instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Steffen

    2010-08-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marriage cohorts. Using multiple marital outcomes for a person to account for one source of unobserved heterogeneity, panel models suggest that cohabitation is not selective of individuals with higher risk of marital dissolution and may be a stabilizing factor for higher-order marriages. Further research with more recent data is needed to assess whether these results are statistical artifacts caused by data weaknesses in the NSFG.

  15. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  16. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  17. Female scarcity reduces women's marital ages and increases variance in men's marital ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom

    2010-08-05

    When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  18. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  19. Socioeconomic disparities in small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Yang, Seungmi; Kaufman, Jay S; Kramer, Michael S; Wilkins, Russell

    2017-11-15

    Maternal socioeconomic disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. Few studies, however, have considered maternal education and income simultaneously to better understand the mechanisms underlying perinatal health disparities. This analysis examines both maternal education and income and their association with the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. The study is based on 127,694 singleton live births from the 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort, a national cohort of births registered from May 2004 to May 2006 that were linked to the 2006 long-form Census. Unadjusted rates of small-for-gestational-age birth (sex-specific birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age) and preterm birth (before 37 completed weeks of gestation) were estimated across selected maternal characteristics. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and covariate-adjusted risk ratios of both outcomes according to maternal education and income adequacy quintiles. Small-for-gestational-age birth was associated with both maternal education and income adequacy, while preterm birth was associated with maternal education only. These findings persisted after taking factors including maternal age, ethnicity, and marital status into account. The results suggest that the mechanism by which maternal education is associated with these outcomes is likely not through income, nor does income replace education as a potentially meaningful measure of socioeconomic position. The mechanisms underlying associations between socioeconomic position and perinatal health disparities are complex. The results of this study indicate that more than one socioeconomic factor may play a role.

  20. Effect of socioeconomic status and parents' education at birth on risk of schizophrenia in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Cheryl; Perrin, Mary; Harlap, Susan; Deutsch, Lisa; Fennig, Shmuel; Manor, Orly; Nahon, Daniella; Kimhy, David; Malaspina, Dolores; Susser, Ezra

    2009-04-01

    Although it is known that schizophrenia is associated with social class, controversy exists as to the nature of this association. The authors studied the incidence of schizophrenia in relation to social class at birth in a population-based cohort of 88,829 offspring born in Jerusalem in 1964-1976. They constructed a six-point scale to index social class, based on paternal occupation at the time of birth, with each of 108 occupations being ranked by mean education. Cox proportional hazards methods were used in adjusting for sex, parents' ages, duration of marriage and birth order. Linkage with Israel's Psychiatric Registry identified 637 people admitted to psychiatric care facilities with schizophrenia-related diagnoses, before 1998. There was no gradient of risk for schizophrenia associated with social class at birth; however, offspring of fathers in the lowest social class showed a modest increase in risk (adjusted Relative Risk = 1.4; 95% Confidence interval = 1.1-1.8, P = 0.002). These data suggest that in contrast to many other health outcomes, there is not a continuous gradient for increasing schizophrenia with decreasing social class of origin. Instead, a modest increase in risk for schizophrenia was observed only for those born at the bottom of the social ladder.

  1. Birth weight, growth and feeding pattern in early infancy predict overweight/obesity status at two years of age: a birth cohort study of Chinese infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianduan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.

  2. Maternal educational status at birth, maternal educational advancement, and neurocognitive outcomes at age 10 years among children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, Thomas M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Kuban, Karl K

    2017-11-22

    BackgroundTo determine if a key marker of socioeconomic status, maternal education, is associated with later neurocognitive and academic outcomes among children born extremely preterm (EP).MethodEight hundred and seventy-three children born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation were assessed for cognitive and academic ability at age 10 years. With adjustments for gestational age (GA) and potential confounders, outcomes of children whose mothers had fewer years of education at the time of delivery and children whose mother advanced in education between birth and 10 years were examined.ResultsChildren of mothers in the lowest education stratum at birth were significantly more likely to score ≥2 SDs below normative expectation on 17 of 18 tests administered. Children of mothers who advanced in education (n=199) were at reduced risk for scoring ≥2 SDs on 15 of 18 measures, but this reduction was statistically significant on only 2 of 18 measures.ConclusionAmong EP children, socioeconomic disadvantage at birth, indexed by maternal education, is associated with significantly poorer neurocognitive and academic outcomes at 10 years of age, independently of GA. Maternal educational advancement during the child's first 10 years of life is associated with modestly improved neurocognitive outcomes.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.267.

  3. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Ana Daniela Izoton de; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas

    To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative) due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend<0.001). Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Carmichael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

  5. Maternal Race–Ethnicity, Immigrant Status, Country of Birth, and the Odds of a Child With Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fairthorne PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of autism spectrum disorder varies by maternal race–ethnicity, immigration status, and birth region. In this retrospective cohort study, Western Australian state registries and a study population of 134 204 mothers enabled us to examine the odds of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in children born from 1994 to 2005 by the aforementioned characteristics. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, socioeconomic status, and birth year. Indigenous women were 50% less likely to have a child with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability than Caucasian, nonimmigrant women. Overall, immigrant women were 40% less likely to have a child with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability than nonimmigrant women. However, Black women from East Africa had more than 3.5 times the odds of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in their children than Caucasian nonimmigrant women. Research is implicated on risk and protective factors for autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in the children of immigrant women.

  6. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. The transition to parenthood and marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L K; Booth, A

    1985-12-01

    An extensive literature demonstrates a negative correlation between the presence of children and marital quality. Few of these studies are designed to test the reasons for this relationship. This study examines 2 possible paths: that people who choose to have children differ from those who do not in ways that affect marital quality, and that having a child changes marital structure and process. This research is based on a nationwide sample interviewed 1st in 1980 and again in 1983. In 1980, telephone interviews were conducted with 2,033 married individuals. The analysis of the effects of transition to parenthood is restricted to the 220 individuals who met the following conditions: childless in 1980, wife under 35 in 1980, successfully reintterviewed in 1983, and marriage intact between 1980-3. The results of the analysis support neither hypotheses. Prior to the birth of the child, parents and nonparents do not differ in marital interaction, happiness, disagreements, problems, or traditionalism in the division of labor, though future parents are already somewhat more likely to believe that the division of household labor is unfair. In regard to the argument that a new baby causes negative changes in marital structure and process, these data give only weak support. The sharpest difference found in this analysis is in the propensity to divorce or permanently separate, a propensity substantially greater among the nonparents. The greater willingness of childless couples to divorce means that a continuing sample of childless couples is more highly selected for marital happiness than a continuing sample of parents. This selectivity in divorce rather than the direct effect of children seems to be the major reason that cross-sectional comparisons show parents to be somewhat less happy than nonparents.

  8. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  9. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of

  10. Marital and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Hargun; Anand, Tanya; Suman, L N

    2018-02-01

    Substance abuse is a family disease that adversely impacts both the user and the user's family. The family can act as a risk factor for the development of substance abuse among children and adults. The family can also be involved in therapy to either help the recovery process or prevent substance abuse. Marital and family therapy have been found to be effective in reducing the severity of substance use, lowering marital and family conflict, improving family communication and cohesion as well as effective parenting practices. Behavioural Couples Therapy has been found to have good empirical support for bringing about the desired changes in both substance abuse and marital relationship. While targeting entire families, the most common evidenced based family interventions are Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, Family Behaviour Therapy, Functional Family Therapy and Community Reinforcement Programme. Marital and family therapy have to be sensitive to gender and culture. Effective use of marital and family therapy requires adequate training to equip practitioners in adequately treating not only substance use disorders and family pathology, but also in treating co-morbid mental health conditions.

  11. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  12. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Peik; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils; Källén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.02). We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

  13. The differential effect of foreign-born status on low birth weight by race/ethnicity and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Soobader, Mah-J; Berkman, Lisa F

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates whether foreign-born status confers a protective effect against low birth weight (LBW) and whether this protective effect varies across racial/ethnic groups and by socioeconomic status (ie, education) within various racial/ethnic groups. Logistic regression analyses of the Detail Natality Data, 1998 (n = 2,436,890), were used to examine differentials in LBW by nativity across racial/ethnic groups and by education level. Although foreign-born status does not protect against LBW among white women (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96, 1.03) and it increases the risk among Asian women by 24% (95% CI: 1.13, 1.36), it reduces the risk by approximately 25% among black women (95% CI: 0.72, 0.78) and by approximately 19% among Hispanic women (95% CI: 0.78, 0.84). By educational attainment, for whites, blacks, and Hispanics the protective effect of foreign-born status is stronger among women with low education (ie, 0-11 years) than among women with more education. The educational gradient in LBW is less pronounced among foreign-born white, black, and Hispanic women than among their US-born counterparts. Foreign-born status is associated with LBW. The direction and strength of this association varies across racial/ethnic groups, and within those groups it varies by educational level. Future research may test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these variations in LBW, including health selection of immigrants, cultural factors, social support, and social environment.

  14. Intellectual psycho-educational and functional status of low birth weight survivors beyond 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, A; Kumari, S; Ramji, S; Malik, A; Singh, S; Nigam, V R

    2000-11-01

    To determine the intellectual, psycho-educational and functional status of low birth weight (LBW) survivors (birth weight Gestalt Test. The proportion of children having soft neurological signs was determined. Vineland Social Maturity Scale was performed on all children. Fifty-nine LBW children and fifty-seven matched control children participated in the study. 27 of LBW children were examined at a mean age of 7.0 +/- 1.1 years (group I) and 32 were examined at a mean age of 10.6 +/- 1.2 years (group II). The LBW children as a group performed in the normal range on the tests of cognition and academic achievement, but were significantly disadvantaged (p Gestalt. Test as compared to controls but the difference was not significant. A significantly higher proportion of LBW children of both the groups showed the presence of soft neurological signs as compared to controls. The social quotient as assessed by the vineland Social Maturity Scale was significantly lower in the LBW children as compared to controls. Thus, though the LBW children were performing in the normal range on various measures, comparison with the control group showed that they were clearly disadvantaged on nearly every measure tested, emphasizing the need for early detection and referral for special education.

  15. Marital Satisfaction and Its Influencing Factors in Fertile and Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine marital satisfaction and its influencing factors among fertile and infertile women in Shahroud.Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 1528 participants (511 infertile and1017 fertile women were evaluated using Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test.Results: A total of 1402 participants (78.7% had high marital satisfaction. The results show that no significant differences exist between marital satisfaction, marital communication, conflict resolution and idealistic distortion in fertile and infertile women. However, a significant difference was observed between marital satisfaction, and job, spouse’s job and income in fertile and infertile groups, but the place of residence, education, spouse's education and fertility status showed no significant difference.Conclusion: Results showed that infertility does not reduce marital satisfaction. Since marital satisfaction is moderate in both groups, sex education for people bound to marry and sexual counseling for couples can lead to improved sexual satisfaction.

  16. Marital Satisfaction and Its Influencing Factors in Fertile and Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Sadeqi, Zakieh; Hoseinpoor, Mohammad Hassan; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Objective: To determine marital satisfaction and its influencing factors among fertile and infertile women in Shahroud. Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 1528 participants (511 infertile and1017 fertile women) were evaluated using Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test. Results: A total of 1402 participants (78.7%) had high marital satisfaction. The results show that no significant differences exist between marital satisfaction, marital communication, conflict resolution and idealistic distortion in fertile and infertile women. However, a significant difference was observed between marital satisfaction, and job, spouse's job and income in fertile and infertile groups, but the place of residence, education, spouse's education and fertility status showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Results showed that infertility does not reduce marital satisfaction. Since marital satisfaction is moderate in both groups, sex education for people bound to marry and sexual counseling for couples can lead to improved sexual satisfaction.

  17. Effects of cobalt/vitamin B12 status in ewes on ovum development and lamb viability at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Linda M; Robinson, John J; Watt, Robert G; McEvoy, Thomas G; Ashworth, Cheryl J; Rooke, John A; Dwyer, Cathy M

    2007-01-01

    Scottish Blackface ewes from cobalt-deficient farmland were fed a diet containing 0.06 mg cobalt per kg dry matter from approximately 30 days before embryo recovery/transfer until lambing. Ewes remained untreated (-Co; n = 82) or were given an intraruminal cobalt-containing bolus to compensate for the dietary deficit (+Co; n = 82). Ewes used as embryo donors (-Co, n = 17; +Co, n = 16) were artificially inseminated with semen from a single Suffolk sire. Day 6 embryos obtained from -Co and +Co donors were transferred in singleton to -Co and +Co recipients in a 2 x 2 factorial-designed experiment to determine the effects of cobalt/vitamin B12 status during the periconception period (factor 1) and pregnancy (factor 2) on lamb viability at birth. Mean (+/- s.e.m.) circulating concentrations of vitamin B12 in -Co and +Co donors at ovum recovery were 182 +/- 10 and 1288 +/- 64 pmol L(-1), respectively (P 32 cells (viable) or the median stage of development (late morula), but viable ova recovered from -Co v. +Co ewes had a better morphological grade (2.0 +/- 0.1 v. 2.20 +/- 0.04, respectively; P effect of treatment on the proportion of recipient ewes that became pregnant. Circulating concentrations of vitamin B12 were lower in -Co than +Co ewes during pregnancy (P effect of donor or recipient cobalt/vitamin B12 status on lamb birthweight, neonatal vigour or neonatal rectal temperatures, but lambs derived from +Co v. -Co embryo donors were more active in the first 3 days after birth (P vitamin B12 deficiency reduces ovulatory response in superovulated ewes and that periconception nutrition can affect neonatal lamb behaviour.

  18. Marital stability and repartnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D

    2014-01-01

    a second union have higher initial levels of stress in their original relationship and higher changes in stress levels over the course of treatments. These findings suggest that high infertility-related stress levels before entering fertility treatment can negatively affect the stability of marital...

  19. Affect in Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Leslie S.; Johnson, Susan M.

    1986-01-01

    Using a network theory of emotion, the role of the evocation of emotion in emotionally focused marital therapy to create intimacy and facilitate conflict resolution is discussed. Accessing underlying primary emotional responses in partners makes available adaptive action tendencies which promote problem solving and helps change self- and…

  20. Marital Happiness of Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Essie M.

    According to a study of 256 black married women between the ages of 26 and 60 living with their spouses, marital happiness is more common among black women than marital unhappiness. This finding is based on the secondary analysis of a sample of data collected in Detroit in 1968-1969. Variables statistically significant to the marital happiness of…

  1. Assessing Marital Adjustment and Satisfaction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated five instruments of marital adjustment and satisfaction: Marital Adjustment Test, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Marital Satisfaction Index, Marital Satisfaction Scale, and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. Discusses studies evaluating psychometric properties of each instrument. Recommends the Marital Satisfaction Index for assessing…

  2. Global Birth Prevalence of Spina Bifida by Folic Acid Fortification Status: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Callie A M; Fiest, Kirsten M; Frolkis, Alexandra D; Jette, Nathalie; Pringsheim, Tamara; St Germaine-Smith, Christine; Rajapakse, Thilinie; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Metcalfe, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Birth defects remain a significant source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Strong scientific evidence shows that folic acid fortification of a region's food supply leads to a decrease in spina bifida (a birth defect of the spine). Still, many countries around the world have yet to approve mandatory fortification through government legislation. We sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of period prevalence of spina bifida by folic acid fortification status, geographic region, and study population. An expert research librarian used terms related to neural tube defects and epidemiology from primary research from 1985 to 2010 to search in EMBASE and MEDLINE. We searched the reference lists of included articles and key review articles identified by experts. Inclusion criteria included studies in English or French reporting on prevalence published between January 1985 and December 2010 that (1) were primary research, (2) were population-based, and (3) reported a point or period prevalence estimate of spina bifida (i.e., prevalence estimate with confidence intervals or case numerator and population denominator). Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts for eligible articles, then 2 authors screened full texts in duplicate for final inclusion. Disagreements were resolved through consensus or a third party. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, or PRISMA, abstracting data related to case ascertainment, study population, folic acid fortification status, geographic region, and prevalence estimate independently and in duplicate. We extracted overall data and any subgroups reported by age, gender, time period, or type of spina bifida. We classified each period prevalence estimate as "mandatory" or "voluntary" folic acid fortification according to each country's folic acid fortification status at the time data were collected (as determined by a well-recognized fortification monitoring body, Food

  3. The Relationship between Marital Characteristics, Marital Interaction Processes, and Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen-Grandon, Jane R.; Myers, Jane E.; Hattie, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to clarify the relationship between marital characteristics, marital processes, and the dependent variable--marital satisfaction--in a sample of 201 participants who were in 1st marriages. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) and the Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues,…

  4. Prediction of low birth weight delivery by maternal status and its validation: Decision curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Rejali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we evaluated assessed elements connected with low birth weight (LBW and used decision curve analysis (DCA to define a scale to anticipate the probability of having a LBW newborn child. Methods: This hospital-based case–control study was led in Arak Hospital in Iran. The study included 470 mothers with LBW neonate and 470 mothers with natural neonates. Information were gathered by meeting moms utilizing preplanned organized questionnaire and from hospital records. The estimated probabilities of detecting LBW were calculated using the logistic regression and DCA to quantify the clinical consequences and its validation. Results: Factors significantly associated with LBW were premature membrane rupture (odds ratio [OR] = 3.18 [1.882–5.384], former LBW infants (OR = 2.99 [1.510–5.932], premature pain (OR = 2.70 [1.659–4.415], hypertension in pregnancy (OR = 2.39 [1.429–4.019], last trimester of pregnancy bleeding (OR = 2.58 [1.018–6.583], mother age >30 (OR = 2.17 [1.350–3.498]. However, with DCA, the prediction model made on these 15 variables has a net benefit (NB of 0.3110 is best predictive with the highest NB. NB has simple clinical interpretation and utilizing the model is what might as well be called a procedure that distinguished what might as well be called 31.1 LBW per 100 cases with no superfluous recognize. Conclusions: It is conceivable to foresee LBW utilizing a prediction model show in light of noteworthy hazard components connected with LBW. The majority of the hazard elements for LBW are preventable, and moms can be alluded amid early pregnancy to a middle which is furnished with facilities for administration of high hazard pregnancy and LBW infant.

  5. Acid-base status at birth, spontaneous motor behaviour at term and 3 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 4 years in full-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J; Feron, FJM; Hendriksen, JGM; van Hall, M; Gavilanes-Jiminez, DWD; Hadders-Algra, M; Vles, JSH

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between acid-base status and quality and quantity of General Movements (GMs) at birth and quality of GMs at age 3 months and motor, cognitive and behavioural functioning at the age of 4 years. Methods: From a cohort of 84 term children

  6. The associations of parental under-education and unemployment on the risk of preterm birth: 2003 Korean National Birth Registration database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Han; Lim, Hyung-tak; Park, Hyun-young; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Han-suk

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations of combined parental low educational level and combined parental unemployment on the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in Korea. Data on 427,857 singleton births were obtained from the National Birth Registration (NBR) database in 2003 and analyzed. Parental education and parental employment status were combined as exposure for analysis. Place of birth, sex, marital status, parental age and parity were included for analysis of unconditional multiple logistic regressions. PTB was defined as birth before a gestational age of 37 complete weeks. Group of the lowest educational level, below high school, had the highest odds of PTB in both father and mother in multivariable analysis [odds ratio (OR) 1.15 and 1.16, respectively]. After combining parental educational status for the multivariable analysis, the highest probability of PTB was in families where both parents had below college level education (OR 1.22). As for paternal employment, the multivariable analysis showed an increased rate of PTB occurred where the father was unemployed (OR 1.11). After combining the employment status of both parents, the multivariable analysis revealed that PTB was only significant in families where both parents were unemployed (OR 1.09). We found that combined parental low educational level and combined parental unemployment increased the likelihood of preterm birth.

  7. Grade Retention in Primary Education Is Associated with Quarter of Birth and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Grade retention is still common practice in some countries though longstanding experience tells us that it is a highly criticised practice for its unclear benefits, its important costs for the educational systems and its relation with school dropout. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyse which variables increase the probability of being retained in primary education differentiating between being retained in second or in fourth grade, and paying special attention to the role of the socioeconomic status of the families. By knowing which analysed variables are related to grade retention, and how, we may offer some suggestions to reduce it. We use a national dataset with more observations for Spain than any other international ones, called ‘Evaluación General de Diagnóstico’, conducted in Spain in 2009 with the participation of 28708 students of fourth grade of primary education from 874 schools, considered to be representative for every Spanish autonomous region. This assessment focused on four competences and includes information about the learning context collected through questionnaires for students, families, school management and teachers. Estimating different multilevel random-intercept logistic regressions we obtain the following three main findings: 1) the existence of a ‘quarter of birth’ effect, that nearly doubles the probability of grade retention in second grade of primary –compared to the probability of grade retention in fourth grade–, for the youngest students of their same age cohort (OR = 1.93 vs. OR = 1.53, both p0.05)–. PMID:27851779

  8. Marital moratorium and fertility control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H Y

    1970-11-01

    Abstract Since 1949, the issue of marital postponement has been extensively discussed in China. Unlike some other means of fertility control (e.g. abortion and oral contraception), marital postponement has been welcomed with the fewest misgivings. Lately, marital postponement has also been given renewed emphasis by those outside China who see a weak link between various current national family planning programmes based on improved technology and the goal of fertility reduction. One aim of this paper is to render a comprehensive account of the marital postponement programme in China in the course of the birth control campaign during the last two decades. The second objective is to discuss the lessons that may be learned from it, and its implications for the current fertility controversy in the United States. Four general conclusions emerge from a careful analysis of the available documents: (1) in China, proponents of delayed marriage were divided on the question of how to secure its general acceptance. One issue dividing them was whether or not China's Marriage Law of 1950 should be amended in order to achieve it. Those who favoured raising the minimum legal age disagreed on the details of the presumably needed change. There is enough evidence to suggest that medical personnel were the chief advocates of compulsory postponement of marriage. The government rejected this legalistic approach and, in so doing, agreed with Chen Ta (a noted demographer) and others who sought to achieve postponement of marriage through appropriate social and economic measures. (2) Decisions to delay matrimony in different socio-cultural settings are not necessarily identical sociological phenomena. In some societies, (e.g. the United States), they may amount to no more than a course of action that enables individuals involved to realize or develop alternate goals in life. In others (e.g. China), they are literally acts of rebellion. (3) The fertility policy dispute has been carried on in

  9. Very low birth weight infants at 8 and 11 years of age: role of neonatal illness and family status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J V; Cooper, B A; Tooley, W H

    1988-10-01

    The intellectual and educational status of 108 children with very low birth weight (less than or equal to 1,500 g), born from 1965 to 1978, was evaluated and tested on standard tests (eight children with severe handicaps were excluded) at 8 years of age. Fifty-seven were further evaluated at 11 years of age. Six categorical outcomes were defined a priori, based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised IQ and discrepancies between Verbal and Performance scores and Bender Gestalt Test score. Proportions at 8 years of age were: 4.6% very low IQ (below 70), 13.9% low IQ (70 to 84), and, for those with IQ greater than 84, 12.0% language disability, 12.0% performance disability, 21.4% visual-motor disability, and 36.1% normal. Learning disabilities, determined by discrepancies between IQ and Wide Range Achievement Test scores, included 16.7% of all children. Outcome proportions at 11 years of age were essentially comparable to those at 8 years of age; outcome constancy was present in 52.6%. Ratings of neonatal illness and parent education level strongly influenced the likelihood of outcome at 8 years of age. When ratings were dichotomized (ie, low v high neonatal illness and low v high parent education), the level of neonatal illness primarily influenced the likelihood of normal outcome, whereas the level of parent education influenced the degree of severity of the disability.

  10. Gender Ideologies, Marital Roles, and Marital Quality in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Lai, Shu-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    This study uses the multidimensional measures included in the 1996 Taiwan Social Change Survey to examine the effects of gender ideologies and marital role sharing on marital quality among married Taiwanese men and women as reporting spouses. The authors' quantitative analyses indicate that (a) there is little direct relationship between gender…

  11. Effect of marital counselling on women's attitude towards marital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    This study investigated the effect of marital counselling on women's attitude towards marital stability. The study ... non-academic) staff of the Faculty of Education, University of Port-Harcourt,. Rivers State of Nigeria. 26 each ... issues, love and trust, socio-cultural factors, anti-social vices and lastly economic factors. Although ...

  12. Marital conflict and children's sleep: reciprocal relations and socioeconomic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan J; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2011-06-01

    We examined reciprocal relations between parental marital conflict and children's sleep disruptions over two years. The roles of ethnicity (African American and European American) and socioeconomic status were tested as moderators of the examined relations. A community sample of 176 school-age children (M age = 8.68 at T1) and their parents participated at T1 and T2 with a 2-year interval between waves. Mothers, fathers, and children reported on parental marital conflict, and children's sleep was measured via actigraphy and self-reports. Latent variable modeling indicated that T1 marital conflict predicted increases in children's sleep disruptions longitudinally; results were more pronounced for African American children and those from lower SES homes. Further, children's sleep disruptions at T1 predicted increases in marital conflict over time. Results demonstrate the importance of reciprocal relations between a prevalent familial stressor and a fundamental facet of children's health, especially when considering the sociocultural milieu. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Umberson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach-which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage-to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (n = 10,457) and couple-level (n = 2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and individual-level (n = 46) and couple-level (n = 42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men's but increases women's drinking relative to being never married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men's but decrease women's drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men's and women's heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  14. Prospective associations of maternal betaine status with offspring weight and body composition at birth: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lee, Linde; Tint, Mya Thway; Aris, Izzuddin M; Quah, Phaik Ling; Fortier, Marielle V; Lee, Yung Seng; Yap, Fabian Kp; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-11-01

    Betaine supplementation results in lower body weight and fat mass and higher lean mass in animals and adult humans. However, the relation between maternal betaine status and offspring birth weight and body composition is less known. The aim was to examine the association between maternal betaine status and neonatal birth size and adiposity in an Asian mother-offspring cohort. We included 955 pregnant women whose plasma betaine concentrations were measured at 26-28 wk of gestation. Neonatal anthropometric values were measured at birth, and abdominal adipose tissue compartments were assessed by MRI in a subset of infants (n = 307) in the first 14 d after birth. Multivariate general linear models were used to adjust for gestational age; fetal sex; and maternal age, height, education, ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, and plasma folate, vitamin B-12, and choline concentrations. The mean ± SD plasma concentration of betaine was 13.2 ± 2.7 μmol/L (range: 5.3-25.0 μmol/L). After adjustment for covariates, higher maternal plasma betaine was associated with lower birth weight (β: -57.6 g; 95% CI: -109.9, -5.3 g), shorter birth length (β: -0.29 cm per 5-μmol/L increment; 95% CI: -0.55, -0.03 cm), smaller head circumference (-0.20 cm; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.02 cm), smaller midupper arm circumference (-0.16 cm; 95% CI: -0.30, -0.03 cm), lower volumes of abdominal superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (-4.53 mL; 95% CI: -8.70, -0.36 mL), and a higher risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.35). Higher maternal betaine status was generally associated with smaller infant birth size and less abdominal fat mass. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to understand their biological mechanisms. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Why do men seek status? Fitness payoffs to dominance and prestige

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard

    2011-01-01

    In many human societies, high male social status associates with higher fertility, but the means by which status increases lifetime fitness have not been systematically investigated. We analyse the pathways by which male status begets reproductive success in a small-scale, Amerindian society. Men who are more likely to win a dyadic physical confrontation, i.e. dominant men, have higher intra-marital fertility for their age, and men with more community-wide influence, i.e. prestigious men, exhibit both higher intra-marital fertility and lower offspring mortality. Both forms of status elicit support from allies and deference from competitors, but high status men are not provisioned more than their peers. Prestigious but not dominant men marry wives who first give birth at earlier ages, which multivariate analysis suggests is the strongest pathway between status and fitness in this population. Furthermore, men are motivated to pursue status because of fitness gains both within and outside of marital unions: dominant and prestigious men have more in-pair surviving offspring as well as more extra-marital affairs. PMID:21147798

  16. The Relationship between Job Variables of Life Satisfaction and Marital Satisfaction of Lecturers

    OpenAIRE

    Metehan ÇELİK; Songül TÜMKAYA

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the job variables of life satisfaction and marital satisfaction of lecturers. It is descriptive study comparing the marital satisfaction and life satisfaction in terms of gender, academic status, working year and working hours. The sample of the study consisted of voluntary and married 119 lecturers (40 female, 79 male). Data collection instruments were Marital Adjustment Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale. In terms of gender va...

  17. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    concentrations indicated vitamin A deficiency in 32% of the children at age 6 wk and in 16% at age 4 mo. VAS was not associated with higher RBP concentrations overall or in either sex. However, the effect of VAS varied with maternal education (P for interaction = 0.004): At age 6 wk, VAS was associated......BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...

  18. Risks of small-for-gestational-age births in immigrants: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2012-11-01

    To examine if there is an association between country of birth in parents and small-for-gestational-age (defined as a birthweight of more than two standard deviations (SDs) below the mean) in first singletons births. In this follow-up study, national population and healthcare registers were used to identify small-for-gestational-age births in all first singleton births in Sweden between 1 January 1982 and 31 December 2006. Odds ratios, standardised with regard to maternal age at birth, period of birth, marital status, family income, geographical region, employment, maternal height, and smoking history, were estimated by maternal and paternal country of birth. Singletons with both parents born in Sweden were used as reference group. There were 1,060,467 records for first singletons births over the study period, of whom 3.5% were small-for-gestational-age. The rate was higher in newborns with non-Swedish born than in those with Swedish born mothers (4.1 and 3.3%, respectively). Immigrants from Southern European countries, Africa, and Asia had higher risks of small-for-gestational-age in than those in the reference group, and the risks were even higher in compatriot parents. Country of birth affected the risk of small-for-gestational-age. Maternity care should pay a special attention to pregnancies in certain population groups.

  19. Content Themes in Marital Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillars, Alan L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that prominent themes in the conversations of spouses are metacommunication about relationships. Compares content themes of different marital types (traditional, separate, and independent) and more or less satisfied spouses. Finds marital satisfaction tends to be positively associated with communal and impersonal themes and negatively…

  20. Therapeutic Handling of Marital Infidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Bruce B.

    1975-01-01

    Marital infidelity has two primary dimensions--on overt social-cultural facade and a covert, intense, emotional component. A therapy strategy, based on this formulation and on the presumption that both spouses were equally responsible for the marital fracture, is presented. (Author)

  1. Premarital Pregnancy and Marital Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The marital histories of 203 young women who became premaritally pregnant in their early teens and 90 of their classmates most of whom married before pregnancy show that disruption in the courtship process and limited economic resources are the most important factors in marital dissolution. (Author/AM)

  2. Types of marital intimacy and prevalence of emotional illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, E M; Patton, D; Neron, C A; Linker, W

    1986-11-01

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated that married individuals generally experience better emotional health than the single, divorced and widowed. The married populations in these studies were not evaluated on the basis of the quality of their marital relationships. Research on the interpersonal quality of marital relationships in the general married population has rarely been reported in the psychiatric literature. A sample of the general married population (n = 250 couples) completed a self-report questionnaire which measures the quality and the quantity of intimacy in marriage. Four types of marital patterns were operationally defined by total intimacy score, pattern of scale profile, and social desirability scores. The relative frequencies of these types of marriages are reported. The prevalence of symptoms of non-psychotic emotional illness in one or both spouses in the four categories of marriage is reported. Thirty-one percent (31%) of the couples report marriages with absent and/or deficient intimacy. Couples with "absent and/or deficient" marital intimacy had a significantly higher proportion of spouses with symptoms of non-psychotic emotional illness. This study suggests that previous research may have confounded the variables of marital status and marital quality in the study of psychiatric disorder. These studies may have under-estimated the positive effect of an "optimally" intimate relationship.

  3. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  4. Marital Separation and Lethal Male Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Desmond

    2016-05-10

    Findings reported by many researchers indicate that the association between marital separation and intimate partner femicide has achieved the status of a sociological empirical generalization. The primary objective of this article is to contribute toward the cumulative development of a conflict theoretic explanation of separation- associated femicide by creating and testing a deductive conflict resolution theory that explains the empirical generalization. The causal mechanism identified in the theory is the intensity of conflict that increases with participation in adversarial and separation and divorce proceedings. Interventions logically derived from the theory are presented in the penultimate segment. Limitations are identified in the concluding segment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-12-09

    Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has examined if treating periodontal disease before pregnancy reduces adverse birth outcomes. This study aims to examine if the pre-conception treatment of periodontal disease will lead to improved periodontal status during late pregnancy and subsequent birth outcomes. A sample of 470 (235 in each arm of the study) pre-conception women who plan to conceive within one year and with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. All participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention group will receive free therapy including dental scaling and root planning (the standard therapy), supragingival prophylaxis, and oral hygiene education. The control group will only receive supragingival prophylaxis and oral hygiene education. Women will be followed throughout their pregnancy and then to childbirth. The main outcomes include periodontal disease status in late pregnancy and birth outcomes measured such as mean birth weight (grams), and mean gestational age (weeks). Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through a dental examination by measuring probing depth, clinical attachment loss and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) between gestational age of 32 and 36 weeks. Local and systemic inflammatory mediators are also included as main outcomes. This will be the first RCT to test whether treating periodontal disease among pre-conception women reduces periodontal disease during pregnancy and prevents adverse birth outcomes. If

  6. Impact of marital status on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2017-11-01

    The Farr-Bertillon law states that the mortality rate of single and widowed persons is about three times the rate of married people of same age. This excess mortality can be measured with good accuracy for all ages except for young widowers. The reason is that, at least nowadays, very few people become widowed under the age of 30. Here we show that disability data from census records can also be used as a reliable substitute for mortality rates. In fact excess-disability and excess-mortality go hand in hand. Moreover, as there are about ten times more cases of disability than deaths, the disability variable is able to offer more accurate measurements in all cases where the number of deaths is small. This allows a more accurate investigation of the young widower effect; it confirms that, as already suspected from death rate data, there is a huge spike between the ages of 20 and 30. By using disability rates we can also study additional features not accessible using death rate data. For example we can examine the health impact of a change in living place. The observed temporary inflated disability rate confirms what could be expected by invoking the ;Transient Shock; conjecture formuladted by the authors in a previous paper. Finally, in another observation it is shown that the disability rate of newly married persons is higher than for those who have been married for more than one year, a result which comes in confirmation of the ;newly married couple; effect reported in an earlier paper.

  7. Types of marital closeness and mortality risk in older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Roni Beth; Kasl, Stanislav V; Darefsky, Amy S

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the impact of marital closeness on survival over 6 years in a community-dwelling sample of 305 older couples. Closeness is defined as 1) naming one's spouse as a confidant or source of emotional support (vs. not naming) and 2) being named by spouse on at least one of the two dimensions (vs. not being named). The survival effects of both naming and being named are examined in Cox proportional hazard regressions, controlling for sociodemographic, health status, and behavioral variables. Husbands who were named by their wives but did not name them were least likely to have died after 6 years. Compared with them, husbands in marriages with the other three styles of closeness were from 3.30 to 4.68 times more likely to be dead. Wives' results showed the same pattern of effects, with the same marital style being most protective as for husbands, but the effects were weaker. However, wives' results were strongly moderated by parenting status: those who had ever had children who were in the marital closeness pattern of wife naming husband but not being named by him were highly protected. Compared with these wives, others who had had children were from 8.26 to 10.95 times less likely to be alive after 6 years. The same pattern of marital closeness most benefited husbands and those wives who had had children. These findings are not explained adequately by social support or marital role theory although they fit the latter more closely.

  8. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  9. Recruitment of childhood leukaemia patients to clinical trials in Great Britain during 1980-2007: variation by birth weight, congenital malformation, socioeconomic status and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjali; Diggens, Nicole; Stiller, Charles; Richards, Sue; Stevens, Michael C G; Murphy, Michael F G

    2014-05-01

    To assess recruitment of children to national clinical trials for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in Great Britain during 1980-2007 and describe variation by some factors that might influence trial entry. Records of leukaemia patients aged 0-14 years at diagnosis were identified in the National Registry of Childhood Tumours and linked to birth registrations, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group records, Hospital Episode Statistics and Medical Research Council clinical trial registers. Trial entry rates were compared between categories of birth weight, congenital malformation, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. 9147 ALL and 1466 AML patients were eligible for national clinical trials during 1980-2007. Overall recruitment rates were 81% and 60% respectively. For ALL, rates varied significantly with congenital malformation (Down syndrome 61%, other malformations 80%, none 82%; p4000 g 67%; p=0.001) and congenital malformation (Down syndrome 28%, other malformations 56%, none 63%; pcongenital malformations.

  10. Low birth weight and zygosity status is associated with defective muscle glycogen and glycogen synthase regulation in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An adverse intrauterine environment indicated by both low birth weight and monozygosity is associated with an age- or time-dependent reduction in glucose disposal and nonoxidative glucose metabolism in twins, suggesting impaired regulation of muscle glycogen synthesis. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: We measured the activities of glycogen synthase (GS), GS kinase (GSK)3 alpha, GS phosphorylation, and glycogen levels in muscle biopsies obtained from 184 young and elderly twins before and after a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. RESULTS: Elderly monozygotic twins had significantly lower...... fractional GS activity amidst higher glycogen and GS protein levels compared with dizygotic twins. In addition, we demonstrated strong nongenetic associations between birth weight and defect muscle glycogen metabolism in elderly--but not in younger--twins. Thus, for every 100 g increase in birth weight...

  11. Adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes in twins: effects of maternal fertility status and infant gender combinations; the Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Gopal, Daksha; Cabral, Howard; Stern, Judy E; Diop, Hafsatou

    2017-09-01

    It is unknown whether the risk of adverse outcomes in twin pregnancies among subfertile women, conceived with and without in vitro fertilization, differs from those conceived spontaneously. We sought to evaluate the effects of fertility status on adverse perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies on a population basis. All twin live births of ≥22 weeks' gestation and ≥350 g birthweight to Massachusetts resident women in 2004 through 2010 were linked to hospital discharge records, vital records, and in vitro fertilization cycles. Women were categorized by their fertility status as in vitro fertilization, subfertile, or fertile, and by twin pair genders (all, like, unlike). Women whose births linked to in vitro fertilization cycles were classified as in vitro fertilization; those with indicators of subfertility but without in vitro fertilization treatment were classified as subfertile; all others were classified as fertile. Risks of 6 adverse pregnancy outcomes (gestational diabetes, pregnancy hypertension, uterine bleeding, placental complications [placenta abruptio, placenta previa, and vasa previa], prenatal hospitalizations, and primary cesarean) and 9 adverse infant outcomes (very low birthweight, low birthweight, small-for-gestation birthweight, large-for-gestation birthweight, very preterm [women with twin pregnancies (6090 fertile, 724 subfertile, and 3538 in vitro fertilization). Among all twins, the risks for all 6 adverse pregnancy outcomes were significantly increased for the subfertile and in vitro fertilization groups, with highest risks for uterine bleeding (adjusted relative risk ratios, 1.92 and 2.58, respectively) and placental complications (adjusted relative risk ratios, 2.07 and 1.83, respectively). Among all twins, the risks for those born to subfertile women were significantly increased for very preterm birth and neonatal and infant death (adjusted relative risk ratios, 1.36, 1.89, and 1.87, respectively). Risks were significantly

  12. Influence of marital history over two and three generations on early death. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2006-01-01

    a random sample of all boys born in the the metropolitan area of Copenhagen with complete data from interviews and registers on two and three generation's marital status, socioeconomic position variables, and last generation's admission to psychiatric hospital, n = 2614. Among these 105 deaths occurred....... Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the effect of marital status on mortality. RESULTS: Never married sons showed a considerably increased mortality compared with their married counterparts in the adjusted analyses. Mother's marital status at childbirth was also associated...... with increased mortality among the sons. There was no independent effect of maternal grandparent's experience of divorce on third generation's mortality. Son's marital status was the strongest marital status predictor of mortality. Accumulation of both two and three generations' marital status was significantly...

  13. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  14. Associations of multicultural status with depressive mood and suicidality among Korean adolescents: the roles of parental country of birth and socioeconomic position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwook Bahk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mental health of the offspring of immigrants is a major public health concern. In this study, we examined associations of multicultural status and parental country of birth with adolescent mental health in South Korea, and assessed the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP on these associations. Methods We used four waves of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS between 2011 and 2014, including 294,324 participants (149,219 boys and 145,105 girls aged 13–18 years as study subjects. KYRBS is a cross-sectional survey conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The participants in the KYRBS were drawn as stratified multistage clustered samples from Korean middle schools and high schools. We calculated the age-adjusted 12-month prevalence of depressive mood and suicidal behaviors by parental country of birth, and estimated the effects of SEP indicators on the relationship. Results The age-standardized prevalence of suicidality (suicide ideation, plans, and attempts was significantly different between multicultural and non-multicultural boys. The impact of multicultural status on mental health varied with parental foreign-born status and maternal country of birth. Compared with non-multicultural counterparts, boys with Japan-born mothers showed lower prevalence ratios (PRs of suicidal plans (PR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.16–0.70. Girls with Japan-born mothers also showed lower PRs of depressive mood (PR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.63–0.95 and suicidal ideation (PR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.83, while adolescents with Korean-Chinese mothers showed similar PRs. Boys with foreign-born fathers as well as boys with two foreign-born parents were at a greater risk of suicidality than non-multicultural boys. The magnitude of the relationship between multicultural status and mental health outcomes was generally attenuated after adjusting for SEP indicators. Conclusions In general, adolescents

  15. Status homogamy in the preindustrial marriage market: partner selection according to age, social origin, and place of birth in nineteenth-century rural Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Lundh, Christer

    2009-10-01

    This article studies partner selection according to three dimensions: social origin, age, and place of birth. The authors use micro-level data from local population registers in five parishes in southern Sweden from 1815 to 1895. The results confirm that all three aspects were important but that socioeconomic status was the most important characteristic, structuring much of the selection process. The importance of social and age homogamy remained stable over the period, while geographic exogamy became more frequent, which could be interpreted in terms of an increasing openness of rural society. The authors also find some indications of exchange of characteristics in the partner selection process.

  16. Individual behavioural-cognitive therapy v marital therapy for depression in maritally distressed couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EmanuelsZuurveen, L; Emmelkamp, PMG

    Background. Depressed patients are often characterised by marital distress, but few studies investigate the effects of marital therapy on depressed mood and relationship dysfunction. Method. Twenty-seven depressed patients experiencing marital distress were randomly assigned to either individual

  17. Maternal Locus of Control and Perception of Family Status at Entry and Exit of Birth to Three Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffaro, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Birth to three early intervention is unique time in the life of a family of a child with a disability in that confidence and competence of the parents can be addressed as part of the intervention goals and objectives. Locus of control is a quality measure of a parent's perception of their ability to be their child's teacher, advocate, and champion…

  18. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  19. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  20. An observational study of type, timing, and severity of childhood maltreatment and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selk, Sabrina C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Koenen, Karestan; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-06-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been linked to preterm birth (preterm birth. The aim of this observational study was to explore type of maltreatment (child and adolescent physical and sexual abuse and harsh parenting) as risk factors for preterm birth. We examined these associations in a cross-sectional analysis of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort of female nurses. Women completed a questionnaire about experiences of sexual abuse, physical abuse or harsh parenting, along with pregnancy outcomes. Logistic regression models adjusted for relevant covariates including age, race, alcohol and cigarette use during pregnancy, age at menarche, marital status, adult income, body mass index (kg/m(2)) at age 18, physical abuse in pregnancy, and childhood socioeconomic position. Among 51 434 first births, 4110 were preterm (8% of births). Forced sexual activity in childhood or adolescence was associated with a 22% increased odds of preterm birth (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.35). Maltreatment involving sexual touch, physical abuse or harsh parenting was not associated with preterm birth in this sample. Women who experience forced sexual activity in childhood or adolescence may have an increased likelihood of delivering preterm in adulthood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T.; Cavadino, Alana; Bakker, Rachel; Brion, Marie-Jo A.; Geller, Frank; Paternoster, Lavinia; Myhre, Ronny; Potter, Catherine; Johnson, Paul C.D.; Ebrahim, Shah; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hofman, Albert; Kaakinen, Marika; Lowe, Lynn P.; Magnus, Per; McConnachie, Alex; Melbye, Mads; Ng, Jane W.Y.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Power, Chris; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain P.; Sengpiel, Verena; Taal, H. Rob; Watt, Graham C.M.; Sattar, Naveed; Relton, Caroline L.; Jacobsson, Bo; Frayling, Timothy M.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Pennell, Craig E.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Hypponen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Davey Smith, George; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight. Common variation at rs1051730 is robustly associated with smoking quantity and was recently shown to influence smoking cessation during pregnancy, but its influence on birth weight is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. There was evidence of interaction between genotype and smoking (P = 0.007). In women who smoked during pregnancy, each additional smoking-related T-allele was associated with a 20 g [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4–36 g] lower birth weight (P = 0.014). However, in women who did not smoke during pregnancy, the effect size estimate was 5 g per T-allele (95% CI: −4 to 14 g; P = 0.268). To conclude, smoking status during pregnancy modifies the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. This strengthens the evidence that smoking during pregnancy is causally related to lower offspring birth weight and suggests that population interventions that effectively reduce smoking in pregnant women would result in a reduced prevalence of low birth weight. PMID:22956269

  2. Wealth status, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC and antenatal care (ANC are determinants for low birth weight in Kersa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nega Assefa

    Full Text Available Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the major risk factor for death in early life. However, little is known about predictors of LBW in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the incidence and determinants of LBW in a rural population of Ethiopia.An observational cohort study on pregnant women was conducted from December 2009 to November 2010. During the study period 1295 live birth were registered and the weights of 956 children were measured within 24 hours after birth. Socio-demographic, economic, maternal and organizational factors were considered as a predicators of LBW, defined as birth weight below 2500g. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data, odds ratio (OR and confidence intervals (CI are reported.The incidence of LBW was 28.3%. It is significantly associated with poverty [OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.05], maternal Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC less than 23 cm [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.19], not attending ANC [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.28], mother's experience of physical violence during pregnancy [OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.48], and longer time to walk to health facility [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.40].The incidence of LBW was high in Kersa. Babies born to women who were poor, undernourished, experienced physical violence during pregnancy and who had poor access to health services were more likely to be LBW in this part of the country. In this largely poor community where ANC coverage is low, to reduce the incidence of LBW, it is essential to improve access for maternal health care. The involvement of husbands and the community at large to seek collective action on LBW is essential.

  3. Birth outcomes of cases with isolated atrial septal defect type II--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-07-01

    In general, epidemiological studies have evaluated cases with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities together. The aim of this study is to describe the birth outcomes of cases with isolated/single atrial septal defect type II (ASD-II, i.e. only a fossa ovalis defect) after surgical correction or lethal outcome in the light of maternal sociodemographic data. Comparison of birth outcomes and maternal characteristics of cases with ASD-II and controls without defect. The population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Hungarian newborn infants with or without ASD-II. Medically recorded birth outcomes, maternal age and birth order were evaluated. Marital and employment status was based on maternal information. The lifestyle factors were analyzed in a subsample of mothers visited at home based on a personal interview with mothers and their close relatives, and the family consensus was accepted. Mean gestational age at delivery and birthweight, rate of preterm birth and low birthweight, maternal age, birth order, marital and employment status. The evaluation of 471 cases with ASD-II and 38,151 controls without any defects showed a female excess in cases with ASD-II, having shorter gestational age and lower mean birthweight, and thus a higher rate of preterm births and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction and shorter gestational age were found in cases with ASD-II, particularly in female children. These factors may have a general developmental process in which there was not closure of the foramen ovale, thus echocardiographic screening of these babies might be of value. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Longitudinal pathways from marital hostility to child anger during toddlerhood: genetic susceptibility and indirect effects via harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2011-04-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to toddler anger/frustration via harsh parenting and parental depressive symptoms, with an additional focus on the moderating role of genetic influences as inferred from birth parent anger/frustration. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children who were 9 (T1) and 18 (T2) months old across the study period. Results indicated an indirect effect from T1 marital hostility to T2 toddler anger/frustration via T2 parental harsh discipline. Results also indicated that the association between marital hostility and toddler anger was moderated by birth mother anger/frustration. For children whose birth mothers reported high levels of anger/frustration, adoptive parents' marital hostility at T1 predicted toddler anger/frustration at T2. This relation did not hold for children whose birth mothers reported low levels of anger/frustration. The results suggest that children whose birth mothers report elevated frustration might inherit an emotional lability that makes them more sensitive to the effects of marital hostility.

  5. Contribution of food sources to the vitamin B12 status of South Indian children from a birth cohort recruited in the city of Mysore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Anna M; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Veena, Sargoor R; Khanum, Rumana; Marley-Zagar, Ella; Edwards, Phil; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence that subclinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12-source foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children's dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children's intakes of B12 and B12-source foods, and children's plasma B12 concentrations. South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n 512, 47.1 % male). Three per cent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14 % had 'marginal' B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children's total daily B12 intake and consumption frequencies of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (P=0.006, P=0.01 and P=0.04, respectively, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children's plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (P<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children's status.

  6. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Patients and Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Results: Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= −0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities

  7. "When Are You Getting Married?" The Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes regarding Marital Timing and Marital Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.; Vitas, Jennifer M.; Hill, Lauren M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 335 young adults and their parents, this study investigated the intergenerational transmission of marital attitudes from parents to their children and how parental marital quality moderates that relationship. Results suggested that the marital attitudes of both mothers and fathers are related to the marital attitudes of their…

  8. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  9. Sexuality, intimacy, and marital satisfaction in Iranian first-time parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhad, Maryam Zarra; Goodarzi, Ali Moazami

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the sexual relationship and intimate of postpartum spouses and the effect of those relationships on their marital satisfaction. A sample of 128 postpartum couples having given birth to their first child (6-36 weeks postpartum) participated in this study during 2009. A nonexperimental, cross-sectional survey design was conducted using Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory, Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationship Scale and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Using univariate and multivariate regression analysis, results suggested that there were higher levels of sexual desire reported by husbands and there was a significant positive relationship between sexuality and marital satisfaction, for both genders. Moreover, high intimacy diminished the negative effects of marital satisfaction due to reported low sexual satisfaction. Regarding negative effects of marital dissatisfaction in first-time families, it is important to assess main related issues such as postpartum sexuality and intimacy, to obtain knowledge for health care providers to provide support to the postpartum families.

  10. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON MARITAL RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Endriyo Susila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  11. The effects of parent-child relationships on later life mental health status in two national birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Z; Brugha, T; Fryers, T; Stewart-Brown, S

    2012-11-01

    Abusive and neglectful parenting is an established determinant of adult mental illness, but longitudinal studies of the impact of less severe problems with parenting have yielded inconsistent findings. In the face of growing interest in mental health promotion, it is important to establish the impact of this potentially remediable risk factor. 8,405 participants in the 1958 UK birth cohort study, and 5,058 in the 1970 birth cohort study questionnaires relating to the quality of relationships with parents completed at age 16 years. 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Malaise Inventory collected at age 42 years (1958 cohort) and 30 years (1970 cohort). Statistical methodology: logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex, social class and teenage mental health problems. 1958 cohort: relationships with both mother and father predicted mental health problems in adulthood; increasingly poor relationships were associated with increasing mental health problems at age 42 years. 1970 cohort: positive items derived from the Parental Bonding Instrument predicted reduced risk of mental health problems; negative aspects predicted increased risk at age 30 years. Odds of mental health problems were increased between 20 and 80% in fully adjusted models. Results support the hypothesis that problems with parent-child relationships that fall short of abuse and neglect play a part in determining adult mental health and suggest that interventions to support parenting now being implemented in many parts of the Western world may reduce the prevalence of mental illness in adulthood.

  12. Marital and Family Counseling in Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, David; Jones, Charlotte Williams

    1980-01-01

    Describes series of successful marital workshops conducted at Kansas State Penitentiary, involving problems of inmates, their wives and children. Marital and family counseling seen as effective in implementing changes in inmates' attitudes and behaviors. Recommends marital counseling in all penitentiaries; suggests social workers work to make…

  13. Stress, Communication, and Marital Quality in Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Thomas; Bodenmann, Guy; Rudaz, Myriam; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The association between daily stress outside and inside of the relationship and marital functioning in the form of communication in conflict situations and marital quality was examined. We hypothesized that relationship stress mediates the association between external stress and marital functioning at the individual level, and that the association…

  14. Self-reported prenatal oral health-care practices of preterm low birth weight-delivered women belonging to different socioeconomic status: A postnatal survey

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    Gayathri Priyadarshni Elangovan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The differences in the oral health status between the individuals with a high socioeconomic status (SES and those with a low SES had markedly increased. There is, however, minimal information available on women understanding the need of dental hygiene for overall health and whether pregnant women comply with the current oral health strategies. In Lieu with the above, the present study aims to assess the awareness, dental hygiene practices, and the frequency of dental visits during pregnancy in postnatal women who delivered preterm low birth weight babies of different SES in and around Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 individuals who visited Rajiv Gandhi Maternity Centre, Puducherry for delivery were selected. Information regarding onset of prenatal care, referral to dentist, and oral hygiene habits such as frequency of brushing, type of brush used, method of brushing, and frequency of brush change were obtained. Periodontal health status was recorded using PSR system. Results: Awareness of oral hygiene practices was more among upper middle class and lower middle class compared to upper lower strata. Visit to dentist during perinatal period was high among upper middle class compared to other socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: The awareness of oral health-care practices and importance of oral care during perinatal period were less among low socioeconomic strata.

  15. Self-reported prenatal oral health-care practices of preterm low birth weight-delivered women belonging to different socioeconomic status: A postnatal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Gayathri Priyadarshni; Muthu, Jananni; Periyasamy, Indra Kumar; Balu, Pratebha; Kumar, R Saravana

    2017-01-01

    The differences in the oral health status between the individuals with a high socioeconomic status (SES) and those with a low SES had markedly increased. There is, however, minimal information available on women understanding the need of dental hygiene for overall health and whether pregnant women comply with the current oral health strategies. In Lieu with the above, the present study aims to assess the awareness, dental hygiene practices, and the frequency of dental visits during pregnancy in postnatal women who delivered preterm low birth weight babies of different SES in and around Puducherry. A total of 200 individuals who visited Rajiv Gandhi Maternity Centre, Puducherry for delivery were selected. Information regarding onset of prenatal care, referral to dentist, and oral hygiene habits such as frequency of brushing, type of brush used, method of brushing, and frequency of brush change were obtained. Periodontal health status was recorded using PSR system. Awareness of oral hygiene practices was more among upper middle class and lower middle class compared to upper lower strata. Visit to dentist during perinatal period was high among upper middle class compared to other socioeconomic strata. The awareness of oral health-care practices and importance of oral care during perinatal period were less among low socioeconomic strata.

  16. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  17. Transactional Relations Between Marital Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

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    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated dynamic, longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and marital processes. Two hundred ninety-six couples reported on marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and depressive symptoms yearly for three years. Observational measures of marital conflict were also collected. Results suggested that different domains of marital functioning related to husbands’ versus wives’ symptoms. For husbands, transactional relations between marital satisfaction and depre...

  18. Marital satisfaction and life circumstances of grown children with autism across 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L; Barker, Erin T; Baker, Jason K; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S

    2012-10-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child's autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent-child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers' marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother-child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers' marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child's departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents' marital relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Marital Satisfaction and Life Circumstances of Grown Children With Autism Across 7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child’s autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent–child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers’ marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother–child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers’ marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child’s departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents’ marital relationship. PMID:22866933

  20. Migrant status and child and adolescent psychological well-being: evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cherry Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2015-02-01

    In Western settings, migration is associated with psychological well-being, but studies inevitably focus on culturally distinct ethnic minorities, making it difficult to distinguish migration from cultural assimilation. Many children in Hong Kong, a developed non-Western setting, have migrant parents with the same Chinese ethnicity. This study examined the association of migration with the child's psychological well-being in Hong Kong. Multivariable linear regression was used in Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' Chinese birth cohort to examine the adjusted associations of migration (both parents Hong Kong born n=4285, both parents migrant n=1921, mother-only migrant n=462, father-only migrant n=1110) with a parent-reported Rutter score for child behaviour at ∼7 (n=6294, 80% follow-up) and ∼11 years (n=5598, 71% follow-up), self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory score at ∼11 years (n=6937, 88% follow-up) and self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depressive symptom score at ∼13 years (n=5797, 73% follow-up), adjusted for sex, highest parental education and occupation, household income, maternal and paternal age at birth, age of assessment and survey mode (PHQ-9 only). Migration was unrelated to the overall self-esteem or depressive symptoms, but both parents migrant was associated with better behaviour (lower Rutter scores) at ∼7 years (β-coefficient (β) -1.07, 95% CI -1.48 to -0.66) and ∼11 years (-0.89, 95% CI -1.33 to -0.45). In a non-Western context, migration appeared to be protective for childhood behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Forecasting Friendship: How Marital Quality, Maternal Mood, and Attachment Security Are Linked to Children's Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2007-01-01

    Mothers' perceptions of marital quality and depressed mood and children's attachment security and friendship quality were assessed in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. One month after their birth and again when the children were 3 and 4 years old and in first and third…

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Marital Instability and Child Sleep Problems across Infancy and Toddlerhood in Adoptive Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannering, Anne M.; Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shelton, Katherine H.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Conger, Rand D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between marital instability and child sleep problems at ages 9 and 18 months in 357 families with a genetically unrelated infant adopted at birth. This design eliminates shared genes as an explanation for similarities between parent and child. Structural equation modeling indicated that T1 marital…

  3. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

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    Nury Abu Taher MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Results Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434, whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190 of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684 and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919 for teenage marital pregnancy. Conclusions Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should

  4. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Nury, Abu Taher Ms

    2011-05-20

    Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434), whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190) of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684) and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919) for teenage marital pregnancy. Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should be given on women's desired number of children and birth place

  5. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A

    2003-07-01

    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  6. Mutual touch during mother-infant face-to-face still-face interactions: influences of interaction period and infant birth status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantis, Irene; Stack, Dale M; Ng, Laura; Serbin, Lisa A; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2014-08-01

    Contact behaviours such as touch, have been shown to be influential channels of nonverbal communication between mothers and infants. While existing research has examined the communicative roles of maternal or infant touch in isolation, mutual touch, whereby touching behaviours occur simultaneously between mothers and their infants, has yet to be examined. The present study was designed to investigate mutual touch during face-to-face interactions between mothers and their 5½-month-old fullterm (n=40), very low birth weight/preterm (VLBW/preterm; n=40) infants, and infants at psychosocial risk (n=41). Objectives were to examine: (1) how the quantitative and qualitative aspects of touch employed by mothers and their infants varied across the normal periods of the still-face (SF) procedure, and (2) how these were associated with risk status. Mutual touch was systematically coded using the mother-infant touch scale. Interactions were found to largely consist of mutual touch and one-sided touch plus movement, highlighting that active touching is pervasive during mother-infant interactions. Consistent with the literature, while the SF period did not negatively affect the amount of mutual touch engaged in for mothers and their fullterm infants and mothers and their infants at psychosocial risk, it did for mothers and their VLBW/preterm infants. Together, results illuminate how both mothers and infants participate in shaping and co-regulating their interactions through the use of touch and underscore the contribution of examining the influence of birth status on mutual touch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coronary heart disease incidence among non-Western immigrants compared to Danish-born people: effect of country of birth, migrant status, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Anne; Zinckernagel, Line; Krasnik, Allan; Petersen, Jorgen H; Norredam, Marie

    2015-10-01

    Increasing global migration has made immigrants' health an important topic worldwide. We examined the effect of country of birth, migrant status (refugee/family-reunified) and income on coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence. This was a historical prospective register-based cohort study. The study cohort consisted of immigrants above 18 years from non-Western countries who had obtained a residence permit in Denmark as a refugee (n = 29,045) or as a family-reunified immigrant (n = 28,435) from 1 January 1993-31 December 1999 and a Danish-born reference population (n = 229,918). First-time CHD incidence was identified from 1 January 1993-31 December 2007. Incidence ratios for 11 immigrant groups were estimated using Cox regression analysis. Immigrants from Afghanistan, Iraq, Turkey, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, South Asia, the Former Yugoslavia, and the Middle East and North Africa had significantly higher incidences of CHD (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.75 to HR = 2.86; 95% CI: 2.01-4.08) compared with Danish-born people. Immigrants from Somalia, South and Middle America, Sub-Saharan Africa and women from East Asia and the Pacific did not differ significantly from Danish-born people, whereas immigrant men from East Asia and the Pacific had a significantly lower incidence (HR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.17-0.62). When also including migrant status, the higher incidences were reduced. Refugee men (HR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11-1.65) and women (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65) had a significantly higher incidence of CHD than family-reunified immigrants. When migrant status and income were included simultaneously, the incidences decreased to an insignificant level for most immigrant groups. Most non-Western immigrant groups had a higher incidence of CHD than Danish-born people. The study revealed that migrant status and income are important underlying mechanisms of the effect of country of birth on CHD. © The European

  8. Mothers, places and small for gestational age births: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Li, Xinjun; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2011-04-01

    This study examines whether neighbourhood deprivation increases the risk of giving birth to a small for gestational age (SGA) infant, after accounting for individual-level maternal socioeconomic characteristics. An open cohort of women, aged 20-44 years, was followed from 1 January 1992 through 31 December 2004 for first singleton births. The women's residential addresses during the two consecutive years preceding the birth of their infants were geocoded and classified into three levels of neighbourhood deprivation. Gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound examinations. Multilevel logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Sweden. During the study period, women gave birth to 720 357 infants, of whom 20 487 (2.8%) were SGA. Age-adjusted incidence rates of SGA births increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. In the total population, 2.5% of births in the least deprived neighbourhoods and 3.5% of births in the most deprived neighbourhoods were SGA. A similar pattern of higher incidence with increasing level of neighbourhood-level deprivation was observed across all individual-level sociodemographic categories, including maternal age, marital status, family income, educational attainment, employment, mobility and urban/rural status. High neighbourhood-level deprivation remained significantly associated with SGA risk after adjusting for maternal sociodemographic characteristics (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.34). This study is the largest to date of the influence of neighbourhood on SGA birth, with SGA confirmed by ultrasound examination. Results suggest that the characteristics of a mother's neighbourhood affect the risk of delivering an SGA infant independently of maternal sociodemographic characteristics.

  9. The longitudinal association of marital confidence, time spent together, and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Anderson, Jared R

    2013-06-01

    Using three waves of dyadic data collected at 18-month intervals from a community-based sample of 610 newly married heterosexual couples (1 220 individuals), we examined the relationship between marital confidence, time spent together, and marital satisfaction using a modified actor-partner interdependence model. Results indicate that after controlling for marital satisfaction and time spent together at Time 1, marital confidence around the time of marriage was associated with marital satisfaction approximately 3 years later. In addition, marital confidence was associated with how much time husbands and wives spent together at Time 2, which was related to marital satisfaction at Time 3. Tests of the mediating paths from marital confidence to marital satisfaction trended toward significance. The results suggest the importance of assessing for relationship confidence when working with couples in the early stages of their relationship. © FPI, Inc.

  10. Marital history and survival after a heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Matthew E; Nelson, Alicia

    2016-12-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n = 2197). We found that adults who were never married (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73), currently divorced (OR = 1.70), or widowed (OR = 1.34) were at significantly greater risk of dying after a heart attack than adults who were continuously married; and the risks were not uniform over time. We also found that the risk of dying increased by 12% for every additional marital loss and decreased by 7% for every one-tenth increase in the proportion of years married. After accounting for more than a dozen socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioral, and physiological factors, we found that current marital status remained the most robust indicator of survival following a heart attack. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of life course inequalities in chronic disease and directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  12. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers' marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men's work-family balance.

  13. Prevalence and outcome of teenage hospital births at the Buea Health District, South West Region, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Thomas Obinchemti; Omeichu, Amadeus; Halle-Ekane, Gregory Edie; Tchente, Charlotte Nguefack; Egbe, Eta-Nkongho; Oury, Jean-Francois

    2015-12-23

    Teenage pregnancy is a high-risk condition that requires skilled antenatal care for good outcome. World estimates in 2008 report about 16 million births to adolescent mothers, most of them occurring in low and middle-income countries. In Cameroon, about 12% of all births are to adolescent mothers. This study determines the prevalence of hospital teenage deliveries in the Buea Health District and compares the delivery outcomes and demographic characteristics between pregnant teenage mothers (14-19) and adult mothers (20-29 years). We also identify factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We undertook a retrospective study of case files of patients who gave birth in the Buea Regional Hospital during the period 2009-2012, to determine the prevalence of hospital-delivered teenage pregnancies in the BHR. We also undertook a, cross-sectional study to compare the outcomes of 148 singleton adolescent births with 360 adult births in three health facilities in the Buea Health District during the period March 1 to August 31, 2013. The prevalence of teenage births was 13.3%. The adverse fetal outcomes imputable to adolescent births were low birth weight (teenage pregnancies were mainly perineal tear (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.95-2.7). Teenage births were not discovered in any significant way to cause preeclampsia/eclampsia, episiotomy, premature rupture of membranes and caesarean section. Maternal factors like age and gravidity were discovered to lead to adverse fetal outcomes in adolescents, while maternal factors like age, unemployment, marital status and gravidity were, for their part, directly responsible for adverse maternal outcomes in adolescents. Teenage pregnancies are quite prevalent in the Buea Health District, and hospital delivery common. Adolescent pregnancies are more likely to lead to adverse fetal and maternal outcomes than adult pregnancies.

  14. Marital commitment, communication and marital satisfaction: An analysis based on actor-partner interdependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yubo; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Xinrui

    2018-01-10

    Marital commitment and satisfaction are known to be closely related, but only limited research has examined the asymmetric interaction patterns between spouses. In this paper, the authors study 400 Chinese couples and find that communication mediates the relationship between marital commitment and marital satisfaction. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, they find that wives and husbands show asymmetric associations for marital commitment, communication and satisfaction. Specifically, compared with husbands, wives are more attuned to the path from marital commitment to marital satisfaction via communication. Implications and limitations are discussed. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Relationship between mental health and marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsattar Shahi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. Marital satisfaction measured by Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire among married couples. Data was analyzed using multiple regression and analysis of variance modelling.Results: Results indicated that marital satisfaction was predicted by the person’s mental health level. Findings also showed that depression and anxiety were significantly associated with marital satisfaction. 52.5% of studied individuals had mental disorders at the clinical level (p≤0/05. Marital satisfaction in this population was 51.7%. Conclusions: The study confirmed that mental health is an important predictor of marital satisfaction. Improving mental health may lead to improve marital satisfaction.

  16. [Maternal nutrition during pregnancy conditions the fetal pancreas development, hormonal status and diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome biomarkers at birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Gesteiro, E; Espárrago Rodilla, M; Rodríguez Bernal, B; Bastida, S

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital period where several hyperplasic, hypertrophic processes together with metabolic adaptation and preparation for extra-uterine life take place. Present review accounts for central aspects of nutrition throughout gestation on the embryonic and fetal periods. It is centered in the major changes occurring in fetal pancreas, with special mention to the susceptibility of this main glucose homeostasis organ to support nutritional changes during maturation and development. Studies performed in animal models as human are commented considering the role of maternal nutrition on β-cell mass size, insulin and other pancreatic hormones production, and insulin sensitivity. Details of both the thrifty genotype and phenotype hypothesis are given, indicating that hypo/subnutrition causes metabolic adaptations that permit the future body to grow and develop itself in limited environmental and energetic conditions. The Barker hypothesis is considered suggesting that this metabolic hypothesis is a double-edged sword in the actual abundance World. Lastly the review, taking into account our own research and other papers, analyses less known aspects that relate maternal diet with insulin resistance/sensitivity markers at delivery. Particularly the role of the saturated fatty acid/carbohydrate and omega-6/omega-3 ratios in the frame of maternal diet is reviewed considering the quality of those diets under the Healthy Eating Index and the Adherence to Mediterranean Diet scores and the relationship with insulin resistance profile at birth. Present review ends indicating that nutritional habits should be strongly stated before gestation in order to assure a proper nutrition since the first moment of pregnancy. This will support an adequate fetal and pancreatic growth and development, and in turn, adequate glucose homeostasis during pregnancy and later in life, slowing down or preventing from degenerative diseases related with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

  17. Associations of maternal weight status prior and during pregnancy with neonatal cardiometabolic markers at birth: the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemas, D J; Brinton, J T; Shapiro, A L B; Glueck, D H; Friedman, J E; Dabelea, D

    2015-10-01

    Maternal obesity increases adult offspring risk for cardiovascular disease; however, the role of offspring adiposity in mediating this association remains poorly characterized. To investigate the associations of maternal pre-pregnant body mass index (maternal BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with neonatal cardiometabolic markers independent of fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. A total of 753 maternal-infant pairs from the Healthy Start study, a large multiethnic pre-birth observational cohort were used. Neonatal cardiometabolic markers included cord blood glucose, insulin, glucose-to-insulin ratio (Glu/Ins), total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, free fatty acids and leptin. Maternal BMI was abstracted from medical records or self-reported. GWG was calculated as the difference between the first pre-pregnant weight and the last weight measurement before delivery. Neonatal adiposity (percent fat mass) was measured within 72 h of delivery using whole-body air-displacement plethysmography. In covariate adjusted models, maternal BMI was positively associated with cord blood insulin (P=0.01) and leptin (Pneonatal adiposity attenuated the effect of maternal BMI on neonatal insulin, rendering the association nonsignificant. However, maternal BMI remained associated with higher leptin (Pneonatal adiposity. GWG was positively associated with neonatal insulin (P=0.02), glucose (P=0.03) and leptin levels (Pneonatal adiposity, GWG remained associated with higher neonatal glucose (P=0.02) and leptin levels (P=0.02) and lower Glu/Ins (P=0.048). Maternal weight prior and/or during pregnancy is associated with neonatal cardiometabolic makers including leptin, glucose and HDL-c at delivery, independent of neonatal adiposity. Our results suggest that intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity influences metabolic processes beyond fetal growth and fat accretion.

  18. Effect of oral antigen and antibody exposure at birth on subsequent immune status. A study in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverson, Karin; Corfield, Gaynor; Jones, Philip H; Kenny, Martin; Fowler, Jenny; Bailey, Mick; Stokes, Christopher R; Miller, Bevis G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of early low-level exposure to either antigen or antibody alone on subsequent immune responses in entirely immunologically naïve animals. This is impossible in species with a permeable placenta such as rodents or humans, where both antigen and antibody can be transferred in utero. It is, however, possible in pigs, due to the impermeable placenta of the sow. Thus, neonatal piglets were used for this study. Newborn piglets were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) at dosages similar to those used in rodents to sensitise, as well as to serum containing anti-OVA antibodies. Both single low doses of OVA (10 and 1,000 mg per animal) induced classical oral tolerance following a systemic challenge: both doses reduced specific systemic IgG responses and tertiary in vitro recall proliferative responses by splenocytes and especially by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells. Additionally, dietary challenge had phenotypic effects on helper T cells in MLN, which could be reversed by OVA at birth. In contrast, giving antibody as serum collected from hyperimmune or orally tolerant pigs had no functional effects. Overall, our data support the hypothesis that contrary to previous work in rodents, very early exposure of neonatal pigs to a single small dose of antigen can reduce subsequent immune responses. This may have implications for human health. However, although these data point to a reducing/regulatory effect of low doses of antigen in very young animals, they cannot be extrapolated directly to allergy. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Separation anxiety among birth-assigned male children in a specialty gender identity service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Santarossa, Alanna; Nabbijohn, A Natisha; Wood, Hayley; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggested that separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is overrepresented among birth-assigned male children clinic-referred for gender dysphoria (GD). The present study examined maternally reported separation anxiety of birth-assigned male children assessed in a specialty gender identity service (N = 360). SAD was determined in relation to DSM-III and DSM-IV criteria, respectively. A dimensional metric of separation anxiety was examined in relation to several additional factors: age, ethnicity, parental marital status and social class, IQ, gender nonconformity, behavioral and emotional problems, and poor peer relations. When defined in a liberal fashion, 55.8% were classified as having SAD. When using a more conservative criterion, 5.3% were classified as having SAD, which was significantly greater than the estimated general population prevalence for boys, but not for girls. Dimensionally, separation anxiety was associated with having parents who were not married or cohabitating as well as with elevations in gender nonconformity; however, the association with gender nonconformity was no longer significant when statistically controlling for internalizing problems. Thus, SAD appears to be common among birth-assigned males clinic-referred for GD when defined in a liberal fashion, and more common than in boys, but not girls, from the general population even when more stringent criteria were applied. Also, the degree of separation anxiety appears to be linked to generic risk factors (i.e., parental marital status, internalizing problems). As such, although separation anxiety is common among birth-assigned male children clinic-referred for GD, it seems unlikely to hold unique significance for this population based on the current data.

  20. Effects of neonatal iron status, iron injections at birth, and weaning in young pigs from sows fed either organic or inorganic trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J C; Mahan, D C

    2008-09-01

    Second-parity sows (n = 7) were fed diets containing organic or inorganic trace minerals, and their progeny (n = 68) were used to determine the Fe status of pigs at birth and nursing and postweaning phases. The experiment comprised 2 parts, in which the first experiment was a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Sow trace mineral (organic vs. inorganic) was the first factor evaluated, and the injection of Fe (0 or 200 mg) to neonatal pigs within litter was the second factor. In Exp. 2, half the pigs in each litter from each neonatal Fe injection group were injected with Fe (0 vs. 200 mg) at weaning as an added factor in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in a split-split-plot design. Weanling pigs were fed diets fortified with 90 mg/kg of Fe (sulfate), but the analyzed indigenous and fortified Fe content was 170 mg/kg. Pigs in both experiments were bled at periodic intervals to determine hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, percentage of hematocrit (Hct), and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity. Neonates and d-2 pigs from sows fed organic trace minerals had lower (P trace minerals, but they had similar percentages of Hct values. Blood Hb seemed to remain lower throughout the nursing period when sows were fed organic vs. inorganic Fe. Pigs without Fe injection had decreased ADG (P < 0.05) from 0 to 7 and 7 to 17 d than pigs injected with Fe. Although Hb values increased when neonatal pigs received Fe injection, they were somewhat lower when sows were fed the organic Fe. Ceruloplasmin oxidase activity was low at birth, increased to weaning in each treatment group, and was greater in pigs without Fe injection at d 13 (P < 0.05) and those from sows fed organic minerals at d 17 (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, when the Fe-fortified diet was fed, BW and ADG responses were both greater (P < 0.01) to 28 d postweaning when neonates had received Fe injections. Neonates not injected with Fe at birth but injected at weaning had greater ADG, Hb, and Hct values, whereas pigs injected with Fe did not respond

  1. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  2. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard B; Mason, Tiffany M; Canlas, Jerevie M; Wang, Dahua; Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H

    2013-08-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that low marital satisfaction is a significant risk factor for depression, little research has examined this relationship in cultures outside of the U.S. and Europe. The validity of the marital discord model of depression in Chinese culture was tested by studying 391 couples living in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. Results of structural equation modeling using an actor-partner interdependence model strategy indicated that husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction was significantly predictive of their own depressive symptoms. In addition, wives' marital satisfaction significantly predicted husbands' depressive symptoms. These results provide evidence that the marital discord model of depression is useful in understanding the role of marital dissatisfaction as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in collectivistic societies, such as China. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  3. [Impact of psychological factors on marital satisfaction and divorce proneness in clinical couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the psychological factors that affect marital satisfaction or divorce likelihood in clinical couples. Clinical couples (n=57) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data was collected from September 2005 to June 2006 using a Marital Satisfaction Scale, a Marital Status Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory, and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The couples showed high scores on depression, obsessive-compulsion, personality factors and divorce probability and a low score on marital satisfaction. The wife's obsessive-compulsion was a predictor of her marital satisfaction, and the wife's social introversion and depression, and husband's obsessive-compulsion were predictors of the wife's prospect of divorce. The husband's hypomania and depression were predictors of his marital satisfaction, and there were no predictors of the husband's prospect of divorce. Obsessive-compulsion is a significant factor in a couple's relationship, although previous studies have not been interested in obsessive-compulsion. Divorce likelihood should be evaluated for clinical couples as well as marital satisfaction, because it is more important for divorce prevention. Each spouse who has a psychological problem such as depression, obsessive-compulsion, and deviated personality needs individual therapy as well as couple therapy.

  4. Marital satisfaction before and after deployments associated with the Global War on Terror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeland, Kelly C; Sutton, Geoffrey W; Schumm, Walter R

    2008-12-01

    Previously, McLeland and Sutton (2005) assessed marital satisfaction among 46 male civilians and Reserve Component personnel, some of the latter having been alerted for a future deployment. Subsequently, marital satisfaction was also assessed for 74 male Active Component Army personnel who had recently returned from duty in a combat zone. Marital satisfaction scores were compared across personnel status. Mixed results were obtained from an analysis of variance comparing the five subgroups of personnel; however, when the three types of deployment groups were contrasted with the civilian and never-deployed military groups, substantial (ES = 0.55) and significant (p marital satisfaction were observed. Although exploratory, these data indicate that predeployment and postdeployment situations are stressful for military members and may be associated with lower marital satisfaction for months before and months after a deployment, as well as during the deployment. Furthermore, changes in marital or relationship satisfaction may be more sensitive and timely as indicators of any stressful effects of deployments and separation on military families than changes in marital or relationship stability.

  5. The benefits of child-parent psychotherapy to marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Jack S; Rogge, Ronald D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-12-01

    Given the interdependent nature of relationships within the family system, the purpose of this study was to examine the potential role of child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) to extend its positive influence beyond the mother-child relationship within families challenged by maternal depression. Accordingly, we analyzed longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and marital satisfaction over 3 years in order to evaluate if the benefits of CPP to mother-child attachment security might generalize within the family and indirectly benefit marital relationships. We tested our hypotheses in a randomized control trial of CPP (N = 159 families) to examine the intervention's efficacy in families with mothers with histories of depression since the target child's birth (Mage = 20.4 months, SD = 2.5; 56% boys). Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) with an actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) framework, the results supported our hypothesis as well as revealed significant associations between depressive symptoms and marital functioning. Specifically, shifts in mothers' depressive symptoms within specific waves of follow-up were associated with corresponding shifts in both their husbands' and their own relationship satisfaction in those same waves. After controlling for those effects, only mothers with a history of depression who received CPP demonstrated slight improvements in relationship satisfaction over the 3 years of the study, suggesting secondary benefits of CPP within the family system. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of examining therapeutic processes within the larger family system. Concerning future research, we also suggest examining potential mechanisms through which CPP might influence marital satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Relationship between mental health and marital satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolsattar Shahi; Ibrahim Ghaffari; Khalil Ghasemi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-...

  7. The Influence of Religiosity on Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi; Esfandiar Azad-Marzabadi; Seyed M. Nabipoor

    2008-01-01

    The following research sought to examine the relationship between a married individuals religiosity level and its impact upon his or her level of marital satisfaction. Findings in this connection can help strengthen families 660 heterosexually hetero-sexually couples from Tehran were studied multistage using cluster sampling. Information regarding religiosity and marital satisfaction was collected using the researchers prepared questionnaire and ENRICH marital satisfaction scale. The results ...

  8. The relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Jamshidi, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Marriage is known as the most important incident in everyone's life after birth. The most important purpose of marriage is achieving a life followed with love and affection beside the spouse and providing mental comfort and general health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction among married people. Materials and Methods: The research method is descriptive- analytic and its design is comparative, done on 226 people including 114 persons (50 women and 64 men) having marital conflicts, and 112 people (58 women and 54 men) having marital satisfaction, by cluster random sampling from 13 districts of the city of Isfahan. Bar-on (with 90 questions) and Enrich marital satisfaction (115 questions) questionnaires were used for collecting the required information. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including independent t-tests, Pearson correlation, and linear regression analysis, using SPSS software version 19. Results: The results from the research showed that the scores of emotional intelligence in married people group having marriage conflicts who had referred to the administration of justice was 57.3 ± 13.2, and the random sample from the married people in the city of Isfahan as the comparing group had the score of 67.2 ± 9.5, and the difference of the average scores for the emotional intelligence for the two groups was significant (P emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction (P emotional intelligence predicts the quality of marital satisfaction. The emotion of the predicting line of the marital satisfaction score (y) is in the form of: y = 14.8 + 0.656x, by using the emotional intelligence score (x). Conclusion: Regarding the close relations between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction, education centers such as universities, organizations and family clinics could use this variable in micro- and macro-social plans for improving the

  9. The relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Jamshidi, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is known as the most important incident in everyone's life after birth. The most important purpose of marriage is achieving a life followed with love and affection beside the spouse and providing mental comfort and general health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction among married people. The research method is descriptive- analytic and its design is comparative, done on 226 people including 114 persons (50 women and 64 men) having marital conflicts, and 112 people (58 women and 54 men) having marital satisfaction, by cluster random sampling from 13 districts of the city of Isfahan. Bar-on (with 90 questions) and Enrich marital satisfaction (115 questions) questionnaires were used for collecting the required information. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including independent t-tests, Pearson correlation, and linear regression analysis, using SPSS software version 19. The results from the research showed that the scores of emotional intelligence in married people group having marriage conflicts who had referred to the administration of justice was 57.3 ± 13.2, and the random sample from the married people in the city of Isfahan as the comparing group had the score of 67.2 ± 9.5, and the difference of the average scores for the emotional intelligence for the two groups was significant (P emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction (P emotional intelligence predicts the quality of marital satisfaction. The emotion of the predicting line of the marital satisfaction score (y) is in the form of: y = 14.8 + 0.656x, by using the emotional intelligence score (x). Regarding the close relations between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction, education centers such as universities, organizations and family clinics could use this variable in micro- and macro-social plans for improving the quality of the married people relations and promoting health

  10. Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in the Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that low socioeconomic levels are associated with greater exposure to pollution, but this is not necessarily valid. Our goal was to examine how individual socioeconomic characteristics are associated with exposure levels in a Spanish region included in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. The study population comprised 430 pregnant women from the Asturias INMA cohort. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression techniques. Information about the participants' lifestyle and socioeconomic variables was collected through questionnaires. In multivariate analysis, the levels of NO2 and benzene assigned to each woman were considered as dependent variables. Other variables included in the models were residential zone, age, education, parity, smoking, season, working status during pregnancy and social class. The average NO2 level was 23.60 (SD=6.50) μg/m(3). For benzene, the mean value was 2.31 (SD=1.32) μg/m(3). We found no association of any pollutant with education. We observed an association between social class and benzene levels. Social classes I and II had the highest levels. The analysed socioeconomic and lifestyle variables accounted for little variability in air pollution in the models; this variability was explained mainly by residential zone (adjusted R(2): 0.27 for NO2; 0.09 for benzene). Education and social class were not clearly associated with pollution. Administrations should monitor the environment of residential areas regardless of the socioeconomic level, and they should increase the distances between housing and polluting sources to prevent settlements at distances that are harmful to health.

  11. Marital Sex Role Incongruence and Marital Adjustment: A Reply to Bowen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Robert A.; Li, Jason T.

    1989-01-01

    Defends authors' methodological approach to examining incongruity of marital sex role attitudes and satisfaction in their "Journal of Family Issues" (JFI) article, "Magnitude and Directional Effects of Marital Sex Role Incongruence and Marital Adjustment," from Gary Bowen's critique (JFI l0:416-419). Asserts that methodological approach used,…

  12. The Marital Happiness/Disruption Relationship by Level of Marital Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that the inverse relationship between marital happiness and disruption will be strong under conditions of high marital alternatives and weak under conditions of low marital alternatives. Used micro data from a sample of 400 White, urban, American couples. Found no support for the hypothesis. (Author/RC)

  13. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  14. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  15. Effectiveness of Home Visits in Pregnancy as a Public Health Measure to Improve Birth Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Ichikawa

    Full Text Available Birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW, and small for gestational age (SGA, are crucial indicators of child development and health.To evaluate whether home visits from public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women prevent adverse birth outcomes.In this quasi-experimental cohort study in Kyoto city, Japan, high-risk pregnant women were defined as teenage girls (range 14-19 years old, women with a twin pregnancy, women who registered their pregnancy late, had a physical or mental illness, were of single marital status, non-Japanese women who were not fluent in Japanese, or elderly primiparas. We collected data from all high-risk pregnant women at pregnancy registration interviews held at a public health centers between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, as well as birth outcomes when delivered from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (N = 964, which is a record of prenatal check-ups, delivery, child development and vaccinations. Of these women, 622 women were selected based on the home-visit program propensity score-matched sample (pair of N = 311 and included in the analysis. Data were analyzed between January and June 2014.In the propensity score-matched sample, women who received the home-visit program had lower odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.98 and showed a 0.55-week difference in gestational age (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92 compared to the matched controlled sample. Although the program did not prevent LBW and SGA, children born to mothers who received the program showed an increase in birth weight by 107.8 g (95% CI: 27.0 to 188.5.Home visits by public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women in Japan might be effective in preventing preterm birth, but not SGA.

  16. Marital Counseling: An Integrated Brief Therapy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Sandy; Norem, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Addresses advantages of, and potential pitfalls in, integrated approaches to marital counseling. Presents a sequential approach in which various approaches to marital counseling are integrated without jeopardizing internal consistency and uniformity in treatment. Offers precounseling considerations and procedures for a five-session series.…

  17. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers ...

  18. Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…

  19. Marital Lifestyles and Adjustment to Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, David A.; Thurnher, Majda

    1980-01-01

    Results suggest that characteristics of the marital lifestyle may impede or facilitate adjustment to marital separation, although salient characteristics may vary for men and women, and change with age. The existence of separate avenues for self-expression constitutes a major resource in coping with the transition to singlehood. (Author)

  20. The Marital Happiness of Remarried Divorced Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the reported marital happiness of ever-divorced and never-divorced white respondents to three recent U. S. national surveys reveals significantly greater marital happiness for never-divorced females but not for never-divorced males. Even among females, the difference in the percentage of "very happy" responses was less…

  1. [Family caregivers' burden and marital satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl; Siwaku, Kuninori; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between home-based elder care and marital satisfaction. Care managers distributed a questionnaire to home caregivers in order to assess the items such as annual income, marital satisfaction, Zarit caregiver burden, sleeping hours and how often they have to get up in the night to take care of the elder. A total of 149 caregivers completed the questionnaire. Their marital satisfaction was inversely correlated to caregiver burden, but positively correlated with annual income. Subjective psychological perception of caregiver burden was the most important factor influencing a marital satisfaction. It appears that a marital satisfaction depend far more on subjective perception of caregiver burden than on more objective measurements of caregiver burden.

  2. Relationship Between Life Style and Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سمیه پورمیدانی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between life style and marital satisfaction in married students of all universities in Isfahan. The method of research was descriptive correlation. Statistical population consisted of married students of Isfahan universities in the year 2013-2014 that 383 students (276 female and 107 male were selected viamultistage cluster sampling from five universities. The participants were asked to complete health promoting life Style questionnaire (walker, 1990, and enrich marital satisfaction inventory (enrich, 1986. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics (pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression. The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between life style and marital satisfaction (P<0.01. The multiple regression analyses indicated that life style could predict 20 percent variance of marital satisfaction. These results suggest that life style education can help couples to enrich their marital life through life style modification.

  3. Association between ovarian stimulators with or without intrauterine insemination, and assisted reproductive technologies on multiple births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Sonia; Sheehy, Odile; Monnier, Patricia; Bissonnette, François; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Fraser, William; Bérard, Anick

    2015-10-01

    We sought to quantify the risk of multiple births associated with the use of different modalities of medically assisted reproduction. We conducted a case-control study using a birth cohort from 2006 through 2009. This cohort was built with the linkage of data obtained by a self-administered questionnaire and medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, birth, and death databases in Quebec. Cases were pregnancies resulting in multiple live births (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision/International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes). Each case was matched, on maternal age and year of delivery, with 3 singleton pregnancies (controls) randomly selected among all Quebec singleton pregnancies. Data on the use of different fertility treatments were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for body mass index, number of previous live births, ethnicity, family income, place of residence, marital status, subfertility, reduction of embryos, diabetes, metformin treatment, folic acid supplementation, and lifestyle factors, were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). We evaluated the associations between each type of fertility treatment (ovarian stimulators used alone, intrauterine insemination [IUI] used with ovarian stimulation, and assisted reproductive technologies [ART]) and the risk of multiple births. A total of 1407 cases of multiple births and 3580 controls were analyzed. More than half of multiple births following medically assisted reproduction (53.6%) occurred among women having used ovarian stimulation with or without IUI. The use of ovarian stimulators alone and IUI with ovarian stimulation increase the risk of multiple births (adjusted OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 3.2-6.4; and adjusted OR, 9.32; 95% CI, 5.60-15.50, respectively) compared to spontaneous conception. The use of invasive ART was associated with a greatly increased risk of multiple births

  4. Premarital precursors of marital infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Rhoades, Galena Kline; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Williams, Tamara; Melton, Jessica; Clements, Mari L

    2008-06-01

    Premarital precursors of infidelity were evaluated in a sample of 72 couples (N = 144) who were taking part in a longitudinal study of marriage. Premarital self-report and observational data were compared for couples who experienced infidelity and those who did not experience infidelity in the first years of marriage. Couples in which the male engaged in marital infidelity were characterized, premaritally, by significantly lower male sexual satisfaction, lower male positive communication, and higher female invalidation, whereas couples in which the female went on to engage in infidelity were characterized, premaritally, by significantly lower levels of female positive communication, higher levels of male and female negative communication, and higher levels of male and female invalidation. Implications of the findings for future research on the prediction and prevention of infidelity are discussed.

  5. Effect of Marital Relationship Enrichment Program on Marital Satisfaction, Marital Intimacy, and Sexual Satisfaction of Infertile Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Farideh; Kalhori, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Reyhaneh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2017-10-01

    Infertile couples only think of having children during their sexual intercourse, and their constant concern about this issue increases their stress level. Psychosocial and social stress leads to decreased life satisfaction, increased marital problems, and reduced sexual confidence. This study aims to determine the effect of enrichment program on marital and sexual satisfaction as well as marital intimacy among infertile couples. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 infertile couples in 2013 in Hamedan. The marital relationship enrichment program was taught to the experimental group during seven 90 minutes sessions. Enrich marital satisfaction, Linda Berg sexual satisfaction, and marital intimacy questionnaires were completed by both groups in 3 pretest steps immediately after the end of training sessions, and 8 weeks later. The results were analyzed in STATA11 software using t test, Chi-square, ANCOVA, RM-ANOVA, and Bonferroni post-hoc test. To check the data normality, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. Pintimacy immediately after the test (P=0.04) and 8 weeks after the test (Pintimacy and also marital and sexual satisfaction in infertile couples (Registration Number: IRCT201604299014N97). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is an Empty Nest Best?: Coresidence With Adult Children and Parental Marital Quality Before and After the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eden M; Kim, Kyungmin; Fingerman, Karen L

    2018-03-02

    Since the Great Recession, the proportion of young adults living with their parents has risen steadily in the United States. Research on coresidence with adult children and parental marital quality is mixed, but marital quality may suffer if children coreside under certain circumstances. When coresidence signifies a deviation from normative expectations, it may be a source of stress in parents' marriages. Further, living with adult children who are suffering problems may be especially detrimental to parental marital quality. Middle-aged parents (N = 287; mean age = 50.65) completed measures of marital quality, child problems, and coresidence at 2 time points, at the onset of the Great Recession in 2008 and again in 2013. Regression analyses estimating marital quality from coresidence status revealed that coresidence with a child was associated with lower parental marital quality in 2008, but not in 2013 (when it may be considered more normative to have adult children living in the home). Additional analyses showed living with a child who was suffering problems was associated with lower marital quality in 2013. These findings suggest that coresidence may be detrimental to marital quality, but perhaps only when coresidence is nonnormative or when coresidence co-occurs with child problems.

  8. The Effects of Life Skills Training on Marital Satisfaction of Married Women: A Case Study in Dogonbadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbasi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Successful family relationships and marital satisfaction largely depends on couples’ awareness of their marital or parental roles. Marital relations training could provide adaptation with expected roles for both husband and wife. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of life skills training on marital satisfaction in married women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study which was carried out in 2010 examined fifty married women in Dogonbadan, Iran. The Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and related demographic data which was collected prior and one year after training, were used for the study. T-test was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age, average number of children, and the average length of marriage were 35, 1.8, and 10.36 years respectively. The average of all scores was significantly different in pretest and post test (p<0.002. Also, the scores of personality objects (p<0.05, marital relationships (p<0.001, conflict resolution (p<0.001, and financial and economic monitoring (p<0.001 were significantly different. The differences in mean scores of subscales in relationship with relatives and friends, leisure activities, and marriage and children were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results showed that marital skills' training is effective in improving the marital status and satisfaction, and also improved the quality of life among married couples.

  9. Examining the mechanisms by which women's status and empowerment affect skilled birth attendant use in Senegal: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Kyoko; Gipson, Jessica D

    2017-11-08

    Despite the reduction in maternal deaths globally, maternal mortality rates remain unacceptably high, particularly in some regions of the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, maternal mortality rates have even increased recently, with 201,000 deaths in 2015 as compared to 179,000 in 2013. Use of a skilled birth attendant (SBA) at delivery has remained low, despite evidence of the effectiveness of SBAs in reducing maternal deaths. Women's empowerment is increasingly recognized as a key determinant of maternal health care-seeking and outcomes, yet empirical examinations of the linkages between women's empowerment and delivery care use are particularly limited, especially from sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the 2010 Senegal Demographic and Health Survey (n = 7451), in this study we employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to investigate the complex and multidimensional pathways by which three women's empowerment domains (household decision-making, attitudes towards violence, and sex negotiation) directly and indirectly affect SBA use. Although variations were observed across measures, many of the women's status and empowerment measures were positively related to SBA use. Notably, women's education demonstrated a substantial indirect effect: higher education was related to older age at first marriage, which was associated with higher levels of empowerment and SBA use. In addition to age at first marriage, gender-role attitudes (e.g., progressive attitudes towards violence and sex negotiation) were significant mediators in the relationship between education and SBA use. However, household decision-making was not significantly associated with SBA use. Findings indicate significant effects of women's education, early marriage, and some dimensions of women's empowerment on SBA use. SEM was particularly useful in examining the complex and multidimensional constructs of women's empowerments and their effects. This study informs policy recommendations and programmatic

  10. Leptin status in adolescence is associated with academic performance in high school: a cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Castillo, Marcela; Peirano, Patricio; Algarín, Cecilia; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone associated with learning and memory via brain receptors. However, elevated plasma leptin levels may impair cognitive and memory functions. Since individual differences in memory performance affect students’ ability to learn, we aimed to study the relation between leptin status in adolescence and school performance. Design and setting We studied 568 adolescents aged 16–17 years from Santiago. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a birth cohort conducted in Santiago (Chile). Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured serum leptin concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cut-offs from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study for 16-year-olds were used to define abnormally high leptin levels (hyperleptinaemia). Academic performance was measured using high-school grades and grade point average (GPA). Data were collected in 2009–2012; data analysis was performed in 2014. Results 15% of participants had hyperleptinaemia. They had significantly lower school grades and GPA compared with participants with normal leptin levels (eg, GPA mean difference=33.8 points). Leptin levels were negative and significantly correlated with school grades in 9th, 10th and 12th. Similarly, it was negatively correlated with high-school GPA. After controlling for health, sociodemographic and education confounders, the chances of having a performance ≥75th centile in students having hyperleptinaemia were 32% (95% CI 0.19% to 0.89%) that of students having normal serum leptin concentration. Conclusions In high school students, abnormally high levels of leptin were associated with poorer academic performance. These findings support the idea of a relationship between leptin and cognition. Further research is needed on the cognitive effects of leptin in younger populations. PMID:27797980

  11. Leptin status in adolescence is associated with academic performance in high school: a cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Castillo, Marcela; Peirano, Patricio; Algarín, Cecilia; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2016-10-18

    Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone associated with learning and memory via brain receptors. However, elevated plasma leptin levels may impair cognitive and memory functions. Since individual differences in memory performance affect students' ability to learn, we aimed to study the relation between leptin status in adolescence and school performance. We studied 568 adolescents aged 16-17 years from Santiago. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a birth cohort conducted in Santiago (Chile). We measured serum leptin concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cut-offs from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study for 16-year-olds were used to define abnormally high leptin levels (hyperleptinaemia). Academic performance was measured using high-school grades and grade point average (GPA). Data were collected in 2009-2012; data analysis was performed in 2014. 15% of participants had hyperleptinaemia. They had significantly lower school grades and GPA compared with participants with normal leptin levels (eg, GPA mean difference=33.8 points). Leptin levels were negative and significantly correlated with school grades in 9th, 10th and 12th. Similarly, it was negatively correlated with high-school GPA. After controlling for health, sociodemographic and education confounders, the chances of having a performance ≥75th centile in students having hyperleptinaemia were 32% (95% CI 0.19% to 0.89%) that of students having normal serum leptin concentration. In high school students, abnormally high levels of leptin were associated with poorer academic performance. These findings support the idea of a relationship between leptin and cognition. Further research is needed on the cognitive effects of leptin in younger populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  13. Marriage of matching doors: Marital sorting on parental background in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Who marries whom has important implications for the (re-production of social inequalities. Whereas previous studies on marital sorting have mainly focused on the husband's and the wife's traits, in this research I assess the importance of parental background in marital sorting in contemporary China in light of the tradition of marriage of matching doors. Methods: Drawing on data from the 2006 China General Social Survey, I use log-linear models to explore the extent to which couples sort based on their parents' occupational status and hukou (household registration, and the interaction between the two. Results: The results show a significant association between the occupational status of an individual's father and of his or her spouse, net of the intergenerational mobility between parents and children and the assortative mating between the husband and the wife. Furthermore, there is a significant net association between the occupational status of an individual's father and father-in-law. Parents' hukou status also plays a pivotal role in marital sorting, in that an individual's father and father-in-law tend to have the same rural or urban hukou. Nevertheless, the interaction between the father's occupational status and hukou is not found to play a significant role in shaping the pattern of marital sorting. Conclusions: Given the persistence of the tradition of marriage of matching doors, it is important to conceptualize marriage in contemporary China as a family affair, rather than a de-institutionalized, privatized, or individualized practice.

  14. Personality Change Among Newlyweds: Patterns, Predictors, and Associations With Marital Satisfaction Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Weiss, Brandon; Miller, Joshua D; Karney, Benjamin R

    2017-12-18

    The early years of marriage are a time of significant personal and relational changes as partners adjust to their new roles, but the specific ways that spouses' personalities may change in early marriage and how these changes are associated with spouses' marital satisfaction trajectories have been overlooked. Using 3 waves of data collected over the first 18 months of marriage (N = 338 spouses, or 169 heterosexual newlywed marriages), we examined changes in spouses' self-reported Big 5 personality traits over time and the association between initial levels and changes in personality and spouses' concurrent marital satisfaction trajectories. Results indicated significant changes in personality over time, including declines in agreeableness for husbands and for wives, declines in extraversion for husbands, declines in openness and neuroticism for wives, and increases in conscientiousness for husbands. These results did not differ by spouses' age, demographics, relationship length prior to marriage, cohabitation prior to marriage, initial marital satisfaction, or parenthood status. Initial levels of personality as well as changes in personality over time were associated with spouses' marital satisfaction trajectories. Taken together, these findings indicate that newlywed spouses' personalities undergo meaningful changes during the newlywed years and these changes are associated with changes in spouses' marital satisfaction. Further research is needed to understand the processes underlying changes in personality early in marriage and to examine the mechanisms linking changes in personality and changes in marital satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. SPOUSAL INTRUSION AS A PREDICTOR OF WIVES' MARITAL SATISFACTION IN THEIR SPOUSES' RETIREMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoglan, Bahadir

    2015-06-01

    Retirement of men changes their roles and participation and affects their spouses' daily routines, roles, and participation. This study assessed the effects of spousal intrusion on marital satisfaction in retirement. Questionnaires assessing demographics, spousal intrusion, shared couple activities, feelings, and marital satisfaction were administered to a group of 151 volunteer women whose husbands were retired in two cities in Turkey. The women were recruited among those who were willing to share their feelings and thoughts about their husbands' retirement process as a result of one-on-one interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the perception of spousal intrusion, education status, frequency of shared activities, and dyadic adjustment predicted women's marital satisfaction in retirement. However, spousal intrusion did not significantly predict women's marital satisfaction when dyadic adjustment was entered in the second model. In the third model, final variables together predicted 19% of women's marital satisfaction in their spouse's retirement. These findings are important as they underline the factors affecting women's marital satisfaction in their spouses' retirement period.

  16. Season of birth, age and negative symptoms in a Xhosa schizophrenia sample from the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Esmè; Niehaus, Dana J H; Koen, Liezl; Seller, Cathlene; Mbanga, Irene; Emsley, Robin A

    2006-08-01

    Seasonality of birth, more specifically winter/spring births, has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether schizophrenia patients of Xhosa ethnicity born in autumn/winter have different symptom profiles to those born in spring/summer. The secondary aim was to determine whether the autumn/winter and spring/summer birth rates for schizophrenia patients of Xhosa ethnicity were similar to that of the general Xhosa population. Individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, born in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa (n = 386), were categorized as autumn/winter-born (March to August) patients or summer/spring-born (September to February) patients. Negative global scores of the schedules for the assessment of negative symptoms were categorized as normal (rating of 0 and 1) or positive (rating of 2 to 5). Patients born in autumn/winter were more likely to have avolition/apathy than those born in summer/spring. The results also showed that the age of the patients played a significant role in modifying the effect of the season of birth on symptoms of schizophrenia. Especially older people (more than 30 years old) born in autumn/winter had a higher incidence of avolition/apathy than those born in summer/spring (p = 0.026). Furthermore, in the relationship of birth season and avolition/apathy, the marital status of the patient was a significant independent explanatory variable, while gender was not. The study also showed a spring excess of 4% in birth rate compared with the general Xhosa population. The results from our study support the existence of a seasonal birth pattern in an African schizophrenia population and suggest that avolition/apathy may underpin this seasonal pattern.

  17. Angry Responses to Infant Challenges: Parent, Marital, and Child Genetic Factors Associated with Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Nastassia J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of 9-month-olds. We examined whether positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics were associated with harsh parenting in addition to negative characteristics. We were particularly interested in examining evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) by testing the effect of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents’ harsh parenting. Additionally, we examined associations among adoptive parents’ own temperaments, their marital relationship quality, and harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers’ (but not adoptive mothers’) harsh parenting was inversely related to an index of birth mother positive temperament (reward dependence), indicating evocative rGE. Higher marital quality was associated with less harsh parenting, but only for adoptive fathers. Adoptive parents’ negative temperamental characteristics (harm avoidance) were related to hostile parenting. Findings suggest the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. PMID:25641632

  18. Older women's experiences of psychological violence in their marital relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montminy, Lyse

    2005-01-01

    Violence within older couples is a reality, not a myth. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 women ages 60 to 81 who had suffered marital psychological violence. Husbands' psychologically violent behaviors were grouped into 14 categories: control, denigration, deprivation, intimidation, threats, abdication of responsibility, manipulation, blame, harassment, negation of reality, indifference, making the wife feel guilty, sulking, and infantilization. Control behaviors were found to be the central category. Control dynamics increased at retirement, when children left home and when husbands experienced a decrease in health status. Implications for practice are also discussed.

  19. Predictors of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood in a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Brenda L; Mathiason, Michelle A; Schauberger, Charles W

    2011-11-01

    To determine how characteristics of pregnancy, birth, and early infancy are related to offspring obesity at three critical developmental periods. Mothers were followed through pregnancy and 10-15 years after. Offspring data were obtained through medical record review. Maternal and offspring characteristics were examined to predict obesity in childhood (ages 4-5 years), adolescence (ages 9-14 years), and early adulthood (ages 19-20 years). The original cohort included 802 children born to 795 women. Children who were twins, who had died, or whose mothers had died were excluded (n=25). Medical records of 68.5% of the remaining 777 children documented a height and weight at childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. Relative risks (RRs) to predict obesity at early adulthood were 12.3 for childhood and 45.1 at adolescence. RRs were also significant to predict obesity at early adulthood between the mother's obesity at prepregnancy (RR=6.4), 4-5 years postpregnancy (RR=6.3), and 10-15 years postpregnancy (RR=6.2). Excluding these variables from the multivariate models and adjusting by gender, birth insurance, and mother's marital status at delivery, the best model to predict obesity at childhood included birth weight, weight gain in infancy, and delivery type. At adolescence, it included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy, and in early adulthood, included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and birth weight. Maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy have long-term effects on offspring. Maternal obesity is the strongest predictor of obesity at all times studied.

  20. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  1. Smaller kidney size at birth in South Asians: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Paul J; Jeffrey, Robin F; Yuen, Ho M; Godfrey, Keith M; West, Jane; Wright, John

    2016-03-01

    Rates of advanced chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy are higher in South Asian than in white British populations. Low birth weight is also more frequent in South Asian populations and has been associated with increased risks of kidney disease, perhaps due to a reduced nephron endowment. Using ultrasound scans at 34 weeks of gestation, we measured fetal kidney dimensions (transverse and anteroposterior diameters, length and circumference) and derived volume in a random sample of 872 white British and 715 South Asian participants in the Born in Bradford cohort study. Kidney measurements were compared between ethnic groups. Birth weight for gestational age at 40 weeks was 200 g less in South Asian babies compared with white British babies. The mean kidney volume for gestational age was 16% lower in South Asian than in white British babies [8.79 versus 10.45 cm(3), difference 1.66 cm(3) (95% confidence interval 1.40-1.93, P < 0.001)]. The difference was robust after adjustment for maternal age, socio-economic factors, marital status, body mass index, smoking and alcohol use in pregnancy, parity, baby's gender and birth weight for gestational age [adjusted difference 1.38 cm(3) (0.97-1.84), P < 0.001]. There were smaller reductions in other fetal measures. South Asian babies have smaller kidneys compared with white British babies, even after adjusting for potential confounders including birth weight. This finding may contribute to increased risks of adult kidney disease in South Asian populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Ownership of dwelling affects the sex ratio at birth in Uganda.

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    Bernard Wallner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socio-economic conditions can affect the secondary sex ratio in humans. Mothers under good environmental conditions are predicted to increase the birth rates of sons according to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH. This study analyzed the effects of ownership and non-ownership of dwellings on the sex ratio at birth (SRB on a Ugandan sample. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our investigation included 438,640 mothers aged between 12 and 54 years. The overall average SRB was 0.5008. Mothers who live in owned dwellings gave increased births to sons (0.5019 compared to those who live in non-owned dwellings (0.458. Multivariate statistics revealed the strongest effects of dwelling ownership when controlling for demographic and social variables such as marital status, type of marriage, mothers' age, mothers' education, parity and others. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results are discussed in the framework of recent plausible models dealing with the adjustment of the sex ratio. We conclude that the aspect of dwelling status could represent an important socio-economic parameter in relation to SRB variations in humans if further studies are able to analyze it between different countries in a comparative way.

  3. Ownership of Dwelling Affects the Sex Ratio at Birth in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Bernard; Fieder, Martin; Seidler, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Background Socio-economic conditions can affect the secondary sex ratio in humans. Mothers under good environmental conditions are predicted to increase the birth rates of sons according to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH). This study analyzed the effects of ownership and non-ownership of dwellings on the sex ratio at birth (SRB) on a Ugandan sample. Methodology/Principal Findings Our investigation included 438,640 mothers aged between 12 and 54 years. The overall average SRB was 0.5008. Mothers who live in owned dwellings gave increased births to sons (0.5019) compared to those who live in non-owned dwellings (0.458). Multivariate statistics revealed the strongest effects of dwelling ownership when controlling for demographic and social variables such as marital status, type of marriage, mothers’ age, mothers’ education, parity and others. Conclusions/Significance The results are discussed in the framework of recent plausible models dealing with the adjustment of the sex ratio. We conclude that the aspect of dwelling status could represent an important socio-economic parameter in relation to SRB variations in humans if further studies are able to analyze it between different countries in a comparative way. PMID:23284697

  4. Profiles Using Indicators of Marital Communication, Communication Styles, and Marital Satisfaction in Mexican Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Bravo, Claudia; Watty Martínez, Alejandra

    2017-05-19

    Marital problems have multiple causes. One factor leading to marital dissatisfaction is communication, both the inability to communicate in certain areas and the way in which communication is made. One hundred four Mexican couples who attend a reproductive health care institution in Mexico City took part in this study. The relationship between the amount and style of communication was studied in order to develop profiles with explanatory indicators. A study was carried out with two samples (men and women) that were classified in terms of marital satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Indicators related to marital satisfaction are talking about the marital relationship, discussing work (women and men), communicating about sexuality (women). Indicators of marital dissatisfaction are talking about children, having and perceiving a reserved and negative style of communication (men), having and perceiving a negative and violent style of communication (women).

  5. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  6. Personality traits and sexual satisfaction as determinants of marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet what still remains uncertain is which factors account for the differing degrees of marital satisfaction and the fluctuations in the marital quality (e.g. marital conflict) that spouses experience over time. This study therefore sets out to investigate personality traits and sexual satisfaction as determinants of marital satisfaction ...

  7. Approaches to Marital Therapy | Esere | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In so doing efforts are geared towards highlighting the theory of transactional analysis and marital therapy, the concepts of life positions and marital therapy, the concepts of Rational - Emotive Therapy (RET) and marital conflict. Techniques of cognitive therapies in enhancing marital happiness are also highlighted.

  8. Sources of Marital Conflict in Five Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Dillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  9. Review of the importance of nutrition during the first 1000 days: maternal nutritional status and its associations with fetal growth and birth, neonatal and infant outcomes among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrottesley, S V; Lamper, C; Pisa, P T

    2016-04-01

    Maternal nutritional status (MNS) is a strong predictor of growth and development in the first 1000 days of life and may influence susceptibility to non-communicable diseases in adulthood. However, the role of nutrition during this window of developmental plasticity in Africa is unclear. This paper reviews published data to address whether maternal nutrition during the first 1000 days is important for Africa, with a focus on MNS and its associations with fetal growth and birth, neonatal and infant outcomes. A systematic approach was used to search the following databases: Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciSearch and Cochrane Library. In all, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria for the specific objectives. MNS in Africa showed features typical of the epidemiological transition: higher prevalences of maternal overweight and obesity and lower underweight, poor diet quality 1 and high anaemia prevalence. Maternal body mass index and greater gestational weight gain (GWG) were positively associated with birth weight; however, maternal overweight and obesity were associated with increased risk of macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction. Maternal anaemia was associated with lower birth weight. Macro- and micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy were associated with improvements in GWG, birth weight and mortality risk. Data suggest poor MNS in Africa and confirms the importance of the first 1000 days as a critical period for nutritional intervention to improve growth, birth outcomes and potential future health risk. However, there is a lack of data beyond birth and a need for longitudinal data through infancy to 2 years of age.

  10. 76 FR 33027 - Agency Information Collection (Statement of Marital Relationship) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... collection. Abstract: VA Form 21-4170 is completed by individuals claiming to be common law widows/widowers of deceased veterans and by veterans and their claimed common law spouses to establish marital status. VA uses the information collected to determine whether a common law marriage was valid under the law...

  11. 76 FR 16858 - Proposed Information Collection (Statement of Marital Relationship); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... validity of a common law marriage. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection... collection. Abstract: VA Form 21-4170 is completed by individuals claiming to be common law widows/widowers of deceased veterans and by veterans and their claimed common law spouses to establish marital status...

  12. Parenting Practices of Resident Fathers: The Role of Marital and Biological Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Carlson, Marcia J.; Bzostek, Sharon H.; Osborne, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,098) to examine differences in the parenting practices of four types of resident fathers, defined by their biological relationship to a focal child and their marital status with regard to the focal child's mother. Regression results suggest that biological fathers and…

  13. MARITAL RAPE: ASSAULT ON WOMEN'S DIGNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Madhu Shastri

    2018-01-01

    A marriage, generally, is a bond of trust and affection.Dependency of women on men, the relationship entails coercive potential. Marital rape is undesirable intercourse by a husband with his wife by force, physical violence or without her consent. Marital rape is a non-consensual act of violence unconventional by a husband against the wife where she is physically, emotionally and sexually abused. It questions the very essence of human relationship, wife is continuously raped by whom she beli...

  14. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized cont...

  15. Antenatal psychosocial risk status and Australian women's use of primary care and specialist mental health services in the year after birth: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Virginia; Langdon, Rachel; Matthey, Stephen; Kemp, Lynn; Austin, Marie-Paule; Johnson, Maree

    2016-10-25

    Poor mental health in the perinatal period can impact negatively on women, their infants and families. Australian State and Territory governments are investing in routine psychosocial assessment and depression screening with referral to services and support, however, little is known about how well these services are used. The aim of this paper is to report on the health services used by women for their physical and mental health needs from pregnancy to 12 months after birth and to compare service use for women who have been identified in pregnancy as having moderate-high psychosocial risk with those with low psychosocial risk. One hundred and six women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study with five points of data collection (2-4 weeks after prenatal booking, 36 weeks gestation, 6 weeks postpartum, 6 months postpartum and 12 months postpartum) was undertaken. Data were collected via face-to-face and telephone interviews, relating to psychosocial risk factors, mental health and service use. The prenatal psychosocial risk status of women (data available for 83 of 106 women) was determined using the Antenatal Risk Questionnaire (ANRQ) and was used to compare socio-demographic characteristics and service use of women with 'low' and 'moderate to high' risk of perinatal mental health problems. The findings indicate high use of postnatal universal health services (child and family health nurses, general practitioners) by both groups of women, with limited use of specialist mental health services by women identified with moderate to high risk of mental health problems. While almost all respondents indicated that they would seek help for mental health concerns most had a preference to seek help from partners and family before accessing health professionals. These preliminary data support local and international studies that highlight the poor uptake of specialist services for mental health problems in postnatal women, where this may be required. Further

  16. Consequences of marital dissolution for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, J A

    1994-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of divorce in the US has had profound implications for the social, economic, and emotional needs of children. Central are the varying commitments to childrearing of divorced mothers and fathers. Women consider themselves responsible for their children's care regardless of marital status, whereas men tend to disengage from their offspring once a marriage is dissolved. At present, about 25% of US children will spend some time in a single-parent household as a result of divorce, while another 25% will live with a single mother due to nonmarital childbearing. Although children whose parents separate suffer disadvantages compared to those whose parents remain together, there is a lack of consensus on the magnitude and source of these differences and the profile of children at greatest risk of social and emotional problems. When the father moves out, household income declines by an average of 37% and child support transfers are too low to reduce the hardships of living in a single-mother family. Even when responsibility for children is shared with grandparents or the state (through welfare), the disparities between one- and two-parent households persist. The conflict between parents, loss of daily contact with one parent, and disruption of routines and place of residence associated with divorce jeopardize children's emotional security and deprive them of essential socialization experiences. To minimize the harmful effects of divorce on children, single mothers need institutional support, particularly to mitigate the economic liabilities associated with divorce and to ensure high-quality childcare when mothers are working.

  17. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  18. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  19. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  20. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  1. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  2. Birth Order and Injury-Related Infant Mortality in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Katherine A; Rossen, Lauren M; Thoma, Marie E; Warner, Margaret; Simon, Alan E

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of death during the first year of life due to injury, such as unintentional injury and homicide, by birth order in the U.S. Using national birth cohort-linked birth-infant death data (births, 2000-2010; deaths, 2000-2011), risks of infant mortality due to injury in second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth or later-born singleton infants were compared with first-born singleton infants. Risk ratios were estimated using log-binomial models adjusted for maternal age, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education. The statistical analyses were conducted in 2016. Approximately 40%, 32%, 16%, 7%, and 4% of singleton live births were first, second, third, fourth, and fifth or later born, respectively. From 2000 to 2011, a total of 15,866 infants died as a result of injury (approximately 1,442 deaths per year). Compared with first-born infants (2.9 deaths per 10,000 live births), second or later-born infants were at increased risk of infant mortality due to injury (second, 3.6 deaths; third, 4.2 deaths; fourth, 4.8 deaths; fifth or later, 6.4 deaths). The corresponding adjusted risk ratios were as follows: second, 1.84 (95% CI=1.76, 1.91); third, 2.42 (95% CI=2.30, 2.54); fourth, 2.96 (95% CI=2.77, 3.16); and fifth or later, 4.26 (95% CI=3.96, 4.57). Singleton infants born second or later were at increased risk of mortality due to injury during their first year of life in the U.S. This study's findings highlight the importance of investigating underlying mechanisms behind this increased risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Racial residential segregation impacts on low birth weight using improved neighborhood boundary definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Sue C

    2010-12-01

    Research on local racial residential segregation and health generally utilize census tract boundaries as a proxy from within which to estimate individual exposures. Census tracts however, may not accurately reflect the neighborhood environments in which people live and interact. Census tract geography may also capture non-exchangeable populations in socially stratified cities, impacting statistical assumptions of independence. To address these concerns, this study assessed the impact of racial residential segregation (i.e., racial isolation and racial clusters) on low birth weight (i.e., intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and preterm birth) in the Detroit Metropolitan Area using optimized neighborhood boundary definitions. Automated zone-matching (AZM) methodology was applied to redefine neighborhood (zones). Maternal and infant health information was obtained from Michigan's vital statistics birth registry (n=137,965) for the years 2004-2006. Multilevel models were estimated to assess the effect of high racial isolation and high racial clusters on IUGR and preterm birth, controlling for maternal race, single marital status, smoking and area-level poverty. The results from this study showed that high racial isolation had a significant effect on IUGR, while the odds of preterm birth were higher in racially clustered zones. African American mothers were at increased odds of having IUGR or preterm infants than other mothers; however, these disparities reduced in highly segregated zones. The predicted incidence of IUGR across racially isolated zones and census tracts differed indicating a modifiable area unit problem (MAUP). MAUP effects were not observed in models predicting preterm incidence in high racial clusters or IUGR or preterm incidence in high poverty areas, demonstrating the stability-reliability of these estimates. Future research should continue to optimize neighborhood boundary definitions, while assessing the sensitivity of segregation measures to

  4. Marital Interaction in Middle and Old Age: A Predictor of Marital Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Marina; Kliegel, Matthias; Shapiro, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Many studies point out the importance of marital satisfaction for well-being. However, although being married is still the norm in middle and old age, research on the determinants of marital satisfaction has neglected long-term marriages. While research on short-term marriages mainly focuses on partner fit (e.g., in personality traits and…

  5. Dysphoria and Marital Discord: Are Dysphoric Individuals at Risk for Marital Maladjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R. H.; O'Leary, K. Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of dysphoria on husbands' and wives' later marital adjustment among 264 couples about to marry. Assessed relationship satisfaction and level of dysphoria in both spouses prior to marriage, 6 months after marriage, and 18 months after marriage. Premarital dysphoria was associated with later marital dissatisfaction. Gender…

  6. Effect of Marital Counselling on Women‟s Attitude Towards Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of marital counselling on women's attitude towards marital stability. The study adopted a pre-test post-test quasi experimental design. The sample consisted of 52 married women (academic and non-academic) staff of the Faculty of Education, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State of ...

  7. The Relationship between Marital Satisfaction, Marital Stability, Nuclear Family Triangulation, and Childhood Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linna; Crane, D. Russell

    2001-01-01

    Study examined the effect of triangulation on depression in children. Clinical samples and nonclinical samples were taken from Utah and Illinois. Results showed children's depressive symptoms to be most strongly linked to the father's level of marital satisfaction, marital stability, and perceived family triangulation. Mothers' variables did not…

  8. Trajectories of Marital Conflict across the Life Course: Predictors and Interactions with Marital Happiness Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.

    2012-01-01

    Using typologies outlined by Gottman and Fitzpatrick as well as institutional and companionate models of marriage, the authors conducted a latent class analysis of marital conflict trajectories using 20 years of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study. Respondents were in one of three groups: high, medium (around the mean), or…

  9. Marriage Following the Birth of a Child among Cohabiting and Visiting Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Approximately half of non-marital births are to mothers in cohabiting relationships, and an additional 30% are to mothers in visiting relationships. I use data (N= 1,945) from the Fragile Families Study to investigate whether the determinants of marriage in the year following a child's birth are similar for cohabiting and visiting parents. The…

  10. A cross-cultural examination of the relation of marital communication behavior to marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Uzma S; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy

    2007-12-01

    Numerous studies have examined the communication behaviors of Western, primarily North American, couples and have demonstrated a robust and reliable association between marital satisfaction and couple communication. However, there has been relatively less attention given to the generalizability of these findings to non-Western couples. To address this issue, the authors conducted an observational study of marital communication among couples from 3 different cultural groups: 50 White American couples, 52 Pakistani couples in Pakistan, and 48 immigrant Pakistani couples in America. The results show that positive and negative communication behaviors were associated with marital satisfaction within each of the 3 cultural groups. However, the American group's marital satisfaction was more strongly related to marital communication behaviors than was that of the Pakistani group and, to a lesser extent, the immigrant group.

  11. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plurality of Birth and Infant Mortality Due to External Causes in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Katherine A; Thoma, Marie E; Rossen, Lauren M; Warner, Margaret; Simon, Alan E

    2017-03-01

    Risk of death during the first year of life due to external causes, such as unintentional injury and homicide, may be higher among twins and higher-order multiples than among singletons in the United States. We used national birth cohort linked birth-infant death data (2000-2010) to evaluate the risk of infant mortality due to external causes in multiples versus singletons in the United States. Risk of death from external causes during the study period was 3.6 per 10,000 live births in singletons and 5.1 per 10,000 live births in multiples. Using log-binomial regression, the corresponding unadjusted risk ratio was 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.50). After adjustment for maternal age, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education, the risk ratio was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.56, 1.81). Infant deaths due to external causes were most likely to occur between 2 and 7 months of age. Applying inverse probability weighting and assuming a hypothetical intervention where no infants were low birth weight, the adjusted controlled direct effect of plurality on infant mortality due to external causes was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.39, 1.97). Twins and higher-order multiples were at greater risk of infant mortality due to external causes, particularly between 2 and 7 months of age, and this risk appeared to be mediated largely by factors other than low-birth-weight status. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Alcohol and Marital Violence: Bond Style According its Co-Occurrence in Couples at Bogota City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jimena Perdomo Escobar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the bond style according to the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and violence in marital dyads of women who belong to middle and low socioeconomic status. A factorial 2x2 non-experimental cross sectional design was applied to a sample of 101 women who participated voluntarily. The questionnaire of Alcohol and Couple Violence Co-occurrence and the Adults’ Bond Scale were used. Moreover, the c2, the OR and the c2 tests by Mantel & Haenszel were applied. It was found that 79% of women and 89,9% of their husbands were regular consumers. Marital violence towards women occurred in 31,6% of the cases, meanwhile this type of violence was suffered by men in 25% of the cases. Co-occurrence of consumption and maltreatment was found in 22 cases. So, consumption would be a risk factor for marital violence. However, there was not a significant correlation between these aspects and women’s bond style. Mantel y Haenszel’s c2 showed significantly (p=0,036 that this kind of bond was only affected by OH consumptionif it co-occurs with marital violence. But, if the last factor does not occur, bond style behaves orthogonally to the OH consumption. It was concluded that there is an interdependence relationship between bond style according to differential occurrence of alcohol consumption and marital violence.

  15. Integrative self-knowledge and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Fayyaz, Fatemeh; Chen, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Married Iranian couples (N = 210) responded to the Integrative Self-Knowledge Scale along with a measure of marital satisfaction, the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) Big Five, and an index of interpersonal problems. Integrative self-knowledge correlated positively with marital satisfaction, positively with all but the extraversion Big Five traits, and negatively with three indices of interpersonal problems. Integrative self-knowledge also mediated a number of personality relationships with marital satisfaction. Spouse-ratings of personality confirmed the adaptive implications of integrative self-knowledge for marriage. Linkages with questionnaire response styles supported the description of integrative self-knowledge as a measure of both self-insight and self-development. Results confirmed the potential of integrative self-knowledge for studying self-regulatory processes and suggested that the enhancement of self-knowledge may be a useful goal in efforts to strengthen marriages.

  16. Age and marital status linked to quality of life of long term survivors of head and neck or prostate cancer: report from a survey of radiation therapy oncology group patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.; Stern, J.; Asbell, S.; Osborne, D.; Peer, J.; Wasserman, T.; Hinrich, S.; Paulus, R.; Scarantino, C.; Bruner, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This research project was designed to evaluate the QOL of prostate cancer survivors (PCS) or head and neck cancer survivors (HNCS) enrolled on RTOG clinical trials. Materials and Methods: Patients alive >4 years from registration on RTOG clinical trials were eligible to participate. Potential PCS or HNCS were identified in the RTOG database and institutions (INST) that agreed to participate were sent surveys and a list of eligible survivors. All eligible PCS or HNCS at that INST were given an informed consent and a survey. The survey consists of questionnaires on QOL, insurance issues, mood, sexual function, alcohol and tobacco use, and mental status. Results: To date, 460 survivors were approached from 40 INST and 276 (60%) have signed the informed consent. Twenty-one percent are HNCS. Sixteen percent of PCS are African American, as are 12% in HNCS. The current average age of PCS is 75 (range of 55-91 years); 65 (41-84) for HNCS. PCS were less likely to be current smokers (8%) compared to HNCS (15%, p=0.057). In HNCS age was associated with speech impairment: 61% under 65 had normal speech vs. 88%>65, p=0.023. Elderly HNCS reported less disfigurement (p=0.037) and greater spiritual well-being than younger survivors (p=0.0005). HNCS reported greater distress from illness (p=0.002) and anger (p=0.03) than PCS. HNCS reported more sexual dysfunction than PCS (p=0.017). In PCS married survivors had greater sexual dysfunction than non-married survivors (p=0.04). Conclusion: Survivors over age 65 that had head and neck cancer had less chronic effects of disease and treatment than their younger counterparts. They also had greater spiritual well-being. Survivors of head and neck cancer had greater sexual dysfunction than prostate cancer survivors, likely linked to their younger age. In addition, sexual function was of greater interest to married patients; therefore, of greater consequence with dysfunction. Younger patients report more long term effects of disease

  17. The Role of Marital Burnout and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Marital Satisfaction between Young Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Kebritchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fundamental role of the family structure and the importance of proper marriages in modern society as well as the important role of childhood and its effect on marital relations in adulthood, this study aimed to investigate the role of burnout, early maladaptive schemas and style in marital satisfaction among young couples. This study is a correlation (multiple regressions and descriptive research. The sample consisted of 100 couples (100 females and 100 males, couples aged 20 to 35 years with a high school diploma or higher education who were randomly chosen from student couples of Tehran and Karaj Kharazmi university or other couples out of university which filled out four questionnaires. Following questionnaires were used as research tools: Pines’ Couple Burnout Measure (CBM, Enrich’s Marital Satisfaction (Enrich, Yang’s early maladaptive schemas (EMSQ-R.[6][8]. Results showed that there were three interactive relationships among these variables, so that all three variables were investigated and separately explained concerning marital satisfaction. There was a significant negative correlation between marital burnout and all other subscales and marital satisfaction, and a significant positive correlation between marital burnout and all maladaptive schemas except emotional deprivation schema.

  18. Emotion recognition and marital satisfaction in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Lee X; Pettigrew, L Creed; Kryscio, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in the comprehension of facial and prosodic expressions are commonly associated with right hemisphere stroke. However, little is known regarding the impact of these disorders on social relations. We examined facial and prosodic processing, mood, and marital satisfaction in 12 right hemisphere damaged (RHD) stroke patients and nine controls. Results revealed significant impairments in the comprehension of facial expressions and prosody among RHD stroke patients. Nonparametric correlations in the RHD group showed significant associations between marital satisfaction and facial affect discrimination and matching, and nonaffective prosody discrimination. We conclude that deficits in the recognition of nonverbal expressions are associated with reduced relationship satisfaction.

  19. Marital Dissolution and Child Educational Outcomes in San Borja, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin

    2016-12-01

    Serial monogamy is likely an adaptive mating strategy for women when the expected future fitness gains with a different partner are greater than expected future fitness with one's current partner. Using interview data from more than 400 women in San Borja, Bolivia, discrete-time event history analyses and random effects regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors of marital dissolution, separated by remarriage status, and child educational outcomes. Male income was found to be inversely associated with women's risk of "divorce and remarriage," whereas female income is positively associated with women's risk of "divorce, but not remarriage." Children of women who divorce and remarry tend to have significantly lower educational outcomes than children of married parents, but women with higher incomes are able to buffer their children from the negative educational outcomes of divorce and remarriage. Counter to predictions, there is no evidence that women with kin in the community have a significant difference in likelihood of divorce or a buffering effect of child outcomes. In conclusion, predictors of divorce differ depending on whether the woman goes on to remarry, suggesting that male income may be a better predictor of a serial monogamy strategy whereas female income predicts marital dissolution only. Thus, women who are relatively autonomous because of greater income may not benefit from remarriage.

  20. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  1. Paternity acknowledgment in 2 million birth records from Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Almond

    Full Text Available Out-of-wedlock childbearing is more common in the U.S. than in other countries and becoming more so. A growing share of such non-marital births identify the father, which can create a legal entitlement to child support. Relatively little is known about individual determinants of the decision to establish paternity, in part because of data limitations. In this paper, we evaluate all birth records in Michigan from 1993 to 2006, which have been merged to the paternity registry. In 2006, 30,231 Michigan children, almost one quarter of all Michigan births, were born to unmarried mothers and had paternity acknowledged. We find that births with paternity acknowledged have worse outcomes along various health and socio-economic dimensions relative to births to married parents, but better outcomes relative to births to unmarried parents without paternity acknowledgement. Furthermore, unmarried men who father sons are significantly more likely to acknowledge paternity than fathers of daughters.

  2. A Hmong Birth and Authoritative Knowledge: A Case study of choice, control, and the reproductive consequences of refugee status in American childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Nibbs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One area in which anthropologists are concerned is in examining what the state of good health consists of from society to society, and what happens when practitioners of western medicine intersect with people who hold other explanations of well being. This paper explores how the western medical practices of childbirth in America are forced on Hmong refugee childbirth, and therefore, used as a continuation of governmentality, or refugee objectification. Ethnographic data is drawn from a case study of Hmong experiences with the birth process in an American hospital setting. Parallels are drawn between refugee resettlement programs which ultimately produce bodies that are objects of the state; and authoritative medical knowledge in childbirth which produces bodies that are objects of medicine. This research suggests that the American birth process becomes yet another site of refugee reprogramming and a struggle between western medicine and the refugee‟s understanding of experience.

  3. Effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during pregnancy, on neonatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; van der Klis, FRM; van der Dijs, FPL; van Beusekom, CM; Landman, H; Capello, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) status during pregnancy is important. We studied the effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during uncomplicated pregnancy, on neonatal LCP status at term delivery. Supplements were administered from the second trimester to

  4. MARRIAGE, SEXUALITY, AND HOLINESS: ASPECTS OF MARITAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it also influenced it at decisive points and developed its own marital ethics. Through a consideration of philosophical ... offers an unusual look at the perception and ethical evaluation of sexuality in the texts of the Apostle Paul and his school. 2. ...... proximity to Plutarch is also revealed in Mor. 142e (= Conjug. prae. 33), in.

  5. Marital Satisfaction and Cherokee Language Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rockey; Stoltenberg, Cal; Robbins, Sharla; Ross, J. Mike

    2002-01-01

    The Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (MSI-R; D.K. Snyder, 1997) norms were compared with scores for 162 volunteer Cherokee participants. Differences were found on the Inconsistency, Conventionalization, Global Distress, and Aggression subscales. Participants classified as fluent or nonfluent in the Cherokee language differed on the…

  6. Natural and Professional Help during Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Paul A.; Zax, Melvin

    Although few people bring their psychological problems to mental health professionals, research in the area of 'natural' help is rudimentary. To investigate the process and effectiveness of natural professional groups in helping individuals experiencing marital disruption, 42 helpers (14 mental health professionals, 14 divorce lawyers, and 14…

  7. Development and Marital Power in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    Life histories of 794 Mexican women, ages 25-31 and 40-49, revealed that wives faced diverse circumstances with respect to marital power and husband dominance. Results support the modernization perspective on the consequences of economic development, in that educational attainment affected wives' exposure to domestic violence and participation in…

  8. influence of spousal communication on marital stability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    become a slave to it. The assumption for its social necessity is rested on the premise that through it, families are established and the family is the fundamental unit .... problems. This research deems it necessary to investigate the Influence of spousal communication on marital stability. This is because divorce is becoming a ...

  9. Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, L F; Gottman, J M

    1997-06-01

    Examined several protective mechanisms that may reduce deleterious correlates of marital conflict and marital dissolution in young children. One set of potential buffers focused on parent-child interaction: parental warmth, parental scaffolding/praise, and inhibition of parental rejection. As a second set of potential buffers, each parent was interviewed about their "meta-emotion philosophy"--that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and their attitudes and responses to their children's anger and sadness. The third set of potential buffers concerned intraindividual characteristics of the child, including the child's intelligence and regulatory physiology (basal vagal tone and vagal suppression). Fifty-six families with a preschool child were studied at two time points: when the children were 5 years old (Time 1) and again when the children were 8 years old (Time 2). At Time 1, naturalistic observations of marital and parent-child interaction were conducted and assessment of child regulatory physiology was obtained through measures of basal vagal tone and suppression of vagal tone. Parents were also interviewed individually about their feelings about their own and their children's emotions, and children's intelligence was assessed. At Time 2, assessment of child outcomes were obtained, including observations of peer interaction, mother ratings of behavior problems and mother and teacher ratings of peer aggression, mother ratings of child physical illness, and measures of achievement. Results indicated that all Time 1 buffering factors protected children in face of marital conflict and dissolution.

  10. A Multivariate, Multisurvey Study of Marital Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1978-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis with data from each of three recent U.S. national surveys is used to estimate the direct effects of each of 10 independent variables on the reported marital happiness of white males and females ages 18 through 59. All of the estimated direct effects are weak or nil. (Author)

  11. Emotional intelligence, happiness, hope and marital satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional Intelligence Scale, Subjective-happiness Scale, Adult Trait-hope Scale and the Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collect data from the participants. Statistical analysis involved the use of Simple Linear and Standard Multiple regression. Findings indicated that, emotional intelligence did not have a significant ...

  12. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  13. Birth order and suicide in adulthood: evidence from Swedish population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-06-15

    Each year, almost 1 million people die from suicide, which is among the leading causes of death in young people. We studied how birth order was associated with suicide and other main causes of death. A follow-up study based on the Swedish population register was conducted for sibling groups born from 1932 to 1980 who were observed during the period 1981-2002. Focus was on the within-family variation in suicide risk, meaning that we studied sibling groups that consisted of 2 or more children in which at least 1 died from suicide. These family-fixed effects analyses revealed that each increase in birth order was related to an 18% higher suicide risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.23, P = 0.000). The association was slightly lower among sibling groups born in 1932-1955 (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.21, P = 0.000) than among those born in 1967-1980 (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.57, P = 0.080). Further analyses suggested that the association between birth order and suicide was only modestly influenced by sex, birth spacing, size of the sibling group, own socioeconomic position, own marital status, and socioeconomic rank within the sibling group. Causes of death other than suicide and other external causes were not associated with birth order. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Infant mortality among Arab-Americans: findings from the Arab-American birth outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkton, Darryl W; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Galea, Sandro

    2013-05-01

    Arab-Americans (AAs) have lower risk of preterm birth relative to Non-Arab Whites. This has been attributed to lower likelihood of birth out of wedlock, maternal tobacco use during pregnancy, and foreign maternal birthplace among AAs. We were interested in understanding the roles of these and other demographic factors in the etiology of infant mortality among this group. Using data about all live, singleton births between 1989 and 2005 in the state with the highest proportion of AAs in the US, we calculated infant mortality (death prior to 1 year of life) for AAs and Non-Arab Whites. To clarify the etiology of potential differences in infant mortality, we also assessed infant mortality sub-categories, including neonatal mortality (death prior to 28 days of life) and post-neonatal mortality (death between 28 and 365 days of life). We fit trivariable and multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for explanatory covariates to assess each covariate's contributions to the relation between ethnicity and infant mortality. AAs had a lower infant mortality rate (4.7 per 1,000 live births) than non-Arab Whites (5.6 per 1,000 live births), overall (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.96). In trivariable models, adjusting for marital status, maternal tobacco consumption during pregnancy, and maternal birthplace each separately attenuated the bivariate ethnicity-mortality relation to non-significance. Our findings suggest that lower risk of infant mortality among AAs relative to non-Arab Whites may be explained by differences in demographic characteristics and parental behavioral practices between them.

  15. Communication: A Vital Strategy For Managing Marital Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marital problem is an age long issue that eats into the fabrics of marriages resulting in separation, divorce. It causes lots of harm to the couples, their family and the society at large. This paper investigated the sources of marital problems, and common methods of managing marital problems. It offers to use communication as ...

  16. Labor supply and the welfare costs of marital conflict.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Marital conflicts can have negative welfare consequences. In this paper we use an equivalence scale approach to analyze the household labor supply and welfare effects of marital conflict. It might be assumed that there is a simultaneous relation between labor supply and marital conflict: increased

  17. The Impact of Doctoral Study on Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannock, Rebecca Groves; Litten, Mary Jo; Smith, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Explores whether marital relationships of doctoral students are affected while they are in graduate school. Results show no significant differences among the marital satisfaction of graduate students at different stages in their program. Differences were found with couples involved in marital therapy. Spouses of graduate students reported less…

  18. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  19. A Multidimensional Comparison of Maritally and Sexually Dysfunctioned Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Phyllis; Snyder, Douglas K.

    The Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI) is a potential instrument for differentiating couples with specific sexual distress from those with more general marital complaints. Couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of dissatisfaction with their sexual relationship and couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of generalized marital distress…

  20. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  1. The relationship between family-of-origin and marital satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between marital satisfaction and family-oforigin factors amongst couples with children. Locke and Wallace's Marital Adjustment Test and the McMaster Family Assessment Device were used to measure marital satisfaction and familyof- origin factors respectively.

  2. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  3. Fatherhood status and risk of prostate cancer: nationwide, population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirén, Sara M; Drevin, Linda I; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Akre, Olof; Holmberg, Erik C; Robinson, David E; Garmo, Hans G; Stattin, Pär E

    2013-08-15

    Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case-control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82-0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72-0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90-0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84-0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88-0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  4. Fatherhood status and risk of prostate cancer: Nationwide, population-based case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirén, Sara M; Drevin, Linda I; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Akre, Olof; Holmberg, Erik C; Robinson, David E; Garmo, Hans G; Stattin, Pär E

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case–control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82–0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72–0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90–0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84–0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88–0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels. PMID:23354735

  5. Effectiveness of “Marital Skills training for mastectomy women” in improving marital satisfaction of husbands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Bahmani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the health issues related to patients suffering from cancer is paying attention to mental health of the patients and their families. This research was carried out to determine the effect of teaching marital life skills for mastectomy women in the increase of marital satisfaction of this group of patients as well as its direct effect on their spouses’ satisfaction. This was a quasi-experimental research designed as pretest/posttest with random assignment and control group. 22 women suffering from breast cancer, undergoing mastectomy, treated by radiotherapy and having marital satisfaction lower than the moderate level based on the short form (40-question of the ENRICH (evaluation and nurturing relationship issues, communication and happiness questionnaire were selected via purposive sampling and divided into experimental and control groups using random assignment. The pretest was carried out on experimental and control groups and the husbands. The intervention was performed during 12 didactic sessions, two a week, for women of the experimental group in the absence of their husbands. Results indicated that the mean score of marital satisfaction in mastectomy women and their husbands in the experimental group was higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant. In conclusion, the combined intervention method used in this research was effective in increasing marital satisfaction of mastectomy women, and had also a positive effect on their husbands’ marital satisfaction.

  6. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza K; Jaakkola, Jouni Jk; Quansah, Reginald; Norgbe, Gameli K; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli

    2012-10-17

    Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP) on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243 g (95% CI: 496, 11) and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65) reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23) and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92) increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW) for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429 g (95% CI: 259, 599) reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59) excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results. Maternal use of charcoal as a cooking fuel during

  7. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amegah Adeladza K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. Methods A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Results Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243g (95% CI: 496, 11 and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65 reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23 and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92 increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429g (95% CI: 259, 599 reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59 excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results

  8. Sexual and marital relationships after radiotherapy for seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schover, L.R.; Gonzales, M.; von Eschenbach, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires on sexual function, marital status, and fertility were returned by 84 men who received radiotherapy for seminoma (Stage I, II, or III). The mean length of follow-up was ten years. Although 93 per cent were married, 19 per cent had low rates of sexual activity, 12 per cent reported low sexual desire, 15 per cent had erectile dysfunction, 10 per cent had difficulty reaching orgasm, and 14 per cent had premature ejaculation. The most common problems were reduced intensity of orgasm (33%) and reduced semen volume (49%). Twenty-one men remained childless, and 30 per cent of men worried at least occasionally about infertility. Thirteen children were conceived after cancer therapy. The data suggest that sexual dysfunction and infertility are important concerns for a subgroup of men treated for seminoma

  9. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Low socio-economic status is the underlying cause of low birth weight. Other causes include maternal malnutrition; maternal diseases like antepartum hemorrhage, anaemia, cervical incompetence; adolescent pregnancies; short birth intervals; intrauterine infections; multiple pregnancy; congenital malformations; placental.

  10. Diabetes Risk and Disease Management in Later Life: A National Longitudinal Study of the Role of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda; Shen, Shannon

    2016-11-01

    We assess the association between marital quality and both the risk of developing diabetes and the management of diabetes after its onset in later life. We use data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project to estimate regression models with lagged dependent variables. The sample includes 1,228 married respondents, among whom 389 were diabetic. Those with either a reported diagnosis or with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% are identified diabetic. We categorize diabetic respondents into three groups: controlled, undiagnosed, and uncontrolled diabetes. We conduct factor analysis to construct positive and negative marital quality scales. For women, an increase in positive marital quality between Waves 1 and 2 is related to a lower risk of being diabetic at Wave 2, net of diabetes status at Wave 1; surprisingly, for men, an increase in negative marital quality between Waves 1 and 2 is related to both a lower risk of being diabetic at Wave 2 and a higher chance of controlling diabetes at Wave 2 after its onset. Our results challenge the traditional assumption that negative marital quality is always detrimental to health and encourage family scholars to distinguish different sources and types of negative marital quality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. "His" and "her" marriage? The role of positive and negative marital characteristics in global marital satisfaction among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela S; Carr, Deborah; Sosinsky, Laura; Kim, Se-Kang

    2014-07-01

    We explore gender differences in older adults' appraisals of positive and negative aspects of their marriages, examine how these appraisals relate to global marital satisfaction, and identify distinctive marital profiles associated with global satisfaction in men and women. Data are from the Changing Lives of Older Couples Study (n = 1,110). We used a variant of principal components analysis to generate marital quality profiles, based on one's endorsement of positive and negative marital characteristics. OLS regression was used to detect associations between marital profiles and global marital satisfaction. Men offered more positive marital assessments than women, particularly on items reflecting positive treatment by one's wife. Three marital quality profiles emerged: Positive, Positive-Negative, and Negative. Although marital satisfaction was best explained by positive appraisals in both genders, they were less important for men than for women. The negative profile showed a tendency for a stronger prediction in men. Prior studies show small differences in men's and women's global marital satisfaction. Our work provides evidence that the presence and magnitude of such gender differences may vary based on the specific marital component considered. We discuss ways that gender shapes marital interactions, expectations, and perceptions, and the implications of our results for the well-being of married older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. General Health Status and Marital Satisfaction among Female Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Kazemeini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that drug abusers’ spouses are more likely to develop mental disorders, psychosis and behavioral disturbance than normal couples; they may experience more anxiety, insomnia and depression. Additionally, they are sensitive to their interpersonal relationships and face multiple problems in their social function .

  13. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Keywords: Occupation, Cholesterol, Kano, Serum Lipid. INTRODUCTION. Differences in serum HDL – CH and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL – CH) levels between communities have been employed in explaining the postulated relationship that exist between serum lipoprotein levels and the incidence of coronary ...

  14. 29 CFR 36.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or... students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A recipient shall not...

  15. 7 CFR 15a.40 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs and... students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A recipient shall not...

  16. 10 CFR 5.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or... students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A recipient shall not...

  17. Marital Status & Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    lyndon.riviere@amedd.army.mil The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors, and are not be construed as...STD; e.g. had sex with multiple partners, or did not use a condom ?”. Respondents were asked to answer either yes or no to all six questions...psychology of risk taking: Toward the integration of psychometric and neuropsychological paradigms. [ Article ]. American Journal of Psychology, 121(3

  18. Marital Status and Personal Happiness: An Analysis of Trend Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed General Social Survey data from 1972 through 1989 on personal happiness of married and never-married individuals. Showed that never-married males and younger never-married females were happier in late 1980s than in 1970s and that younger married women were somewhat less happy in late 1980s than in 1970s. Trends were weaker than earlier…

  19. Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew

    2005-09-01

    The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Effect of socioeconomic conditions on health care utilization in marital violence: a cross-sectional investigation from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-02-28

    The health-care-seeking process while experiencing marital violence can be significantly influenced by one's socioeconomic status, which limits the availability of resources and opportunities for accessing those resources. This study exploratorily examined the effects of socioeconomic factors on the association between marital violence and health care utilization in Japan. Cross-sectional data on 2,984 male and female community residents aged 25 to 50 years was obtained from the first wave of Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) conducted between 2010 and 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between marital violence and health care utilization. Interaction terms were used to examine the moderating effect of educational attainment, household income, and employment status on the association. Mediation analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of mediating effects of mastery, social support, and health literacy in relation to the moderating effect of socioeconomic factors. Health care utilization in Japan was more prevalent among those who experienced marital violence (69.4 vs. 65.1%). The association between marital violence and health care utilization differed by employment status at a 0.10 level, while educational attainment and household income did not have substantial influence on health care utilization in the presence of marital violence. None of the psychosocial resources (mastery, health literacy, instrumental support, and informational support) explained the differential association by employment status. This study highlights the increased health care needs of those experiencing marital violence in Japan. The health care needs of the unemployed are potentially unmet in the presence of marital violence. Removing barriers to health care experienced by the unemployed may be an effective strategy for connecting survivors to needed supports and care.

  1. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  2. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal nutritional status on, maternal measles antibodies of mother-infant pairs at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, U A; Ashir, G M; Mava, Y; Gimba, M S; Abubakar, R; Ambe, J P

    2013-12-01

    Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the systematic random sampling method. Means of maternal Hb and MMA of mother-infant pairs were compared using the Student t test. Correlation coefficients of maternal Hb and MMA of mother-infant pairs were also determined. Multivariate analysis of variable (MANOVA) and covariates (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of maternal Hb (fixed factor), gestational age, maternal age, birth weight (covariates) on combined MMA of mother-infant pairs (dependent factors). Benferroni adjusted Univariate linear regression was used to investigate the dependent variables separately. There were 78 (51%) males and 75 (49%) females. The (mean ± SD) MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth were 134.66 ± 93.31 (95% CI, 119.76 - 149.56) U/ml, and 187.49 ± 85.01 (95% CI, 173.91 - 201.07) U/ml, and their correlation was significant (p = 0.025). Ninety one (59.5 %) mothers had low Hb, 62 (40.5 %) had acceptable Hb levels. The overall mean maternal Hb was 11.01 ± 1.00 (95% CI, 10.85 - 11.17) g/dl . A positive significant correlation was observed between maternal Hb and MMA of the newborn-infant (p = 0.031). The MANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between maternal Hb on the combined dependent variables (p =0.033); however, results for the dependent variables using the Benferroni adjusted Univariate analysis was significant for only MMA of the infants, (p = 0.009). There was a significant association between aacceptable levels of maternal Hb and high MMA of the newborn-infants. Therefore, these newborn infants start out with higher MMA that could give them better protection

  3. Profiles of higher earning wives in Hong Kong and the implications for marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Law, Frances Yik Wa; Hu, Debao; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2015-01-01

    Higher earning wives are emerging as a global phenomenon; however, the profiles of higher earning wives and the implications for marital satisfaction remain unknown in Hong Kong. On the basis of a representative household survey of 689 Hong Kong Chinese couples in 2012, this study aimed to explore the profiles of higher earning wives in Hong Kong and examine the effect of wives' income advantage on the couples' marital satisfaction. Results indicated that higher earning wives were clustered into 2 groups. One group of higher earning wives was older, was better educated, held managerial and professional jobs, and lived in high-income families compared with lower earning wives. The other group of higher earning wives was not well educated, held nonprofessional jobs, and lived in low-income families. Higher earning wives reported similar marital satisfaction with lower earning wives as well as their husbands. However, higher earning wives with nonprofessional jobs and from low-income families reported lower life and marital satisfaction than did those with better socioeconomic status. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. The Association between Marital Transitions, Body Mass Index, and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Dinour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between different marital transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI and body weight. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. Longitudinal studies were included if they compared dependent variables, such as BMI or weight, before and after a change in marital status. Results. Twenty articles were included: 4 articles described only transitions into marriage and/or cohabitation, 2 articles described only transitions out of marriage and/or cohabitation, and 14 articles described both. Overall, transitions into marriage were associated with weight gain, whereas transitions out of marriage were associated with weight loss. No major differences were observed between genders or across specific marital transition states. Conclusions. Additional research is warranted to better understand this phenomenon and the impact of marital transitions on obesity and obesity-related behaviors. This paper highlights potential opportunities to incorporate programs, practices, and policies that aim to promote and support healthy weights and lifestyles upon entering or leaving a marriage or cohabiting relationship.

  5. Emotional and physical satisfaction in noncohabiting, cohabiting, and marital relationships: the importance of jealous conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzeva, Mariana; Paik, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article examines whether associations between marital status and emotional and physical satisfaction depend on jealous conflict associated with expectations about sexual exclusivity. Using data from a representative sample of 681 women and men drawn from the city of Chicago and its inner suburbs, this study estimated logistic regression models of jealous conflict and ordered logistic regression models of adults' reported emotional and physical satisfaction of their relationships. The results show that marriages are less exposed to jealous conflict than cohabiting and noncohabiting relationships. Regarding emotional and physical satisfaction, their associations with marital status were contingent upon whether individuals reported jealous conflict in their relationships. Specifically, in relationships without jealous conflict, married couples were more emotionally satisfied than noncohabiting couples. Married couples, but not cohabiting and noncohabiting couples, had significantly lower emotional and physical satisfaction when jealous conflict occurred. Cohabitors were not less emotionally or physically satisfied than married respondents. Overall, this research supports the argument that sexual exclusivity expectations are important for understanding the link between marital status and relationship quality.

  6. Illicit Drug Use and Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Cornelius, Jack R.

    2008-01-01

    With the acquisition of adult social roles such as marriage, more deviant or socially disapproved behaviors such as drug use often decrease. The objective of this work was to examine patterns of illicit drug use in a community sample of adults during the transition and early years of marriage. Additionally, this work examined if couples who were discrepant in their drug use (i.e., one individual reported past year drug use and the partner reported no use) experience sharper declines in marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Multilevel regression models explored these issues over the first four years of marriage (N= 634 couples). Although rates of illicit drug use decline over the first four years of marriage, a significant number of husbands and wives continued to use illicit drugs (21% and 16%, respectively). At the transition to marriage, both husbands and wives who had discrepant drug use behaviors experienced lower levels of marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Over the first four years of marriage, couples in each group experienced significant declines in marital satisfaction. PMID:17945436

  7. The Rate of Marital Fidelity and Quality of Love in Divorce Applicants with and Without Marital Infidelity Precedent

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    F Modarresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The issue of marital infidelity is considered as an increasing concern in our society, which is associated with instability in relationships and high rate of divorce.The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of marital adjustment and the quality of love in the applicants with a history of divorce and marital infidelity. Methods: In this qualification-analytical, cross-sectional study performed in 2012 in the Fars welfare organization, 90 people were selected by available sampling and classified into three groups with a history of marital infidelity and divorce, divorce without a history of marital infidelity and controls. Three individual groups completed the Inventory Adjustment Scale and Sternberg's love triangle. Subjects with a history of marital infidelity completed questionnaires of regarding love triangle scale again regarding upon their marital relationship. Data were analyzed by dependent t-test and ANOVA. Results: Significant differences were observed among divorce group and various aspects of marital love triangle (P<0/001.Results also revealed that there was a significant difference between the groups with and without marital infidelity, from the view point of intimacy, passion and anxiousness, commitment, and decision in relationship (P<0/001. Investigating the quality of love in individuals with marital infidelity showed differences in all aspects of Sternberg`s love triangle in relationship with wife and ultra-marital relationships (P<0/001. Conclusion: Marital incompatibility alone is not a strong reason for marital infidelity in hard conditions of life and according to the research’s results. The most significant factor in attracting for ultra- marital relationship and the quality of the relationship and love between couples were the quality of the relationship and love between couples.

  8. Birth rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkin, R

    1980-06-01

    Despite the marked decline in Singapore's crude birth rate from 42.7/1000 population to 22.1/1000 population from 1957 to 1970, the government adopted a policy of sterilization by coercion with the passage in 1970 of the Voluntary Sterilisation Act. Although sterilization is supposedly voluntary, various regulations make it extremely difficult for couples who wish to retain their fertility. Couples under 40 years of age with more than 2 children must agree to accept sterilization or their children are assigned to a low priority category in regard to primary school admittance. An individual who wishes to marry a non-Singaporean cannot obtain a marriage application unless one of the parties to the marriage agrees to have a sterilization after the birth of their 2nd child. Singapore, with a population density of almost 4000/square kilometer, needs to be concerned about population growth; however, since the population had for the most part already adopted a 2 child family norm, these coercive policies appear to be blatantly excessive.

  9. Influence of marital history over two and three generations on early death. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2006-01-01

    associated with mortality risk in a dose-response pattern. All analyses were adjusted for socioeconomic position variables and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the proximity hypothesis as son's marital status was the strongest predictor of mortality, and suggest an accumulative effect......BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of marital status over two and three generations on last generation's mortality, and tested the hypothesis of an effect of the latest status (proximity effect) as well as the hypothesis of an accumulative effect. METHODS: The study population covers...... a random sample of all boys born in the the metropolitan area of Copenhagen with complete data from interviews and registers on two and three generation's marital status, socioeconomic position variables, and last generation's admission to psychiatric hospital, n = 2614. Among these 105 deaths occurred...

  10. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D; Porter, Flint T; Nyberg, David A; Comstock, Christine H; Hankins, Gary D V; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Carr, Stephen R; Wolfe, Honor M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2009-05-05

    Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. The association between shorter duration

  11. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth.In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004 and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010. Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively. Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. The association between

  12. Association between prenatal care and small for gestational age birth: an ecological study in Quebec, Canada

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    N. Savard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Quebec, women living on low income receive a number of additional prenatal care visits, determined by their area of residence, of both multi-component and food supplementation programs. We investigated whether increasing the number of visits reduces the odds of the main outcome of small for gestational age (SGA birth (weight o 10th percentile on the Canadian scale. Methods: In this ecological study, births were identified from Quebec’s registry of demographic events between 2006 and 2008 (n ¼ 156 404; 134 areas. Individual characteristics were extracted from the registry, and portraits of the general population were deduced from data on multi-component and food supplement interventions, the Canadian census and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Mothers without a high school diploma were eligible for the programs. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted using generalized estimating equations to account for the correlation between individuals on the same territory. Potential confounders included sedentary behaviour and cigarette smoking. The odds ratios (ORs were adjusted for mother’s age, marital status, parity, program coverage and mean income in the area. Results: Mothers eligible for the programs remain at a higher odds of SGA than noneligible mothers (OR ¼ 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–1.51. Further, areas that provide more visits to eligible mothers (4–6 food supplementation visits seem more successful at reducing the frequency of SGA birth than those that provide 1–2 or 3 visits (OR ¼ 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75–0.99. Conclusions: Further studies that validate whether an increase in the number of prenatal care interventions reduces the odds of SGA birth in different populations and evaluate other potential benefits for the children should be done.

  13. Age at Onset of Puberty and Adolescent Depression: "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-06-01

    Timing of onset of puberty has fallen, with profound and detrimental consequences for health. We examined the associations of earlier onset of puberty with the presence of depression in early to middle adolescence. The study examined prospective adjusted associations of age at onset of puberty, based on clinically assessed Tanner stage for breast/genitalia and pubic hair development, and self-reported presence of depression, assessed from the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire on average at 13.6 years (n = 5795 [73%]). These factors were examined by using multivariable logistic regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort (ie, the "Children of 1997"). We also assessed whether associations varied according to gender. Association of age at onset of breast/genitalia development with the presence of depression varied according to gender. Earlier onset of breast development was associated with higher risk of the presence of depression (odds ratio, 0.83 per 1 year increase in age of onset [95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98]) adjusted for age, socioeconomic position, mother's place of birth, birth order, secondhand smoke exposure, parental age, survey mode, gender-specific birth weight z score, BMI z score at 7 years, and parental marital status. In boys, similarly adjusted, age at onset of genitalia development was unrelated to the presence of depression. Earlier age at onset of pubic hair development was unrelated to the presence of depression in girls and boys. Early onset of breast development was associated with high risk of the presence of depression. Whether these findings are indicators of the effects of hormones or transient effects of social pressures remain to be determined. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Low muscle mass is associated with cardiometabolic risk regardless of nutritional status in adolescents: A cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R; Correa-Burrows, P; Reyes, M; Blanco, E; Albala, C; Gahagan, S

    2017-12-01

    Increased cardiometabolic risk (CMR) is documented in obese and non-obese adolescents with low muscular fitness. However, the association of low muscle mass (LMM) with CMR, independent of weight status, has not been examined. We analyzed the relationship of LMM with CMR in adolescents, regardless of their weight status. Observational study in 660 adolescents. BMI, waist circumference (WC), arterial blood pressures (ABP) were measured. Total fat mass (TFM), total lean tissue (TLT), and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) were estimated (DXA). Fasting lipid profile, glucose, and insulin were measured. HOMA-IR was estimated. Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed (AHA/NHLBI/IDF). ROC analysis was performed to find the optimal cutoffs of TLT percentage for MetS diagnosis. Values below these cutoffs defined LMM. ANCOVA examined the association of LMM with selected cardiometabolic biomarkers. In both sexes, TLT showed better sensitivity and specificity than ASM for MetS diagnosis. In males and females, TLT of 66.1% and 56.3%, respectively, were the optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis. In the sample, 17.3% of males and 23.7% of females had LMM. In both sexes, adolescents with LMM had significantly higher values of WC, ABP, TG, TC/HDL, HOMA-IR, and MetS z-score than non-LMM participants. Adolescents with LMM, regardless nutritional status, had significantly increased values of MetS z-score, ABP, TG, TC/HDL-chol, and HOMA-IR than non-obese non-LMM adolescents. Adolescents having both obesity and LMM had the unhealthiest CMR profile. In adolescents, LMM was associated with higher CMR, regardless of nutritional status. In obese adolescents, LMM increased obesity-associated CMR. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Associação entre mortalidade e estado marital: uma análise para idosos residentes no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, Estudo SABE, 2000 e 2006 Asociación entre el estado civil y la mortalidad: un análisis de los ancianos residentes en São Paulo, Brasil, el Estudio SABE, 2000 y 2006 Association between marital status and mortality among elderly residents in São Paulo City, Brazil, SABE Study, 2000 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeda A. O. Duarte

    2013-03-01

    una mejor comprensión de los factores asociados con la supervivencia de los ancianos, además de apoyar las políticas de salud dirigidas a este contingente de población.This study aimed to analyze the association between mortality and marital status in the elderly population (60 years and older in São Paulo, Brazil. The authors used data from the SABE Study (Health, Well-Being, and Aging from 2000 and 2006. Statistical analysis used Poisson regression, considering variation in time of mortality risk. The mortality rate among single elderly males was 61% higher than among married men. Separation or divorce and widowhood increased the odds of death in elderly women (separated/divorced women and widows showed mortality rates 82% and 35% higher, respectively, than married women. It is hoped that the current study will improve our understanding of factors associated with survival in the elderly, in addition to supporting health policies for this population group.

  16. The interplay of variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and social stress in relation to birth size.

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    Anokhi Ali Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified via a genome wide association study variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and in the ADCY5 genes lead to lower birthweight. Here, we study the impact of these variants and social stress during pregnancy, defined as social adversity and neighborhood disparity, on infant birth size. We aimed to determine whether the addition of genetic variance magnified the observed associations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=5369. Social adversity was defined by young maternal age (<20 years, low maternal education (<11 years, and/or single marital status. Neighborhood social disparity was assessed by discrepancy between neighborhoods relative to personal socio-economic status. These variables are indicative of social and socioeconomic stress, but also of biological risk. The adjusted multiple regression analysis showed smaller birth size in both infants of mothers who experienced social adversity (birthweight by -40.4 g, 95%CI -61.4, -19.5; birth length -0.14 cm, 95%CI -0.23, -0.05; head circumference -0.09 cm 95%CI -0.15, -0.02 and neighborhood disparity (birthweight -28.8 g, 95%CI -47.7, -10.0; birth length -0.12 cm, 95%CI -0.20, -0.05. The birthweight-lowering risk allele (SNP rs900400 near LEKR and CCNL1 magnified this association in an additive manner. However, likely due to sample size restriction, this association was not significant for the SNP rs9883204 in ADCY5. Birth size difference due to social stress was greater in the presence of birthweight-lowering alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Social adversity, neighborhood disparity, and genetic variants have independent associations with infant birth size in the mutually adjusted analyses. If the newborn carried a risk allele rs900400 near LEKR/CCNL1, the impact of stress on birth size was stronger. These observations give support to the hypothesis that individuals with genetic or other biological risk are more

  17. Maternal and Neonatal Birth Factors Affecting the Age of ASD Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy-Mahoney, Ashley; Minter, Bonnie; Higgins, Melinda; Guo, Ying; Zauche, Lauren Head; Hirst, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    Early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enables early intervention that improves long term functioning of children with ASD but is often delayed until age of school entry. Few studies have identified factors that affect timely diagnosis. This study addressed how maternal education, race, age, marital status as well as neonatal birth factors affect the age at which a child is diagnosed with ASD. This study involved a retrospective analysis of 664 records of children treated at one of the largest autism treatment centers in the United States from March 1, 2009 to December 30, 2010. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with age of diagnosis. Infant gender, maternal race, marital status, and maternal age were identified as significant factors for predicting the age of ASD diagnosis. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, only maternal race and marital status were included. Median survival age till diagnosis of children born to married mothers was 53.4 months compared to 57.8 months and 63.7 months of children born to single and divorced or widowed mothers respectively. Median survival age till diagnosis for children of African American mothers was 53.8 months compared to 57.2 months for children of Caucasian mothers. No statistically significant difference of timing of ASD diagnosis was found for children of varying gestational age. Children born to older or married mothers and mothers of minority races were more likely to have an earlier ASD diagnosis. No statistically significant differences in timing of ASD diagnosis were found for children born at varying gestational ages. Identification of these factors has the potential to inform public health outreach aimed at promoting timely ASD diagnosis. This work could enhance clinical practice for timelier diagnoses of ASD by supporting parents and clinicians around the world in identifying risk factors beyond gender

  18. Lack of association between iron status at birth and growth of preterm infants Ausência de associação entre indicadores de anemia ao nascimento e crescimento de prematuros

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    Rosely Sichieri

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between iron status at birth and growth of preterm infants. METHODS: Ninety-five premature babies (26 to 36 weeks of gestational age born from July 2000 to May 2001 in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, were followed up for six months, corrected by gestational age. Iron measurements at birth were available for 82 mothers and 78 children: hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and plasma iron. All children received free doses of iron supplement (2 mg/kg/day during the follow-up period and up to two years of age. Multivariate linear regression analyses with repeated measurements were performed to assess factors associated to linear growth. RESULTS: Growth was more pronounced up to 40 weeks of gestational age, increasing about 1.0 cm/week and then slowing down to 0.75 cm/week. The multivariate analysis showed growth was positively associated with birth weight (0.4 cm/100 g; p0.60 for all measures. Only two children had anemia at birth, whereas 43.9% of mothers were anemic (hemoglobin 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal anemia was not associated with anemia in preterm infants and iron status of mothers and children at birth was not associated with short-term growth of preterm infants.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre indicadores de anemia no nascimento e o crescimento de prematuros. MÉTODOS: Crianças prematuras (26-36 semanas de idade gestacional (n=95, nascidas de julho de 2000 a maio de 2001, em hospital público do Rio de Janeiro, foram seguidas por seis meses, corrigidos pela idade gestacional. Foram obtidos em 82 mães e 78 crianças os indicadores de anemia: hemoglobina, hematócrito, volume corpuscular médio e ferro plasmático. Os prematuros receberam suplemento de ferro (2 mg/kg/dia durante o seguimento. Análises de regressão linear multivariadas, com medidas repetidas, avaliaram os fatores associados ao crescimento linear. RESULTADOS: O crescimento dos prematuros foi

  19. The relationship between sexual desire and intimacy in women with depressive symptoms and marital satisfaction 3 months to 2 years postpartum

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    Habibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sexual desire, and intimacy with the depression symptoms and marital satisfaction in 3 month- 2 year postpartum women in Mahshahr. Methods In this correlational cross-sectional study, 107 women participated who referred to health centers of Mahshahr (Iran with their babies aged three months to two years. The study sample was selected via convenience sampling method, who were required to complete the libido (SIDI, intimacy (PAIR, depression (CES-D questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation and multivariate regression. Results: As the study results indicated, a negative relationship was detected between intimacy and sexuality with the depressive symptoms (P≤0.01, whereas a positive relationship was observed between intimacy and sexual and marital satisfaction (P≤0.01. In addition, intimacy and sexuality variables were proved to be significant predictors for postpartum depression symptoms and marital satisfaction obtained after delivery. Depression symptoms explained 62% of the variation, and marital satisfaction explained 63% of depression symptoms. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated that after birth when childbirth creates some changes in the lives of couples, and women's marital satisfaction and emotional mood may be affected, couples can use intimacy and sexuality in order to predict depression and marital satisfaction.

  20. Angry responses to infant challenges: parent, marital, and child genetic factors associated with harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Nastassia; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Moore, Ginger; Leve, Leslie; Shaw, Daniel; Harold, Gordon; Scaramella, Laura; Ganiban, Jody; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of adopted 9-month-olds (N = 503), with an emphasis on positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics. Evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) was examined by testing the effect of both positive and negative indices of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents' harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers' harsh parenting was inversely related to birth mother positive temperament, indicating evocative rGE, as well as to marital quality. Adoptive parents' negative temperamental characteristics were related to hostile parenting for both fathers and mothers. Findings support the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Maternal Literacy, Facility Birth, and Education Are Positively Associated with Better Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices and Nutritional Status among Ugandan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Scott B; Hurst, Taylor E; Flax, Valerie L

    2015-11-01

    Understanding maternal factors that influence child feeding is necessary to inform intervention planning in settings in which mothers experience substantial social vulnerabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess maternal sociodemographic factors that may constrain women's caring capabilities and subsequent child nutrition in Uganda. We analyzed data from the 2006 and 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys to model the associations between maternal sociodemographic factors, child feeding practices, and anthropometry with multivariate logistic regression models. The proportion of children fed according to recommended guidelines declined in Uganda from 2006 to 2011. Mothers who lacked literacy skills were less likely to achieve recommended complementary feeding indicators; however, literacy was not associated with breastfeeding practices. Mothers in the upper 60% wealth percentile were more likely to meet minimum meal frequency, diversity, and adequacy indicators. Mothers who gave birth at health facilities (2006 OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.91; P literacy skills, who deliver their children at home, and who lack formal education are particularly at risk of poor child feeding and represent a group that may benefit from enhanced interventions that address their particular vulnerabilities. Factors that contribute to improved maternal feeding capabilities but may impair breastfeeding practices need to be better understood. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...... the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers....

  3. The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maiju Mikkonen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. Methods We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Results Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95. They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Conclusion Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.

  4. Gender Differences in the Structure of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Christopher R; Marcus, Katherine; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E

    2018-03-22

    Marriages consist of shared experiences and interactions between husbands and wives that may lead to different impressions of the quality of the relationship. Few studies, unfortunately, have tested gender differences in the structure of marital quality, and even fewer studies have evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences on marital quality differ across gender. In this study, we evaluated gender differences in the structure of marital quality using independent samples of married male (n = 2406) and married female (n = 2215) participants from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States who provided ratings on twenty-eight marital quality items encompassing six marital quality constructs. We further explored gender differences in genetic and environmental influences on marital quality constructs in a subsample of 491 pairs of twins. Results suggest partial metric invariance across gender but structural variability in marital quality constructs. Notably, correlations between constructs were stronger in women than men. Results also support gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on different aspects of marital quality. We discuss that men and women may approach and react to marriage differently as the primary reason why we observed differences in the structure of marital quality.

  5. Original article Psychological and socio-demographic correlates of women’s decisions to give birth at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Domańska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Some women decide to give birth at home. They treat their home as a safe place to do so, are against medicalization of natural labour or value activity and autonomy during labour. They are also characterized by good knowledge of their own bodies and about labour in general (including labour at home. Psychological studies have revealed a correlation between labour (including the derived satisfaction and the levels of dispositional optimism, perception of efficacy, and coping with pain. Analysis of the available demographic data shows that the decision to give birth at home is correlated with a certain socio-demographic profile of women. Participants and procedures One hundred thirty five mothers took part in the study. Among them 72 had given birth at home and 63 in a hospital. The following were assumed as important psychological determinants: dispositional optimism, sense of self-efficacy, strategies for coping with pain and their effectiveness. The LOT-R Test, GSES Scale, CSQ Questionnaire as well as a demographic questionnaire were used in the study. Results Women who gave birth at home were characterised by significantly higher levels of optimism and sense of self-efficacy in comparison with the other women. Women giving birth at home reinterpreted the sensations of pain more frequently than the others, who were more likely to catastrophise and pray/hope. The level of conviction about having control over pain was much higher in the experimental group. The relationship between choice of place to give birth and the level of education, marital status, area of residence as well as age is weak. Correlations between the place of birth and income, number of children as well as membership of religious communities are moderate and statistically significant. Conclusions It is important to see and meet the different expectations of the two distinct groups of women. Today’s phenomenon of homebirth requires systematic interdisciplinary

  6. Socio-economic influences on anthropometric status in urban South African adolescents: sex differences in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeilles, Rebecca; Griffiths, Paula L; Norris, Shane A; Feeley, Alison B; Rousham, Emily K

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the associations of household and neighbourhood socio-economic position (SEP) with indicators of both under- and overnutrition in adolescents and to explore sex differences. Analysis of anthropometric, household and neighbourhood SEP data from the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort born in 1990. Anthropometric outcomes were BMI (thinness, overweight and obesity) and percentage body fat (%BF; low, high). Associations between these and the household wealth index, caregiver education and neighbourhood SEP tertile measures were examined using binary logistic regression. Johannesburg-Soweto, South Africa. Adolescents aged 17-19 years (n 2019; 48·2% men). Women had a significantly higher combined prevalence of overweight/obesity (26·2%) than men (8·2%) whereas men had a significantly higher prevalence of thinness than women (22·2% v. 10·6%, respectively). Having a low neighbourhood social support index was associated with higher odds of high %BF in women (OR=1·59; 95% CI 1·03, 2·44). A low household wealth index was associated with lower odds of both overweight (OR=0·31; 95% CI 0·12, 0·76) and high %BF in men (OR=0·28; 95% CI 0·10, 0·78). A low or middle household wealth index was associated with higher odds of being thin in men (OR=1·90; 95% CI 1·09, 3·31 and OR=1·80; 95% CI 1·03, 3·15, respectively). For women, a low household wealth index was associated with lower odds of being thin (OR=0·49; 95% CI 0·25, 0·96). The study highlights that even within a relatively small urban area the nutrition transition manifests itself differently in men and women and across SEP indicators. Understanding the challenges for different sexes at different ages is vital in helping to plan public health services.

  7. Waiting-List Controlled Trial of Cognitive Marital Therapy in Severe Marital Discord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Edward M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of marital therapy designed to enhance intimacy through self-disclosure of personal constructs. Couples in therapy (n=22) and controls (n=19) showed significant reduction in symptoms of nonpsychotic emotional illness. Couples in therapy subjectively reported improvement. Found significant pattern of improvement for wives in…

  8. Associations of vitamin D status, bone health and anthropometry, with gross motor development and performance of school-aged Indian children who were born at term with low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Suzanne; Rehman, Andrea M; Yousafzai, Aisha; Chugh, Reema; Kaur, Manpreet; Sachdev, H P S; Trilok-Kumar, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is little information regarding motor development of children born at term with low birth weight (LBW), a group that constitutes a large proportion of children in South Asia. We used data from infancy and at school age from a LBW cohort to investigate children's motor performance using causal inference. Design Cross-sectional follow-up study. Setting Delhi, India. Participants We recruited 912 children aged 5 years who had participated in a trial of vitamin D for term LBW infants in the first 6 months of life. Outcome measures We focused on gross motor development, using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) gross motor scale and several measures of motor performance. We examined the effects on these of current anthropometry, vitamin D status and bone health, controlling for age, sex, season of interview, socioeconomic variables, early growth, recent morbidity, sun exposure and animal food intake. Results In adjusted analyses, stunted children (height-for-age Z (HAZ) <−2) took longer to run 20 m (0.52 s, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.70; p<0.001) and had greater odds of a failing score on the ASQ (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.41 to 6.38, p=0.004). Greater arm muscle area was associated with faster run time, and the ability to perform more stands and squats in 15 s. Poorer vitamin D status was associated with the ability to perform more stands and squats. Lower tibia ultrasound Z score was associated with greater hand grip strength. Early growth and current body mass index had no associations with motor outcomes. Conclusions Current HAZ and arm muscle area showed the strongest associations with gross motor outcomes, likely due to a combination of simple physics and factors associated with stunting. The counterintuitive inverse associations of tibia health and vitamin D status with outcomes may require further research. PMID:26747034

  9. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  10. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 582 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or ...

  11. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrative Staff Donate Contact MENU CLOSE back Accredited Birth Centers You are here: Home Accredited Birth Centers ... not CABC-accredited. How do you find a birth center here? Skip Instructions! Get to the Map… ...

  12. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of ...

  13. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... health problems new moms may have after giving birth? Chances are that you’ll be healthy after ...

  14. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  15. Effectiveness of population-based service screening with mammography for women ages 40 to 49 years with a high or low risk of breast cancer: socioeconomic status, parity, and age at birth of first child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellquist, Barbro Numan; Czene, Kamila; Hjälm, Anna; Nyström, Lennarth; Jonsson, Håkan

    2015-01-15

    Invitation to mammography screening of women aged 40 to 49 years is a matter of debate in many countries and a cost-effective alternative in countries without screening among women aged 40 to 49 years could be inviting those at higher risk. The relative effectiveness of mammography screening was estimated for subgroups based on the breast cancer risk factors parity, age at time of birth of first child, and socioeconomic status (SES). The SCReening of Young Women (SCRY) database consists of all women aged 40 to 49 years in Sweden between 1986 and 2005 and was split into a study and control group. The study group consisted of women residing in areas in which women aged 40 to 49 years were invited to screening and the control group of women in areas in which women aged 40 to 49 years were not invited to screening. Rate ratio (RR) estimates were calculated for 2 exposures: invitation and attendance. There were striking similarities noted in the RR pattern for women invited to and attending screening and no statistically significant difference or trend in the RR was noted by risk group. The RR estimates increased by increasing parity for parity of 0 to 2 and ranged from 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.38-0.79) to 0.79 (95% CI, 0.65-0.95) for attending women. The RR for women with high SES was lower than that for women with low SES (RR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.60-0.86] and RR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63-0.99], respectively). For women aged 20 to 24 years at the time of the birth of their first child, the RR was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.91) and estimates for other ages were similar. There was no statistically significant difference noted in the relative effectiveness of mammography screening by parity, age at the time of birth of the first child, or SES. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  16. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing ...

  17. Using contraceptives to delay first birth: a qualitative study of individual, community and health provider perceptions in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovitha Sedekia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adolescents and unmarried women in low and middle income countries face challenges in accessing family planning services. One factor likely to limit contraceptive use is the attitude and opinion of local stakeholders such as community leaders and health workers. Much of the existing evidence on this topic focuses on women who have already started childbearing. Using primary qualitative data, we explored individual, community and health provider’s perceptions about using modern contraceptives to delay the first birth in a high fertility setting. Methods A descriptive qualitative study was conducted in Tandahimba district in southern Tanzania between December 2014 and March 2015. We conducted 8 focus group discussions with men and women and 25 in-depth interviews (18 with women, 4 with family planning service providers and 3 with district-level staff. Participants were purposively sampled. Data transcripts were managed and coded using Nvivo 11 software and we employed a thematic framework analysis. Results Three main themes emerged about using modern contraceptives to delay first birth: (1 the social and biological status of the woman (2 the type of contraceptive and (3 non-alignment among national policies for adolescents. Use of modern contraceptives to delay first birth was widely acceptable for women who were students, young, unmarried and women in unstable marriage. But long-acting reversible methods such as implants and intrauterine devices were perceived as inappropriate methods for delaying first birth, partly because of fears around delayed return to fecundity, discontinuation once woman’s marital status changes and permanently limiting future fertility. The support for use of modern contraceptives to delay a first pregnancy was not unanimous. A small number of participants from both rural and urban areas did not approve the use of contraceptive methods before the birth of a first baby at all, not even for

  18. Relationship between Parenting Styles and Marital Adjustment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between authoritarian parenting style and marital adjustment was very low, positive and insignificant. The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting ...

  19. Experiencing the Marital Bed | Thompson | Indo-Pacific Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the marital bed through existential themes of spatial, temporal, corporeal and relational experience. It is a collaborative effort in that it relates anecdotes contributed by twelve people who each described – in writing, in interviews and in conversation – very personal moments of life in the “marital bed”.

  20. Debt Change and Marital Satisfaction Change in Recently Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Although recently married couples report debt as one of their top concerns, research has not measured how debt changes relate to changes in their marital satisfaction. Further, the mechanisms that link debt and marital satisfaction are unknown. Findings using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,078 couples) demonstrated that…

  1. The Development of the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canel, Azize Nilgun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the process of developing the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) aiming to support studies in the field of marital satisfaction and to obtain information about couples in a short time through psychological counseling is discussed. The scale including 101 yes-no items aiming to reveal couples' opinions about their marriages was…

  2. Relationship of Attachment Styles and Emotional Intelligence With Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Abbasi, Amir Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Aghamohammadiyan Sharbaf, Hamidreza; Karshki, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The early relationships between infant and care takers are significant and the emotional interactions of these relationships play an important role in forming personality and adulthood relationships. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of attachment styles (AS) and emotional intelligence (EI) with marital satisfaction (MS). In this cross-sectional research, 450 married people (226 male, 224 female) were selected using multistage sampling method in Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Subjects completed the attachment styles questionnaire (ASQ), Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire. The results indicated that secure attachment style has positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction (r = 0.609, P intelligence and its components have positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction; thus, emotional intelligence and intrapersonal, adaptability and general mood components can significantly predict marital satisfaction (P interpersonal and stress management components cannot significantly predict marital satisfaction (P > 0.05). According to the obtained results, attachment styles and emotional intelligence are the key factors in marital satisfaction that decrease marital disagreement and increase the positive interactions of the couples.

  3. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

  4. Narcissism and newlywed marriage: Partner characteristics and marital trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Karney, Benjamin R

    2016-04-01

    Despite narcissism's relation with interpersonal dysfunction, surprisingly little empirical research has been devoted to understanding narcissism's effect on intimate relationships in general or marital relationships in particular. The current study addressed this gap using longitudinal data from a community sample of 146 newlywed couples assessed 6 times over the first 4 years of marriage. First, we examined partner characteristics associated with higher levels of narcissism to determine the degree to which couples were matched on narcissism and related traits. Second, we examined how narcissism predicted the trajectory of marital quality over time, testing narcissism's association with initial levels of relationship functioning (the intercept) and changes in relationship functioning (the slope). Results indicated a small degree of homophily but otherwise no clear pattern of partner characteristics for individuals higher in narcissism. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that wives' total narcissism and entitlement/exploitativeness scores predicted the slope of marital quality over time, including steeper declines in marital satisfaction and steeper increases in marital problems. Husbands' narcissism scores generally had few effects on their own marital quality or that of their wives. These findings are notable in indicating that the effects of personality characteristics on marital functioning may take some time to manifest themselves, even if they were present from early in the marriage. Future research into the mediating psychological and interpersonal processes that link wives' narcissism with poorer marital functioning over time would be valuable. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  6. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  7. Non-marital cohabitation in the Republic of Serbia

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    Ranđelović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-marital cohabitation, as a community of life of two people connected only by the feeling of love and desire for living together, without form and registration, is an institution as old as marriage. Throughout history, attitude of the legislator has been changing from forbidding to ignoring it. In our society there is a negative attitude towards non-marital cohabitations, which is the result of patriarchal ideas and customs. However, the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia and the Family Law equate marriage and non-marital cohabitation. In this paper, the author will try to determine to what extent in terms of effects the marital and non-marital cohabitation are equal, or to what extent the rights of non-marital partners are recognized. The subject of analysis are primarily the Constitution and Family law, but also many other regulations governing the issues relating to the rights and obligations of non-marital cohabitation partners. In fact, although Family law equalizes marriage and non-marital cohabitation, they are not equal either de facto or de jure. The author will try to point out the deficiencies in the legal regulations, the practical problems and suggest possible and better solutions.

  8. Marital quality in wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Bora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marriage is a strong bond between couples with the promise of lifelong dedication and emotional wellbeing. The effects of alcoholism in husbands may lead to disturbances in marital life. Lack of understanding, unpredictable behaviour of the husbands, and their irresponsibility in family matters can often lead to poor quality of a couple’s relationship. Aim of the study: The study is aimed to understand the marital quality of the wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome. Material and methods: Thirty wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome according to ICD-10 were taken as the sample, using purposive sample collection. Socio-demographic profile was assessed through semi-structured questionnaire while Marital Quality Scale (MQS-1995 was applied to assess the marital quality after taking their informed consent. Higher scores indicate poorer quality of marital life. Data analysis was done using SPSS for descriptive statistics. Results: The domain mean scores of rejection, understanding, and decision-making, and the total score of marital quality were high. Thus, indicating poorer quality of marital life among the wives of persons with alcohol dependence. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence is highly associated with poor marital quality as the person with alcohol dependence tends to adapt faulty communication patterns and behaviour which in turn leads to poor adjustment, unhappiness, and a high degree of dissatisfaction with relationships. Treatment plan for this group should be planned keeping these factors in consideration, as a priority.

  9. Effects Of Emotional Intelligence On Marital Adjustment Of Couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Emotional Intelligence On Marital Adjustment Of Couples In Nigeria. PT Ortese, S A Tor-Anyiin. Abstract. Emotional Intelligence (EQI) has been identified as a factor in success, in work, business and life adjustment. This paper examined the effects of Emotional Intelligence on marital adjustment of couples in ...

  10. Self-actualization and empathy as predictors of marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D G; Compton, W C; Rust, J O

    1995-12-01

    The relationships between marital satisfaction, self-actualization, and empathy scores were tested for 30 intact couples. Analyses indicated that both satisfaction and empathy scores were independent predictors of marital satisfaction scores for men, but not for women. Implications were discussed.

  11. Gender-Wise Comparison on Emotional Intelligence and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research aims at exploring and comparing the marital satisfaction and emotional intelligence of people between age 25-65. Tools used were namely Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) and Exploring Emotional Abilities (EEA). A fairly representative data of 316 respondents was collected from Maharashtra, India.

  12. Marital Distress and Mental Health Care Service Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Whisman, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the association between marital distress and mental health service utilization in a population-based sample of men and women (N = 1,601). Method: The association between marital distress and mental health care service utilization was evaluated for overall mental health service utilization and for…

  13. Marriage, sexuality, and holiness: Aspects of marital ethics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qumran, Jubilees) texts, this article outlines the marital concepts existing in the NT environment. In this context, the reciprocal community and the duration of the marital relationship are emphasized while sexuality remains wholly limited to reproduction. The core of the article offers a concrete analysis of texts from the Corpus ...

  14. Age at Marriage, Religion and Marital Satisfaction Among Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the contributions of age at marriage and religion couples to marital satisfaction among Igbo people in Imo State. Five hundred and eight subjects were selected from five local government areas in Imo State using a multi-stage random sampling technique. A questionnaire titled \\"Marital Satisfaction ...

  15. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES) of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, singl...

  16. A New Proposal for Measuring Marital Fertility in Historical Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús J. Sánchez-Barricarte

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical analysis is made of some of the indices used in numerous historical studies on the decline of fertility. More concretely, it is demonstrated how the Total Marital Fertility Rate (TMFR and the Ig and I’g indices of marital fertility designed by Coale (1986 not only are not good indicators of a population’s level of marital fertility, but also in some cases (for example, when there is an important delay in female mean age at marriage can even indicate an increase in marital fertility when in reality it is decreasing. Likewise, a new index for measuring marital fertility (known as the Navarre Index is presented which takes into account women’s average age at marriage as well as their mortality rate during their reproductive period.

  17. Marital Disruption and Allostatic Load in Late Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Sunshine

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the link between marital disruption and biological risk, and asks whether the association of this precarious life event with health is contingent on marital loss duration and history. Data are drawn from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project ( N = 1,414), and Poisson regressions are presented for allostatic load and logistic regressions for individual biomarkers. The currently unmarried with more distant marital disruptions exhibit higher levels of allostatic load than the currently married, which is primarily driven by dysregulation of cardiovascular and metabolic indicators. Results also reveal the differing ways marital disruption "gets under the skin" with widowhood associated with compromised inflammatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular functioning, and divorce with cardiovascular and neuroendocrine markers. Findings lend support for both the crisis and chronic strain models, and likely reflect normative expectations of the timing of life events, decrements in marital resources, and selection processes.

  18. Marital Conflict in Older Couples: Positivity, Personality, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveniuk, James; Waite, Linda J.; McClintock, Martha K.; Teidt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the implications of health and personality characteristics for late-life marital conflict, using data from the 2010–11 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study with data on both partners in 955 marital and cohabitational dyads. Using these data, we relate characteristics of husbands to characteristics of their wives, and vice versa. Wives with husbands in fair or poor physical health are more likely to report high levels of marital conflict, but the reverse is not true. Similarly, wives report more conflict when their husbands are high on Neuroticism, high on Extraversion, and low on a new measure we call Positivity. Our findings point to noteworthy gender differences between men and women in the associations between individual characteristics and levels of marital conflict. We point to differences between husbands’ and wives’ marital roles as a contributor to these differences. PMID:27274569

  19. Why do marital partners of people living with HIV not test for HIV? A qualitative study in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Musheke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of HIV status is crucial for HIV prevention and management in marital relationships. Yet some marital partners of people living with HIV decline HIV testing despite knowing the HIV-positive status of their partners. To date, little research has explored the reasons for this. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken in Lusaka, Zambia, between March 2010 and September 2011, nested within a larger ethnographic study. In-depth interviews were held with individuals who knew the HIV-positive status of their marital partners but never sought HIV testing (n = 30 and HIV service providers of a public sector clinic (n = 10. A focus group discussion was also conducted with eight (8 lay HIV counsellors. Data was transcribed, coded and managed using ATLAS.ti and analysed using latent content analysis. Results The overarching barrier to uptake of HIV testing was study participants’ perception of their physical health, reinforced by uptake of herbal remedies and conventional non-HIV medication to mitigate perceived HIV-related symptoms. They indicated willingness to test for HIV if they noticed a decline in physical health and other alternative forms of care became ineffective. Also, some study participants viewed themselves as already infected with HIV on account of the HIV-positive status of their marital partners, with some opting for faith healing to get ‘cured’. Other barriers were the perceived psychological burden of living with HIV, modulated by lay belief that knowledge of HIV-positive status led to rapid physical deterioration of health. Perceived inability to sustain uptake of life-long treatment – influenced by a negative attitude towards treatment – further undermined uptake of HIV testing. Self-stigma, which manifested itself through fear of blame and a need to maintain moral credibility in marital relationships, also undermined uptake of HIV testing. Conclusions Improving uptake of HIV

  20. Why do marital partners of people living with HIV not test for HIV? A qualitative study in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musheke, Maurice; Merten, Sonja; Bond, Virginia

    2016-08-25

    Knowledge of HIV status is crucial for HIV prevention and management in marital relationships. Yet some marital partners of people living with HIV decline HIV testing despite knowing the HIV-positive status of their partners. To date, little research has explored the reasons for this. An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken in Lusaka, Zambia, between March 2010 and September 2011, nested within a larger ethnographic study. In-depth interviews were held with individuals who knew the HIV-positive status of their marital partners but never sought HIV testing (n = 30) and HIV service providers of a public sector clinic (n = 10). A focus group discussion was also conducted with eight (8) lay HIV counsellors. Data was transcribed, coded and managed using ATLAS.ti and analysed using latent content analysis. The overarching barrier to uptake of HIV testing was study participants' perception of their physical health, reinforced by uptake of herbal remedies and conventional non-HIV medication to mitigate perceived HIV-related symptoms. They indicated willingness to test for HIV if they noticed a decline in physical health and other alternative forms of care became ineffective. Also, some study participants viewed themselves as already infected with HIV on account of the HIV-positive status of their marital partners, with some opting for faith healing to get 'cured'. Other barriers were the perceived psychological burden of living with HIV, modulated by lay belief that knowledge of HIV-positive status led to rapid physical deterioration of health. Perceived inability to sustain uptake of life-long treatment - influenced by a negative attitude towards treatment - further undermined uptake of HIV testing. Self-stigma, which manifested itself through fear of blame and a need to maintain moral credibility in marital relationships, also undermined uptake of HIV testing. Improving uptake of HIV testing requires a multi-pronged approach that addresses self-stigma, lay risk