WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth gender ratio

  1. Sibling Sex Ratio and Birth Order in Early-Onset Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.; Blanchard, Ray; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2011-01-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands’ position (e.g., first-born, middle-born, last-born) within their sibships. Fraternal birth order refers to their position among male siblings only. Such research was extended in this study to a large group of early-onset gender dysphor...

  2. Sibling Sex Ratio and Birth Order in Early-Onset Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.E.E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blanchard, R.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2012-01-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands' position (e.g., first-born,

  3. Education and gender bias in the sex ratio at birth: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echávarri, Rebeca A; Ezcurra, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    This article investigates the possible existence of a nonlinear link between female disadvantage in natality and education. To this end, we devise a theoretical model based on the key role of social interaction in explaining people's acquisition of preferences, which justifies the existence of a nonmonotonic relationship between female disadvantage in natality and education. The empirical validity of the proposed model is examined for the case of India, using district-level data. In this context, our econometric analysis pays particular attention to the role of spatial dependence to avoid any potential problems of misspecification. The results confirm that the relationship between the sex ratio at birth and education in India follows an inverted U-shape. This finding is robust to the inclusion of additional explanatory variables in the analysis, and to the choice of the spatial weight matrix used to quantify the spatial interdependence between the sample districts.

  4. Waist-height ratio in children of 7 to 11 years with high weight at birth and its relationship with gender, age and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Vargas, Nuris; Fernandez-Britto, Jose Emilio; Martinez Perez, Tania Paula; Martinez Garcia, Rolando; Castañeda Garcia, Cecilia Margarita; Garriga Reyes, Mailin; Cabrera Estrada, Claudia; Plana Labrada, Rossana; García Niebla, Rosa María; Blanco Aranguren, Fabiola

    2018-03-26

    Obesity (OB), considered as one of the Non-Transmissible Chronic Diseases, has as its fundamental characteristics that of being prevalent at a global level, increasing in number, affecting developed and developing countries, affecting both genders, and all ages and social groups. To identify if high birth weight is a predictive factor (risk factor) for abdominal obesity in children 7 to 11 years old, and its relationship to gender, age and diet. A case-control descriptive study was carried out with children born between January 1992 and December 1995, in order to identify early risk factors (atherosclerotic accelerators) such as abdominal obesity in children aged 7 to 11, and who have a history of macrosomia or high birth weight, as well as their relationship with gender, age and diet. It was observed that the waist/height value was normal in 60.8% of the study group and in 64.00% in the control group. The difference between groups, gender, and age was not significant (P=.6859). As regards the diet in the study group (macrosomic), there was no significant association between the type of diet and waist circumference/height values, with an χ 2 =0.223 and P=.6373 (not significant). In the control group (with normal weight at birth), it was found that there is a significant statistical association between the type of diet and waist circumference/height values. This means that it can be stated, with 95% reliability, that the type of diet is associated with waist/height values. High birth weight is not a predictive factor (risk factor) for abdominal obesity (increased waist/height index). Gender and age are independent for abdominal obesity (macrosomic and normal weight at birth). The diet in high birth weight children is not related to the index waist-height index, which is not the case in those born with normal weight under the same conditions. The marked increase in abdominal obesity (Waist/height index) in children between 7 and 11 years old in both groups is

  5. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  6. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  7. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

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    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  8. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT, THE MALE TO FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH AND BIRTH RATES

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    Victor Grech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births – M/T has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Methods: Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by 137Cs were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Results: Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Discussion: Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  9. The Chernobyl accident, the male to female ratio at birth and birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births - M/T) has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by ¹³⁷Cs) were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation). The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  10. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Colijn, Grant P; Amiot, Volodymyr; Vinish, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during con...

  11. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

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    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  12. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

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    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  13. Maternal Eating Disorders Influence Sex Ratio at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-01-01

    We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...

  14. Association between the Brain Laterality, Gender and Birth Season

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    A Baghdasarians

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: in recent years different hypotheses with respect to the formation of cerebral laterality were proposed. Some of the researchers claim that cerebral dominance and laterality are determined by genetic factors, just as the case with eye color and blood type. However, another group states that in addition to genetic factors, environmental factors, too, have a remarkable role in hemispheric dominance and lateral dominance. Hence, the present research was designed to study the relationship between 1- lateral dominance and birth season 2- lateral dominance and gender. "n "nMethod:1355(girls and boys fifth graders from the 19 educational regions of Tehran were selected using multi stage cluster sampling in the 2003-2004 school year. Coren lateral preference and personal information questionnaire were applied. "nResults:The following results were obtained at the level of ل=0.05 and probability of 95%. There were significant association between lateral dominance and birth season, between lateral dominance and gender, between ambidexterity and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and birth season, between dexterality and gender, between ambidexterity and gender, between genetic sinistrality and gender. There were no significant associations between dexterality and birth season, genetic sinistrality and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and gender. "nConclusion: The gestational environmental factors can have significant effect on the formation of lateral dominance and cerebral laterality.

  15. The human sex ratio from conception to birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzack, Steven Hecht; Stubblefield, J William; Akmaev, Viatcheslav R; Colls, Pere; Munné, Santiago; Scholl, Thomas; Steinsaltz, David; Zuckerman, James E

    2015-04-21

    We describe the trajectory of the human sex ratio from conception to birth by analyzing data from (i) 3- to 6-d-old embryos, (ii) induced abortions, (iii) chorionic villus sampling, (iv) amniocentesis, and (v) fetal deaths and live births. Our dataset is the most comprehensive and largest ever assembled to estimate the sex ratio at conception and the sex ratio trajectory and is the first, to our knowledge, to include all of these types of data. Our estimate of the sex ratio at conception is 0.5 (proportion male), which contradicts the common claim that the sex ratio at conception is male-biased. The sex ratio among abnormal embryos is male-biased, and the sex ratio among normal embryos is female-biased. These biases are associated with the abnormal/normal state of the sex chromosomes and of chromosomes 15 and 17. The sex ratio may decrease in the first week or so after conception (due to excess male mortality); it then increases for at least 10-15 wk (due to excess female mortality), levels off after ∼20 wk, and declines slowly from 28 to 35 wk (due to excess male mortality). Total female mortality during pregnancy exceeds total male mortality. The unbiased sex ratio at conception, the increase in the sex ratio during the first trimester, and total mortality during pregnancy being greater for females are fundamental insights into early human development.

  16. The Male-female Birth Ratio in California and the 1992 April Riots in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, V

    2015-06-01

    Male live births slightly exceed female live births. This is usually expressed as M/F, the ratio of male to total live births. A multitude of external influences have been shown to reduce this ratio, including stress provoked through witnessing violent events; M/F dips occur three to four months later. The April 1992 Los Angeles riots constituted six days of extreme civil unrest in the city of Los Angeles. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether M/F dipped in California following this event. Monthly male and female live births for California were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the State of California for 1992 and for January 1993. This study analysed 649 073 live births; M/F was lowest in August 1992 (0.5085). This was significantly lower than for the period after (September 1992 to January 1993, p = 0.044). The ratio of male to total live births was higher in January to July 1992 than in August 1992, but this difference was not statistically significant. Stress has been shown to reduce M/F through an excess of male fetal loss during gestation and/or from gender-biased conception favouring females. Only the former mechanism is supported by these findings. This is the first time that violent events at state level have been shown to have potentially influenced M/F.

  17. CHANGES IN SEX RATIO AT BIRTH IN CHINA: A DECOMPOSITION BY BIRTH ORDER.

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    Jiang, Quanbao; Yu, Qun; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2017-11-01

    The long-term high sex ratio at birth (SRB) is a serious issue in China. In this study, changes in SRB were decomposed into variations in SRB by birth order and compositional changes in female births by birth order. With SRB data from China's surveys and censuses, and SRB data from South Korea's vital registration and censuses from 1980-2015, the trend and decomposition results in SRB were compared between China and South Korea, and the decomposition results for urban and rural SRBs, and for provinces, are presented. In both China and South Korea the rise in the SRB was driven by a rise in the SRB at all birth orders, which was only partly counteracted by the change in the distribution of births by order. The overall rise in the SRB ended when there was a decline in the SRB at second birth or above in South Korea. In China the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders increased more for the rural population than for the urban population before 2000, resulting in a higher total SRB for rural than urban population. After 2000, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders lowered the total SRB for the rural population, whereas the effect of compositional change increased the total SRB, leading to a very slight rise in the total SRB for the rural population. At the province level, there was no spatial autocorrelation for the changes in total SRB by province, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders or the effect of compositional change. The effect of variations in SRB by birth order accounted for the majority of changes in total SRB in most provinces.

  18. [The sex ratio at birth: a retrospective review and commentary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubenque, M

    1989-01-01

    Trends in the sex ratio are examined, and the possible effect of new biotechnologies on sex preselection is discussed. "We recall that this ratio is very stable, around 105 males for 100 females (live births). However, in France, a slight decreasing trend during the 19th century can be observed (from 107 to 104). At the present time this ratio seems to be maintained at a level of 105.3. The great demographic perturbations, particularly caused by wars, have been marked by a slight but notable increase in the indicator (106) when natality rises again after a deep depression. The variations, always small, of this indicator are more dependent on the male than on female natality, for reasons that are unclear." A comment by Paul Damiani is included (pp. 99-102). (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  19. The effect of climate fluctuation on chimpanzee birth sex ratio.

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    Hjalmar S Kühl

    Full Text Available Climate and weather conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, precipitation and temperature influence the birth sex ratio (BSR of various higher latitude species, including deer, elephant seals or northern human populations. Although, tropical regions show only little variation in temperature, climate and weather conditions can fluctuate with consequences for phenology and food resource availability. Here, we evaluate, whether the BSR of chimpanzees, inhabiting African tropical forests, is affected by climate fluctuations as well. Additionally, we evaluate, if variation in consumption of a key food resource with high nutritional value, Coula edulis nuts, is linked to both climate fluctuations and variation in BSR. We use long-term data from two study groups located in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire to assess the influence of local weather conditions and the global climate driver El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO on offspring sex. Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable climate variation over the last decades, with increasing temperature and declining precipitation. For both groups we find very similar time windows around the month of conception, in which offspring sex is well predicted by ENSO, with more males following low ENSO values, corresponding to periods of high rainfall. Furthermore, we find that the time spent cracking and feeding on Coula nuts is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Although, some of our analysis suggest that a higher proportion of males is born after periods with higher nut consumption frequency, we cannot conclude decisively at this point that nut consumption may influence shifts in BSR. All results combined suggest that also chimpanzees may experience climate related shifts in offspring sex ratios as response to climate fluctuation.

  20. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  1. The Great Recession of 2007 in the United States and the male: female ratio at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Male live births slightly exceed female live births by approximately 3%. The ratio of male to total live births is conventionally represented as M/F. Many factors have been shown to affect M/F, mainly privation, toxins, and stress, all of which reduce M/F. Population stress may be engendered by natural phenomena such as earthquakes and man-made events such as short wars, terrorist attacks, and contracting economies. This study was conducted to ascertain whether the onset of the "Great Recession" (2007) was associated with changes in M/F in the United States (US). Annual monthly live births by gender for January 2006 to December 2008 were obtained from United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2007, there were 4316233 live births [M/F: 0.51157; 95% confidence intervals: 0.51110-0.51205). M/F rose between January and June, and then fell sharply between August and December. M/F was statistically significantly lower in the second half of 2007 (p=0.007). The dip in M/F from June to July was also significant (p=0.02). These findings were not replicated in the amalgamated data for 2006 and 2008. The United States housing boom of the mid-2000s was fueled by rising house prices and cheap mortgages given to credit-poor buyers. A halt in rising house prices resulted in defaults and foreclosures, triggering the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The associated stress appears to have decreased M/F in the US.

  2. Temperature and its variations in birth rates and sex ratio in Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between birth rates, sex ratio and temperature in Yola has been investigated. Data on temperature and births, for 12 years (1990-2001), were collected from Federal Meteorological Department, Yola and Federal medical Centre, Yola respectively. Average mean monthly births and temperature data for the ...

  3. Sibling sex ratio of boys with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, K J; Green, R; Coates, S; Zuger, B; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Zecca, G M; Lertora, V; Money, J; Hahn-Burke, S; Bradley, S J; Blanchard, R

    1997-07-01

    Sibling sex ratio (the ratio of brothers to sisters) was calculated for 444 boys with gender identity disorder (or with behaviors consistent with this diagnosis). The probands were ascertained from several researchers with expertise with this disorder and from the English language case report literature between 1938 and 1995. Among the probands with at least one sibling (N = 333), the results showed that boys with gender identity disorder had a significant excess of brothers to sisters, 131.1:100, when compared with the expected secondary sex ratio of 106:100. The excess of brothers replicated a previous study by Blanchard, Zucker, Bradley, and Hume (1995), in which the sibling sex ratio was 140.6:100. Further analyses showed that the probands were born later relative to their brothers than they were relative to their sisters. These findings are amenable to several psychosocial and biological explanations, which require further investigation.

  4. Existing theories do not explain sex ratio variation at birth in monomorphic roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, S.J.; Breukelen, van L.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of skewed sex ratios at birth has been reported in many ungulate species. So far, no consistent trend has emerged for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), because male-biased, female-biased and equal sex ratios at birth have all been found. Nevertheless, both the Trivers-Willard hypothesis

  5. Explaining the Rapid Increase in Nigeria's Sex Ratio at Birth: Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper examines the rapid increase in Nigeria's sex ratio at birth from 1.03 boys born for every 1 girl born in each year from. 1996-2008 to ... for this development are: historical fluctuations of sex ratio at birth; geography and ethnicity; male preference/chasing a son; Age ...... Influencing Attitude Towards Abortion among.

  6. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

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    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  7. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

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    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  8. Human sex ratio at amniocentesis and at birth in Taiwan

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    I-Wen Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that sex ratio was already skewed toward male at midtrimester. Our data imply that artificial sex selection, if it were present, might have already emerged prior to the timing of amniocentesis. However, more large nationwide studies on sex ratios in Taiwan are warranted.

  9. Gender Nonconformity and Birth Order in Relation to Anal Sex Role Among Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2018-05-01

    Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.

  10. Birth on the Playground: Boys' Experiences Playing with Gender

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    actions, and thoughts of the individuals who surround the children, forms an important element of this construction (Martin & Ruble, 2004). Gender stereotypes and role development. Literature highlights that children develop concepts of gender in relation to culture. Our culture depicts. Gender Role. Development. Gender.

  11. The change in the sex ratio in multiple sclerosis is driven by birth cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdacic-Gross, V; Schmid, M; Mutsch, M; Steinemann, N; von Wyl, V; Bopp, M

    2017-01-01

    Birth cohort effects have greatly shaped long-term trends in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined whether birth cohort effects have also determined trends in the sex ratio. Age-period-cohort analyses were applied to Swiss mortality data, 1901-2010, using logit models. Sex was introduced as an additional main effect (overall effect) and in interaction terms with A, P and C. Birth cohort effects strongly impacted the trends of MS risk in Switzerland, with a peak in cohorts born in the 1910s and 1920s. Similarly, birth cohort effects accounted for the change in the sex ratios during the 20th century. The balanced sex ratio at the beginning of the 20th century has been superseded by a ratio with a preponderance of women. Despite similarities in timing, the patterns of overall and sex-specific birth cohort estimates were not congruent. The change in the sex ratio in MS is driven by birth cohort related factors. Overall and sex-specific trends indicate that the appearance of MS has changed dramatically in the 20th century. The driving force behind these trends is related to yet unknown environmental factors. © 2016 EAN.

  12. Historic Royal events and the male to female ratio at birth in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The male to female ratio of live births is expressed as the ratio of male live births divided by total live births (M/T). Factors which reduce M/T include toxins, stress and privation. Britain remains enamoured of the Monarchy. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether Royal events influenced M/T in the UK. Live births were analysed in relation to the birth of Prince Charles (1948), the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (1952), the Silver Jubilee (1977), the wedding of Diana Spencer to Charles, Prince of Wales (July 1981), the birth of Prince William (1982), the death of Lady Diana (August 1997), the wedding of Kate Middleton to Prince William (2011) and the Golden Jubilee (2002). This study analysed 29,293,240 live births. There was a significant dip in M/T in the Coronation year (p=0.03). M/T dipped significantly in relation to the Royal Wedding, commencing a year before (p<0.0001). There were no significant M/T changes in relation to the Silver and Golden Jubilees. The birth of Prince William in 1982 resulted in a rise in M/T in the following year only (p=0.016). Analysis by quarter in relation to Lady Diana's death showed a decline in M/T 4-5 months later in the first quarter of 1998 (p=0.046). The anticipation and stress leading to the Coronation and Royal Wedding may have depressed M/T. Increased coital rates associated with exuberance in relation to Prince William's birth may have raised M/T. Lady Diana's death was temporally associated with a decline in M/T. Royalty events may affect M/T ratios in Britain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Live birth sex ratios and father's geographic origins in Jerusalem, 1964-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, J; Opler, M; Kleinhaus, K; Perrin, M C; Calderon-Margalit, R; Manor, O; Paltiel, O; Conley, D; Harlap, S; Malaspina, D

    2017-05-06

    To examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex. We measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male. Of all live births recorded, 51.4% were male. Relative to Jewish ancestry (51.4% males), significantly more males (1,761) were born to Muslim ancestry (54.5, 95% CI = 52.1-56.8, P = 0.01). Among the former, sex ratios were not significantly associated with paternal or maternal age, education, or offspring's birth order. Consistent with a preference for male offspring, the sex ratio decreased despite increasing numbers of births over the 13-year period. Sex ratios were not affected by maternal or paternal origins in North Africa or Europe. However, the offspring whose paternal grandfathers were born in Western Asia included fewer males than expected (50.7, 50.1-51.3, P = 0.02), whether the father was born abroad (50.7) or in Israel (50.8). This was observed for descendents of paternal grandfathers born in Lebanon (47.6), Turkey (49.9), Yemen & Aden (50.2), Iraq (50.5), Afghanistan (50.5), Syria (50.6), and Cyprus (50.7); but not for those from India (51.5) or Iran (51.9). The West Asian group showed the strongest decline in sex ratios with increasing paternal family size. A decreased sex ratio associated with ancestry in Western Asia is consistent with reduced ability to bear sons by a subset of Jewish men in the Jerusalem cohort. Lower sex ratios may be because of pregnancy stress, which may be higher in this subgroup. Alternatively, a degrading Y chromosome haplogroup or other genetic or epigenetic differences on male germ lines could affect birth ratios, such as differential exposure to an environmental agent, dietary

  14. Effects of gender, birth order, and other correlates on childhood mortality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, M K; Hao, H; Wang, F

    1995-01-01

    Using data from the 1988 Two-Per-Thousand Survey of Fertility and Birth Control, this paper examines the effects of gender, birth order, and other correlates of childhood mortality in China. Controlling for family-level factors, childhood mortality is found to be associated with the child's gender and birth order. Among firstborn children the difference between male and female childhood mortality is not statistically significant, but among others, female children between ages 1 and 5 experience higher mortality than male children. Childhood mortality is slightly higher for children who have older brothers only than for those who have older sisters only, and it is highest for those who have both older brothers and sisters. Other factors affecting childhood mortality in China include mortality of older siblings, birth interval, urban/rural residence, mother's level of education, and mother's occupation. All interactive effects between gender and family-level characteristics are found to be statistically insignificant.

  15. Birth on the Playground: Boys' Experiences Playing with Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a phenomenological approach, the purpose of this research was to explore the meaning of young children's gender and identity play, and the experiences they take to form their identity in the early childhood setting. During the course of the study I drew meanings from the boys' pretend playing pregnancy and gender ...

  16. The birth of modern criminology and gendered constructions of homosexual criminal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jordan Blair

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of engagement with LGBTQ populations, and sexual orientation and gender identity more broadly, in the field of criminology. This article analyzes the treatment of sexual orientation and gender identity at the birth of the discipline around the 1870 s. Through an analysis of Cesare Lombroso's writings, the article argues that a multifaceted stigma of deviance attached to homosexuality and gender nonconformity in early criminological theory. The article explains this multifaceted stigma in terms of broader political, social, cultural, and legal developments before and during the late nineteenth century that shaped modern Western conceptions of sexual orientation and gender identity.

  17. Could changes in reported sex ratios at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine support the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Reimondos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis suggests that when mothers are in poor conditions the sex ratio of their offspring will be biased towards females. Major famines provide opportunities for testing this hypothesis because they lead to the widespread deterioration of living conditions in the affected population. Objective: This study examines changes in sex ratio at birth before, during, and after China's 1958-1961 famine, to see whether they provide any support for the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis. Methods: We use descriptive statistics to analyse data collected by both China's 1982 and 1988 fertility sample surveys and examine changes in sex ratio at birth in recent history. In addition, we examine the effectiveness of using different methods to model changes in sex ratio at birth and compare their differences. Results: During China's 1958-1961 famine, reported sex ratio at birth remained notably higher than that observed in most countries in the world. The timing of the decline in sex ratio at birth did not coincide with the timing of the famine. After the famine, although living conditions were considerably improved, the sex ratio at birth was not higher but lower than that recorded during the famine. Conclusions: The analysis of the data collected by the two fertility surveys has found no evidence that changes in sex ratio at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine and the post-famine period supported the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis.

  18. Sex Ratio at Birth and Racial Differences: Why Do Black Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    KEY WORDS: Birth, Race, Sex ratio, Sub-Saharan black women. 1Dr. Amadu Jacky ... in the majority of countries or societies in the world. .... Caribbean nations with majority Black populations is 1.03, the same as the average for all of Africa and for African. Americans. 1. The two important questions then that will be asked in ...

  19. Lunar cycles at mating do not influence sex ratio at birth in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J J; Cuervo-Arango, J; Santa Juliana, L

    2015-02-01

    It is scientifically demonstrated that lunar cycles have important effects on several biological events. Controversy exists about the lunar influence on human and animal parturition. In addition, in the horse industry, especially in Polo Horse breeders of Argentina and around the world there is a higher demand for female offspring than for males. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between the lunar phase at the time of mating and the sex ratio at birth in horses. The Argentinean Stud Book provided information related to all matings registered for Thoroughbred and Arab horses between 2003 and 2011. Statistical associations were tested between dates of matings at different lunar phases or days and sex ratio at birth. A total of 65.535 gestations were studied. Overall, sex ratio at birth resulted in 33.396 fillies (50.96%) and 32.139 colts (49.04%). The percentages of males and females at birth were not statistically different amongst the different lunar phases or days. We can strongly conclude that managing the breeding dates in relation to lunar cycles in order to manipulate the sex ratio of the offspring is not a viable option in horses.

  20. Sex ratio at birth and racial differences: Why do Black women give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two important questions that this paper will attempt to answer are: (1) why is it that regardless of race/ethnicity or geographic location, the sex ratio data at birth show more males than females?; and (2) Why is it that regardless of geographic location compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Black women or Women of ...

  1. Trends of human sex ratio at birth and twinning rate in Ibadan, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) and frequency of twinning are demographic parameters that vary among populations. A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the trend of SRB, as well as twinning rate in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data on sexes of singletons, twins, triplets and quadruplets from 1997 to 2008 collected ...

  2. Sex Ratio at Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in China: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Denjian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we used the data from the last three population censuses of China in 1982, 1990 and 2000, to study the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth and the infant mortality rate in China. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform and implemented many family planning programs. Since then there has been great economic development…

  3. Evaluation of the product ratio coherent model in forecasting mortality rates and life expectancy at births by States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shair, Syazreen Niza; Yusof, Aida Yuzi; Asmuni, Nurin Haniah

    2017-05-01

    Coherent mortality forecasting models have recently received increasing attention particularly in their application to sub-populations. The advantage of coherent models over independent models is the ability to forecast a non-divergent mortality for two or more sub-populations. One of the coherent models was recently developed by [1] known as the product-ratio model. This model is an extension version of the functional independent model from [2]. The product-ratio model has been applied in a developed country, Australia [1] and has been extended in a developing nation, Malaysia [3]. While [3] accounted for coherency of mortality rates between gender and ethnic group, the coherency between states in Malaysia has never been explored. This paper will forecast the mortality rates of Malaysian sub-populations according to states using the product ratio coherent model and its independent version— the functional independent model. The forecast accuracies of two different models are evaluated using the out-of-sample error measurements— the mean absolute forecast error (MAFE) for age-specific death rates and the mean forecast error (MFE) for the life expectancy at birth. We employ Malaysian mortality time series data from 1991 to 2014, segregated by age, gender and states.

  4. Gender inequality, economic growth, and the intergenerational transmission of adverse health consequences at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mengcen; Chou, Shin-Yi; Deily, Mary E; Liu, Jin-Tan

    2018-01-31

    We estimate a gender differential in the intergenerational transmission of adverse birth outcomes. We link Taiwan birth certificates from 1978 to 2006 to create a sample of children born in the period 1999-2006 that includes information about their parents and their maternal grandmothers. We use maternal-sibling fixed effects to control for unobserved family-linked factors that may be correlated with birth outcomes across generations, and define adverse birth outcomes as small for gestational age. We find that when a mother is in the 5th percentile of birth weight for her gestational age, then her female children are 49-53% more likely to experience the same adverse birth outcome compared to other female children, while her male children are 27-32% more likely to experience this relative to other male children. We then investigate whether long-run improvements in local socio-economic conditions experienced by the child's family, as measured by intergenerational changes in town-level maternal education, affect the gender differential. We find no evidence that intergenerational improvements in socioeconomic conditions reduce the gender differential. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of migration on secular trends in sex ratios at birth in cuba in the past fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, V

    2014-08-01

    Secular trends have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births) in various countries and this ratio is anticipated to approximate 0.515. Annual national data for male and female live births in Cuba with contingency tables were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed. There were 3 736 718 male and 3 534 270 female births (1960-96). Births declined steadily over the entire period. The male-female ratio at birth remained relatively stable over the period 1960-1985 with significant sharp dips for the years 1966, 1980 and 1985. There was a sharp rise in M/F from 1966 to 1969, another rise after 1985, a steep drop to 1989, and then a sharp rise once more after 1993 (all p influencing M/F.

  6. Winning the genetic lottery: biasing birth sex ratio results in more grandchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette M Thogerson

    Full Text Available Population dynamics predicts that on average parents should invest equally in male and female offspring; similarly, the physiology of mammalian sex determination is supposedly stochastic, producing equal numbers of sons and daughters. However, a high quality parent can maximize fitness by biasing their birth sex ratio (SR to the sex with the greatest potential to disproportionately outperform peers. All SR manipulation theories share a fundamental prediction: grandparents who bias birth SR should produce more grandoffspring via the favored sex. The celebrated examples of biased birth SRs in nature consistent with SR manipulation theories provide compelling circumstantial evidence. However, this prediction has never been directly tested in mammals, primarily because the complete three-generation pedigrees needed to test whether individual favored offspring produce more grandoffspring for the biasing grandparent are essentially impossible to obtain in nature. Three-generation pedigrees were constructed using 90 years of captive breeding records from 198 mammalian species. Male and female grandparents consistently biased their birth SR toward the sex that maximized second-generation success. The most strongly male-biased granddams and grandsires produced respectively 29% and 25% more grandoffspring than non-skewing conspecifics. The sons of the most male-biasing granddams were 2.7 times as fecund as those of granddams with a 50∶50 bias (similar results are seen in grandsires. Daughters of the strongest female-biasing granddams were 1.2 times as fecund as those of non-biasing females (this effect is not seen in grandsires. To our knowledge, these results are the first formal test of the hypothesis that birth SR manipulation is adaptive in mammals in terms of grandchildren produced, showing that SR manipulation can explain biased birth SR in general across mammalian species. These findings also have practical implications: parental control of birth

  7. Gender Differences in Intrahousehold Schooling Outcomes: The Role of Sibling Characteristics and Birth-Order Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Dancer, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an…

  8. Sexuality Education Beliefs among Sexually Experienced Youth: Differences by Gender and Birth Control Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether gender and birth control use are associated with premarital sexual attitudes, beliefs about peers, family communication about sexual relationships, and sexuality education among sexually experienced youth. Methods: Data were collected from a randomly selected ethnically diverse youth sample (N = 1,253). Only the…

  9. Sex Ratio at Birth in Vietnam: Results From Data in CHILILAB HDSS, 2004 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Vui Thi; Duong, Duc Minh; Nguyen, Anh Duy; Nguyen, Chuong Canh; Bui, Ha Thi Thu; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Thi Minh; Tran, Bich Huu

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and imbalanced sex ratio at birth (SRB) in Chi Linh district, Hai Duong. The data were collected from a longitudinal study using a community-based periodic, referred as Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) during 2004 to 2013. A total of 7568 children were analyzed. Results showed that SRB in Chi Linh dramatically increased to the imbalanced sex ratio (114.6 boys to 100 girls) by 2013. SRB was associated with birth order and sex of preceding siblings. SRB was extremely high among families without any sons (136/100). SRB was highest among families having third or more children (175/100). Imbalanced SRB was more likely to occur among women working in small business/homemakers and others, women who attained high education level, and women in wealthy households. We suggested further efforts to tackle imbalanced SRB in periurban areas in Vietnam.

  10. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a ?good? manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees? manag...

  11. Ownership of dwelling affects the sex ratio at birth in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Wallner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socio-economic conditions can affect the secondary sex ratio in humans. Mothers under good environmental conditions are predicted to increase the birth rates of sons according to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH. This study analyzed the effects of ownership and non-ownership of dwellings on the sex ratio at birth (SRB on a Ugandan sample. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our investigation included 438,640 mothers aged between 12 and 54 years. The overall average SRB was 0.5008. Mothers who live in owned dwellings gave increased births to sons (0.5019 compared to those who live in non-owned dwellings (0.458. Multivariate statistics revealed the strongest effects of dwelling ownership when controlling for demographic and social variables such as marital status, type of marriage, mothers' age, mothers' education, parity and others. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results are discussed in the framework of recent plausible models dealing with the adjustment of the sex ratio. We conclude that the aspect of dwelling status could represent an important socio-economic parameter in relation to SRB variations in humans if further studies are able to analyze it between different countries in a comparative way.

  12. Ownership of Dwelling Affects the Sex Ratio at Birth in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Bernard; Fieder, Martin; Seidler, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Background Socio-economic conditions can affect the secondary sex ratio in humans. Mothers under good environmental conditions are predicted to increase the birth rates of sons according to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH). This study analyzed the effects of ownership and non-ownership of dwellings on the sex ratio at birth (SRB) on a Ugandan sample. Methodology/Principal Findings Our investigation included 438,640 mothers aged between 12 and 54 years. The overall average SRB was 0.5008. Mothers who live in owned dwellings gave increased births to sons (0.5019) compared to those who live in non-owned dwellings (0.458). Multivariate statistics revealed the strongest effects of dwelling ownership when controlling for demographic and social variables such as marital status, type of marriage, mothers’ age, mothers’ education, parity and others. Conclusions/Significance The results are discussed in the framework of recent plausible models dealing with the adjustment of the sex ratio. We conclude that the aspect of dwelling status could represent an important socio-economic parameter in relation to SRB variations in humans if further studies are able to analyze it between different countries in a comparative way. PMID:23284697

  13. SECULAR TRENDS AND LATITUDE GRADIENTS IN SEX RATIOS AT BIRTH IN THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births, which is anticipated to approximate 0.515, has been shown to exhibit latitude gradients and secular trends. Methods: Annual national data for male and female live births for the 15 countries that comprise the former Soviet Union were obtained from the World Health Organisation for the period 1980–2009 (115,167,569 total live births and analysed with contingency tables. Spearman correlation was also carried out to compare percentage annual gross domestic product growth (GDP% – downloaded from the World Bank and M/F. In this context, GDP% is used as a measure for economic hardship or wellbeing within the populace. Results: There have been overall highly significant secular increases in M/F (p < 0.0001 in the countries and regions investigated. M/F is significantly lower in the three more northern regions (Russian Federation, Baltic States and Central Asia. M/F 0.51324, 0.51335-0.51314 than the two more southern regions (Southern Caucasus and Eastern Europe. M/F 0.51654, 0.51635-0.51672. There was a male excess of 113,818 live births.There was a significant positive correlation between GDP% and M/F for Armenia, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan. There was a significant negative correlation in Estonia. Conclusion: Previous studies have shown that improving socioeconomic conditions increase M/F, and the converse has also been demonstrated. This is a potential influence in this geographical area since this region has relatively recently emerged from communist rule and experienced an overall economic upturn, but is only partially supported using GDP%. Another factor may be the selective termination of female pregnancies. The latitude gradient parallels that of neighbouring Europe but no theory has been put forward to convincingly explain this finding to date.

  14. 2D:4D finger-length ratios in children and adults with gender identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallien, M.S.C.; Zucker, K.J.; Steensma, T.D.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that prenatal testosterone affects the 2D:4D finger ratio in humans, and it has been speculated that prenatal testosterone also affects gender identity differentiation. If both things are true, then one would expect to find an association between the 2D:4D ratio and gender

  15. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler’s theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler’s birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) A...

  16. Separation anxiety among birth-assigned male children in a specialty gender identity service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Santarossa, Alanna; Nabbijohn, A Natisha; Wood, Hayley; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggested that separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is overrepresented among birth-assigned male children clinic-referred for gender dysphoria (GD). The present study examined maternally reported separation anxiety of birth-assigned male children assessed in a specialty gender identity service (N = 360). SAD was determined in relation to DSM-III and DSM-IV criteria, respectively. A dimensional metric of separation anxiety was examined in relation to several additional factors: age, ethnicity, parental marital status and social class, IQ, gender nonconformity, behavioral and emotional problems, and poor peer relations. When defined in a liberal fashion, 55.8% were classified as having SAD. When using a more conservative criterion, 5.3% were classified as having SAD, which was significantly greater than the estimated general population prevalence for boys, but not for girls. Dimensionally, separation anxiety was associated with having parents who were not married or cohabitating as well as with elevations in gender nonconformity; however, the association with gender nonconformity was no longer significant when statistically controlling for internalizing problems. Thus, SAD appears to be common among birth-assigned males clinic-referred for GD when defined in a liberal fashion, and more common than in boys, but not girls, from the general population even when more stringent criteria were applied. Also, the degree of separation anxiety appears to be linked to generic risk factors (i.e., parental marital status, internalizing problems). As such, although separation anxiety is common among birth-assigned male children clinic-referred for GD, it seems unlikely to hold unique significance for this population based on the current data.

  17. The variations of human sex ratio at birth during and after wars, and their potential explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H

    2009-03-07

    Data on wartime sex ratios (proportions male at birth) are reviewed. Two sorts of variation are empirically well supported viz. (a) rises during and just after both World Wars and (b) a fall in Iran during the Iran-Iraq War. Potential explanations are offered here for these rises and fall. The fall seems plausibly explained by psychological stress causing pregnant women disproportionately to abort male fetuses. The rises may be explained by either or both of two different forms of hypothesis viz. (i) Kanazawa's "returning soldier" hypothesis and (ii) variation in coital rates. The coital rate hypothesis potentially accounts, in slightly different ways, for the rises both during, and just after, some wars. The argument that coital rate affects sex ratio just after wars seems to be supported by evidence that in some combatant countries, dizygotic (DZ) twinning rates (which also reportedly vary with coital rate) peaked after the World Wars. The suggestion that war is associated with rises in sex ratio at birth was first made more than two centuries ago. However, I have been unable to locate direct supporting sex ratio data relating to any conflict before World War One. So it would be useful if historical demographers were to search for such data relating to these earlier wars.

  18. Waist-to-hip ratio, attractiveness and gender discrimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with lower waist-to-hip ratio are considered more attractive to the men. It is suggested that attractiveness is related to the sexual dimorphism of body fat distribution in gluteofemoral region. It is hypothesized that women with lower waist-to-hip ratio provide better energy for pregnancy and lactation; therefore in the ...

  19. How can economic schemes curtail the increasing sex ratio at birth in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad Tuljapurkar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility decline, driven by the one-child policy, and son preference have contributed to an alarming difference in the number of live male and female births in China. We present a quantitative model where people choose to sex-select because they perceive that married sons are more valuable than married daughters. Due to the predominant patrilocal kinship system in China, daughters-in-law provide valuable emotional and financial support, enhancing the perceived present value of married sons. We argue that inter-generational transfer data will help ascertain the extent to which economic schemes (such as pension plans for families with no sons can curtail the increasing sex ratio at birth.

  20. Is hyperemesis gravidarum associated with placental weight and the placental weight-to-birth weight ratio? A population-based Norwegian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandraas, K F; Vikanes, Å V; Støer, N C; Vangen, S; Magnus, P; Grjibovski, A M

    2013-11-01

    Studies have suggested a link between placental weight, placental weight-to-birth weight ratio (PW/BW) and adult health. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) may also have implications for adult health. No studies on HG and placental characteristics have been identified. We therefore explored the relationship between HG, placental weight and the PW/BW-ratio in a population-based cohort. Singleton births to primiparous women between 1999 and 2009 with data on HG, placental weight and birth weight in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) comprised the study base (n = 200,390). HG was defined through ICD-10 code 021.0, 021.1 and 021.9. Gender and gestational age specific percentile curves for placenta weight and PW/BW ratio were used to define those below the 10th and above the 90th percentile of both outcomes. Associations between HG and dichotomous outcomes were studied by multiple logistic regression. Multiple linear regression was applied to study placental weight as a continuous variable. Male and female offspring were analyzed separately. The prevalence of HG was 1.2%. Women with HG and female offspring had significantly higher risk of a PW/BW-ratio above the 90th percentile (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.34). HG and PW/BW-ratio below the 10th percentile were inversely associated (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56-0.89). For male offspring no association was observed for HG and PW/BW-ratio below the 10th or above the 90th percentile. We observed positive associations between HG and high PW/BW ratio limited to female offspring only. The high PW/BW-ratio suggests that there may be a possible link between HG and adult health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.

  2. Gender Inequality and the Sex Ratio in Three Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Prabir C. Bhattacharya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study inequality and deprivations as reflected in the human sex ratio (commonly defined as the number of males per 100 females). The particular focus is on three emerging economies, viz., Russia, India and China. The paper compares and contrasts the experiences of these countries and discusses policy issues. It is noted that while the feminist perspective on the issues surrounding the sex ratio is important, it would be wrong to view these issues always or exclusiv...

  3. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.

  4. The sex ratio at birth in France was unchanged 9months after the 1998 FIFA World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Grech, Victor

    2016-08-01

    Positive psychological phenomena such as increased feelings of belonging linked to hosting the FIFA World Cup were observed in France 1998 and South Africa 2010. Approximately nine months after South Africa hosted the 2010 World Cup the sex ratio at birth increased significantly. Given the similarity of positive psychological phenomena between the two countries, this study sought to determine if the sex ratio at birth increased in France circa nine months after the 1998 World Cup. Anonymized publicly available live birth data from 1994 to 2004 inclusive was obtained from the Insee (Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes/Économiques - National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies). For statistical analysis, chi-squared tests were used. The sex ratio at birth for March and April 1999 did not differ significantly from that of the rest of same period from 1996 to 2000 (p=0.558), there was also no significant difference for February and March 1999. The sex ratio at birth did not increase in France after it hosted the 1998 World Cup. Possible reasons why the sex ratio at birth did not increase as it did in South Africa include a higher French prevalence of modern contraceptive use and a different kind/level of excitement for the World Cup in France since it has previously hosted large international sports tournaments. The influence of the World Cup on the sex ratio at birth depends on the context of a specific country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hamstring And Quadriceps Strength Ratio: Effect Of Age And Gender

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects hamstrings and quadriceps isometric muscle strength were measured and their ages were recorded. The hamstring-quadriceps strength ratio for each subject was calculated. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to summarize the date and inferential statistics of independent t-test the one ...

  6. Evidence for an Altered Sex Ratio in Clinic-Referred Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aitken, M.; Steensma, T.D.; Blanchard, R.; VanderLaan, D.P.; Wood, H.; Fuentes, A.; Spegg, C.; Wasserman, L.; Ames, M.; Fitzsimmons, C.L.; Leef, J.H.; Lishak, V.; Reim, E.; Takagi, A.; Vinik, J.; Wreford, J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; de Vries, A.L.C.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Zucker, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The number of adolescents referred to specialized gender identity clinics for gender dysphoria appears to be increasing and there also appears to be a corresponding shift in the sex ratio, from one favoring natal males to one favoring natal females. Aim: We conducted two quantitative

  7. Gender difference in the modified Insall-Salvati ratio in a black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender difference in the modified Insall-Salvati ratio in a black Kenyan population. Brian Wambua, Kirsteen Awori, Kevin Ongeti, James Kigera, Beda Olabu. Abstract. The patellar tendon (PT) is part of the extensor mechanism of the knee attaching to the apex of the patella and tibial tuberosity. Gender differences of the PT ...

  8. Secular Trends and Latitude Gradients in Sex Ratios at Birth in Czechoslovakia and the Post-Czechoslovakian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Latitude gradients and secular trends in Europe and North America have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births which is expected to be 0.515. Annual national data for Czechoslovakia and the post-Czechoslovakian (Czech Republic and Slovakia countries for male and female live births were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed with contingency tables. This study analysed 13,123,538 live births. An overall decreasing trend in M/F was found (p < 00001. No latitude gradient was noted. There was an overall deficit of 15,232 male births based on an M/F of 0.515. M/F is declining in this region, despite well developing economies that have resisted the worldwide slowdown. An interplay of several poorly understood factors is likely.

  9. Evidence for an altered sex ratio in clinic-referred adolescents with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Madison; Steensma, Thomas D; Blanchard, Ray; VanderLaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Fuentes, Amanda; Spegg, Cathy; Wasserman, Lori; Ames, Megan; Fitzsimmons, C Lindsay; Leef, Jonathan H; Lishak, Victoria; Reim, Elyse; Takagi, Anna; Vinik, Julia; Wreford, Julia; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; de Vries, Annelou L C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-03-01

    The number of adolescents referred to specialized gender identity clinics for gender dysphoria appears to be increasing and there also appears to be a corresponding shift in the sex ratio, from one favoring natal males to one favoring natal females. We conducted two quantitative studies to ascertain whether there has been a recent inversion of the sex ratio of adolescents referred for gender dysphoria. The sex ratio of adolescents from two specialized gender identity clinics was examined as a function of two cohort periods (2006-2013 vs. prior years). Study 1 was conducted on patients from a clinic in Toronto, and Study 2 was conducted on patients from a clinic in Amsterdam. Across both clinics, the total sample size was 748. In both clinics, there was a significant change in the sex ratio of referred adolescents between the two cohort periods: between 2006 and 2013, the sex ratio favored natal females, but in the prior years, the sex ratio favored natal males. In Study 1 from Toronto, there was no corresponding change in the sex ratio of 6,592 adolescents referred for other clinical problems. Sociological and sociocultural explanations are offered to account for this recent inversion in the sex ratio of adolescents with gender dysphoria. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. The effect of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Tikellis, G; Sun, C; Pezic, A; Wang, L; Wells, J C K; Cochrane, J; Ponsonby, A-L; Dwyer, T

    2014-07-01

    Maternal influence on fetal growth is mediated through the placenta and this influence may have an implication for the offspring's long-term health. The placenta-to-birth weight ratio has been regarded as an indicator of placental function. However, few studies have examined the effect of maternal lifestyle exposures on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. This study aims to examine the associations of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption with the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. Data for 7945 term singletons, gestation≥37 weeks, were selected from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey; a 1988-1995 Australian cohort study. Placenta and birth weight were extracted from birth notification records. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was strongly associated with a 6.77 g/kg higher (95% CI 4.83-8.71) placenta-to-birth weight ratio when compared to non-smoking mothers. Maternal prenatal smoking was associated with lower placental (β = -15.37 g; 95% CI -23.43 to -7.31) and birth weights (β = -205.49 g; 95% CI -232.91 to -178.08). Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy had a lower placenta-to-birth weight ratio (β = -2.07 g/kg; 95% CI -4.01 to -0.12) than mothers who did not consume alcohol. The associations of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy with placental and birth weight did not reach statistical significance. Maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption may influence fetal growth by either directly or indirectly altering the function of the placenta. The alteration of the in utero environment induced by smoking and alcohol consumption appears to affect placental and fetal growth in differing ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Paraoxonase 1 Levels, and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoklu Akkar, Ozlem; Sancakdar, Enver; Karakus, Savas; Yildiz, Caglar; Akkar, Ismail; Arslan, Murat; Sahin, Irfan Oguz; Imir Yenicesu, Ayse Gonca; Cetin, Ali

    2016-04-13

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, paraoxonase 1, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in women having early spontaneous preterm birth without clinical chorioamnionitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was prospectively administered in women referred to our obstetrics service with preterm labor that resulted in preterm birth (n=35) and term labor that ended in term birth (n=44). The maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 were measured and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated. RESULTS The 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels of the preterm group were significantly lower than those of the term group (pparaoxonase 1 in the preterm group (r=0.35; p=0.021). CONCLUSIONS Decreased maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may have a role in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth.

  12. Occupational gender stereotypes: is the ratio of women to men a powerful determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Tomoko

    2013-04-01

    Gendered division of occupational choices still exists in contemporary Japanese society. Women are underrepresented in traditionally male-dominated fields, while few men occupy positions in traditionally female-dominated areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine occupational gender stereotypes and its relation to the female-to-male ratio of jobholders. Participants were 540 Japanese (262 women, 278 men) who participated in an Internet survey. The results showed that the female-to-male ratio of jobholders was a strong predictor of gender stereotyping. That is to say, contemporary Japanese recognized male-dominated occupations as typically masculine and female-dominated ones as typically feminine. Gender comparisons revealed that men rated female-dominated occupations as more feminine in nature than did women, while women rated male-dominated occupations as more masculine than did men. Future implications for career interventions focusing on occupational gender stereotypes were also discussed.

  13. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  14. What Do True Gender Ratios and Stereotype Norms Really Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, Pascal M; Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We present a Focused Review on work that was conducted to compare perceived distributions of men and women in occupations and other social roles with actual real world distributions. In previous work, we showed that means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high. However, in the present paper, although we argue that comparing subjective gender stereotype norms and real world data about gender ratios is an interesting endeavor, we also discuss the limits to and difficulties in trying to determine the causal relationship between them. Most crucially, we argue that our data does not allow us to deduce with certainty that subjective gender norms are based directly on gender ratios.

  15. What Do True Gender Ratios and Stereotype Norms Really Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    Gygax, Pascal M.; Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We present a Focused Review on work that was conducted to compare perceived distributions of men and women in occupations and other social roles with actual real world distributions. In previous work, we showed that means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high. However, in the present paper, although we argue that comparing subjective gender stereotype norms and real world data about gender ratios is an interesting endeavor, we also discuss the limits to an...

  16. Effect modification by parental education on the associations of birth order and gender with learning achievement in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-C J; Wang, W-L; Sung, Y-T; Wang, Y-C; Su, S-Y; Li, C-Y

    2013-11-01

    A child's gender and ordinal position within a family have varied implications on his or her personality and cognitive development. However, little is known about whether or not parental educational level may moderate the effects of birth order and gender. Basic Competence Test (BCT) scores of 290,588 young adolescents aged 15-16 years in Taiwan were analysed. Parental educational level was calculated as the highest educational attainment of the subjects' parents. The multiple linear regression model was used to assess the modification effects of parental educational levels on the associations of interest. After controlling for covariates, we noted a clear inverse relationship between birth order and BCT scores in Mandarin, Mathematics and Science. Additionally, boys had significantly lower mean scores in Mandarin, but had significantly higher mean scores in both Mathematics and Science. We also found the significant interactive effects of birth order, gender and parental educational attainment on BCT scores, in which the birth order and gender effects were more evident in higher-educated families than in lower-educated ones. This large cohort study confirmed that both birth order and gender may pose independent influences on BCT scores; moreover, such influences are significantly modified by parental educational attainment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Trends in sex ratio at birth according to parental social positions: results from vital statistics birth, 1981-2004 in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heeran; Kim, Il-Ho; Khang, Young-Ho

    2009-03-01

    South Korea has experienced unprecedented ups and downs in the sex ratio at birth (SRB), which has been a unique phenomenon in the last two decades. However, little is known about socioeconomic factors that influence the SRB. Employing the diffusion theory by Rogers, this study was undertaken to examine the trends in social variations in the SRB from 1981 to 2004 in Korea. The data was taken from Vital Birth Statistics for the period from 1981-2004. We computed the annual male proportion of live births according to the parental education (university, middle/high school, primary) and occupation (non-manual, manual, others). Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the odds ratios of male birth according to social position for the equidistant three time periods (1981-1984, 1991-1994, and 2001-2004). An increased SRB was detected among parents with higher social position before the mid 1980s. Since then, however, a greater SRB was found for the less educated and manual jobholders. The inverse social gradient for the SRB was most prominent in early 1990s, but the gap has narrowed since the late 1990s. The mother's socioeconomic position could be a sensitive indicator of the social variations in the sex ratio at birth. Changes in the relationship of parental social position with the SRB were detected during the 1980-2004 in Korea. This Korean experience may well be explained by diffusion theory, suggesting there have been socioeconomic differences in the adoption and spread of sex-detection technology.

  18. In utero and at birth diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: use of likelihood ratios for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabilloud, Muriel; Wallon, Martine; Peyron, François

    2010-05-01

    The results of the ante- and neonatal diagnostic tests for congenital toxoplasmosis influence the decision to treat the newborn immediately after birth. Here, we estimate the positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) and the probabilities of congenital infection according to PCR and IgM-IgA tests results. The study concerned 767 children born between 1996 and 2002 and followed-up for 1-year at Croix-Rousse hospital, Lyon, France. The LRs and the post-test probabilities were estimated conditionally on gestational age at maternal infection using a logistic regression approach. For the PCR and the IgM-IgA tests, the positive LRs were high. In children with one positive test when only one test was done, the probability of infection reached 90% when the maternal infection occurred at 18-weeks gestation or later. This probability was close to 100% when the 2 tests were positive, whatever the gestational age. The negative LRs of the 2 tests moved closer to 0 at later gestational ages. However, when the tests were negative, the probability of infection remained greater or equal to 10%, except in early maternal infection. When the 2 tests were discordant, the probability of infection was about 50% in early maternal infection. Providing reliable probabilities of congenital infection, the PCR and IgM-IgA tests guide clinical management and counseling of parents.

  19. A study to review sex ratio at birth and analyze preferences for the sex of the unborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warade, Yugali; Balsarkar, Geetha; Bandekar, Pooja

    2014-02-01

    (1) To study the status of sex ratio at birth with increasing birth order, (2) To ascertain the relationship of declining sex ratio with respect to socio demographic factors. (3) To study outlook of patient towards sex preference, willingness to determine sex of the fetus, wish to terminate the pregnancy in case of unwanted sex of the baby. This is the retrospective study done in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital, Parel, Mumbai. The data was collected from the records maintained in Medical Record Department from January 2007 to December 2012 and were studied to determine the sex ratio as well as its relationship with the increasing parity. 95 % confidence interval for the sex ratios was calculated. Average sex ratio of 6 years was 908 females per 1,000 males. Sex ratio was 972 females per 1,000 males in primi para, which decreased to 879 females per 1,000 males in second para, further reduced to 784 females per 1,000 males in third para and 864 females per 1,000 males in fourth para. The 'sex ratio at birth', defined as the number of girls born for every 1,000 boys born, is a more accurate and refined indicator of the extent of prenatal sex selection.

  20. Gender-related difference in bloodstain RNA ratio stored under uncontrolled room conditions for 28 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baiyu; Kong, Lingzhu; Lu, Yingqiang

    2013-05-01

    Bloodstain age is a parameter that can be used in crime scene investigations. Bloodstain age can be determined by measuring the 18S rRNA:β-actin mRNA ratio by Reverse Transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Since this ratio is a function of time, it can be used as an estimator of bloodstain age. However, it is important to validate the technique in a variety of scenarios before it can be applied. We investigated 18S rRNA:β-actin mRNA ratio in bloodstains from sixteen Chinese subjects in 28 days under uncontrolled room conditions. The ratio changed in a linear fashion. It was also found that the subjects' gender affected the relationship between time and the RNA ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Fission Gas Release-to-Birth Ratio Data from the AGR Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einerson, Jeffrey J.; Pham, Binh T.; Scates, Dawn M.; Maki, John T.; Petti, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel used in the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independent capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. For AGR-1, the first US irradiation of modern TRISO fuel completed in 2009, there were no particle failures detected. For AGR-2, a few exposed kernels existed in the fuel compacts based upon quality control data. For the AGR-3/4 experiment, particle failures in all capsules were expected because of the use of designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles whose kernels are identical to the driver fuel kernels and whose coatings are designed to fail under irradiation. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of krypton and xenon isotopes is calculated from release rates measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) System installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel particle coating layers and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow. The major factors that govern gaseous diffusion and release processes are found to be fuel material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. To compare the release behavior among the AGR capsules and historic experiments, the R/B per failed particle is used. HTGR designers use this parameter in their fission product behavior models. For the U.S. TRISO fuel, a regression analysis is performed to establish functional relationships

  2. Effect of gender on the quadriceps-to-hamstrings coactivation ratio during different exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Soylu, A Ruhi; Ertan, Hayri; Ergun, Nevin; Mattacola, Carl G

    2014-02-01

    Coactivation ratio of quadriceps to hamstring muscles (Q:H) and medial to lateral knee muscles (M:L) contributes to the dynamic stability of the knee joint during movement patterns recommended during rehabilitation and important for daily function. To compare the quadriceps-to-hamstring and medial-to-lateral knee muscles' coactivation ratios between men and women during the following closed kinetic chain exercises performed on a balance board: forward lunge, side lunge, single-leg stance, and single-leg squat. Cross-sectional. 20 healthy subjects (10 female and 10 male). Surface electromyography was used to measure the activation level of quadriceps (vastus lateralis and medialis) and hamstrings (biceps femoris and medial hamstrings) during forward- and side-lunge, single-leg-stance, and single-leg-squat exercises. Subjects were instructed during each exercise to move into the test position and to hold that position for 15 s. EMG was recorded during the 15-s isometric period where subjects tried to maintain a "set" position while the foot was on a balance board. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. There was a significant exercise-by-gender interaction for Q:H ratio (F3,48 = 6.63, P = .001), but the exercise-by-gender interaction for M:L ratio was not significant (F3,48 = 1.67, P = .18). Women showed larger Q:H ratio in side-lunge exercises than men (P = .002). Both genders showed larger M:L and lower Q:H ratio in a single-leg-stance exercise than in the other exercises. The results indicate that the forward- and side-lunge and single-leg-squat exercises should not be recommended as exercise where a balanced coactivation between quadriceps and hamstring muscles is warranted. Single-leg-stance exercise could be used when seeking an exercise where the ratio is balanced for both women and men.

  3. Small group gender ratios impact biology class performance and peer evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lauren L; Ballen, Cissy J; Cotner, Sehoya

    2018-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Evidence suggests the microclimate of the classroom is an important factor influencing female course grades and interest, which encourages retention of women in STEM fields. Here, we test whether the gender composition of small (8-9 person) learning groups impacts course performance, sense of social belonging, and intragroup peer evaluations of intellectual contributions. Across two undergraduate active learning courses in introductory biology, we manipulated the classroom microclimate by varying the gender ratios of learning groups, ranging from 0% female to 100% female. We found that as the percent of women in groups increased, so did overall course performance for all students, regardless of gender. Additionally, women assigned higher peer- evaluations in groups with more women than groups with less women. Our work demonstrates an added benefit of the retention of women in STEM: increased performance for all, and positive peer perceptions for women.

  4. Ionizing Radiation and Human Gender Proportion at Birth: A Concise Review of the Literature and A Complementary Analysis of Historical and Recent Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor, This letter considers an article by Scherb et al. entitled “Ionizing radiation and the human gender proportion at birth: A concise review of the literature and a complementary analysis of historical and recent data” published in Early Human Development (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.10.012 [1]. The authors of this challenging paper have reviewed the literature regarding the effect of exposure to ionizing radiation on gender ratio at birth. Scherb et al. have stated that above-thebackground levels of ionizing radiation may alter the gender ratio at birth: “We are of the strong opinion that gradually increasing the level of background radiation poses an increased genetic risk to humans and creature and that more research should be initiated in this respect. This has implications for the nuclear power industry, and emphasizes the importance of finding safe methods for processing and storing nuclear waste”. They also claimed that the data they presented confirm the existence of an impact of ionizing radiation on human secondary sex. This paper bears a very basic shortcoming. We know that at present, the level of natural background radiation varies on Earth at least two orders of magnitude [2]. Mortazavi et al. have previously published reports on the health effects of exposure to elevated levels of natural ionizing radiation in HBNRAs of Ramsar [2-6]. While radiation level in Ramsar is up to 260 mSv y−1 (the highest background radiation levels known among inhabited areas, up to 13 times higher than the recommended dose limit for radiation workers in Iran that is 20 mSv y−1, people living in high background radiation areas of Ramsar show no observable detrimental effect. It is worth mentioning that if a radiation dose of a few hundred mSv per year has adverse health effects and causes genetic abnormalities or an increased risk of cancer, it should be evident to the residents of these hot areas [6]. Moreover

  5. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.

  6. The Terrorist Attacks and the Human Live Birth Sex Ratio: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; O'Neill, Sinéad M; Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C; Grech, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The live birth sex ratio is defined as male/total births (M/F). Terrorist attacks have been associated with a transient decline in M/F 3-5 months later with an excess of male losses in ongoing pregnancies. The early 21st century is replete with religious/politically instigated attacks. This study estimated the pooled effect size between exposure to attacks and M/F. Registration number CRD42016041220. PubMed and Scopus were searched for ecological studies that evaluated the relationship between terrorist attacks from 1/1/2000 to 16/6/2016 and M/F. An overall pooled odds ratio (OR) for the main outcome was generated using the generic inverse variance method. Five studies were included: 2011 Norway attacks; 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting; 2001 September 11 attacks; 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. OR at 0.97 95% CI (0.94-1.00) (I2 = 63%) showed a small statistically significant 3% decline in the odds (p = 0.03) of having a male live birth 3-5 months later. For lone wolf attacks there was a 10% reduction, OR 0.90 95% CI (0.86-0.95) (p = 0.0001). Terrorist (especially lone wolf) attacks were significantly associated with reduced odds of having a live male birth. Pregnancy loss remains an important Public Health challenge. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses considering other calamities are warranted.

  7. Fraternal birth order and ratio of heterosexual/homosexual feelings in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, Nathaniel; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Stevens, Carol; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Buhrich, Neil; Vollmer-Conna, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the 2-3% of persons who identify as homosexual found men but not women had more older brothers than persons who identify as heterosexual. The present study investigated the birth order in the approximately 20% of men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings, few of whom identify as homosexual. The number of older brothers and sisters was investigated in seven cohorts: 319 male twins; and 49, 54, and 61 female and 66, 116, and 50 male medical students. Both women and men who anonymously reported homosexual feelings had a greater mean number of older brothers and sisters than did those who reported no homosexual feelings. The difference was stronger in relation to brothers than sisters. The birth order effect was not related to the strength of the subjects' degree of homosexual compared with heterosexual feelings. Its presence in women could not be accounted for by the widely accepted hypothesis that the birth order effect is due to a maternal immune reaction provoked only by male fetuses. The lack of relationship between the strength of the effect and degree of homosexual feelings in the men and women suggests the influence of birth order on homosexual feelings was not due to a biological, but a social process in the subjects studied. Investigating the neglected significant percentage of predominantly heterosexual men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings may aid in understanding the factors influencing sexual orientation, and identity.

  8. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p < 0.001). Further, IQ emerged as a powerful predictor of SRB after controlling for the effects of all the known covariates like fertility, maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  9. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) in adults with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bernd; Noll, Thomas; Delsignore, Aba; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp, Urs

    2009-06-01

    From early childhood, gender identity and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio (2D:4D) are discriminative characteristics between sexes. Both the human brain and 2D:4D may be influenced by prenatal testosterone levels. This calls for an examination of 2D:4D in patients with gender identity disorder (GID) to study the possible influence of prenatal testosterone on gender identity. Until now, the only study carried out on this issue suggests lower prenatal testosterone levels in right-handed male-to-female GID patients (MtF). We compared 2D:4D of 56 GID patients (39 MtF; 17 female-to-male GID patients, FtM) with data from a control sample of 176 men and 190 women. Bivariate group comparisons showed that right hand 2D:4D in MtF was significantly higher (feminized) than in male controls, but similar to female controls. The comparison of 2D:4D ratios of biological women revealed significantly higher (feminized) values for right hands of right handed FtM. Analysis of variance confirmed significant effects for sex and for gender identity on 2D:4D ratios but not for sexual orientation or for the interaction among variables. Our results indirectly point to the possibility of a weak influence of reduced prenatal testosterone as an etiological factor in the multifactorially influenced development of MtF GID. The development of FtM GID seems even more unlikely to be notably influenced by prenatal testosterone.

  10. On the gender-science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Frederick L; Nosek, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  11. On the Gender-Science Stereotypes held by Scientists: Explicit accord with Gender-Ratios, Implicit accord with Scientific Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick L Smyth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Women’s representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women’s representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men’s, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female, including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines’ gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines’ scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors’ affecting development of adults’ and, especially, children’s implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  12. Terrorist attacks and the male-to-female ratio at birth: The Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Rodney King riots, and the Breivik and Sandy Hook shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-12-01

    Males are usually born in excess of females. The ratio is often expressed as M/F (male divided by total births). A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence M/F. Terrorist attacks reduce M/F. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether individual terrorist attacks influenced M/F in relevant populations. The following events were studied: the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Los Angeles Riots (the Rodney King affair), the Breivik shooting (Norway), and the Sandy Hook shooting (Connecticut). Northern Ireland M/F was significantly lower during the Troubles (1969-1998) than during the period before (p=0.0006). There was a very sharp dip in 1978 (p≤0.004) during this particular year of renewed violence and heavy civilian attacks. Rodney King riots-late April 1992 M/F dipped significantly in August 1992, 4months after the riots (p=0.044). Breivik Shooting-22/07/2011 M/F dipped significantly in December 2011, 5months after the event (p=0.004). Sandy Hook Shooting-14/12/2012 M/F dipped significantly in April 2013, 4months after the event (p=0.009). M/F dips follow catastrophic or tragic events if these are felt to be momentous enough by a given population. All of the above events caused significant population stress. The M/F dips noted may have been caused by population stress which is known to lead to the culling of frail/small male foetuses. The dips noted are comparable to a substantial proportion of quoted values for perinatal mortality, potentially elevating this a public health issue. 1. The male-to-female ratio at birth is decreased by stressful events. 2. This is due to an excess of male foetal losses in established pregnancies. 3. Such losses in response to acute events are transient. 4. This ratio may be a useful indicator of population stress. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS: 1. Gender ratios in populations could be routinely monitored in order to assess the impact of stressful events that may reduce the male-to-female birth ratio. Copyright

  13. Adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes in twins: effects of maternal fertility status and infant gender combinations; the Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Gopal, Daksha; Cabral, Howard; Stern, Judy E; Diop, Hafsatou

    2017-09-01

    It is unknown whether the risk of adverse outcomes in twin pregnancies among subfertile women, conceived with and without in vitro fertilization, differs from those conceived spontaneously. We sought to evaluate the effects of fertility status on adverse perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies on a population basis. All twin live births of ≥22 weeks' gestation and ≥350 g birthweight to Massachusetts resident women in 2004 through 2010 were linked to hospital discharge records, vital records, and in vitro fertilization cycles. Women were categorized by their fertility status as in vitro fertilization, subfertile, or fertile, and by twin pair genders (all, like, unlike). Women whose births linked to in vitro fertilization cycles were classified as in vitro fertilization; those with indicators of subfertility but without in vitro fertilization treatment were classified as subfertile; all others were classified as fertile. Risks of 6 adverse pregnancy outcomes (gestational diabetes, pregnancy hypertension, uterine bleeding, placental complications [placenta abruptio, placenta previa, and vasa previa], prenatal hospitalizations, and primary cesarean) and 9 adverse infant outcomes (very low birthweight, low birthweight, small-for-gestation birthweight, large-for-gestation birthweight, very preterm [women with twin pregnancies (6090 fertile, 724 subfertile, and 3538 in vitro fertilization). Among all twins, the risks for all 6 adverse pregnancy outcomes were significantly increased for the subfertile and in vitro fertilization groups, with highest risks for uterine bleeding (adjusted relative risk ratios, 1.92 and 2.58, respectively) and placental complications (adjusted relative risk ratios, 2.07 and 1.83, respectively). Among all twins, the risks for those born to subfertile women were significantly increased for very preterm birth and neonatal and infant death (adjusted relative risk ratios, 1.36, 1.89, and 1.87, respectively). Risks were significantly

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  15. Evidence Regarding Persistence in the Gender Unemployment Gap Based on the Ratio of Female to Male Unemployment Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Sen; Herve Queneau

    2007-01-01

    We examine the level of persistence in the gender unemployment gap in eight OECD countries: Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States. We use a new measure for the gender unemployment gap, namely, the ratio of the female to male unemployment rate. Our empirical evidence shows that the gender unemployment gap is not persistent given that we reject the unit root null hypothesis for all countries in our sample except Australia.

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  17. A further note on the rises in sex ratio at birth during and just after the two World Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H; Valentine, John

    2014-12-21

    It is well established that in most belligerent countries in World Wars 1 and 2, sex ratios (proportions male at birth) rose during and just after hostilities: then, a year or so later, they declined to normal levels. There is no established explanation for these phenomena. I have previously written on this problem. Here, I elaborate on my previous papers in three ways. First, further evidence (some analytic and some synthetic) is adduced to support the hypothesis that the rises were caused by high parental coital rates. Second, further evidence is adduced to suggest that these high coital rates occurred disproportionately often in couples of whom the man was (or had been) in the armed services. Thirdly, evidence is offered to suggest why such rises in sex ratio were not reported in other conflicts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Labor force participation and secondary education of gender inequality index (GII) associated with healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2014-11-18

    What is the factor that affects healthy life expectancy? Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth may be influenced by components of the gender inequality index (GII). Notably, this claim is not tested on the between components of the GII, such as population at least secondary education (PLSE) with ages 25 and older, labor force participation rate (LFPR) with ages 15 and older, and the HLE in the world's countries. Thus, this study estimates the associations between the PLSE, LFPR of components of the GII and the HLE. The data for the analysis of HLE in 148 countries were obtained from the World Health Organization. Information regarding the GII indicators for this study was obtained from the United Nations database. Associations between these factors and HLE were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Although significant negative correlations were found between HLE and the LFPR, positive correlations were found between HLE and PLSE. Finally, the HLE predictors were used to form a model of the components of the GII, with higher PLSE as secondary education and lower LFPR as labor force (R(2) = 0.552, P <0.001). Gender inequality of the attainment secondary education and labor force participation seems to have an important latent effect on healthy life expectancy at birth. Therefore, in populations with high HLE, the gender inequalities in HLE are smaller because of a combination of a larger secondary education advantage and a smaller labor force disadvantage in male-females.

  19. Sex ratio at birth and age-reversed dominance among female Varecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Frances J

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 283 offspring born at the Duke University Primate Center show that young female ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, produce significantly more daughters, whereas old mothers produce more sons than expected. Data are compared to 3 hypotheses for sex ratio bias: the Trivers-Willard hypothesis which predicts that dominant females produce more males, the local resource competition (LRC) hypothesis which predicts that subordinate females produce more males, and the local resource enhancement (LRE) extension of the LRC hypothesis that females produce the sex that provides later cooperative benefits. In the case of Varecia, this may include alloparenting or cooperative breeding. The results are more consistent with the LRC model. However, observations of 8 mother-daughter relationships show that female dominance rank in free-ranging Varecia groups is age reversed, with daughters aggressively outranking their mothers. Daughters born into the group were not beneficial as future supporters in within-group intermatriline competition as assumed by the LRE model, or as subordinate alloparents, cooperative breeders or aids in territorial defense. Both sex ratio and ranking observations are consistent, however, with the hypothesis that mothers produce daughters when they are young and able to invade elsewhere and sons as they age and are less able to do so. This is supported by a single observation of a mother dispersing which resulted in her daughter inheriting the natal territory. These data are supportive of the LRE model with female alliances and cooperative breeding among dispersed females. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Gender and birth order as parenting moderators / A influência do gênero e ordem de nascimento sobre as práticas educativas parentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.

  1. Gender-Specific Effects on Gestational Length and Birth Weight by Early Pregnancy BPA Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-11-01

    Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. design, setting, participants, and outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA.

  2. Reversed gender ratio of autism spectrum disorder in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Heidi Elisabeth; Nordgren, Ann; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Nærland, Terje

    2018-01-01

    A substantial amount of research shows a higher rate of autistic type of problems in males compared to females. The 4:1 male to female ratio is one of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Lately, the interest in studying ASD in genetic disorders has increased, and research has shown a higher prevalence of ASD in some genetic disorders than in the general population.Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare and complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2 or a mutation on the retinoic acid induced 1 gene. The disorder is characterised by intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, obesity, neurobehavioural abnormalities and a disrupted circadian sleep-wake pattern. Parents of 28 persons with SMS between 5 and 50 years old participated in this study. A total of 12 of the persons with SMS were above the age of 18 at the time of the study. A total of 11 came from Sweden and 17 were from Norway.We collected information regarding the number of autism spectrum symptoms using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Adaptive behaviour was also measured using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. The level of intellectual disability was derived from a review of the medical chart. We found significant gender differences in ASD symptomatology using the SCQ and SRS questionnaires. We found approximately three females per male above the SCQ cutoff. The same differences were not found in the intellectual level and adaptive behaviour or for behavioural and emotional problems.Gender had an independent contribution in a regression model predicting the total SCQ score, and neither the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II nor the Developmental Behaviour Checklist had an independent contribution to the SCQ scores. We found a clear reversed gender difference in ASD symptomatology in persons with SMS. This may be relevant in the search for female protective factors

  3. Variations in the Gender Ratio of Multiple Sclerosis Linked to Converging Smoking Trends in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios, Natalia; Alonso, Alvaro; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    [S40.001] Variations in the Gender Ratio of Multiple Sclerosis Linked to Converging Smoking Trends in Men and Women Natalia Palacios, Boston, MA, Alvaro Alonso, Minneapolis, MN, Henrik Bronnum-Hansen, Coppenhagen, Denmark, Alberto Ascherio, Boston, MA OBJECTIVE: To examine if a time-dependent rel......[S40.001] Variations in the Gender Ratio of Multiple Sclerosis Linked to Converging Smoking Trends in Men and Women Natalia Palacios, Boston, MA, Alvaro Alonso, Minneapolis, MN, Henrik Bronnum-Hansen, Coppenhagen, Denmark, Alberto Ascherio, Boston, MA OBJECTIVE: To examine if a time...... changes in the MS gender ratio. Supported by: Dr. Ascherio: funding for studies of MS from NIH/NINDS. Natalia Palacios: Training Program in Environmental Epidemiology funded under grant no. T32 ES07069. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Society finances the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. Category - MS...

  4. Influence of place of birth and gender on the health component of the quality of life of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Andriichuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze indicators of physical and mental health components in quality of life of students according to gender and place of birth. Material : the study involved 513 students aged 17 - 22 years old. Depending on the place of birth of the students were grouped into 5 groups: residents of large cities, small cities, towns, and villages; sat. Results : the highest rate of physical activity in girls (91.75 points and men (94.9 points of the major cities. The lowest rates are indicator role activities (47.86 points girls from small towns, vitality index (57.25 points in men hail from towns. The correlation coefficients between the indicators of quality of life of students: high rates of mental health component in comparison with the physical component. Conclusions : it was found that students regardless of sex, physical health component above the psychological component. Gender difference between physical health component is greater among residents of the town. In terms of mental health component of the residents of small towns.

  5. Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. depicting the effects of gender, birth type, ewe line and ram breed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    This reasoning could explain why the cooking loss of the meat from multiples was generally higher than that of meat from the singles. The thicker average fat cover of singles compared to multiples provides further support to this line of reasoning. Ewe line interacted with birth type for fat thickness at the 3rd and 4th lumbar.

  7. [The ratio birth-weight, placental weight and the term of delivery. A contribution to the problem of a relative placental insufficiency in late pregnancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, B

    1976-12-10

    It is suggested, that a relative placental insufficiency in late pregnancy is one of the releasing factors of childbirth. Under this assumption 1027 deliveries in term pregnancy (266th-294th day of pregnancy) were inquired on the interrelationship between the ratio brith-weight: placental-weight and the duration of pregnancy. The average birth-weight increases slighly but significantly with the duration of pregnancy just as the average placental-weight. The average ratio birth-weight: placental-weight decreases significantly: The more unfavorable the ratio birth-weight: placental-weight is, the shorter remains the fetus in utero. This underlines the assumption of a relative placental insufficiency as one of the releasing factors of childbirth.

  8. Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  9. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  10. Gender issues in determining the service and research agenda for pregnancy and birth care: The case of home birth in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitendijk, S.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, there are two conceptual models of pregnancy and child birth. In the first, 'male' model, pregnancy and the birth of a baby are biomedical processes. In the second, 'female' model, pregnancy and child birth are major psychosocial events for the woman. The research agenda of obstetricians

  11. Comparison of conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio between genders in level-matched soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pellicer-Chenoll

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: For both men and women, the results showed lower ratios in the non-dominant leg compared to the dominant leg. At higher velocities, the force ratios were higher, while in more knee-flexed positions, the ratios were lower. Finally, we did not find differences in ratios between men and women.

  12. Trends of gender gaps in life expectancy in Japan, 1947-2010: associations with gender mortality ratio and a social development index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Arai, Asuna; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Kanda, Koji; Boostrom, Eugene; Lee, Romeo B; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-07-01

    This study analyzed the trend of gender gaps in life expectancy (GGLE) in Japan between 1947 and 2010, and explored the correlations of GGLE with gender mortality ratio and social development indices. Using GGLE and social indices data collected from the official websites, we carried out trends analysis of GGLE by calculating segmented average growth rates for different periods. We explored the association between GGLE and all-cause mortality; and between GGLE and Human Development Index (HDI) while controlling for time trend, by computing the generalized additive models based on the software R (version 2.15). Japan's GGLE increased in a fluctuating fashion. Across 53 years, the average growth rates varied widely: 0.14% (1947-1956), 1.43% (1956-1974), 1.06% (1974-2004) and -0.60% (2004-2010) (overall average 0.87%). The value of GGLE peaked to 7.00 years in 2004, and then has slowly declined (6.75 years in 2010). Age-adjusted all-cause gender mortality ratio had a statistically positive association with GGLE (Ptrend of GGLE in Japan could be partly explained by increased disease-specific mortality ratios (male/female), especially those involving chronic bronchitis and emphysema, diseases of the liver, suicide and cancer. The recent decline of GGLE might imply that Japanese women have been catching up with the lifestyle of men, resulting in similar mortality patterns. This calls for gender-sensitive approaches to developing policies and programs that will help sustain healthy lifestyles to combat smoking and alcohol intake, and social support to prevent suicide. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Effects of goat social rank on kid gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tölü, C; Savas, T; Pala, A

    2007-01-01

    of sire, age of dam, birth type and year of birth on the gender ratio of Turkish Saanen goat kids were investigated in a full model. The analysis indicated that dominance index (DI) of the dam had a significant influence on the gender ratio of kids (P = 0.036). Certain sires tended to father female...... descendants repeatedly and the dams with high dominance index gave birth to male kids. Effects of sire on kid gender approached significance (P = 0.094). Age of dam, year and birth type were insignificant...

  14. SECULAR TRENDS AND LATITUDE GRADIENTS IN THE MALE-FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH IN YUGOSLAVIA AND THE EX-YUGOSLAVIAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Latitude gradients and secular trends in Europe and North America have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births which approximates 0.515. Methods: Annual national data for Yugoslavia and the post-Yugoslavia States for male and female live births were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed with contingency tables. Results: This study analysed 22,020,729 live births. There was a increasing trend in M/F prior to the breakup of the former Yugoslavia (1950–1990, p = 0.002, followed by a decreasing trend after 1990 (p = 0.02. A latitude gradient was also noted, with more males being born in southern, warmer latitudes (p < 0.0001. There was an overall excess of 42,753 male births based on an anticipated M/F of 0.515. Conclusion: M/F is decreasing in this region, similar to the rest of Europe and North America. A latitude gradient is also present with more males being born in warmer (more Southern latitudes (p < 0.0001, even in this small region and over the short time-frame studied.

  15. Secular trends and latitude gradients in the male-female ratio at birth in Yugoslavia and the ex-Yugoslavian States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Latitude gradients and secular trends in Europe and North America have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births) which approximates 0.515. Annual national data for Yugoslavia and the post-Yugoslavia States for male and female live births were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed with contingency tables. This study analysed 22,020,729 live births. There was a increasing trend in M/F prior to the breakup of the former Yugoslavia (1950-1990, p = 0.002), followed by a decreasing trend after 1990 (p = 0.02). A latitude gradient was also noted, with more males being born in southern, warmer latitudes (p < 0.0001). There was an overall excess of 42,753 male births based on an anticipated M/F of 0.515. M/F is decreasing in this region, similar to the rest of Europe and North America. A latitude gradient is also present with more males being born in warmer (more Southern) latitudes (p < 0.0001), even in this small region and over the short time-frame studied.

  16. Anxiety disorders, gender nonconformity, bullying and self-esteem in sexual minority adolescents: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Abbeygail; Robinson, Emily; Oginni, Olakunle; Rahman, Qazi; Rimes, Katharine A

    2017-11-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (i.e. youth not exclusively heterosexual) report more anxiety than heterosexual youth on symptom questionnaires but no research has used standardised diagnostic tools to investigate anxiety disorder risk. This study uses a UK birth cohort to investigate the risk of anxiety disorders in sexual minority and heterosexual youth using a computerised structured clinical interview and explores the influence of gender nonconformity, bullying and self-esteem. Participants were 4,564 adolescents (2,567 girls and 1,996 boys) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between sexual orientation at 15.5 years and the presence of an anxiety disorder at 17.5 years. Covariates including maternal occupation, ethnicity, mother-reported childhood gender nonconformity at 30, 42 and 57 months, child-reported gender nonconformity at 8 years, child-reported bullying between 12 and 16 years and self-esteem at 17.5 years were added sequentially to regression models. Sexual minority adolescents (i.e. those not exclusively heterosexual) had higher early childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), lower self-esteem and reported more bullying than adolescents identifying as 100% heterosexual. Minority sexual orientation at 15.5 years was associated with increased risk of an anxiety disorder at 17.5 years for girls (OR 2.55, CI 1.85-3.52) and boys (OR 2.48, CI 1.40-4.39). Adjusting for ethnicity, maternal occupation, mother-reported and child-reported CGN had minimal impact on this association. Adjusting for bullying between 12 and 16 years and self-esteem at 17.5 years reduced the strength of the associations, although the overall association remained significant for both sexes (girls OR 2.14 and boys OR 1.93). Sexual minority youth are at increased risk of anxiety disorders relative to heterosexual youth at 17.5 years. Bullying between 12-16 years and lower self

  17. Gender differences in triple jump phase ratios and arm swing motion of international level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female triple jumping is a relatively new athletics event. A limited number of researchers have focused on comparing male and female jumpers competing in international events, resulting in scarce findings in the literature regarding gender differences of the determinants of triple jump performance. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the possible gender differences in the approach step characteristics, the spatiotemporal parameters of the separate phases of the triple jump as performed by athletes participating in sub-elite international events. Methods: The male and female participants of the 2015 European Team Championships triple jump event were recorded with a panning video camera. Approach speed was measured using photocells. Kinematical parameters were extracted using the APAS WIZARD 13.3.0.3 software. The relationships between the examined parameters and the actual triple jump performance were examined with Pearson's correlation analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA and chi-square statistical tests were run to examine the significance of the differences between genders. Results: Approach speed significantly correlated with the actual jumping distance in both males and females (p < .05. Significant gender differences (p < .05 existed concerning basic kinematical parameters. Men were found to have larger average horizontal speed of the 11 m to 1 m segment of the final approach, step length of the final six steps of the approach, step frequency of the final two steps, actual phase distances and percentage distribution of the step. Women, unlike men, used solely single arm swing techniques. No athlete executed the jump using a jump dominated technique. Conclusions: Gender differences in triple jump performance lies upon the kinematical parameters of the final two steps of the approach, the length of the step phase and the support time for the jump. The technique elements of the penultimate step are suggested to

  18. Fraternal Birth Order and Extreme Right-Handedness as Predictors of Sexual Orientation and Gender Nonconformity in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Mariana; Rahman, Qazi

    2015-07-01

    The present study explored whether there were relationships between number of older brothers, handedness, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and sexual orientation in men. We used data from previous British studies conducted in our laboratory (N = 1,011 heterosexual men and 921 gay men). These men had completed measures of demographic variables, number and sex of siblings, CGN, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The results did not replicate the fraternal birth order effect. However, gay men had fewer "other siblings" than heterosexual men (even after controlling for the stopping-rule and family size). In a sub-sample (425 gay men and 478 heterosexual men) with data available on both sibling sex composition and handedness scores, gay men were found to show a significantly greater likelihood of extreme right-handedness and non-right-handedness compared to heterosexual men. There were no significant effects of sibling sex composition in this sub-sample. In a further sub-sample (N = 487) with data available on sibling sex composition, handedness, and CGN, we found that men with feminine scores on CGN were more extremely right-handed and had fewer other-siblings compared to masculine scoring men. Mediation analysis revealed that handedness was associated with sexual orientation directly and also indirectly through the mediating factor of CGN. We were unable to replicate the fraternal birth order effect in our archived dataset but there was evidence for a relationship among handedness, sexual orientation, and CGN. These data help narrow down the number of possible neurodevelopmental pathways leading to variations in male sexual orientation.

  19. A New Gender-Specific Formula to Estimate 24-Hour Urine Protein from Protein to Creatinine Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Mayayo, Maria-Paz; Martinez Alonso, Montserrat; Valdivielso Revilla, Jose M; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of proteinuria with the protein to creatinine ratio (PCR) is influenced by the excretion of creatinine, which, in turn, varies according to muscle mass and hence, to gender. To assess the difference between urine PCR and 24-hour urine proteinuria in men and women and to provide a formula to overcome bias caused by gender. Four hundred and forty four CKD patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 70% were used to develop the models, while the remaining 30% were reserved to validate the formula. Epidemiological data were analyzed with chi-square and Student's t tests. Association between 24-hour proteinuria and PCR was studied with Spearman coefficient in men and women separately. Multivariate analysis was used to find variables predictive of disagreement between the 24-hour urine protein and the PCR. Equations to predict 24-hour proteinuria from PCR for men and women were plotted and validated. Disagreement between 24-hour proteinuria and PCR was more pronounced in men (2.16 and 1.64 g in mean, respectively) than in women (2.00 and 2.06 g in mean, respectively). Age and gender were independent predictors of disagreement. Gender-specific equations for predicting 24-hour proteinuria were: males: 24-hour proteinuria = 1.3350*exp0.9108*ln(PCR); females: 24-hour proteinuria = 1.0068*exp0.9030*ln(PCR). Estimation of proteinuria with the PCR improves accuracy if gender-specific equations are used. Use of the PCR without correction for gender leads to the underestimation of proteinuria in men and overestimation in women. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-19

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  1. Effects of goat social rank on kid gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tölü, C; Savas, T; Pala, A

    2007-01-01

    Mechanisms of gender ratio in progeny are complex and the fine details are still largely unknown, even in mammals. Though the 50% ratio of males and females is expected, various factors have been shown to be effective in diverting the ratio from the expected. In this study, dominance index, effects...... of sire, age of dam, birth type and year of birth on the gender ratio of Turkish Saanen goat kids were investigated in a full model. The analysis indicated that dominance index (DI) of the dam had a significant influence on the gender ratio of kids (P = 0.036). Certain sires tended to father female...... descendants repeatedly and the dams with high dominance index gave birth to male kids. Effects of sire on kid gender approached significance (P = 0.094). Age of dam, year and birth type were insignificant...

  2. Effects of the phthalate exposure during three gestation periods on birth weight and their gender differences: A birth cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hui; Mao, Lei-Jing; Tao, Xing-Yong; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Wang, Qu-Nan; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Zhong-Xiu; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Ye-Qing; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Tao, Xu-Guang; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2018-02-01

    Phthalate has been widely used as a type of plasticiser in various consuming products in daily life. Recent studies have suggested that prenatal phthalate exposure may have adverse effects on fetal development. We aimed to identify the effects of in utero phthalate exposure on birth weight (BW). We evaluated a birth cohort comprising 3474 pregnant women and their single infants; 3103, 2975 and 2838 urine samples were collected in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Phthalate metabolites included monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxylhexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), which were analysed in the urine by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed linear model was used in the statistical analysis. Generally, MMP and MEP exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased birth weight of infants (MMP, β=-12.192, p=0.009; MEP, β=-11.876, p=0.014). Hierarchical analysis found that MMP and MEOHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight only in low birth weight groups (MMP, β=-42.538, p=0.005; MEOHP, β=-63.224, p=0.008); MEHP and MEHHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight in both low birth weight group (MEHP, β=-42.348, p=0.035; MEHHP, β=-50.485, p=0.006) and high birth weight group (MEHP, β=-16.580, p=0.034; MEHHP, β=-18.009, p=0.040), MBP and MEHP exposure were associated with increased infants' birth weight in male NBW group (MBP, β=10.438, p=0.039; MEHP, β=13.223, p=0.017). Moreover, the effect has sex difference. The reduction of birth weight associated with MEHP and MEOHP exposure was stronger in male infants, while MMP and MEP exposure was more significant in female infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Socioeconomic status and sex ratios at birth in Sweden: No evidence for a Trivers-Willard effect for a wide range of status indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Schnettler, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This study examines if there exists a positive association between socioeconomic status and the proportion of male births in humans, as proposed by Trivers and Willard in 1973, using individual-level data drawn from the complete population of Sweden. We examine more than 3,000,000 births between 1960 and 2007 using administrative register data with comprehensive information on various dimensions of socioeconomic status. We use six different operationalizations of socioeconomic status, including earnings, post-transfer income (including government allowances), wealth, parental wealth, educational level, and occupational class. We apply regression models that compare both changes in status for the same woman over time and differences in status across different women. We also measure socioeconomic status both at the year of child birth and the year of conception. Our results show the absence of any relationship between socioeconomic status and sex ratios, using a large number of different operationalizations of status. We conclude that no substantive relationship between socioeconomic status and sex ratios exists for the population and period of our study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Variations of Torg Ratio with Gender in Patients with Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlen Karabulut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Torg Ratio which may help to identify patients at risk for cervical spine cord injuries is an indicator of cervical canal stenosis determined by dividing the sagittal spinal canal diameter by the corresponding sagittal vertebral-body diameter. It was reported that male and female subjects showed differences in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate these differences. Our study that included the subjects 45 women and 45 men with neck pain was carried out at Diyarbakır State Hospital. The mean ages of male and female participants were 30 and 33. We measured both diaemeters on the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine in mm by using a Vernier Calipper. Women had smaller sagittal spinal canal and vertebral body diameters at all levels. The narrowest sagittal spinal canal diameters measured were at C4 level in men and at C2 level in women. The mean Torg Ratio was 0.73 at C4 in men and 0.80 at C2 in women. We found larger Torg Ratios in females at all cervical vertebral levels except C2 level.

  5. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Madhusoodhanan, M.; Jagadeesan, C.K.; Das, Birajalaxmi; Andrews, V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. (orig.)

  6. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Laboratory, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Kollam (India); Madhusoodhanan, M. [Victoria Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kollam (India); Jagadeesan, C.K. [Directorate of Health Services, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Das, Birajalaxmi [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Mumbai (India); Andrews, V.J.

    2015-11-15

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. (orig.)

  7. When Gender Identity Doesn't Equal Sex Recorded at Birth: The Role of the Laboratory in Providing Effective Healthcare to the Transgender Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Zil; Corneil, Trevor A; Greene, Dina N

    2017-08-01

    Transgender is an umbrella term used to describe individuals who identify with a gender incongruent to or variant from their sex recorded at birth. Affirming gender identity through a variety of social, medical, and surgical interventions is critical to the mental health of transgender individuals. In recent years, awareness surrounding transgender identities has increased, which has highlighted the health disparities that parallel this demographic. These disparities are reflected in the experience of transgender patients and their providers when seeking clinical laboratory services. Little is known about the effect of gender-affirming hormone therapy and surgery on optimal laboratory test interpretation. Efforts to diminish health disparities encountered by transgender individuals and their providers can be accomplished by increasing social and clinical awareness regarding sex/gender incongruence and gaining insight into the physiological manifestations and laboratory interpretations of gender-affirming strategies. This review summarizes knowledge required to understand transgender healthcare including current clinical interventions for gender dysphoria. Particular attention is paid to the subsequent impact of these interventions on laboratory test utilization and interpretation. Common nomenclature and system barriers are also discussed. Understanding gender incongruence, the clinical changes associated with gender transition, and systemic barriers that maintain a gender/sex binary are key to providing adequate healthcare to transgender community. Transgender appropriate reference interval studies are virtually absent within the medical literature and should be explored. The laboratory has an important role in improving the physiological understanding, electronic medical system recognition, and overall social awareness of the transgender community. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. The Sex Ratio at Birth for 5,338,853 Deliveries in China from 2012 to 2015: A Facility-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available The accuracy of a population-based sex ratio at birth (SRB in China has long been questioned. To depict a more accurate profile, the present study used data from a national surveillance system for health facility births to explore the characteristics of SRB in China.Data from China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System between 2012 and 2015 were used. We restricted the analysis to live births of ≥28 completed gestational weeks or ≥1000 g birth weight. The strength of association between obstetric characteristics and SRB was examined using logistic regression, taking into account the sampling strategy and clustering of births within health facilities.There were 2,785,513 boys and 2,549,269 girls born alive between 2012 and 2015 in 441 health facilities. The SRB was 111.04 in 2012, 110.16 in 2013, 108.79 in 2014, and 109.53 in 2015. The SRB was high in the eastern region, especially in rural areas. The SRBs increased with mother's age and decreased with mother's education. The SRB in women who were pregnant for the first time was 104.30. The SRB in primipara was normal (104.35, but it was extremely high in non-primipara, especially for women with three or more parities (141.76; only 5.26% of live births fell within this group. The SRBs increased significantly by the number of parities, especially in the rural areas of the central region. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, women with three or more parities were 1.39 (95% CI 1.34, 1.43 times more likely to give birth to a boy compared with primiparae who were pregnant for the first time.Our analysis suggests that the SRB was lower than what was reported officially but higher than normal. The government should keep strengthening supervision to prevent sex-selection, especially in the wake of the two-child policy implemented in 2015.

  9. Tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio as a therapeutic drug monitoring strategy: The influence of gender and comedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rančić Nemanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A combination of tacrolimus and other drugs such as corticosteroids has been commonly used immunosuppresive regimens. On the other hand, there is a growing body of evidence that male and female may differ in their response to the equal drug treatment. The aim of the study was to estimated the use of tacrolimus concentration/dose (C/D ratio for the assessment of the influence of gender differences and comedication on tacrolimus exposure in renal transplant recipients. Methods. This prospective case series study included 54 patients, in which the unit of monitoring was outpatient examination (1,872 of the renal transplant patients. The patients were monitored in the period 2010-2014, starting one month after the transplantation. Tacrolimus trough concentrations (TTC were measured by chemiluminescence microparticles immunoassay. Results. TTC and the tacrolimus C/D ratio were significantly lower in the females comparing with the males. Contrary to the males, in the females a significant increase of the tacrolimus daily dose (TDD per body weight and TTC, along with the corticosteroid dose increase, was not accompanied by any significant changes in the tacrolimus C/D ratio; in different corticosteroid doses faster elimination of tacrolimus was found with the exception of the doses > 0.25 mg/kg. In the patients treated with proton pump inhibitors, mainly with pantoprazole TDD per body weight and TTC were significantly higher, while the tacrolimus C/D ratio was significantly lower compared to the patients without this treatment. In the patients treated with calcium channel blockers, TDD per body weight was significantly lower (particularly with amlodipine while the tacrolimus C/D ratio was higher compared to the patients who were not treated by them. Conclusion. A lower tacrolimus exposure was detected in females in comparison to males. When gender differences were considered in the context of different corticosteroid doses, faster

  10. The effect on human sex ratio at birth by assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures--an assessment of babies born following single embryo transfers, Australia and New Zealand, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J H; Chapman, M G; Sullivan, E A

    2010-12-01

    To assess the effect on the human sex ratio at birth by assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures. Retrospective population-based study. Fertility clinics in Australia and New Zealand. The study included 13,368 babies by 13,165 women who had a single embryo transfer (SET) between 2002 and 2006. Logistic regression was used to model the effect on the sex ratio at birth of ART characteristics [in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI) SET, cleavage-stage or blastocyst SET, and fresh or thawed SET] and biological characteristics (woman's and partner's age and cause of infertility). Proportion of male births. The crude sex ratio at birth was 51.3%. Individual ART procedures had a significant effect on the sex ratio at birth. More males were born following IVF SET (53.0%) than ICSI SET (50.0%), and following blastocyst SET (54.1%) than cleavage-stage SET (49.9%). For a specific ART regimen, IVF blastocyst SET produced more males (56.1%) and ICSI cleavage-stage SET produced fewer males (48.7%). The change in the sex ratio at birth of SET babies is associated with the ART regimen. The mechanism of these effects remains unclear. Fertility clinics and patients should be aware of the bias in the sex ratio at birth when using ART procedures. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  11. On the gender–science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Frederick L.; Nosek, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity. PMID:25964765

  12. Nexus of Health and Development: Modelling Crude Birth Rate and Maternal Mortality Ratio Using Nighttime Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Roychowdhury

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Health and development are intricately related. Although India has made significant progress in the last few decades in the health sector and overall growth in GDP, there are still large regional differences in both health and development. The main objective of this paper is to develop techniques for the prediction of health indicators for all the districts of India and examine the correlations between health and development. The level of electrification and district domestic product (DDP are considered as two fundamental indicators of development in this research. These data, along with health metrics and the information from two nighttime satellite images, were used to propose the models. These successfully predicted the health indicators with less than a 7%–10% error. The chosen health metrics, such as crude birth rate (CBR and maternal mortality rate (MMR, were mapped for the whole country at the district level. These metrics showed very strong correlation with development indicators (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.92 to 0.99 at the 99% confidence interval. This is the first attempt to use Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS (satellite imagery in a socio-economic study. This paper endorses the observation that areas with a higher DDP and level of electrification have overall better health conditions.

  13. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Kiran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. Methods In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. Results 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5 experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8% experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2. The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18. There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Conclusions Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery

  14. The association between living through a prolonged economic depression and the male:female birth ratio--a longitudinal study from Cuba, 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero Fernández, Silvia Josefina; Medina, Ramon Suárez; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2011-12-15

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis suggests that populations respond to scarcity by decreasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. Cuba experienced an extreme economic depression in the 1990s called the "special period." Using time-series analysis, the authors studied the impact of this event on the male:female sex ratio at birth in Cuba from 1960 to 2008. From 1990 to 1993, the per capita gross domestic product in Cuba decreased by 36%. By use of a definition of the special period from 1991 to 1998, there was a prolonged increase in the male:female ratio of livebirths during this period of economic depression (P Cuba, contrary to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, the human population responded to conditions of scarcity by increasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. These data may be relevant in the modeling of demographic projections in countries that experience prolonged economic depression and in understanding adaptive human reproductive responses to environmental change.

  15. The walk ratio: Investigation of invariance across walking conditions and gender in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Bård; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Aaslund, Mona Kristin

    2018-02-21

    The step length-cadence ratio, also called the walk ratio (WR; cm/steps/min) is a measure of cautious gait, poor balance control or impaired gait, but has not been investigated for both genders in a general population of older adults across different speeds and conditions. The participants were community-dwelling volunteers between 70 and 81 years. They walked 6.5 m under four different conditions: At preferred speed, fast speed, during a dual task condition and on an uneven surface. Step length (cm) and cadence (steps/minute) was captured using a body-worn sensor. Both cadence and step lengths were adjusted for body height. 70 older adults participated (mean age 75.5 (SD 3.4), 60 percent women). The WR was 0.60 cm/steps/min (SD 0.07) during preferred speed walking, 0.58 cm/steps/min (SD 0.07) during fast walking, 0.68 cm/steps/min (SD 0.18) during dual task-walking and 0.59 cm/steps/min (0.07) during uneven surface-walking. In planned pairwise comparisons, the WR during dual task was significantly different from preferred speed walking (mean difference -0.087 cm/steps/min, 95% CI -0.140, -0.033), from fast speed walking (mean difference -0.098 cm/steps/min, 95% CI -0.154, -0.041) and uneven surface walking (mean difference 0.092 cm/steps/min, 95% CI 0.040, 0.145). There were no gender differences except during the fast walking condition, where women had a significantly lower WR than the men (0.56 cm/steps/min vs 0.61 cm/steps/min, p = 0.002). We found that the WR is invariant during different speeds, and during an uneven surface condition, but is affected during a dual task-condition, when attention must be divided between a cognitive and a motor task. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A influência do gênero e ordem de nascimento sobre as práticas educativas parentais Gender and birth order as parenting moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o gênero e a ordem de nascimento como variáveis moderadoras das práticas educativas parentais e da percepção da preferência parental a partir do ponto de vista dos filhos. Participaram da pesquisa 322 adolescentes entre 13 e 17 anos. Foram utilizados dois instrumentos para a coleta de dados: Inventário de Estilos Parentais (IEP e um questionário desenvolvido pelos autores. Os dados foram analisados através da estatística não-paramétrica (Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. Através da análise dos resultados, constatou-se que: (a o gênero dos filhos interfere significativamente nos índices de estilo parental; (b as primogênitas apresentaram significativamente maior risco de sofrer com as práticas parentais negativas e (c a percepção da preferência parental é influenciada pelo gênero e ordem de nascimento dos filhos.This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.

  17. UNPACKING THE DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF FAMILY PLANNING POLICIES IN CHINA: ANALYSIS OF PARITY PROGRESSION RATIOS FROM RETROSPECTIVE BIRTH HISTORY DATA, 1971-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Min; Falkingham, Jane; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2018-01-10

    Although China's family planning programme is often referred to in the singular, most notably the One-Child policy, in reality there have been a number of different policies in place simultaneously, targeted at different sub-populations characterized by region and socioeconomic conditions. This study attempted to systematically assess the differential impact of China's family planning programmes over the past 40 years. The contribution of Parity Progression Ratios to fertility change among different sub-populations exposed to various family planning policies over time was assessed. Cross-sectional birth history data from six consecutive rounds of nationally representative population and family planning surveys from the early 1970s until the mid-2000s were used, covering all geographical regions of China. Four sub-populations exposed to differential family planning regimes were identified. The analyses provide compelling evidence of the influential role of family planning policies in reducing higher Parity Progression Ratios across different sub-populations, particularly in urban China where fertility dropped to replacement level even before the implementation of the One-Child policy. The prevailing socioeconomic conditions in turn have been instrumental in adapting and accelerating family planning policy responses to reducing fertility levels across China.

  18. Effect of gender and maturity on quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio and anterior cruciate ligament laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Clark, A Martin; Heilmann, Niels; Schoeb, J Scott; Gardner, Thomas R; Levine, William N

    2006-03-01

    Exercise programs have been introduced to reduce the ACL injury risk in female athletes. The most effective age at which to start these programs is not known. Age and gender affect ligament laxity and quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-three female and 70 male recreational soccer players, 10 to 18 years of age, were studied with physical examination, KT-1000 arthrometry, and manual maximum quadriceps and hamstring strength using a handheld dynamometer. The subjects were separated into 4 groups to examine maturity-related intergender differences: group G1, premenarchal girls (n = 24); group B1, boys 13 years and younger (n = 38); group G2, girls 2 or more years after menarche (n = 29); and group B2, boys 14 years and older (n = 32). Both knees of 123 soccer players were evaluated. The mean ages for groups G1, B1, G2, and B2 were 11.50 +/- 1.69, 10.63 +/- 1.85, 15.5 +/- 1.43, and 15.59 +/- 1.24 years, respectively, and the mean laxity measurements were 8.84 +/- 2.12, 8.51 +/- 1.61, 8.85 +/- 1.86, and 7.33 +/- 1.27 mm, respectively. Laxity was significantly less for the mature boys (P = .0015) than for the immature boys, mature girls, and immature girls. With increasing maturity, significant increases in both quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength were observed for both boys and girls (P hamstring strength with maturity (179%) compared with girls (27%) (P quadriceps-to-hamstring ratio when compared with immature girls (1.74), immature boys (1.58), and mature boys (1.48) (P quadriceps strength greater than their hamstring strength, putting them at risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Anterior cruciate ligament-prevention programs based on improving dynamic control of the knee by emphasizing hamstring strengthening should be instituted for girls after menarche.

  19. Influence of gender on the ratio of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with and without hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Jorge R; Dickson, Beverly; Feldman, Mark

    2008-03-01

    The serum asparate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio is widely used in the differential diagnosis of icteric and non-icteric hepatic disorders. Our objective was to determine whether there are gender related-differences in the serum AST/ALT ratio. We used sera from 3,618 unselected patients sent to our laboratory for an automated chemistry panel, which included measurements of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Effects of gender on serum AST, ALT, and AST/ALT were examined in different age groups. Among patients with normal total serum bilirubin concentrations, serum AST and ALT concentrations were significantly lower in the females than in the males (P < 0.0001). However, the serum AST/ALT ratio was higher in the females than the males (median values of 0.90 and 0.81, respectively; P < 0.0001). AST and ALT were also lower in the 54 hyperbilirubinemic females than in the 102 hyperbilirubinemic males. Serum AST/ALT ratios were considerably higher in these 156 hyperbilirubinemic patients than in the normobilirubinemic group, with median ratios of 1.09 in females and 0.92 in males (P = 0.02). Significantly higher serum AST/ALT ratios in females were first evident in the 3rd age decade and remained significantly higher than ratios in males through the 8th decade. We conclude that serum AST/ALT ratios are higher in women than men. When clinicians utilize serum AST/ALT ratios to assess the etiology or chronicity of liver disease, the patient's gender also should be taken into consideration.

  20. Cerebroplacental ratio thresholds measured within two weeks of birth and the risk of Cesarean section for intrapartum fetal compromise and adverse neonatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Bligh, Larissa; Alsolai, Amal A; Greer, Ristan M; Kumar, Sailesh

    2017-06-08

    Prediction of intrapartum fetal compromise in uncomplicated, term pregnancies is a global obstetric challenge. Currently, no widely accepted screening test for this condition exists, although the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) shows promise. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the screening performance of the CPR 10 th centile for detection of Cesarean section for intrapartum fetal compromise (IFC) and composite adverse neonatal outcome (ANO) in low-risk women from 36 weeks and to determine the best CPR threshold from three previously described in the literature. In a blinded, prospective, observational, cohort study, 483 women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies underwent fortnightly CPR measurement from 36 weeks to delivery and intrapartum and neonatal outcomes were recorded. The CPR 10 th centile threshold screening test performance was calculated for emergency Cesarean section for IFC and composite ANO, incorporating acidosis at birth, Apgar Cesarean section for IFC and 17.9% had a composite ANO. Sensitivity and specificity for CPR Cesarean section IFC and composite ANO, respectively. Comparing the three CPR thresholds, CPR Cesarean section for IFC area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.72, composite ANO area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.58), although its predictive utility was only fair for Cesarean section for IFC and poor for composite ANO. The CPR 10 th centile may be useful as a component of a risk assessment tool for Cesarean section for IFC in low risk pregnancies at term. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood social class and adult adiposity and blood-pressure trajectories 36-53 years: gender-specific results from a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Murray, Emily T; Guralnik, Jack; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigate gender-specific effects of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) on adiposity and blood pressure at three time points in adulthood. Mixed models were used to assess the association of childhood SEP with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ages 36, 43 and 53 years in a British birth cohort. The adverse effect of lower childhood SEP on adiposity increased between ages 36 and 53 years in women (BMI: trend test: p=0.03) and remained stable in men, but the opposite was seen for SBP, where inequalities increased in men (p=0.01). Childhood SEP inequalities in DBP were stable with age in both men and women. Educational attainment mediated some but not all of the effects of childhood SEP on adiposity and SBP, and their rate of change; adult social class was a less important mediator. Childhood SEP is important for adult adiposity and blood pressure across midlife, especially for BMI in women and for blood pressure in men. Thus, pathways to adult health differ for men and women, and public health policies aimed at reducing social inequalities need to start early in life and take account of gender.

  2. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Mahony, Rhona; Malone, Fergal D

    2011-07-01

    To establish the level of birth weight discordance at which perinatal morbidity increases in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancy. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1,028 unselected twin pairs recruited over a 2-year period. Participants underwent two weekly ultrasonographic surveillance from 24 weeks of gestation with surveillance of monochorionic twins two-weekly from 16 weeks. Analysis using Cox proportional hazards compared a composite measure of perinatal morbidity (including any of the following: mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or sepsis) at different degrees of birth weight discordance with adjustment for chorionicity, gestational age, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, birth order, gender, and growth restriction. Perinatal outcome data were recorded for 977 patients (100%) who continued the study with both fetuses alive beyond 24 weeks, including 14 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Adjusting for gestation at delivery, twin order, gender, and growth restriction, perinatal mortality, individual morbidity, and composite perinatal morbidity were all seen to increase with birth weight discordance exceeding 18% for dichorionic pairs (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.9, Pbirth weights were appropriate for gestational age. : The threshold for birth weight discordance established by this prospective study is 18% both for dichorionic twin pairs and for monochorionic twins without twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This threshold is considerably lower than that defined by many retrospective series as pathologic. We suggest that an anticipated difference of 18% in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring.

  3. Significant effect of gender on hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratio and static balance in prepubescent children from 7 to 12 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Inger; Vøllestad, Nina

    2008-10-01

    A number of studies have reported lower muscular strength of the hamstring and the quadriceps and better postural control in female compared with male athletes. Whether those differences are innate and also exist in children and adolescents or are caused by training and participation in different sports is unknown. Gender differences in hamstring and quadriceps muscular strength and static balance exist even before maturity. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 368 children between 7 and 12 years of age participated in the study. They performed isokinetic concentric hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength measurements at 60 and 240 deg/s and a static balance test using the KAT 2000. Data analysis consisted of independent-samples t tests and multiple regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on both the hamstring/quadriceps (HQ) ratios and static balance in children between 7 and 12 years of age. Except for the 7-year-old participants, boys showed significantly higher HQ ratios than the girls in every age group, indicating that the hamstring muscles in girls were relatively weak when compared with the quadriceps muscles. There was also a gender effect on the balance index with better balance in girls than boys. There is a significant gender difference in HQ ratios and static balance in children between 8 and 12 years of age. Because many children start their handball careers before the age of 10 years, the present findings indicate that prevention programs including hamstring strength training should be prescribed at an earlier age than recommended in previously published studies.

  4. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganlin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  5. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  6. Maternal race and intergenerational preterm birth recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth is a complex disorder with a heritable genetic component. Studies of primarily White women born preterm show that they have an increased risk of subsequently delivering preterm. This risk of intergenerational preterm birth is poorly defined among Black women. Our objective was to evaluate and compare intergenerational preterm birth risk among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study, using the Virginia Intergenerational Linked Birth File. All non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers born in Virginia 1960 through 1996 who delivered their first live-born, nonanomalous, singleton infant ≥20 weeks from 2005 through 2009 were included. We assessed the overall gestational age distribution between non-Hispanic Black and White mothers born term and preterm (preterm (preterm birth, 34-36 weeks; and early preterm birth, preterm birth among all eligible births; and (2) suspected spontaneous preterm birth among births to women with medical complications (eg, diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia and thus higher risk for a medically indicated preterm birth). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth by maternal race and maternal gestational age after adjusting for confounders including maternal education, maternal age, smoking, drug/alcohol use, and infant gender. Of 173,822 deliveries captured in the intergenerational birth cohort, 71,676 (41.2%) women met inclusion criteria for this study. Of the entire cohort, 30.0% (n = 21,467) were non-Hispanic Black and 70.0% were non-Hispanic White mothers. Compared to non-Hispanic White mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have been born late preterm (6.8% vs 3.7%) or early preterm (2.8 vs 1.0%), P preterm were not at an increased risk of early or late preterm delivery compared to non-Hispanic White mothers born term. The risk of early preterm birth was most

  7. Vertebral heights and ratios are not only race-specific, but also gender- and region-specific: establishment of reference values for mainland Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lei; Song, Li-Jiang; Fan, Shun-Wu; Zhao, Xing; Chen, Yi-Lei; Li, Zhao-Zhi; Hu, Zi-Ang

    2017-10-11

    This study established gender-specific reference values in mainland Chinese (MC) and is important for quantitative morphometry for diagnosis and epidemiological study of osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture. Comparisons of reference values among different racial populations are then performed to demonstrate the MC-specific characteristic. Osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture (OVCF) is a common complication of osteoporosis in the elder population. Clinical diagnosis and epidemiological study of OVCF often employ quantitative morphometry, which relies heavily on the comparison of patients' vertebral parameters to existing reference values derived from the normal population. Thus, reference values are crucial in clinical diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish reference values of the mainland Chinese (MC) for quantitative morphometry. Vertebral heights including anterior (Ha), middle (Hm), posterior (Hp) heights, and predicted posterior height (pp) from T4 to L5 were obtained; and ratios of Ha/Hp, Hm/Hp and Hp/pp. were calculated from 585 MC (both female and male) for establishing reference values and subsequent comparisons with other studies. Vertebral heights increased progressively from T4 to L3 but then decreased in L4 and L5. Both genders showed similar ratios of vertebral dimensions, but male vertebrae were statistically larger than those of female (P values for MC. Our results also indicated the necessity of establishing reference values that are not only race- and gender-specific, but also population- or region-specific for accurate quantitative morphometric assessment of OVCF.

  8. Are community midwives addressing the inequities in access to skilled birth attendance in Punjab, Pakistan? Gender, class and social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; O'Brien, Beverley; Bhatti, Afshan; Jhangri, Gian S

    2012-09-19

    Pakistan is one of the six countries estimated to contribute to over half of all maternal deaths worldwide. To address its high maternal mortality rate, in particular the inequities in access to maternal health care services, the government of Pakistan created a new cadre of community-based midwives (CMW). A key expectation is that the CMWs will improve access to skilled antenatal and intra-partum care for the poor and disadvantaged women. A critical gap in our knowledge is whether this cadre of workers, operating in the private health care context, will meet the expectation to provide care to the poorest and most marginalized women. There is an inherent paradox between the notions of fee-for-service and increasing access to health care for the poorest who, by definition, are unable to pay. Data will be collected in three interlinked modules. Module 1 will consist of a population-based survey in the catchment areas of the CMW's in districts Jhelum and Layyah in Punjab. Proportions of socially excluded women who are served by CMWs and their satisfaction levels with their maternity care provider will be assessed. Module 2 will explore, using an institutional ethnographic approach, the challenges (organizational, social, financial) that CMWs face in providing care to the poor and socially marginalized women. Module 3 will identify the social, financial, geographical and other barriers to uncover the hidden forces and power relations that shape the choices and opportunities of poor and marginalized women in accessing CMW services. An extensive knowledge dissemination plan will facilitate uptake of research findings to inform positive developments in maternal health policy, service design and care delivery in Pakistan. The findings of this study will enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women's marginalization from health care systems, including community midwifery care. One key outcome will be an increased sensitization

  9. Are community midwives addressing the inequities in access to skilled birth attendance in Punjab, Pakistan? Gender, class and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Zubia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan is one of the six countries estimated to contribute to over half of all maternal deaths worldwide. To address its high maternal mortality rate, in particular the inequities in access to maternal health care services, the government of Pakistan created a new cadre of community-based midwives (CMW. A key expectation is that the CMWs will improve access to skilled antenatal and intra-partum care for the poor and disadvantaged women. A critical gap in our knowledge is whether this cadre of workers, operating in the private health care context, will meet the expectation to provide care to the poorest and most marginalized women. There is an inherent paradox between the notions of fee-for-service and increasing access to health care for the poorest who, by definition, are unable to pay. Methods/Design Data will be collected in three interlinked modules. Module 1 will consist of a population-based survey in the catchment areas of the CMW’s in districts Jhelum and Layyah in Punjab. Proportions of socially excluded women who are served by CMWs and their satisfaction levels with their maternity care provider will be assessed. Module 2 will explore, using an institutional ethnographic approach, the challenges (organizational, social, financial that CMWs face in providing care to the poor and socially marginalized women. Module 3 will identify the social, financial, geographical and other barriers to uncover the hidden forces and power relations that shape the choices and opportunities of poor and marginalized women in accessing CMW services. An extensive knowledge dissemination plan will facilitate uptake of research findings to inform positive developments in maternal health policy, service design and care delivery in Pakistan. Discussion The findings of this study will enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women’s marginalization from health care systems, including

  10. Gender Issues in Health Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke

    2015-01-01

    Gender wise analysis of data brings out biological, behavioural and social variables which indicate inequality in the health parameters in male and female sex. There is discrimination against women. Right to birth is denied by sex selective elimination, right to survival is denied by the neglect of girl child resulting in declining trend of child sex ratio which has reached an alarming low level of 914 in 2011 in spite of the fact that the female sex is biologically st...

  11. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  12. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  13. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  14. The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J J; Wharrad, H

    2001-05-01

    The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy. This is the third and final paper drawing on data taken from United Nations (UN) data sets. The first paper examined the global distribution of health professionals (as measured by ratios of physicians and nurses to population), and its relationship to gross national product per capita (GNP) (Wharrad & Robinson 1999). The second paper explored the relationships between the global distribution of physicians and nurses, GNP, female literacy and the health outcome indicators of infant and under five mortality rates (IMR and u5MR) (Robinson & Wharrad 2000). In the present paper, the global distribution of health professionals is explored in relation to maternal mortality rates (MMRs). The proportion of births attended by medical and nonmedical staff defined as "attendance at birth by trained personnel" (physicians, nurses, midwives or primary health care workers trained in midwifery skills), is included as an additional independent variable in the regression analyses, together with the ratio of physicians and nurses to population, female literacy and GNP. To extend our earlier analyses by considering the relationships between the global distribution of health professionals (ratios of physicians and nurses to population, and the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel), GNP, female literacy and MMR. births attended by trained health personnel, GNP per capita and female literacy as independent variables and MMRs as the dependent variable. Linear regression analyses show positive associations for MMRs and the ratios of physicians to population (73%, n=136), ratios of nurses to population (56%, n=137), and the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel (83%, n=118). Multiple regression analyses reveal a more complex picture

  15. The Educational Value of Hinduism on the Gumi Suda Ceremony at the Birth of the Twin Babies with Different Genders (Case Study at Pakraman Village of Ketewel, Sukawati District, Gianyar Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asthadi Mahendra Bhandesa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the educational values of Hinduism on the Gumi Suda ceremony at the Birth of the twin babies with different genders in Pakraman Village of Ketewel, Sukawati District, Gianyar Regency.  The data were collected by using interviews technique and literatures review. Furthermore, the data were analyzed through data reduction process or chosen according to the purpose of the research. The data analysis process was done continuously during the research from the beginning until the end of the research through the systematic tracking and arranging process of the transcripts of interviews, field notes and other materials. The Findings indicated that some of the educational values of Hinduism on the Gumi Suda ceremony at the birth of the twin babies with different genders in Pakraman Village of Ketewel, Sukawati District, Gianyar Regency are tattwa, ethics, ceremonial, health education and social educational values.

  16. Gender equality and smoking: a theory-driven approach to smoking gender differences in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Beltrán, Paula; Fernández, Esteve; Navas-Acien, Ana; Bolumar, Francisco; Franco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The intersection between gender and class can aid in understanding gender differences in smoking. To analyse how changes in gender inequality relate to differences in smoking prevalence by gender, education and birth cohort in Spain over the past five decades (1960-2010). The Gender Inequality Index (GII) was calculated in 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010. GII ranges from 0 to 1 (1=highest inequality) and encompasses three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Estimates of female and male smoking prevalence were reconstructed from representative National Health Surveys and stratified by birth cohort and level of education. We calculated female-to-male smoking ratios from 1960 to 2010 stratified by education and birth cohort. Gender inequality in Spain decreased from 0.65 to 0.09 over the past 50 years. This rapid decline was inversely correlated (r=-0.99) to a rising female-to-male smoking ratio. The youngest birth cohort of the study (born 1980-1990) and women with high education levels had similar smoking prevalences compared with men. Women with high levels of education were also the first to show a reduction in smoking prevalence, compared with less educated women. Gender inequality fell significantly in Spain over the past 50 years. This process was accompanied by converging trends in smoking prevalence for men and women. Smoking prevalence patterns varied greatly by birth cohort and education levels. Countries in earlier stages of the tobacco epidemic should consider gender-sensitive tobacco control measures and policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Gender-based differences in injecting drug use by young adults who experienced maltreatment in childhood: Findings from an Australian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Clavarino, Alexandra; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-04-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a range of adverse mental and psychosocial outcomes, but its association with subsequent injecting drug use (IDU) is less clear. This study investigates the associations between specific and multiple forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment and IDU reported at 21 years. The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective birth cohort study. It recruited pregnant women at their first antenatal clinic visit and collected data on their children at 21 years. Data from 3750 participants (1769 males and 1981 females) were analysed using agency substantiated childhood maltreatment from birth to 14 years of age and self-reports of ever IDU at 21 years. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to control for possible confounders. The sample's mean age was 20.6 years. Some 4.1% (n=72) of males and 4.6% (n=91) of females had experienced substantiated childhood maltreatment. The prevalence of IDU was 6.6% (n=118) and 4.6% (n=91) for males and females, respectively. In adjusted models, all forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment, with the exception of sexual abuse, were associated with IDU in females (adjusted odds ratios (AORs)=2.69-3.02) but only emotional abuse (AOR=2.51) was associated with IDU in males. Multiply occurring forms of childhood maltreatment were also associated with IDU in females (AORs=2.36-3.41) but not in males. Injecting drug use appears to be an adverse outcome of childhood maltreatment particularly in females. Additional research is needed to better understand why females appear to be more affected than males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. India's Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India's patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide.

  19. Epidemiology of gender dysphoria and transgender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-10-01

    This review provides an update on the epidemiology of gender dysphoria and transgender identity in children, adolescents and adults. Although the prevalence of gender dysphoria, as it is operationalised in the fifth edtion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), remains a relatively 'rare' or 'uncommon' diagnosis, there is evidence that it has increased in the past couple of decades, perhaps reflected in the large increase in referral rates to specialised gender identity clinics. In childhood, the sex ratio continues to favour birth-assigned males, but in adolescents, there has been a recent inversion in the sex ratio from one favouring birth-assigned males to one favouring birth-assigned females. In both adolescents and adults, patterns of sexual orientation vary as a function of birth-assigned sex. Recent studies suggest that the prevalence of a self-reported transgender identity in children, adolescents and adults ranges from 0.5 to 1.3%, markedly higher than prevalence rates based on clinic-referred samples of adults. The stability of a self-reported transgender identity or a gender identity that departs from the traditional male-female binary among non-clinic-based populations remains unknown and requires further study.

  20. Ethnic and gender consensus for the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on judgment of women's attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Luis, S

    1995-03-01

    The western consensus is that obese women are considered attractive by Afro-Americans and by many societies from nonwestern developing countries. This belief rests mainly on results of nonstandardized surveys dealing only with body weight and size, ignoring body fat distribution. The anatomical distribution of female body fat as measured by the ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR) is related to reproductive age, fertility, and risk for various major diseases and thus might play a role in judgment of attractiveness. Previous research (Singh 1993a, 1993b) has shown that in the United States Caucasian men and women judge female figures with feminine WHRs as attractive and healthy. To investigate whether young Indonesian and Afro-American men and women rate such figures similarly, female figures representing three body sizes (underweight, normal weight, and overweight) and four WHRs (two feminine and two masculine) were used. Results show that neither Indonesian nor Afro-American subjects judge overweight figures as attractive and healthy regardless of the size of WHR. They judged normal weight figures with feminine WHRs as most attractive, healthy, and youthful. The consensus on women's attractiveness among Indonesian, Afro-American, and U.S. Caucasian male and female subjects suggests that various cultural groups have similar criteria for judging the ideal woman's shape.

  1. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman

    2011-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...

  2. Status of Women in Society and Life Expectancy at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Novak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the status of women in society over life expectancy at birth. Based on the data of some of the socio-economic variables for 187 countries worldwide, collected by the United Nations within United Nations Development Programme – Human Development Report, we developed a regression model of life expectancy factors. Through empirical testing of the three hypotheses which refer to different aspects of the status of women in society, we found that the employment ratio between women and men has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth, which is, at least at first glance, unexpected. At the same time, the number of teenage births per 100 women aged 15–19 as well as gender inequality has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth.

  3. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among

  4. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  5. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W, Feldman

    2011-08-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination.

  6. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  7. Association between air pollution and preterm birth among neonates born in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have investigated the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight (LBW in an Iranian pregnant population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we identified 4758 consecutive singleton birth records from one large referral hospital (2010-2012 in Isfahan, Iran. We identified cases of preterm birth and LBW, which were combined with meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. We estimated the effect of air pollution exposure during the entire pregnancy, each trimester, and last month, and preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks and LBW (<2500 g by Pollutant Standard Index (PSI using logistic regression adjusted for gestational age, neonate gender, birth order, and mother′s age. Results: The PSI for entire pregnancy was significantly associated with preterm birth [Odds Ratio (95% CI = 1.26 (1.20, 1.33]. There was no association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and each trimester and the last month of pregnancy, and preterm birth or LBW. Conclusion: Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during the entire pregnancy was associated with preterm birth in Isfahani women.

  8. Sex Ratio and Twinning in Women with Hyperemesis or Pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    We examined twinning and fetal gender in births of women with a hospital diagnosis of pre-eclampsia or hyperemesis. We also investigated sex ratio in infants whose mothers had had hyperemesis or pre-eclampsia in a different pregnancy. From all the hospitalized cases in Denmark between 1980 and 1996...... we extracted 6,227 births with hyperemesis and 24,764 with pre-eclampsia. Twins were more frequent in pregnancies with either condition. The male to female sex ratio was 1.04 (95%CI = 1.02-1.05) in the reference population, 0.87 (95% CI = 0.82-0.91) in births with hyperemesis, and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.......07-1.12) in births with pre-eclampsia. Women with pre-eclampsia had slightly more males also in non-affected pregnancies....

  9. Gender Issues in Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender wise analysis of data brings out biological, behavioural and social variables which indicate inequality in the health parameters in male and female sex. There is discrimination against women. Right to birth is denied by sex selective elimination, right to survival is denied by the neglect of girl child resulting in declining trend of child sex ratio which has reached an alarming low level of 914 in 2011 in spite of the fact that the female sex is biologically stronger. The mortality and morbidity indicators are unfavourable to the females. Maternal mortality in developing countries including India is unacceptably high. There is a failure of achievement of Millennium Development Goals in relation to maternal mortality and gender equality and empowerment of women. Crime against women is increasing. Violence is domestic or at workplace or occurring in public places. Social factors like male dominance and subordinate status of women make them vulnerable to unfair treatment, discrimination, denial of basic human rights to survival, education, health, inheritance, etc. The preventive measures in the form of education of masses for effective change in behaviour against gender discrimination, provision of facilities for achieving gender equality, and legislative measures for controlling violence against women at domestic and public level need intensification to achieve social justice of gender equality.

  10. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  11. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and

  12. Planned Out-of-Hospital Birth and Birth Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Tilden, Ellen L.; Snyder, Janice; Quigley, Brian; Caughey, Aaron B.; Cheng, Yvonne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The frequency of planned out-of-hospital birth in the United States has increased in recent years. The value of studies assessing the perinatal risks of planned out-of-hospital birth versus hospital birth has been limited by cases in which transfer to a hospital is required and a birth that was initially planned as an out-of-hospital birth is misclassified as a hospital birth. Methods We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all births that occurred in Oregon during 2012 and 2013 using data from newly revised Oregon birth certificates that allowed for the disaggregation of hospital births into the categories of planned in-hospital births and planned out-of-hospital births that took place in the hospital after a woman’s intrapartum transfer to the hospital. We assessed perinatal morbidity and mortality, maternal morbidity, and obstetrical procedures according to the planned birth setting (out of hospital vs. hospital). Results Planned out-of-hospital birth was associated with a higher rate of perinatal death than was planned in-hospital birth (3.9 vs. 1.8 deaths per 1000 deliveries, P = 0.003; odds ratio after adjustment for maternal characteristics and medical conditions, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 4.30; adjusted risk difference, 1.52 deaths per 1000 births; 95% CI, 0.51 to 2.54). The odds for neonatal seizure were higher and the odds for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit lower with planned out-of-hospital births than with planned in-hospital birth. Planned out-of-hospital birth was also strongly associated with unassisted vaginal delivery (93.8%, vs. 71.9% with planned in-hospital births; P<0.001) and with decreased odds for obstetrical procedures. Conclusions Perinatal mortality was higher with planned out-of-hospital birth than with planned in-hospital birth, but the absolute risk of death was low in both settings. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human

  13. Gender Inequality since 1820

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights). A composite indicator shows strong progress in reducing gender inequality in the pa...

  14. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  15. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  16. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  17. Birth order--a risk factor for dental trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käch, Matthias; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Many character traits are influenced by birth order with greatest differences between first and lastborns. To investigate the influence of birth order on the risk of dental trauma. Five hundred mothers in Switzerland were interviewed personally regarding dental trauma in their children. Inclusion criteria were a family size of at least two children. Data of 1282 children were collected. Thirty-two percent of the children had sustained one or more dental trauma before the age of 16 (57% male, 43% female). In children who had sustained dental trauma twice, the gender ratio moved to 68% male and 32% female (P = 0.003). Regarding birth order, lastborns sustained more second dental traumas. Relative risk of second dental trauma was 2.1 times higher in lastborns than in firstborns (P = 0.02). Moreover, certain character traits in children are influenced by birth order. According to their mothers, lastborns were more curious, less calm and less deliberate than firstborns (P Birth order is a risk factor for sustaining dental trauma twice. Character traits of lastborns (curious, not calm/deliberate and aggressive) could be reasons for higher risk of dental trauma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Skewed sex ratios in India: "physician, heal thyself".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Badhoniya, Neetu; Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2013-06-01

    Sex selection, a gender discrimination of the worst kind, is highly prevalent across all strata of Indian society. Physicians have a crucial role in this practice and implementation of the Indian Government's Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act in 1996 to prevent the misuse of ultrasound techniques for the purpose of prenatal sex determination. Little is known about family preferences, let alone preferences among families of physicians. We investigated the sex ratios in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children, for which either one or both parents were physicians. The overall child sex ratio was more skewed than the national average of 914. The conditional sex ratios decreased with increasing number of previous female births, and a previous birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth. The heavily skewed sex ratios in the families of physicians are indicative of a deeply rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratios in India.

  19. Effects of gender, digit ratio, and menstrual cycle on intrinsic brain functional connectivity: A whole-brain, voxel-wise exploratory study using simultaneous local and global functional connectivity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donishi, Tomohiro; Terada, Masaki; Kaneoke, Yoshiki

    2018-01-01

    Gender and sex hormones influence brain function, but their effects on functional network organization within the brain are not yet understood. We investigated the influence of gender, prenatal sex hormones (estimated by the 2D:4D digit ratio), and the menstrual cycle on the intrinsic functional network organization of the brain (as measured by 3T resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)) using right-handed, age-matched university students (100 males and 100 females). The mean (± SD ) age was 20.9 ± 1.5 (range: 18-24) years and 20.8 ± 1.3 (range: 18-24) years for males and females, respectively. Using two parameters derived from the normalized alpha centrality analysis (one for local and another for global connectivity strength), we created mean functional connectivity strength maps. There was a significant difference between the male mean map and female mean map in the distributions of network properties in almost all cortical regions and the basal ganglia but not in the medial parietal, limbic, and temporal regions and the thalamus. A comparison between the mean map for the low 2D:4D digit ratio group (indicative of high exposure to testosterone during the prenatal period) and that for the high 2D:4D digit ratio group revealed a significant difference in the network properties of the medial parietal region for males and in the temporal region for females. The menstrual cycle affected network organization in the brain, which varied with the 2D:4D digit ratio. Most of these findings were reproduced with our other datasets created with different preprocessing steps. The results suggest that differences in gender, prenatal sex hormone exposure, and the menstrual cycle are useful for understanding the normal brain and investigating the mechanisms underlying the variable prevalence and symptoms of neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  20. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing. (Afr J Reprod Health 2015; 19[1]: 14-24). Keywords: birth ..... 25-38 months (reference), 39-59 months, and > 60 months. Figures presented are Relative Risk Ratio of birth interval category relative to 25-38 months, associated 95% Confidence Intervals,.

  1. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (prematurity (RRR: 15.4, CI: 9.18-25.9); no antenatal follow-up (RRR: 6.78, CI: 2.39-19.25); and female sex (RRR: 1.77, CI: 1.13-2.77). Predictors for macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post

  2. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  3. Sex selection and health at birth among Indian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Libertad

    2018-02-15

    I use birth-certificate data for Spain to document extremely son-biased sex ratios at birth among Indian immigrants (122 boys per 100 girls), especially at higher parities. I also show that the children of Indian immigrants display poor health outcomes during infancy. For instance, almost 10% of boys with Indian parents are born prematurely, compared with 6% of boys with native parents. However, there is no evidence of a gender gap in infant health among the children of Indian immigrants. I provide evidence suggesting that the poor outcomes of Indian children at birth may be attributed to the low endowments of Indian mothers, while the absence of a gender gap may be driven by the fact that the parents who would invest less in girls are less likely to carry the pregnancies of girls to term (more likely to practice sex-selective abortion), combined with the lower cost of prenatal investments in Spain (compared with India). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Original Research Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and birth order of child were the significant confounders factors in our adjusted models. Conclusions. We observed reduced birth weight in children whose mothers used high pollution fuels suggesting a negative effect of maternal exposure to biomass fuels on birth weight of the child. However, this reduction was not ...

  5. Fat and fat-free mass at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2011-01-01

    LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because...... they undergo nutritional transition. There is a need for data on birth BC and its predictors from low-income countries in transition. We assessed absolute FM and FFM at birth and examined the role of gender, parity, GA, and LBW as predictors of birth BC. FM and FFM were assessed within 48 h of birth on 350...... Ethiopian newborns using air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Female gender and being an infant of primi- or secundiparous mothers predicted lower BW and lower birth FFM but not FM, compared with male gender and infants of multiparous mothers, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship...

  6. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465

  7. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba J. Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.

  8. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  10. Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2006-09-05

    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality. Differential gender mortality has been a documented problem for decades and led to reports in the early 1990s of 100 million "missing women" across the developing world. Since that time, improved health care and conditions for women have resulted in reductions in female mortality, but these advances have now been offset by a huge increase in the use of sex-selective abortion, which became available in the mid-1980s. Largely as a result of this practice, there are now an estimated 80 million missing females in India and China alone. The large cohorts of "surplus" males now reaching adulthood are predominantly of low socioeconomic class, and concerns have been expressed that their lack of marriageability, and consequent marginalization in society, may lead to antisocial behavior and violence, threatening societal stability and security. Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for women, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of gender imbalance.

  11. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Birth Defects: Effects of Subfertility and Multiple Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Rebecca F; Getz, Kelly D; Heinke, Dominique; Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Declercq, Eugene R; Chen, Xiaoli; Lin, Angela E; Anderka, Marlene

    2017-08-15

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with birth defects, but the contributions of multiple births and underlying subfertility remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of subfertility and mediation by multiple births on associations between ART and nonchromosomal birth defects. We identified a retrospective cohort of Massachusetts live births and stillbirths from 2004 to 2010 among ART-exposed, ART-unexposed subfertile, and fertile mothers using linked information from fertility clinics, vital records, hospital discharges, and birth defects surveillance. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mediation analyses were performed to deconstruct the ART-birth defects association into the direct effect of ART, the indirect effect of multiple births, and the effect of ART-multiples interaction. Of 17,829 ART-exposed births, 355 had a birth defect, compared with 162 of 9431 births to subfertile mothers and 6183 of 445,080 births to fertile mothers. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6) for ART and 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) in subfertile compared with fertile deliveries. We observed elevated rates of several birth defects with ART, including tetralogy of Fallot and hypospadias. Subfertility and multiple births affect these associations, with multiple births explaining 36% of the relative effect of ART on nonchromosomal birth defects. Although the risk of birth defects with ART is small, a substantial portion of the relative effect is mediated through multiple births, with subfertility contributing an important role. Future research is needed to determine the impact of newer techniques, such as single embryo transfer, on these risks. Birth Defects Research 109:1144-1153, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  13. Birth rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkin, R

    1980-06-01

    Despite the marked decline in Singapore's crude birth rate from 42.7/1000 population to 22.1/1000 population from 1957 to 1970, the government adopted a policy of sterilization by coercion with the passage in 1970 of the Voluntary Sterilisation Act. Although sterilization is supposedly voluntary, various regulations make it extremely difficult for couples who wish to retain their fertility. Couples under 40 years of age with more than 2 children must agree to accept sterilization or their children are assigned to a low priority category in regard to primary school admittance. An individual who wishes to marry a non-Singaporean cannot obtain a marriage application unless one of the parties to the marriage agrees to have a sterilization after the birth of their 2nd child. Singapore, with a population density of almost 4000/square kilometer, needs to be concerned about population growth; however, since the population had for the most part already adopted a 2 child family norm, these coercive policies appear to be blatantly excessive.

  14. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  15. Risk Attitudes and Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...

  16. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  17. Systemic sclerosis, birth order and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul A J; Lester, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    A recent study identified increasing birth order to be a risk factor for the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This finding supports the theory that transplacental microchimerism may be a key pathological event in the initiation of SSc. We investigated the relationship between birth order and parity and the age of onset of SSc in South Australia. A retrospective analysis of patient data in the South Australian Scleroderma Register was performed. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire. Control data was collected prospectively using a similar questionnaire. The relationship between birth order, family size or parity and risk of subsequent development of SSc was analyzed by mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and eighty-seven index probands were identified and compared with 457 controls. Controls were well matched for gender, but not for age. No statistically significant relationship was identified between SSc and birth order, parity in females, family size, age at first pregnancy in females or gender of first child in parous females. Our data suggests that parity, age at first pregnancy and the gender of the first child are not relevant factors in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSc. Birth order and family size in both genders also appears irrelevant. These results argue against microchimerism as being relevant in the pathogenesis of SSc and add further support to the theory that stochastic events may be important in the etiopathogenesis of SSc. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Thrombocytopenia in the first 24 hours after birth and incidence of patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmon, Hannes; Weber, Sven C; Hüning, Britta; Stein, Anja; Horn, Peter A; Metze, Boris C; Dame, Christof; Bührer, Christoph; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Hansmann, Georg; Koehne, Petra

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies suggest that platelet-triggered ductal sealing is critically involved in definite ductus arteriosus closure. Whether thrombocytopenia contributes to persistently patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in humans is controversial. This was a retrospective study of 1350 very low birth weight (VLBW; gender, and sepsis on PDA was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve, odds ratio, and regression analyses. Platelet numbers within the first 24 hours after birth did not differ between VLBW/ELBW infants with and without spontaneous ductal closure. Platelet numbers were not associated with subsequent PDA treatment. Low platelet counts were not related to failure of pharma-cologic PDA treatment and the need for subsequent surgical ligation. Lower gestational age or birth weight, male gender, and sepsis were linked to the presence of PDA in VLBW infants on day of life 4 to 5. Thrombocytopenia in the first 24 hours after birth was not associated with PDA in this largest VLBW/ELBW infant cohort studied to date. Impaired platelet function, due to immaturity and critical illness, rather than platelet number, might play a role in ductus arteriosus patency.

  19. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  20. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 582 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or ...

  1. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrative Staff Donate Contact MENU CLOSE back Accredited Birth Centers You are here: Home Accredited Birth Centers ... not CABC-accredited. How do you find a birth center here? Skip Instructions! Get to the Map… ...

  2. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of ...

  3. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... health problems new moms may have after giving birth? Chances are that you’ll be healthy after ...

  4. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  5. Scavenging ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Toonkel, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total 90 Sr fallout is adjusted for dry deposition, and scavenging ratios are calculated at Seattle, New York, and Fayetteville, Ark. Stable-lead scavenging ratios are also presented for New York. These ratios show large scatter, but average values are generally inversely proportional to precipitation. Stable-lead ratios decrease more rapidly with precipitation than do those of 90 Sr, a decrease reflecting a lesser availability of lead to the scavenging processes

  6. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  7. Gender and Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruttschnitt, C.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with the last review of gender and crime that appeared in the Annual Review of Sociology (1996), I examine the developments in the more traditional approaches to this subject (the gender ratio problem and the problem of theoretical generalization), life course research, and feminist

  8. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing ...

  9. Births resulting from assisted reproductive technology: comparing birth certificate and National ART Surveillance System Data, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Marie E; Boulet, Sheree; Martin, Joyce A; Kissin, Dmitry

    2014-12-10

    This report compares data on births resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures from 2011 birth certificates with data from the 2011 National ART Surveillance System (NASS) among the subset of jurisdictions that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate as of January 1, 2011, with information on ART. Birth certificate data are based on 100% of births registered in 27 states and the District of Columbia. NASS data included all ART cycles initiated in 2010 or 2011 for which a live birth in 2011 was reported. The same reporting area was used for both data sources and represents 67% of all births in the United States in 2011. A ratio was computed by dividing the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures for NASS data by the percentage for birth certificate data. A ratio of 1.0 represents equivalent levels of reporting. Because this reporting area is not a random sample of births, the results are not generalizable to the United States as a whole. Overall, the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures was 2.06 times higher for NASS data (1.44%) compared with birth certificate data (0.70%). The ratio for each jurisdiction varied from 1.04 for Utah and Wisconsin to 7.50 for Florida. Higher-risk groups had more consistent reporting. between data sources [e.g., triplet or higher-order multiples (1.36) compared with singletons (2.11)]. Births resulting from ART procedures appear to be underreported on the birth certificate; however, the magnitude of underreporting varied by jurisdiction and maternal-infant health characteristics.

  10. Eczema, birth order, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ann Maree; Crouch, Simon; Lightfoot, Tracy; Ansell, Pat; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve

    2008-05-15

    The association between infections occurring in the first 2 years of life and development of eczema was investigated in 1,782 control children from a national population-based case-control study in the United Kingdom conducted over the period 1991-1996. Dates of eczema and infectious diagnoses were ascertained from contemporaneously collected primary care records. Children diagnosed with eczema before the age of 2 years had more prior clinically diagnosed infections recorded than did children without eczema (rate ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). The difference in infection rates between children with and without eczema was apparent from birth and throughout the first 2 years of life. As expected, compared with children of second or higher birth order, those firstborn were at increased risk of eczema (p = 0.020); however, the relation between eczema and prior infection was evident only among children of second or higher birth order and not among firstborn children (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.59, and rate ratio = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.20, respectively). The authors' results are consistent with the notion that the association between birth order and eczema is unlikely to be attributable to variations in early infectious exposure.

  11. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...

  12. The analysis of a dominant gender discourse - part 2: research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender dilemmas are formed where a woman's role and identity is constructed in alternative ways, ways which do not cohere with the ways prescribed and expected within a dominant gender discourse. Gender dilemmas give birth to internal discomfort and a loss of experiencing the self as meaningful. Gender dilemmas ...

  13. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  14. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Sadavarte, Vaishali S; Ashtekar, Ratna S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg) over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby’s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades. PMID:20922101

  15. Economic influences on birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, J

    1988-11-01

    A researcher uses an econometric analysis to test his theory that economic developments influence birth rates in post World War II in Great Britain. The base of the analysis consists of a group of equilibrium relationships examining the levels of conditional birth rates (at each birth order and each mother's age) and the levels of economic variables, e.g., ratio of women's hourly wage after taxes. The leading cause of a decrease in births, especially after 1974, was an increase in women's net wages in comparison to men's net wages. Additional evidence suggested that higher women's wages increase the cost of an additional child by raising missed earnings, and this higher opportunity cost reduces the chance of another birth. On the other hand, if men's earnings are higher, couples have more children and at a young age. Further, the higher the real house prices the more likely women are to postpone starting a family and, in the case of 20-24 year old women, these high prices also deter them from having a 2nd child. Higher house prices do not affect higher order births, however. When all other things are equal, women from larger families have a tendency to begin having children in their 30s and produce smaller families than those women from smaller families. Large child allowances encourage 3rd-4th births and early motherhood. To increase fertility to replacement level over the long term, the current level of child allowances would have to double costing about 5 billion British pounds or 1.5% of the gross domestic product.

  16. Trends in Birth Weight and Gestational Age for Infants Born to HIV-infected, Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve Women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Taha E.; Dadabhai, Sufia S.; Rahman, M. Hafizur; Sun, Jin; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton I.

    2012-01-01

    Background We analyzed birth outcomes among infants of treatment-naïve, HIV-infected women from a series of mother-to-child transmission of HIV studies in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods Data from six prospective studies at one research site were analyzed. Mean birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA), and frequency of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and preterm (PT) birth (GA<37 weeks) were estimated. We assessed risk factors for LBW and PT birth using mixed-effects logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from earlier studies (1989-94) and later studies (2000-07) are presented separately. Results The analysis included 8874 HIV-exposed infants. Mean BW and GA ranged from 2793 to 3079 g, and 37.8 to 39.0 weeks. Greater maternal age was consistently (during both the early and late periods) associated with lower odds of LBW and PT birth; AOR (95% CI) for both outcomes in the early and late periods, respectively, were 0.98 (0.96-1.00) and 0.97 (0.95-0.99). Female infant gender was consistently associated with higher odds of PT birth during both periods and with higher odds of LBW during the later period. During the early period, higher maternal education was associated with lower odds of LBW (AOR 0.67 (0.48-0.95)) and PT birth (AOR 0.70 (0.51-0.95)) and later birth year was associated with lower odds of PT birth (AOR 0.35 (0.19-0.70)). Conclusions BW and GA remained stable within each time period. This analysis provides important baseline information for monitoring HIV treatment effects on birth outcomes. Modifiable factors affecting BW and GA should continue to be explored. PMID:22327871

  17. Mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio in term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Barbosa Duque Figueira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Mid-arm circumference of the newborn is strongly associated with birth weight and is a very good indicator of low and insufficient birth weight. However, there are few Brazilian studies on the relationship between mid-arm and head circumferences and, thus, this does not form part of the routine evaluation for newborns. OBJECTIVES: To establish the mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio in a population of term newborns. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study carried out between June 1997 and August 1999. SETTING: Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: Term newborns (66 males and 65 females of appropriate growth for gestational age, whose mothers were healthy, were included in the study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Arm circumference, arm circumference/head circumference ratio, birth weight and gestational age were measured within 48 hours of birth. Data were considered significant when p < 0.01. RESULTS: The mean values for the mid-arm circumference were 10.76 cm (standard deviation, SD = 0.68 for females and 10.76 (SD = 0.81 for males. The mean value for the mid-arm/head circumference ratio was 0.31 (SD = 0.02 for both sexes. Mid-arm circumference values were significantly related to birth weight and gestational age, whereas mid-arm/head circumference ratio was related only to birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio values were established for the studied population. It was possible to obtain curves for both mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio in relation to birth weight. However, for mid-arm circumference, it was only possible to obtain curves in relation to gestational age. The use of the regression curves did not seem powerful enough to predict the mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio in this population of term newborns. There were no gender differences for either of the measurements studied.

  18. Month of birth and mortality in Sweden: a nation-wide population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Month of birth--an indicator for a variety of prenatal and early postnatal exposures--has been associated with life expectancy in adulthood. On the northern hemisphere, people born in the autumn live longer than those born during the spring. Only one study has followed a population longitudinally and no study has investigated the relation between month of birth and mortality risk below 50 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this nation-wide Swedish study, we included 6,194,745 subjects, using data from population-based health and administrative registries. The relation between month of birth (January-December and mortality risk was assessed by fitting Cox proportional hazard regression models using attained age as the underlying time scale. Analyses were made for ages >30, >30 to 50, >50 to 80 and >80 years. Month of birth was a significant predictor of mortality in the age-spans >30, >50 to 80, and >80 years. In models adjusted for gender and education for ages >30 and >50 to 80 years, the lowest mortality was seen for people born in November and the highest mortality in those born in the spring/summer, peaking in May for mortality >30 years (25‰ excess hazard ratio compared to November, [95% confidence interval = 16-34 ] and in April for mortality >50 to 80 years (42‰ excess hazard ratio compared to November, [95% confidence interval = 30-55]. In the ages >80 years the pattern was similar but the differences in mortality between birth months were smaller. For mortality within the age-span >30 to 50 years, results were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Month of birth is associated to risk of mortality in ages above 50 years in Sweden. Further studies should aim at clarifying the mechanisms behind this association.

  19. Geographical variations in sex ratio trends over time in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Trojano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A female/male (F/M ratio increase over time in multiple sclerosis (MS patients was demonstrated in many countries around the world. So far, a direct comparison of sex ratio time-trends among MS populations from different geographical areas was not carried out. OBJECTIVE: In this paper we assessed and compared sex ratio trends, over a 60-year span, in MS populations belonging to different latitudinal areas. METHODS: Data of a cohort of 15,996 (F = 11,290; M = 4,706 definite MS with birth years ranging from 1930 to 1989 were extracted from the international MSBase registry and the New Zealand MS database. Gender ratios were calculated by six decades based on year of birth and were adjusted for the F/M born-alive ratio derived from the respective national registries of births. RESULTS: Adjusted sex ratios showed a significant increase from the first to the last decade in the whole MS sample (from 2.35 to 2.73; p = 0.03 and in the subgroups belonging to the areas between 83° N and 45° N (from 1.93 to 4.55; p<0.0001 and between 45° N to 35° N (from 1.46 to 2.30; p<0.05 latitude, while a sex ratio stability over time was found in the subgroup from areas between 12° S and 55° S latitude. The sex ratio increase mainly affected relapsing-remitting (RR MS. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm a general sex ratio increase over time in RRMS and also demonstrate a latitudinal gradient of this increase. These findings add useful information for planning case-control studies aimed to explore sex-related factors responsible for MS development.

  20. Age at Onset of Puberty and Adolescent Depression: "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-06-01

    Timing of onset of puberty has fallen, with profound and detrimental consequences for health. We examined the associations of earlier onset of puberty with the presence of depression in early to middle adolescence. The study examined prospective adjusted associations of age at onset of puberty, based on clinically assessed Tanner stage for breast/genitalia and pubic hair development, and self-reported presence of depression, assessed from the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire on average at 13.6 years (n = 5795 [73%]). These factors were examined by using multivariable logistic regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort (ie, the "Children of 1997"). We also assessed whether associations varied according to gender. Association of age at onset of breast/genitalia development with the presence of depression varied according to gender. Earlier onset of breast development was associated with higher risk of the presence of depression (odds ratio, 0.83 per 1 year increase in age of onset [95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98]) adjusted for age, socioeconomic position, mother's place of birth, birth order, secondhand smoke exposure, parental age, survey mode, gender-specific birth weight z score, BMI z score at 7 years, and parental marital status. In boys, similarly adjusted, age at onset of genitalia development was unrelated to the presence of depression. Earlier age at onset of pubic hair development was unrelated to the presence of depression in girls and boys. Early onset of breast development was associated with high risk of the presence of depression. Whether these findings are indicators of the effects of hormones or transient effects of social pressures remain to be determined. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. [Risk factors of birth obstetric trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía-González, Alejandrina; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Nava-Bermea, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    The proper prenatal care for pregnant women is crucial to quickly identify risk factors for birth trauma. To identify risk factors for neonatal birth trauma. Case-control study that included a patient in the case group for every two controls. The following risk factors were identified: cephalopelvic disproportion, macrosomia, use of forceps, precipitated or prolonged labor, malpresentation, and the most common types of birth trauma. We used descriptive statistics and odds ratios. Statistically significant risk factors for birth trauma were: maternal age or = 30 years (OR = 2.5), first pregnancy (OR = 4.0), cephalopelvic disproportion (OR = 8.3), forceps delivery (OR = 9.4), birth weight greater than 3,800 g (OR = 6.6), and non-cephalic presentation (OR = 8.3). Found birth trauma types were: ecchymosis (40.4%), caput succedaneum (25%), erosion (15.4%), clavicle fracture (5.9%), brachial plexus paralysis (4.7%), inter alia. The perinatal outcome of 79 infants with birth trauma were compared to 158 healthy newborns. Risk factors associated with birth injuries were: Maternal (age, pregnancy), newborn (weight), and birth care (presentation, instrumentation and pelvic sufficiency).

  2. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  3. The influence of social factors on gender health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Male births exceed female births by 5-6% (for a sex ratio at birth of 1.05-1.06) while a women's life expectancy, on a global scale, is about 6 years longer. Thus within various age groups the male:female ratio changes over time. Until age 50 years men outnumber women; thereafter their numbers show a sharp decline. Consequently at age 80 years, there are many more women than men. An estimated 25% of this male excess mortality is due to biological causes, the rest being explained by behavioural, cultural and environmental factors. For both women and men, the main health risks related to lifestyle are smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the year 2010, overweight (BMI: 25-29 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) were responsible for over 3 million deaths, with similar relative risks in men and women for overweight and obesity. Smoking and alcohol are the major causes of the global gender gap in mortality. For women in some parts of the world however pregnancy is also hazardous. On a global scale, in 2013 about 300 000 deaths were related to pregnancy, with sub-Saharan Africa registering the highest maternal mortality: over 500 maternal deaths per 100 000 births. Additional woman's health risks arise from gender discrimination, including sex-selective abortion, violence against women and early child marriage. Providers should be aware of the effect that these risks can have on both reproductive and general health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Gender dysphoria in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Jiska; Steensma, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood is a complex phenomenon characterized by clinically significant distress due to the incongruence between assigned gender at birth and experienced gender. The clinical presentation of children who present with gender identity issues can be highly variable; the psychosexual development and future psychosexual outcome can be unclear, and consensus about the best clinical practice is currently under debate. In this paper a clinical picture is provided of children who are referred to gender identity clinics. The clinical criteria are described including what is known about the prevalence of childhood GD. In addition, an overview is presented of the literature on the psychological functioning of children with GD, the current knowledge on the psychosexual development and factors associated with the persistence of GD, and explanatory models for psychopathology in children with GD together with other co-existing problems that are characteristic for children referred for their gender. In light of this, currently used treatment and counselling approaches are summarized and discussed, including the integration of the literature detailed above.

  5. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of mathematical biology. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- ... his practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery, and he developed a mask using the concept of golden ratio. The mask is called the. Marquardt beauty mask (Figure 1) [1]. Keywords.

  6. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from taking birth control pills include: Blood clots Heart attack High blood pressure Stroke Birth control pills without estrogen are much less likely to cause these problems. The risk is higher for women ...

  7. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  8. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ...

  9. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...

  10. Gender identities and gender dysphoria in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; Wijsen, Ciel

    2014-02-01

    Several studies estimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria among adults by examining the number of individuals turning to health services. Since individuals might be hesitant to seek medical care related to gender dysphoria, these studies could underestimate the prevalence. The studies also lack information regarding the variance among different aspects of gender dysphoric conditions. Therefore, the current study estimated the prevalence by examining self-reported gender identity and dysphoria in a Dutch population sample (N = 8,064, aged 15-70 years old). Three measures assessed aspects of gender dysphoria: gender identity, dislike of the natal female/male body, and wish to obtain hormones/sex reassignment surgery. Results showed that 4.6 % of the natal men and 3.2 % of the natal women reported an ambivalent gender identity (equal identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth) and 1.1 % of the natal men and 0.8 % of the natal women reported an incongruent gender identity (stronger identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth). Lower percentages reported a dislike of their natal body and/or a wish for hormones/surgery. Combining these figures estimated the percentage of men reporting an ambivalent or incongruent gender identity combined with a dislike of their male body and a wish to obtain hormones/surgery at 0.6 %. For women, this was 0.2 %. These novel findings show that studies based on the number of individuals seeking medical care might underestimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria. Furthermore, the findings argue against a dichotomous approach to gender dysphoria.

  11. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  12. Cranial birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de

  13. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  14. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's in this article? What Is ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of ...

  15. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a ...

  16. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  17. Birth order and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L; Williams, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in four subject groups. Subject groups were participants in (1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N = 4401), (2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N = 1959), (3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N = 1344), and (4) Israeli Defense Force Pre-recruitment Candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N = 888,277). The main outcome was odds ratios (OR) for myopia in first-born versus non-first-born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. Adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); and IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first-born versus fourth- or higher-born comparison than for the first-born versus second/third-born comparison (p 4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism.

  18. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  19. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...

  20. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  1. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both......Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...

  2. Maternal and Birth Characteristics and Childhood Embryonal Solid Tumors: A Population-Based Report from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Paula Silva

    Full Text Available Several maternal and birth characteristics have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of many childhood cancers. Our goal was to evaluate the risk of childhood embryonal solid tumors in relation to pre- and perinatal characteristics.A case-cohort study was performed using two population-based datasets, which were linked through R software. Tumors were classified as central nervous system (CNS or non-CNS-embryonal (retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, renal tumors, germ cell tumors, hepatoblastoma and soft tissue sarcoma. Children aged <6 years were selected. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed by unconditional logistic regression analysis using SPSS.Males, high maternal education level, and birth anomalies were independent risk factors. Among children diagnosed older than 24 months of age, cesarean section (CS was a significant risk factor. Five-minute Apgar ≤8 was an independent risk factor for renal tumors. A decreasing risk with increasing birth order was observed for all tumor types except for retinoblastoma. Among children with neuroblastoma, the risk decreased with increasing birth order (OR = 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-1.01. Children delivered by CS had a marginally significantly increased OR for all tumors except retinoblastoma. High maternal education level showed a significant increase in the odds for all tumors together, CNS tumors, and neuroblastoma.This evidence suggests that male gender, high maternal education level, and birth anomalies are risk factors for childhood tumors irrespective of the age at diagnosis. Cesarean section, birth order, and 5-minute Apgar score were risk factors for some tumor subtypes.

  3. Prevalence of Gender Nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-07-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person's gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based research on the broad spectrum of gender nonconformity is scarce and more information on the variance outside the gender binary is needed. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of gender incongruence (identifying stronger with the other sex than with the sex assigned at birth) and gender ambivalence (identifying equally with the other sex as with the sex assigned at birth) based on two population-based surveys, one of 1,832 Flemish persons and one of 2,472 sexual minority individuals in Flanders. In the general population, gender ambivalence was present in 2.2 % of male and 1.9 % of female participants, whereas gender incongruence was found in 0.7 % of men and 0.6 % of women. In sexual minority individuals, the prevalence of gender ambivalence and gender incongruence was 1.8 and 0.9 % in men and 4.1 and 2.1 % in women, respectively. With a current Flemish population of about 6 million, our results indicate a total of between 17,150 and 17,665 gender incongruent men and between 14,473 and 15,221 gender incongruent women in Flanders.

  4. Effect of rotating shift work on childbearing and birth weight: a study of women working in a semiconductor manufacturing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Stable circadian rhythm is important for both maternal and fetal health. This retrospective analysis of women in a semiconductor factory evaluated the effect of shift work exposure on childbearing and birth weight. Records of 440 female employees (initial mean age: 28.4 years) including 111 mothers who had 158 live births during the period of observation (1997-2007) were reviewed. The data analyzed included maternal age, general health condition, highest educational level, life-style and occupational factors, as well as newborn gender, birth weight, birth order and gestational age. The childbearing rates of female workers on three different work schedules (consistent daytime work (CDW), intermittent (i-) or persistent (p-) rotating shift works (RSW)) were 32.1%, 20.0% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.047). After controlling for potential confounding factors, childbearing rates among women with CDW exceeded those of shift workers (odds ratio (OR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-3.0). The birth weights of newborns from mothers on the three work schedules (CDW, i-RSW and p-RSW) were significantly different (3271.7±395.4, 3251.3±460.9, and 2998.5±381.2 g, respectively (Pschedules should be carefully planned for female employees who are pregnant or preparing for pregnancy. Prenatal evaluations for mothers with persistent day-night rotating shift work exposures are especially necessary.

  5. Maternal age at child birth, birth order, and suicide at a young age: a sibling comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967-1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families with 2 or more children in which one died from suicide. Altogether, 3,005 suicides occurred over a mean follow-up period of 15 years; 2,458 of these suicides occurred among 6,741 siblings within families of 2 or more siblings. Among siblings, a higher position in the birth order was positively associated with risk; each increase in birth order was associated with a 46% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.66) higher risk of suicide. For each 10-year increase in maternal age at child birth, the offspring's suicide risk was reduced by 57% (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.62). Our study suggests that confounding due to familial factors is not likely to explain the associations of birth order and maternal age at child birth with suicide risk.

  6. Harnessing the Gender Dividend to Boost Economic Growth in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Taking advantage of the gender dividend to accelerate economic growth in ECOWAS. This project aims to analyze the gender dividend in West Africa. The gender dividend is the increase in national production per head attributable to more equality between women and men in the labour market. Declining birth rates can ...

  7. Gender dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001527.htm Gender dysphoria To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gender dysphoria occurs when there is a conflict between ...

  8. Why are young Canadians afraid of birth? A survey study of childbirth fear and birth preferences among Canadian University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Janssen, Patricia; Carty, Elaine

    2014-02-01

    to examine attitudes towards birth that may be common among young adults who have been socialised into a medicalised birth culture. Specifically, we were interested in examining factors that might be associated with fear of birth and preferences for elective obstetric interventions among the next generation of maternity care consumers. secondary analysis of an online survey of university students. British Columbia, Canada. students from the University of British Columbia (n=3680). A quarter of the sample comprised Asian students, which allowed for analysis of cultural differences in attitudes towards birth. Both male and female students participated in the study; results are reported for the full sample, and by gender. a six item fear of childbirth scale was developed, as well as a 4 item index that measures students' concerns over physical changes following pregnancy and birth and a 2 item scale that assesses students' attitudes towards obstetric technology. as we hypothesised, students who were more fearful of birth preferred epidural anaesthesia and birth by CS. Worries over physical changes following pregnancy and birth, favourable attitudes towards obstetric technology, and exposure to pregnancy and birth information via the media were also significantly associated with a preference for CS. Fear of birth scores were highest among students who reported that the media had shaped their attitudes towards pregnancy and birth. Asian students had significantly higher fear of birth scores and were more likely to prefer CS, compared to Caucasian students. young adults are contemplating pregnancy and birth in an increasingly technology-dependent society. Educational programmes aimed at reducing fear of childbirth and concerns over physical changes following pregnancy and childbirth might contribute to vaginal birth intentions among young adults. Midwives may use the findings to identify and counsel nulliparas who exhibit fear of birth and other childbirth attitudes that

  9. Population profiling in China by gender and age: implication for HIV incidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. Method The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. Results The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. Conclusion The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible. PMID:19922693

  10. The Biological Contributions to Gender Identity and Gender Diversity: Bringing Data to the Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Irwig, Michael S; Beach, Lauren; Chan, Yee-Ming; Derks, Eske M; Esteva, Isabel; Ehrenfeld, Jesse; Heijer, Martin Den; Posthuma, Danielle; Raynor, Lewis; Tishelman, Amy; Davis, Lea K

    2018-03-01

    The American Psychological Association defines gender identity as, "A person's deeply-felt, inherent sense of being a boy, a man, or a male; a girl, a woman, or a female; or an alternative gender (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, gender neutral) that may or may not correspond to a person's sex assigned at birth or to a person's primary or secondary sex characteristics" (American Psychological Association, Am Psychol 70(9):832-864, 2015). Here we review the evidence that gender identity and related socially defined gender constructs are influenced in part by innate factors including genes. Based on the data reviewed, we hypothesize that gender identity is a multifactorial complex trait with a heritable polygenic component. We argue that increasing the awareness of the biological diversity underlying gender identity development is relevant to all domains of social, medical, and neuroscience research and foundational for reducing health disparities and promoting human-rights protections for gender minorities.

  11. Bending gender, ending gender: theoretical foundations for social work practice with the transgender community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Barb J

    2007-07-01

    Gender is a ubiquitous social construct that wields power over every individual in our society. The traditional dichotomous gender paradigm is oppressive, especially for transgendered people whose sense of themselves as gendered people is incongruent with the gender they were assigned at birth. Transgendered individuals are targeted for mistreatment when others attempt to enforce conventional gender boundaries. This article discusses gender-based oppression and the resulting psychosocial difficulties experienced by many transgendered individuals. The discussion advances a critical analysis of the dominant gender paradigm using two alternative theoretical perspectives on gender--queer theory and social constructionism. The article argues that the transgender community is an at-risk population and that empowering practice with this population calls on social workers to target society's traditional gender dichotomy for change. An overview of practice implications and research needs is provided.

  12. Socioeconomic disparities in small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Yang, Seungmi; Kaufman, Jay S; Kramer, Michael S; Wilkins, Russell

    2017-11-15

    Maternal socioeconomic disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. Few studies, however, have considered maternal education and income simultaneously to better understand the mechanisms underlying perinatal health disparities. This analysis examines both maternal education and income and their association with the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. The study is based on 127,694 singleton live births from the 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort, a national cohort of births registered from May 2004 to May 2006 that were linked to the 2006 long-form Census. Unadjusted rates of small-for-gestational-age birth (sex-specific birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age) and preterm birth (before 37 completed weeks of gestation) were estimated across selected maternal characteristics. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and covariate-adjusted risk ratios of both outcomes according to maternal education and income adequacy quintiles. Small-for-gestational-age birth was associated with both maternal education and income adequacy, while preterm birth was associated with maternal education only. These findings persisted after taking factors including maternal age, ethnicity, and marital status into account. The results suggest that the mechanism by which maternal education is associated with these outcomes is likely not through income, nor does income replace education as a potentially meaningful measure of socioeconomic position. The mechanisms underlying associations between socioeconomic position and perinatal health disparities are complex. The results of this study indicate that more than one socioeconomic factor may play a role.

  13. Epidemiology of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Caracterização e distribuição de cronotipos no sul do Brasil: diferenças de gênero e estação de nascimento Characterization and distribution of chronotypes in southern Brazil: gender and season of birth differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Farias Alam

    2008-01-01

    according to gender (Student t, age, birth season, and daylight-saving time discomfort (qui-square. RESULTS: Six hundred and fourty eight individuals (36% men; 64% women were included in this study, with 12% of losses due to incorrect questionnaires. CQ score distribution was correlated to the normal curve (range=18-77; mean=46.6; s.d.=10.8. In this sample, 32% were evening-types; 54% were intermediate-types, and 14% were morning-types. CQ means were significatively different (p=0.003 when males (44.9±10.8 were compared to females (47.5±10.7, and 70% of those born during spring and summer were evening-types (p=0.015.There was no gender-by-season association. CONCLUSIONS: Men, and Individuals born in spring and summer, presented eveningness preference, without gender-birth season interaction. Our results are also in agreement with studies performed in the Northern Hemisphere, which showed an association between birth season and diurnal preference.

  15. Gender inequality and violence against women in Spain, 2006-2014: towards a civilized society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Redding

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Gender-sensitive policies may serve as a platform for reduced mortality and reports of IPV in Spain, particularly in AC with more gender inequality. A reduction of NEET may reduce adolescent birth rates and in turn IPV rates.

  16. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    effect on mothers' age at first birth (p < 0.001), the number of children born within the five years of the survey (p<0.001), and the total number of ... approach that compares reported numbers of births for settlers and non-settlers in ... 1Department of Geography, Sonoma State University, USA. 2. Department of Epidemiology ...

  17. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women can choose from many different types of birth control methods. These include, in order of most effective to least effective at preventing pregnancy: Female and male sterilization (female tubal ligation or occlusion, male vasectomy) — Birth control that prevents pregnancy for the rest of ...

  18. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 ... Labor and Birth (FAQ087) Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy (FAQ170) Patient Education ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  19. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  20. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  1. Effect of immigration on multiple sclerosis sex ratio in Canada: the Canadian Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, S-M; Ramagopalan, S V; Brocklebank, D; Herrera, B M; Dyment, D A; Yee, I M; Sadovnick, A D; Ebers, G C

    2010-01-01

    The ratio of female to male (F:M) multiple sclerosis (MS) cases varies geographically, generally being greater in areas of high prevalence. In many regions, including Canada, rising MS incidence in women has been implied by the marked increase in F:M ratio. We examined the F:M ratio over time in MS patients in the Canadian Collaborative Study born outside Canada, with onset postmigration (n = 2531). We compared the trends to native-born Canadians, by region of origin and age at migration. Regression analysis showed that year of birth (YOB) was a significant predictor of sex ratio in immigrants (chi(2) = 21.4, pimmigrant F:M ratio was 2.17, but varied by country of origin. It was significantly lower in migrants from Southern Europe compared with Northern Europe or USA (1.89 vs 2.14 and 2.86, p = 0.023 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Increasing age at immigration was associated with decreasing sex ratio (p = 0.041). The sex ratio of individuals migrating or =21 (2.79 vs 1.96, p = 0.004). MS sex ratio in immigrants to Canada is increasing but variable by region of origin and influenced by age at migration. The findings highlight the importance of environmental effect(s) in MS risk, which are likely gender-specific.

  2. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  3. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and

  4. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  5. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  6. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    , there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  7. Season of Birth in a Nationwide Cohort of Coeliac Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Green, Peter HR; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Genetic factors alone cannot explain the risk of developing coeliac disease (CD). Children born in summer months are likely to be weaned and introduced to gluten during winter when viral infections are more frequent. Earlier studies on birth season and CD are limited in sample size and results are contradictory. Method Case-control study. We used biopsy reports from all 28 Swedish pathology departments to identify individuals with CD, defined as small intestinal villous atrophy (n=29,096). The government agency Statistics Sweden then identified 144,522 controls matched for gender, age, calendar year and county. Through conditional logistic regression we examined the association between summer birth (March-August) and later CD diagnosis (outcome measure). Results Some 54.10% of individuals with CD vs. 52.75% of controls were born in the summer months. Summer birth was hence associated with a small increased risk of later CD (Odds ratio: 1.06; 95%CI=1.03–1.08; p<0.0001). Stratifying CD patients according to age at diagnosis, we found the highest OR in those diagnosed before age 2 years (OR=1.17; 95%CI=1.10–1.26), while summer birth was not associated with a CD diagnosis in later childhood (age 2–18 years: OR=1.02; 95%CI=0.97–1.08), but had a marginal effect on the risk of CD in adulthood (age ≥18years: OR=1.04; 95%CI=1.01–1.07). Conclusions In this study, summer birth was associated with an increased risk of later CD, but the excess risk was small, and general infectious disease exposure early in life is unlikely to be a major cause of CD. PMID:23172784

  8. Social Management of Gender Imbalance in China: A Holistic Governance Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuzhuo, Li; Zijuan, Shang; Feldman, Marcus W

    2013-08-31

    Since the 1980s, the sex ratio at birth (abbreviated as SRB) in China has been rising and has remained extremely high. With rapid social transition, gender imbalance has become one of the most significant issues of China's social management and has raised many problems and challenges. Innovation in the management principles and public policies of social management urgently needs a new perspective of holistic governance framework. Based on the latest trends in gender imbalance, using data from China's 2010 Population Census, this paper firstly reviews China's strategic policy responses and actions concerning the governance of the male-skewed SRB. With holistic governance theory, we focus on China's "Care for Girls" campaign to analyze the current public policy system. This paper then reveals fragmentation in the current management of China's gender imbalance. Finally we propose a social management framework for addressing China's gender imbalance. The public system needs to be strengthened, and the Chinese government should focus more on vulnerable groups such as forced bachelors in rural areas, and try to bring those groups into the policy framework for governance of gender imbalance. The proposed theoretical framework may help Chinese governments at various levels to design and implement improved social management of gender imbalance issues.

  9. Gender equality in India hit by illiteracy, child marriages and violence: a hurdle for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmapurkar, Kishor Parashramji

    2017-01-01

    Gender equality is fundamental to accelerate sustainable development. It is necessary to conduct gender analyses to identify sex and gender-based differences in health risks. This study aimed to find the gender equality in terms of illiteracy, child marriages and spousal violence among women based on data from National Family Health Survey 2015-16 (NFHS-4). This was a descriptive analysis of secondary data of ever-married women onto reproductive age from 15 states and 3 UTs in India of the first phase of NFHS-4. Gender gap related to literacy and child marriage among urban and rural area was compared. In rural area all states except Meghalaya and Sikkim had the significantly higher percentage of women's illiteracy as compared to male. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh had higher illiterate women, 53.7% and 48.6% as compared to male, 24.7% and 21.5% respectively (P gender gap between illiteracy with women more affected in rural areas with higher prevalence of child marriages and poor utilization of maternal health services. Also, violence against women is showing an upward trend with declining sex-ratio at birth.

  10. Women's persistent utilisation of unskilled birth attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Minority of births in sub-Saharan Africa are conducted by skilled birth attendants. Having the highest world maternal mortality ratios and most deaths being associated with lack of trained supervision at delivery. Changing delivery practices is a major priority in this region. Objective: To determine the factors that ...

  11. Utilization of skilled birth attendants at delivery among urban women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Nigeria and the Presence of skilled birth attendants at delivery is a key strategy towards reducing the rate. Objective: To determine the rate and factors that affect utilization of skilled birth attendants (SBA) among Igbo women in Nnewi, South-Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: ...

  12. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  13. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  14. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  15. Gender Minority Social Stress in Adolescence: Disparities in Adolescent Bullying and Substance Use by Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches one’s sex assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12 month alcohol use, marijuana use, and non-marijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment. PMID:24742006

  16. Gender minority social stress in adolescence: disparities in adolescent bullying and substance use by gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Greytak, Emily A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Ybarra, Michele L

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the United States. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N = 5,542) sampled adolescents ages 13 to 18 years old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches theirs assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12-month alcohol use, marijuana use, and nonmarijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment.

  17. Birth prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Sucre, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Niall M H; Urioste, Marcelo L Arana; Saeed, Nadeem R

    2004-03-01

    To determine the birth prevalence of cleft lip and palate (CL +/- P) in the municipality of Sucre, Bolivia. To ascertain whether the birth prevalence in this region differs significantly from birth prevalence reported in similar populations and other racial groups. Twenty-eight clefts were identified among 22,746 live births between the years 1995 and 2001 in three maternity hospitals in the city. The total birth prevalence of CL +/- P was 1.23/1000 live births per year. There were 12 clefts of the lip alone (birth prevalence 0.53/1000 per year), 15 cleft lip and palate (0.66/1000 per year), and one cleft palate only (0.04/1000 per year). The birth prevalence was not significantly different from birth prevalence published previously in South American populations, although it is lower than previously published data from Bolivia. The birth prevalence of CL +/- P in this South American population was similar to published data in white subjects and between those found in black and oriental groups. The sex ratio and birth prevalence of simultaneous congenital malformations also did not differ from previously published figures.

  18. Epidemiology of hyperbilirubinemia in the first 24 hours after birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrinkoub F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Jaundice is one of the most frequent problems observed in newborns. Our purpose was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors on jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth.Methods: All newborns observed to have jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth were enrolled prospectively in this study. Laboratory evaluations included blood group typing of mother and newborn, hemoglobin and hematocrit, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, G6PD activity, maternal indirect and neonatal direct Coombs test, and serum total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin. In all cases, gender, birth weight, Apgar scores, gestational age, mode of delivery, birth trauma, cephalhematoma, maternal age, parity, or any siblings with neonatal jaundice were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student's t-, and chi-square tests.Results: Of a total of 2096 newborns delivered in one year, 122 (5.8% developed jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth. Risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia were ABO incompatibility, prematurity, infection, G6PD deficiency, cephalhematoma, asphyxia, and Rh disease. There were no statistically significant relationships between jaundice and maternal age, parity, mode of delivery, neonatal gender or previous siblings with jaundice (p>0.05.Conclusions: Jaundice observed in the initial 24 hours after birth was infrequent, but clinically significant. All newborns should be followed by repeated exams within the first 24 hours after birth and before discharge, especially if the maternal blood group is O.

  19. Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: Causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hesketh, T.; Xing, Z. W.

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, b...

  20. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  1. Relevance of gender-sensitive policies and general health indicators to compare the status of South Asian women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Roopan; Stewart, Donna E

    2011-01-01

    despite goals for gender equity in South Asia, the relationship between gender-sensitive policies and the empowerment of women is complex and requires an analysis of how policies align with a broad set of social, cultural, political, and economic indicators that relate to women's health. through a review of four documents under the umbrella of the World Health Organization and the United Nations, a list of 17 gender-sensitive policy and 17 general health indicators was generated with a focus on health, education, economic, and political empowerment and violence against women. A series of policy documents and international and national databases that are accessible in the public domain were the major tools used to find supporting documentation to address women's health outcomes in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. all five South Asian countries had several gender-sensitive policies that were measurable by indicators that contribute to health. Examination of political and economic status, birth sex ratios, human trafficking, illiteracy rates, maternal mortality rates, contraception prevalence, fertility rates, knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, access to skilled birth attendants, and microfinance show that large gender inequities still prevail despite the presence of gender-sensitive policies. in many cases, the presence of gender-sensitive policies did not reflect the realization of gender equity over a wide range of indicators. Although the economic, political, social, and cultural climates of the five countries may differ, the integration of women's needs into the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of policies is a universal necessity to achieve positive outcomes. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  3. Birthing postures and birth canal lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-05-01

    This study was performed to assess the differences in the birth canal lacerations following the lateral and fours posture deliveries compared with those following the supine posture deliveries. We examined the birth canal lacerations of our "low risk" pregnant women under the midwife-led delivery care at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between April 2006 and March 2015. There were 3826, 1754 and 719 women who delivered with supine, lateral and fours postures. The rate of no laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.630, 95% CI 0.56-0.71, p < 0.01); however, the incidence of perineal laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.856, 95% CI 0.76-0.90, p < 0.01). The incidence of perineal laceration of third- or fourth-degree in the women who delivered with fours posture was significant higher than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.2-4.2, p < 0.01). The current results may be to help for self-determination of birthing postures in prenatal women.

  4. [Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. There were 972 subjects (males: 50.7%, mean age: (46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data analysis. The 2 h PG in low birth weight group was (7.6±3.2) mmol/L , which was higher than that in normal birth weight group (6.9±2.1) mmol/L and high birth weight group (6.4±1.3) mmol/L (F=3.88, P=0.021). After adjustment for genders, age, body length, gestation age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and duration of follow-up, subjects with overweight and obesity at adulthood had 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) =2.06- 3.62) times risk

  5. Effect of Women's Decision-Making Autonomy on Infant's Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arpana; Kader, Manzur

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight (LBW), an outcome of maternal undernutrition, is a major public health concern in Bangladesh where the problem is most prominent. Women's decision-making autonomy is likely an important factor influencing maternal and child health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of women's decision-making autonomy on infant's birth weight (BW). Methods. The study included data of 2175 enrolled women (14-45 years of age) from the Maternal and Infant Nutritional Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat-study) in Bangladesh. Pearson's chi-square test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and logistic regression analysis were applied at the collected data. Results. Women with lowest decision-making autonomy were significantly more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) child, after controlling for maternal age, education (woman's and her husband's), socioeconomic status (SES) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.8). BW was decreased significantly among women with lowest decision making autonomy after adjusting for all confounders. Conclusion. Women's decision-making autonomy has an independent effect on BW and LBW outcome. In addition, there is a need for further exploration to identify sociocultural attributes and gender related determinants of women decision-making autonomy in this study setting.

  6. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families......Values and practices regarding sex and gender are among the most fundamental constituents of a society?s symbolic system as well as of an individual?s self. Gendered ways of behavior are symbolic markers of ethnicity, both in a process of labeling from the outside and in the construction...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  7. Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi

    2018-01-04

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.

  8. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  9. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  10. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  11. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... discuss birth control methods with one’s sexual partner. General methods of contraception include: Barrier —physically interferes with ...

  12. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, ...

  13. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... and effective method of birth control. Most young women who use the patch have no side effects. ...

  14. Importance of MRI lung to liver signal ratio as a prognosticator for congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yukio; Sasakura, Chihaya; Sakaihara, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental defect of the diaphragm with herniation of abdominal viscera into the thorax. Factors such as ultrasound Lung to Thorax ratio (L-T ratio) have been reported as prognosticators for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The present study investigated the usefulness of each factor as a prognosticator. Over a 7.5-year period from 1998, 13 fetuses diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia at another hospital underwent thorough testing and were delivered at our hospital; they then underwent surgery in the pediatric surgery department of our hospital. The following prognostic factors were analyzed: gestational age at detection, ultrasound L-T ratio, MRI lung to liver ratio, hepatic protrusion into the thoracic cavity and gender. Ten patients are alive, while three patients died after birth. Survival rates and p-values for each factor were as follows. Gestational age at detection: before gestational week 24, 3/3 (100%), after gestational week 25, 6/10 (60%), p=0.37. L to T ratio: 0.2≤, 5/6 (83%), <0.2, 3/6 (50%), p=0.37. MRI lung to liver ratio: 2.0≤, 8/8 (100%), <0.2, 1/5 (10%), p<0.005. Hepatic protrusion into the thoracic cavity: 4/7 (57%), no hepatic protrusion, 6/7 (85%), p=0.37. Gender: male, 3/6 (50%), and female, 6/7 (86%), p=0.16. Significant differences existed only for MRI lung to liver ratio. These results suggest that MRI lung to liver ratio represents the most useful prognosticator for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. (author)

  15. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  16. Parâmetros genéticos para diferentes relações de peso ao nascer e à desmama em vacas da raça Nelore Genetic parameters for different birth and weaning weight ratios in Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione Augusti Boligon

    2013-04-01

    seleção, principalmente quando calculada considerando o peso metabólico da vaca à desmama, incluindo tanto as vacas que desmamaram um bezerro, quanto aquelas que falharam em desmamar.The objective of this study was to estimate heritability and repeatability for different measures of cows' productive efficiency and determine the best way to calculate the weight ratios, in order to use as selection criteria in Nelore herds. Data of Nelore animals from Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte-Sertãozinho, Instituto de Zootecnia were analyzed. The animals are selected for higher yearling weight (NeS and NeT herds, considered as a single herd in this paper and, for mean yearling weight (NeC within contemporary group, since 1980. The traits used in this study were: 1 RPN = ratio of birth weight of the calf / cow weight at calving; 2 RPN2 = ratio of birth weight of the calf / metabolic cow weight at calving; 3 RPD = ratio of weaning weight of the calf / cow weight at weaning and, 4 RPD2 = ratio of weaning weight of calf / metabolic cow weaning weight. For estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters, were considered two files: cows with calves (CB or with and without calves (SB. The RPN and RPN2 were calculated only on CB file, and RPD and RPD2 were calculated in both files (CB and SB. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. Estimates of heritability for traits RPN; RPN2; RPD_CB; RPD2_CB; RPD_SB and RPD2_SB were: 0.17±0.02, 0.16±0.02, 0.22±0.04, 0.19±0.03, 0.20±0.01 and 0.16±0.01, respectively. The repeatability estimates ranged from 0.22 to 0.68. The use of weight ratios as selection criteria should promote, at long-term, improvements in production efficiency. In some breeding programs, weight ratios have been considered only as information for disposal of cows, but could be included in selection indices, especially if it is calculated considering the metabolic weight of cow at weaning from both cows, that weaned a calf as those that failed to wean.

  17. The changing trends in live birth statistics in Korea, 1970 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea.

  18. Achieving gender equality with civil registration and vital statistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-26

    Achieving gender equality with civil registration and vital statistics systems. A midwife and a nurse explain the process of birth registration to new mother in southern. A. Gichigi/Trócaire. Birth registration protects women and their children. Event date: February 26, 2018. Location: IDRC. 150 Kent Street, 8th floor. Ottawa, ON.

  19. Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

  20. The most widely publicized gender problem in human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D; Carlton, Matthew A

    2009-02-01

    In two-child families containing at least one boy, the expected probability that such a family has two boys is 1/3, provided that the boy/girl (B/G) ratio is 1.0 and the population to which they belong has a binomial distribution of BB, (BG + GB), and GG families. It is commonly known that in most human populations the sex ratio at birth (i.e., the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls) is greater than 1.0. Teachers and textbook writers seldom discuss the more realistic expected distributions in populations where the sex ratio is greater than 1.0. We present data from two federal surveys with sex ratios greater than 1.0 and find that the observed proportions of two boys in families of size 2 with at least one boy range from 0.3335 to 0.3941. It has been reported in the literature that the probability (p) of a male birth is subject to both within-sibship variation (Poisson variation), for which our data are suggestive, and possibly also between-sibship variation (Lexis variation). These deviations (biases) from the assumptions of a simple binomial distribution are involved in the calculation of values of p and standard 95% confidence intervals, thereby foiling attempts to make reliable statistical inferences from the data. Analysis of the data is also complicated by family planning that falsifies the assumption of randomness in the binomial gender distribution model. Families of size 2 (and their sex composition) are often discussed in a wider context. Overpopulation in some parts of the world has caused mass starvation and threatens to do the same worldwide unless the birth rate drops to agriculturally sustainable levels. Even if every woman of fertile age has only two children on average from now on, the world's population is predicted to continue growing toward 9 billion people by 2050. Other sociological problems are bound to follow. Although the birth rate in China has recently dropped, the average age of the population has risen, so that by 2035

  1. Gender Disparities in Haryana: Extents and Spatial Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and describes the extent of gender disparities in Haryana, particularly in respect of sex ratio, literacy and participation in economic activities. Significant gender disparities were evidenced by sex ratio, literacy rate and women participation rate. The paper found that districts having lower gender gap in literacy were able to increase sex ratio more than the districts having higher gender gap in literacy. This is also corroborated by negative correlation coefficient bet...

  2. Predicting preeclampsia from a history of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Svein; Ebbing, Cathrine; Irgens, Lorentz M

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether women with a history of preterm birth, independent on the presence of prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM) and growth deviation of the newborn, are more likely to develop preeclampsia with preterm or preterm birth in a subsequent pregnancy. We conducted a population-based cohort study, based on Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 1967 and 2012, including 742,980 women with singleton pregnancies who were followed up from their 1st to 2nd pregnancy. In the analyses we included 712,511 women after excluding 30,469 women with preeclampsia in the first pregnancy. After preterm birth without preeclampsia in the first pregnancy, the risk of preterm preeclampsia in the second pregnancy was 4-7 fold higher than after term birth (odds ratios 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-4.0 to 6.5; 95% CI 5.1-8.2). The risk of term preeclampsia in the pregnancy following a preterm birth was 2-3 times higher than after term birth (odds ratios 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8 to 2.6; 95% CI 2.0-3.4). After spontaneous non-PROM preterm birth and preterm PROM, the risk of preterm preeclampsia was 3.3-3.6 fold higher than after spontaneous term birth. Corresponding risks of term preeclampsia was 1.6-1.8 fold higher. No significant time trends were found in the effect of spontaneous preterm birth in the first pregnancy on preterm or term preeclampsia in the second pregnancy. The results suggest that preterm birth, regardless of the presence of PROM, and preeclampsia share pathophysiologic mechanisms. These mechanisms may cause preterm birth in one pregnancy and preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy in the same woman. The association was particularly evident with preterm preeclampsia.

  3. Gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sean R; Russell, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is the distress or discomfort that may occur when a person's biological sex and gender identity do not align. The true prevalence of gender dysphoria is unknown in Australia because of varying definitions, different cultural norms and paucity of data. Individuals who identify as transgender are vulnerable, and have higher rates of discrimination, depression and suicidality, compared with the general population. The aim of this article is to familiarise general practitioners (GPs) with the principles of transgender care so they may provide a safe and supportive environment for patients presenting with concerns. It is important to have a basic understanding of how to conduct an initial consultation of gender dysphoria even if it is an uncommon presentation in general practice. Management should be individualised and may involve a combination of social work, education, counselling, hormone therapy and surgery.

  4. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...

  6. Gender equity & human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  7. Autism spectrum disorders: head circumference and body length at birth are both relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgeorge, Marine; Lemonnier, Eric; Jallot, Nelle

    2013-09-01

    Although the body length and weight of an infant are related to head circumference, little research on ASDs has examined these factors. Our study compared the head circumferences of neonates who were later diagnosed with ASD with a control group. Additional comparisons on morphological disproportions at birth included the head circumference-to-height and head circumference-to-weight ratios. We recruited 422 children with ASD and 153 typically developing children. Head circumference, body length and weight at birth were collected and standardized as percentile scores according to gestational age and gender. Our results revealed that genuine macrocephaly was significantly higher in children with other pervasive developmental disorders compared with the control group. This difference was not observed with regard to genuine microcephaly. Relative macrocephaly and relative microcephaly were significantly more frequent in children with autism disorder compared with the control group with regard to body length. The differences in relative macrocephaly and microcephaly, as well as in other parameters, between diagnostic subgroups suggest that the presence of several neurological mechanisms plays a role in the later expression of different phenotypes. An increased head circumference-to-body length ratio in newborns may be a factor to follow that could be related to ASD. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Birth Characteristics and Childhood Leukemia Risk: Correlations With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, Mehmet T

    2015-07-01

    Birth characteristics such as birth order, birth weight, birth defects, and Down syndrome showed some of the first risk associations with childhood leukemia. Examinations of correlations between birth characteristics and leukemia risk markers have been limited to birth weight-related genetic polymorphisms. We integrated information on nongenetic and genetic markers by evaluating the relationship of birth characteristics, genetic markers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, and ALL risk together. The multiethnic study consisted of cases with childhood ALL (n=161) and healthy controls (n=261). Birth characteristic data were collected through questionnaires, and genotyping was achieved by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed risk associations for birth weight over 4000 g (odds ratios [OR]=1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.19), birth length (OR=1.18 per inch; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), and with gestational age (OR=1.10 per week; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). Only the HFE tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9366637 showed an inverse correlation with a birth characteristic, gestational age, with a gene-dosage effect (P=0.005), and in interaction with a transferrin receptor rs3817672 genotype (Pinteraction=0.05). This correlation translated into a strong association for rs9366637 with preterm birth (OR=5.0; 95% CI, 1.19-20.9). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of prenatal events in the development of childhood ALL. The inverse correlation of rs9366637 with gestational age has implications on the design of HFE association studies in birth weight and childhood conditions using full-term newborns as controls.

  10. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  11. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    and implications for practice: as images on the Internet inform and persuade society about stereotypical behaviours, the trends of our time and sociocultural norms, it is important to recognise images of the technological birth room on the Internet may be influential in dictating women's attitudes, choices......Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form...... of discourse analysis. Setting/participants: forty images of birth rooms were collected in 2013 from Google Images, Flickr, Wikimedia Commons and midwifery colleagues. The images were from obstetric units, alongside and freestanding midwifery units located in developed countries (Australia, Canada, Europe, New...

  12. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  13. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  14. Gender issues in Danish sports organizations - experiences, attitudes and evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud

    2006-01-01

    Based on the gender ratios in the leading positions of Danish sports organizations, this article aims at identifying reasons for the existing gender hierarchy. Theoretical approaches to the construction of gender and to the "gendering" of organizations provide the basis for the presentation and d...

  15. The gendered experiences of children in child-headed households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings show that birth order conferred headship or leadership to the eldest sibling irrespective of their gender. Variations in the performance of the three factors, which were influenced by the gender of the household head, were observed. Generally, the children acted in accordance with their socio-cultural norms ...

  16. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  17. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  18. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  19. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  20. Better Births Initiative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring that health professionals practise according to evidence-based standards is important since it affects the quality and cost of care patients receive. The purpose of this research was to use a focused change programme (the Better Births Initiative) to influence obstetric practice at 10 hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa.

  1. Perinatal mortality in second- vs firstborn twins: a matter of birth size or birth order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Zhang, Jun; Klebanoff, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Second-born twins on average weigh less than first-born twins and have been reported at an elevated risk of perinatal mortality. Whether the risk differences depend on their relative birth size is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of birth order with perinatal mortality by birth order-specific weight difference in twin pregnancies. In a retrospective cohort study of 258,800 twin pregnancies without reported congenital anomalies using the US matched multiple birth data 1995-2000 (the available largest multiple birth dataset), conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death adjusted for fetus-specific characteristics (sex, presentation, and birthweight for gestational age). Comparing second vs first twins, the risks of perinatal death were similar if they had similar birthweights (within 5%) and were increasingly higher if second twins weighed progressively less (adjusted ORs were 1.37, 1.90, and 3.94 if weighed 5.0-14.9%, 15.0-24.9%, and ≥25.0% less, respectively), and progressively lower if they weighed increasingly more (adjusted ORs were 0.67, 0.63, and 0.36 if weighed 5.0-14.9%, 15.0-24.9%, and ≥25.0% more, respectively) (all P birth size. Vaginal delivery at term is associated with a substantially greater risk of perinatal mortality in second twins. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Birth outcomes for women using free-standing birth centers in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David John

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates maternal and perinatal outcomes for women with low-risk pregnancies laboring in free-standing birth centers compared with laboring in a hospital maternity unit in a large New Zealand health district. The study used observational data from 47 381 births to women with low-risk pregnancies in South Auckland maternity facilities 2003-2010. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for instrumental delivery, cesarean section, blood transfusion, neonatal unit admission, and perinatal mortality. Labor in birth centers was associated with significantly lower rates of instrumental delivery, cesarean section and blood transfusion compared with labor in hospital. Neonatal unit admission rates were lower for infants of nulliparous women laboring in birth centers. Intrapartum and neonatal mortality rates for birth centers were low and were not significantly different from the hospital population. Transfers to hospital for labor and postnatal complications occurred in 39% of nulliparous and 9% of multiparous labors. Risk factors identified for transfer were nulliparity, advanced maternal age, and prolonged pregnancy ≥41 weeks' gestation. Labor in South Auckland free-standing birth centers was associated with significantly lower maternal intervention and complication rates than labor in the hospital maternity unit and was not associated with increased perinatal morbidity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fathers' birth experience in relation to midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Cederlöf, Linnea; Widén, Sara

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to identify the proportion of fathers having a positive experience of a normal birth and to explore factors related to midwifery care that were associated with a positive experience. Research has mainly focused on the father's supportive role during childbirth rather than his personal experiences of birth. 595 new fathers living in a northern part of Sweden, whose partner had a normal birth, were included in the study. Data was collected by questionnaires. Odds Ratios with 95% confidence interval and logistic regression analysis were used. The majority of fathers (82%) reported a positive birth experience. The strongest factors associated with a positive birth experience were midwife support (OR 4.0; 95 CI 2.0-8.1), the midwife's ongoing presence in the delivery room (OR 2.0; 1.1-3.9), and information about the progress of labour (OR 3.1; 1.6-5.8). Most fathers had a positive birth experience. Midwifery support, the midwife's presence and sufficient information about the progress of labour are important aspects in a father's positive birth experience. The role of the midwife during birth is important to the father, and his individual needs should be considered in order to enhance a positive birth experience. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Low birth weight is associated with earlier onset of end-stage renal disease in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, Bjarne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    weight, adult height, mean arterial pressure, gender, birth decade, and type of antihypertensive treatment showed that for every kilogram increase in birth weight, the age at onset of ESRD significantly increased by 1.7 years. Male gender and increased mean arterial pressure were both associated...

  5. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  6. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... the particular social situation of the young people of immigrant origin. The feelings of obligations and debt toward the parents are strong, as well as the adherence to traditional family values. Still there is clearly a tendency that ideas about individual rights, such as women?s and children?s rights to decide...

  7. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  8. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring gender inequality and women’s empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries’ progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women’s empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries’ performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1 we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2 we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3 we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4 we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5 finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the ‘ecological’ approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  9. Associations of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rong; Chen, Min-jian; Ding, Guo-dong; Chen, Xiao-jiao; Han, Xiu-mei; Zhou, Kun; Chen, Li-mei; Xia, Yan-kai; Tian, Ying; Wang, Xin-ru

    2013-01-01

    Many phenols are known to mimic or antagonize hormonal activities and may adversely affect fetal growth. A study of 567 pregnant women was conducted to investigate the relationship between prenatal phenol exposure and birth outcomes, including birth weight, length, and gestational age. We measured the concentrations of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, 4-n-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol in maternal urine and examine their association with birth outcomes. Categories of urinary benzophenone-3 concentration were associated with decreased gestational age in all infants (p for trend = 0.03). Between middle and low exposure groups, we also found bisphenol A was negatively associated with gestational duration (β adjusted = −0.48 week; 95% confidence interval: −0.91, −0.05). After stratification by gender, we found the consistent results in infant boys with those in all infants, but we did not observe significant association for girls. In conclusion, we found prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes. -- Highlights: •We examined relationship of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes. •We determined urinary concentrations of various phenols. •BP-3 and BPA were negatively associated with gestational age. •There was sex-specific association between phenol exposure and birth outcomes. -- Prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes

  10. Does seasonality of births in diabetes mellitus reflect pathogenetic differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, M; Rausova, Z; Dedik, L; Mojto, V

    2016-01-01

    This study indicates that the seasonality of births of patients with DM1 and DM2 has occurred in their adolescence or adulthood. Patients with Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) with the maturity onset have different seasonal birth patterns from those with Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) with the maturity onset, or DM1children. Monthly numbers of births of 81 and 236 children with DM1 and DM2, respectively, in adolescent or adult age, were adapted to different actual length of calendar months. The 12- and 6-month rhythm was tested using the cosinor regression with 95% confidence interval versus the hypothesis of null seasonality. Regarding DM1 with maturity onset, annual and semiannual rhythm was significant in both genders, with the increase in birth numbers from November to January and decrease in March, April and August. In DM2, only female data displayed a significant annual rhythm, with an increase in birth from April to August and decrease from October to December.  CONCLUSION: The birth seasonality related to DM1 in adolescent or adult age appears to be reciprocal, compared to DM1 in childhood. For DM2, the seasonality of births was found only in females. The increase in female fecundity seems to be related to an increase in the risk of DM2 in female offspring. The outcomes could help in identifying environmental and endogenous factors related to seasonality cycle (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 18).

  11. Maternal autoimmune disease and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Meredith M; Browne, Marilyn L; Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Richardson, Sandra D; Blossom, Sarah J; Broussard, Cheryl S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the association between maternal autoimmune disease or its treatment and the risk of birth defects. We examined these associations using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Analyses included 25,116 case and 9897 unaffected control infants with estimated delivery dates between 1997 and 2009. Information on autoimmune disease, medication use, and other pregnancy exposures was collected by means of telephone interview. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for birth defects with five or more exposed cases; crude ORs and exact 95% CIs were estimated for birth defects with three to four exposed cases. Autoimmune disease was reported by 373 mothers (279 case and 94 control mothers). The majority of birth defects evaluated were not associated with autoimmune disease; however, a statistically significant association between maternal autoimmune disease and encephalocele was observed (OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.95-11.04). Eighty-two mothers with autoimmune disease used an immune modifying/suppressing medication during pregnancy; this was associated with encephalocele (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.37-24.61) and atrial septal defects (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.16-7.80). Our findings suggest maternal autoimmune disease and treatment are not associated with the majority of birth defects, but may be associated with some defects, particularly encephalocele. Given the low prevalence of individual autoimmune diseases and the rare use of specific medications, we were unable to examine associations of specific autoimmune diseases and medications with birth defects. Other studies are needed to confirm these findings. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:950-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  13. [A gender perspective on medicalized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Gender mainstreaming is a worldwide issue. The United Nations and the World Health Organization have emphasized the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and gender equity into government policy decisions. Different cultures have different attitudes toward the management of childbirth and these attitudes influence the feelings and needs of women and their partners. These needs must be better understood and satisfied. The widely held technocratic values of obstetricians influence the birthing experience of women significantly. This article uses a gender perspective to describe the medicalization of childbirth, the pharmacological pain-relief oppression of women, the prevalence of blaming women for decisions to conduct Caesarean sections, and the exclusion of men from involvement in the childbirth process. This article may be used as reference to enhance gender equality childbirth care for women.

  14. Gender gap matters in maternal mortality in low and lower-middle-income countries: A study of the global Gender Gap Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seung-Ah; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Hongsoo

    2017-09-01

    Reducing maternal mortality has been a crucial part of the global development agenda. According to modernisation theory, the effect of gender equality on maternal health may differ depending on a country's economic development status. We explored the correlation between the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) provided by the World Economic Forum and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) obtained from the World Development Indicators database of the World Bank. The relationships between each score in the GGI, including its four sub-indices (measuring gender gaps in economic participation, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment), and the MMR were analysed. When the countries were stratified by gross national income per capita, the low and lower-middle-income countries had lower scores in the GGI, and lower scores in the economic participation, educational attainment, and political empowerment sub-indices than the high-income group. Among the four sub-indices, the educational attainment sub-index showed a significant inverse correlation with the MMR in low and lower-middle-income countries when controlling for the proportion of skilled birth attendance and public share of health expenditure. This finding suggests that strategic efforts to reduce the gender gap in educational attainment could lead to improvements in maternal health in low and lower-middle-income countries.

  15. GENDER DEMOGRAPHIC DISPARITIES IN BACAU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ancuta Stangaciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender demographic disparities existing in Bacau County were determined by means of some demographic indicators such as: population, natural growth, live births, marriages, divorces, indicators which have been broken down by gender. The assessment of the disparities between men and women from the point of view of the demographic phenomena emphasize the fact that on the level of Bacau County there is a surplus of female population, as during the whole period subjected to the analysis, the positive and respectively the negative natural growth for the male population were lower and higher respectively than the one registered in the case of the female population. The birth rate, marriage rate and divorce rate phenomena also changed significantly after 1990 ; thus, the average age of marriage increased, and the gender difference also had a certain growth, which caused a shift in the fertility intensity from the age group 20-24 to the very next one - the 25-29 age group.

  16. Fraternal Birth Order, Family Size, and Male Homosexuality: Meta-Analysis of Studies Spanning 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2018-01-01

    The fraternal birth order effect is the tendency for older brothers to increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This study compared the strength of the effect in subjects from small versus large families and in homosexual subjects with masculine versus feminine gender identities. Meta-analyses were conducted on 30 homosexual and 30 heterosexual groups from 26 studies, totaling 7140 homosexual and 12,837 heterosexual males. The magnitude of the fraternal birth order effect was measured with a novel variable, the Older Brothers Odds Ratio, computed as (homosexuals' older brothers ÷ homosexuals' other siblings) ÷ (heterosexuals' older brothers ÷ heterosexuals' other siblings), where other siblings = older sisters + younger brothers + younger sisters. An Older Brothers Odds Ratio of 1.00 represents no effect of sexual orientation; values over 1.00 are positive evidence for the fraternal birth order effect. Evidence for the reliability of the effect was consistent. The Older Brothers Odds Ratio was significantly >1.00 in 20 instances, >1.00 although not significantly in nine instances, and nonsignificantly <1.00 in 1 instance. The pooled Older Brothers Odds Ratio for all samples was 1.47, p < .00001. Subgroups analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in the 12 feminine or transgender homosexual groups than in the other 18 homosexual groups. There was no evidence that the magnitude of the effect differs according to family size.

  17. Correlation of maternal age, gravida status, major malformations, stillbirth and sex ratio in high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheer, K.R.; Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing study on biological and health effects of chronic low dose and/or dose rate on human population, consecutive births were monitored in selected Govt. hospitals located in normal and high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast. This area is unique because of its vast population size and varied range of background radiation level due to natural deposit of monazite containing thorium. The objective is to elucidate the role of chronic low dose radiation, if any, on the adverse pregnancy outcome. Since 1995, ∼1,70,000 newborns were monitored in this area, of which 74,238 singleton first births were monitored. Of these, 634 (0.85%) cases were observed with detectable major congenital malformations (that include serious structural, functional or cosmetic disability requiring surgical or medical management) and 240 (0.32%) cases were stillborn. Sex ratio at first birth was observed in the ratio of 1050 males to 1000 females. The distribution of age at marriage of the mothers was stratified into the following groups: d 1 8 years (15.5%), 19 20 years (25.9%), 21 22 years (25.6%), 23 24 years (17.2%) and >25 years (15.8%). It was observed that about 78.9% mothers had their first birth within one year of marriage, 13.7% had their first birth within 1.1 2 years and 5.2% within 2.1 4 years. About 2.2% (1613) mothers had their first child after 4 years or more. Individual, combined and interactive effects of age at marriage, first birth interval (first gravida status), background radiation levels and gender of the newborn on major congenital malformation and stillbirth will be discussed. (author)

  18. Gendering Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Morokvašić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration patterns, migration discourse and underlying representations, migrants’ experiences, obligations and duties as well as the expectations relative to their migration are gendered. Since the pioneering feminist migration scholars’ questioning of men as a universal reference and the invisibility of women or their stereotypical representations as dependents in the mainstream production of knowledge on migration, the scholarship has evolved considerably. It is argued in the paper that the ongoing process of cross-fertilization of developments in two separate epistemologies, each initially questioning monolithic and essentialist visions of a “migrant” on one hand and a “woman” on the other, produced a fecund subfield of research “migration and gender”. The paper provides an insight into this, reviewing work on the issues related to gendering different phases of migration. Bridging migration and gender brought to the top of research agendas issues that used to be on the margins, creating new visibilities but leaving out other gendered dimensions of complex realities of migrant experience.

  19. Gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Although women make up 77% of the healthcare workforce, gender inequality remains a problem in the NHS, and women continue to be under-represented at senior levels. For example, only 37% of the members of clinical commissioning group governing bodies are women.

  20. Interpreting Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Nicholson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deconstructs dominant understandings of two concepts central to feminist analysis itself: gender and woman. Much of post-1960s feminist scholarship has relied on the distinction between “sex” and gender. Although this distinction has served many useful purposes (particularly that of allowing feminists to challenge biological determinism, it has also enabled feminists to preserve a type of dualistic thinking about women's identity. It has allowed feminists to think of differences among women as separable from that which women share. The author argues that this polar framework has enabled feminists to stress the deep differences between women's and men's culture-generated experiences. But, because the polar framework of contemporary society is neither completely stable or hegemonic nor links perfectly male and female experiences with male and female identified bodies, employing it as an unquestioned element of one's analysis also leads to problems. This framework falls to capture the gender deviance of many of us, reinforces cultural stereotypes of the meaning of female and male experience, and acts politically to suppress modes of being that challenge gender dualisms.

  1. the use of entropy index for gender inequality analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    . INTRODUCTION. Discrimination against women in all fields of human endeavour has resulted to a crushing problem of gender inequality. As stated in the Millennium Declaration, gender inequality is indicated in the ratios of females to males.

  2. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at ... and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected ...

  3. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. ...

  4. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  5. Placental Growth Measures in Relation to Birth Weight in a Latin American Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlos; Veiga, Angélica; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso, Viviane

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The placenta, translates how the fetus experiences the maternal environment and is a principal influence on birth weight (BW). Objective To explore the relationship between placental growth measures (PGMs) and BW in a public maternity hospital. Methods Observational retrospective study of 870 singleton live born infants at Hospital Maternidad Sardá, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, between January 2011 and August 2012 with complete data of PGMs. Details of history, clinical and obstetrical maternal data, labor and delivery and neonatal outcome data, including placental measures derived from the records, were evaluated. The following manual measurements of the placenta according to standard methods were performed: placental weight (PW, g), larger and smaller diameters (cm), eccentricity, width (cm), shape, area (cm(2)), BW/PW ratio (BPR) and PW/BW ratio (PBR), and efficiency. Associations between BW and PGMs were examined using multiple linear regression. Results Birth weight was correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.001), whereas gestational age was moderately correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001). By gestational age, there was a positive trend for PW and BPR, but an inverse relationship with PBR (p < 0.001). Placental weight alone accounted for 49% of birth weight variability (p < 0,001), whereas all PGMs accounted for 52% (p < 0,001). Combined, PGMs, maternal characteristics (parity, pre-eclampsia, tobacco use), gestational age and gender explained 77.8% of BW variations (p < 0,001). Among preterm births, 59% of BW variances were accounted for by PGMs, compared with 44% at term. All placental measures except BPR were consistently higher in females than in males, which was also not significant. Indices of placental efficiency showed weakly clinical relevance. Conclusions Reliable measures of placental growth estimate 53.6% of BW variances and project this outcome to a

  6. Risk of placenta previa in second birth after first birth cesarean section: a population-based study and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective: To compare the risk of placenta previa at second birth among women who had a cesarean section (CS) at first birth with women who delivered vaginally. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 399,674 women who gave birth to a singleton first and second baby between April 2000 and February 2009 in England. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust the estimates for maternal age, ethnicity, deprivation, placenta previa at first birth, inter-birth interval and pregnancy complications. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of the reported results in peer-reviewed articles since 1980. Results The rate of placenta previa at second birth for women with vaginal first births was 4.4 per 1000 births, compared to 8.7 per 1000 births for women with CS at first birth. After adjustment, CS at first birth remained associated with an increased risk of placenta previa (odds ratio = 1.60; 95% CI 1.44 to 1.76). In the meta-analysis of 37 previously published studies from 21 countries, the overall pooled random effects odds ratio was 2.20 (95% CI 1.96-2.46). Our results from the current study is consistent with those of the meta-analysis as the pooled odds ratio for the six population-based cohort studies that analyzed second births only was 1.51 (95% CI 1.39-1.65). Conclusions There is an increased risk of placenta previa in the subsequent pregnancy after CS delivery at first birth, but the risk is lower than previously estimated. Given the placenta previa rate in England and the adjusted effect of previous CS, 359 deliveries by CS at first birth would result in one additional case of placenta previa in the next pregnancy. PMID:22103697

  7. Risk of placenta previa in second birth after first birth cesarean section: a population-based study and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurol-Urganci Ipek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective: To compare the risk of placenta previa at second birth among women who had a cesarean section (CS at first birth with women who delivered vaginally. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 399,674 women who gave birth to a singleton first and second baby between April 2000 and February 2009 in England. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust the estimates for maternal age, ethnicity, deprivation, placenta previa at first birth, inter-birth interval and pregnancy complications. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of the reported results in peer-reviewed articles since 1980. Results The rate of placenta previa at second birth for women with vaginal first births was 4.4 per 1000 births, compared to 8.7 per 1000 births for women with CS at first birth. After adjustment, CS at first birth remained associated with an increased risk of placenta previa (odds ratio = 1.60; 95% CI 1.44 to 1.76. In the meta-analysis of 37 previously published studies from 21 countries, the overall pooled random effects odds ratio was 2.20 (95% CI 1.96-2.46. Our results from the current study is consistent with those of the meta-analysis as the pooled odds ratio for the six population-based cohort studies that analyzed second births only was 1.51 (95% CI 1.39-1.65. Conclusions There is an increased risk of placenta previa in the subsequent pregnancy after CS delivery at first birth, but the risk is lower than previously estimated. Given the placenta previa rate in England and the adjusted effect of previous CS, 359 deliveries by CS at first birth would result in one additional case of placenta previa in the next pregnancy.

  8. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  9. Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-22

    Feb 22, 2018 ... India, Mali, Nepal, Uganda, and Vietnam have made significant improvements. These successes are due in part to the work of UNICEF, WHO, UNESCAP, UNECA, and other government agencies that have prioritized the improvement of CRVS systems in their national and international development ...

  10. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors...... mediate the association. METHODS: The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This......, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Mothers with preterm birth compared...

  11. [Dramatic increase of gender dysphoria in youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisén, Louise; Söder, Olle; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2017-02-22

    Dramatic increase of gender dysphoria in youth In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the number of young people with gender dysphoria seeking help for gender-confirming medical interventions. From a situation of no more than a few patients annually, there were almost 200 referrals of gender dysphoria to the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital in 2016. This child and adolescent psychiatric unit has the whole country as a catchment area for patients Gender-confirming medical interventions are regulated by a special law that sets a minimum age for legal and surgical gender reassignment to 18 years. The law, which is under revision, does not prevent medical investigations, hormonal therapy, and some surgical procedures before the age of 18. Gender dysphoria is defined as a persistent desire to live and be accepted as the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a perceived inconsistency with the sex assigned at birth and a desire to change the body in accordance with the perceived sex. The cause is unknown despite attempts of etiological mapping including genetic analyses, hormonal studies and modern brain imaging techniques. Repeated studies have shown that only a minority (about 20 %) of prepubertal children with gender dysphoria will have a persistent desire for later gender-confirming medical interventions, while the majority of those whose gender dysphoria is reinforced during puberty will later meet the diagnostic criteria for gender dysphoria (DSM-5) and transsexualism (ICD-10) (so called persisters). Persisters can be offered treatment with puberty stopping hormones to avoid the development of undesirable secondary sexual characteristics. Gender-confirming medical interventions are the only recommended treatment for gender dysphoria, and early treatment facilitates the ability to successfully pass in the desired sex, which is associated with a significantly better prognosis.

  12. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  13. Birth weight--a risk factor for progression in diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth retardation, as seen in individuals with low weight at birth, may give rise to a reduction in nephron number. Oligonephropathy has been linked to hypertension and renal disease in adult life. We tested the concept that low weight at birth acts as a risk factor......): 8 (3-20)] with at least three measurements [9 (3-31)] of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (51Cr-EDTA). Information about birth size was obtained from midwife registrations. SETTINGS: Steno Diabetes Center, a tertiary referral centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Loss of kidney function according to birth...... weight and weight/length ratio at birth. RESULTS: There was no correlation in univariate analysis between birth weight or weight/length ratio and rate of decline in GFR, neither in men nor in women. Furthermore, the 27 patients with birth weights below the 20th centile had a rate of decline in GFR...

  14. Cost of Racial Disparity in Preterm Birth: Evidence from Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao; Grigorescu, Violanda; Siefert, Kristine A.; Lori, Jody R.; Ransom, Scott B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the economic costs associated with racial disparity in preterm birth and preterm fetal death in Michigan. Linked 2003 Michigan vital statistics and hospital discharge data were used for data analysis. Thirteen percent of the singleton births among non-Hispanic Blacks were before 37 completed weeks of gestation, compared to only 7.7% among non-Hispanic Whites (risk ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.59-1.72; p

  15. A Seven Year Clinical Review of Macrosomic Births in Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of macrosomic births was 4.0% or 1 in 25 deliveries. Mean maternal age was 27.2 years. About 58% of women were para 5 and above. Sex ratio of babies showed a male predominance of 2.1 to 1. History of previous macrosomic birth was obtained in 28.0% of cases. Maternal weight greater than 90kg was ...

  16. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  17. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self......-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week...

  18. Prenatal Heavy Metal Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Myanmar: A Birth-Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyi Mar Wai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium and lead are well-known environmental contaminants, and their toxicity at low concentration is the target of scientific concern. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential effects of prenatal heavy metal exposure on the birth outcomes among the Myanmar population. This study is part of a birth-cohort study conducted with 419 pregnant women in the Ayeyarwady Division, Myanmar. Face-to-face interviews were performed using a questionnaire, and maternal spot urine samples were collected at the third trimester. Birth outcomes were evaluated at delivery during the follow up. The median values of adjusted urinary arsenic, cadmium, selenium and lead concentration were 74.2, 0.9, 22.6 and 1.8 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that prenatal cadmium exposure (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01–1.21; p = 0.043, gestational age (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72–0.95; p = 0.009 and primigravida mothers (adjusted OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.31–13.65; p = 0.016 were the predictors of low birth weight. The present study identified that Myanmar mothers were highly exposed to cadmium. Prenatal maternal cadmium exposure was associated with an occurrence of low birth weight.

  19. The Cerebro-placental Ratio as a Prognostic Factor of Foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A foetal birth score < 7 was 66 times more often in mothers with cerebro-placental ratio< 1.0 than mothers with CPR 1.0. (P 0.05). Low birth weight was 4.7 times more likely among mothers with cerebroplacental ratio < 1.0.as compared to those with mothers with CPR1.0 (95% CI 2, 11.1; p0.001). A foetal birth score < 7 was ...

  20. Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tychele Turner

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.

  1. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-12-01

    Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.

  2. Perfluorinated compounds in umbilical cord blood and adverse birth outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Huei Chen

    Full Text Available Previous animal studies have shown that perfluorinated compounds (PFCs have adverse impacts on birth outcomes, but the results have been inconclusive in humans. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA and birth outcomes.In total, 429 mother-infant pairs were recruited from the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS. Demographic data were obtained by interviewing mothers using a structured questionnaire and birth outcomes were extracted from medical records. Cord blood was collected for PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.The geometric mean (standard deviation levels of PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA in cord blood plasma were 1.84 (2.23, 5.94 (1.95, 2.36(4.74, and 10.26 (3.07 ng/mL, respectively. Only PFOS levels were found to be inversely associated with gestational age, birth weight, and head circumference [per ln unit: adjusted β (95% confidence interval, CI = -0.37 (-0.60, -0.13 wks, -110.2 (-176.0, -44.5 gm and -0.25 (-0.46, -0.05 cm]. Additionally, the odds ratio of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age increased with PFOS exposure [per ln unit: adjusted odds ratio (OR (95%CI = 2.45 (1.47, 4.08, 2.61(0.85, 8.03 and 2.27 (1.25, 4.15]. When PFOS levels were divided into quartiles, a dose-response relation was observed. However, PFOA, PFNA, and PFUA were not observed to have any convincing impact on birth outcomes.An adverse dose-dependent association was observed between prenatal PFOS exposure and birth outcomes. However, no associations were found for the other examined PFCs.

  3. Epidemiology of birth defects, perinatal mortality and thyroid cancer before and after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Scherb, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal trends of birth defects and perinatal mortality in Germany and Europe as well as in least and most contaminated regions have been compared and investigated by trends. In numerous data sets, especially from northern and eastern Europe, positive and significant trend variations with upward 'disturbances' in temporal relation associated with the Chernobyl accident 1986 have been identified and spatial associations with regional fallout have been found. A surprisingly consistent picture evolves of significantly raised stillbirth rates after Chernobyl of ca. 5 % in Poland, ca. 10 % in parts of Germany and Sweden, ca. 20 % in Denmark and Finland, and up to ca. 30% in Iceland and Hungary. Low as compared to higher contaminated regions show weaker or stronger effects, respectively. The additional relative risks for birth defects are in the same order of magnitude as the additional relative risks for stillbirth, namely 0,5%-20 %/kBq·m 2 . Using well-known conversion coefficients, the excess relative risk of 1 %/kBq·m 2 translates theoretically to a preliminary relative risk of 1,6/mSv/a. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma among children affected by Chernobyl fallout has increased dramatically in certain parts of Europe. Less evidence exists for a similar effect among adolescents and adults. The cancer registry of the Czech Republic provides an opportunity to study various determinants of the occurrence of thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl accident, the thyroid cancer incidence of the Czech Republic reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender. The additional increases of thyroid cancer in the whole population of the Czech Republic are consistent with reports from other countries. To investigate trends in the sex distribution of newborns before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden

  4. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  6. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  7. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-03-27

    The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and the federal income tax T1 Family Files. Separate logistic models were used to quantify the association between socioeconomic position, clinical risk factors and spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth. The study population included 132,714 singleton deliveries and the rate of preterm birth was 5.5%. Preterm birth rates were significantly higher among the women in the lowest (versus the highest) family income group for spontaneous (rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.25) but not iatrogenic preterm birth (rate ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75, 1.19). Adjustment for maternal characteristics attenuated the family income-spontaneous preterm birth relationship but strengthened the relationship with iatrogenic preterm birth. Clinical risk factors such as hypertension were differentially associated with spontaneous (rate ratio 3.92, 95% CI 3.47, 4.44) and iatrogenic preterm (rate ratio 14.1, 95% CI 11.4, 17.4) but factors such as diabetes mellitus were not (rate ratio 4.38, 95% CI 3.21, 5.99 for spontaneous and 4.02, 95% CI 2.07, 7.80 for iatrogenic preterm birth). Socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors have different effects on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm. Recent temporal increases in iatrogenic preterm birth appear to be responsible for the inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth.

  9. The birth of joseph gabriel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Anne Touhill

    2013-01-01

    In this column, a mother shares the story of the birth of her first child. With confidence in the process of birth and in her ability to give birth, and with the support, confidence, and encouragement of her mother and sisters, Anne manages to cope with strong contractions through a busy day. Finally, her husband realizes how fast labor is progressing. Baby Joseph was born less than 2 hours after arrival at the hospital.

  10. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  11. Contestation, instrumental resistance and strategic conformation within the diagnostic process of gender dysphoria in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Hilário, Ana Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to provide insights into the ways in which trans people (i.e. those whose gender identity or expression do not align with their assigned sex at birth) in Portugal make sense of the diagnosis of gender dysphoria. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 10 trans men and 9 trans women carried out by the TRANSRIGHTS team, we identified three major themes: (a) contestation of gender dysphoria as a (mental) illness, (b) instrumental resistance to complete demedicalisation of gender ...

  12. TRAILING GENDER STEREOTYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Sekhar P M; J. Parameswari

    2017-01-01

    A gender stereotype is a kind of over generalization about characteristics, attributes and differences on the basis of gender. Gender stereotypes construct certain gender roles. A gender role is a behavior learned by a person as desirable, acceptable appropriate, to their gender, determined by the prevailing cultural norms. In society, the gender role continues through generation. There are certain factors which help to transmit these roles. This conceptual paper will try to explain the role ...

  13. Atopy risk factors at birth and in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Erica; Garcia, Clécia Aparecida; Bettiol, Heloísa; Caldeira, Roseane Durães; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Arruda, Luiza Karla; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    To study the association between atopy and variables such as weight, length, and socioeconomic level at birth and in young adulthood. A total of 2,063 subjects were investigated in a prospective birth cohort study of individuals born in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, in 1978/1979, and examined at the age of 23-25 years. Skin prick tests (SPT) for eight common allergens in Brazil were performed. Subjects with a wheal reaction ≥ 3 mm to one or more of the eight allergens tested were considered to be atopic. We used the log-binomial model (generalized linear model) in order to assess the association between atopy and birth or adult variables. The prevalence of positive SPT was 47.6%. Male gender was associated with an increased risk of atopy (relative risk [RR] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.07-1.30). Low level of schooling was a protective factor against atopy, with a RR = 0.74; 95%CI 0.62-0.89. Living with a smoker in childhood was also associated with lower risk of atopy (RR = 0.87; 95%CI 0.79-0.96). Birth weight, length and order, maternal age, and intrauterine growth restriction were not associated with positive SPT. This study showed that male gender was associated with an increased risk of atopy. Low socioeconomic status, assessed by low level of schooling, was a protective factor against atopy. These data agree with the hygiene hypothesis.

  14. Secular trends in newborn sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-11-01

    A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence the male to female ratio at birth, which invariably displays a male excess. This paper will review and amplify recent work by the author, with specific references to individual countries, regions and entire continents in order to provide a global overview of this subject. It will be shown that stress, including stress related to political events, influences this ratio. Man-made radiation is also shown to have played a significant role in relation to the Windscale fire (1957) and Chernobyl (1986). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An exploration of secondary sex ratios among women diagnosed with anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, M.S.; Goldman-Mellor, S.J.; Anderson, E.S.; LeWinn, K.Z.; Saxton, K.B.; Shumway, M.; Catalano, R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Theory suggests that natural selection conserved reactivity in part because highly reactive women spontaneously abort less fit conceptuses, particularly small males. Other literature argues that high reactivity manifests clinically as anxiety disorders. If true, births to women diagnosed with anxiety disorders should exhibit a low secondary sex ratio (i.e. ratio of male to female births). We explored whether births to women diagnosed with anxiety disorders exhibit a lower sex ratio than births to women diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders, or to women without mental health diagnoses. METHODS We performed a case–control comparison of the secondary sex ratios among groups of women categorized by mental health diagnosis using birth records linked to data from California County Mental Health system records. We compared sex ratios among 5994 deliveries to mothers diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 23 443 deliveries to mothers diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders and 1 099 198 ‘comparison’ births. RESULTS Although comparison births exhibited a higher sex ratio than births to women diagnosed with anxiety disorders or with other diagnoses, differences were not statistically significant. Births to African American women diagnosed with anxiety disorders, however, exhibited sex ratios significantly lower than comparison births among African Americans (OR = 0.89, P = 0.038) or births to African American women with other mental health diagnoses (OR = 0.88, P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS We found that infants born to African American women diagnosed with anxiety disorders exhibited a significantly lower secondary sex ratio than reference groups. We urge confirmatory tests of our findings and discuss implications of the reactivity/anxiety hypothesis for psychiatry, obstetrics and public health. PMID:20570972

  16. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  17. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks) and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR) and Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02), inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls) (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001), absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001), history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005). Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  18. Social class at birth and risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Brian; Fanning, Felicity; Lyne, John; Renwick, Laoise; Madigan, Kevin; Kinsella, Anthony; Lane, Abbie; Turner, Niall; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with psychotic disorders are represented more in the lower social classes, yet there is conflicting evidence to whether these individuals drift into the lower social classes or whether lower social class is a risk factor for developing psychosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether the social class at birth is a risk factor for developing psychosis. We included individuals with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) whose social class at birth was determined from birth records. We employed a case-control study design and also compared the distribution of the social classes at birth of the cases to that of the general population. A total of 380 individuals with an FEP and 760 controls were included in the case-control study. The odds ratio for developing an FEP associated with social class (low vs high) was .62 (95% confidence interval (CI): .46-.85, p social class at birth have a reduced risk of psychosis. Individuals born between 1961 and 1980 with an FEP were more likely to be from a higher social class at birth compared to the general population (60.8% vs 36.7%, χ(2) = 60.85, df = 1, p social class at birth is associated with a greater risk for developing a psychotic disorder; however, this effect may show temporal variation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Geography and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, L

    1989-05-01

    Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs.

  20. Birth spacing of pregnant women in Nepal: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Karkee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOptimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal.MethodsA community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing.ResultsAbout 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within one year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months. The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8 months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age.For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing.ConclusionsThe preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.

  1. Birth Spacing of Pregnant Women in Nepal: A Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    Optimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural, and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal. A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic, and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing. About 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within 1 year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months). The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8) months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age. For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing. The preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.

  2. Predictors and birth outcomes: An investigation of birth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Birth and emergency preparedness is a safe motherhood strategy which encourages early decision making and minimizes delays in health care seeking in the event of obstetric complications. The aim of this study was to determine individual level factors influencing birth and emergency preparedness. Methods: A ...

  3. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    with a wage increase of 7–22 per cent for female workers only, depending on the analytical approach taken. We also show evidence that the wage increase is associated only with on-the-job training and that lower ability workers are more likely to be trained. Our findings indicate that, at least in Viet Nam......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...

  4. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  5. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adolescent Care: Psychosocial and Medical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female or elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression are not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. Recent findings The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one’s birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Summary Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents. PMID:26087416

  6. Chapter Nine. Systemic Discrimination and Gender Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    Today’s girl child is tomorrows older woman worker, and it is her opportunities and experiences now that will shape her ability to obtain and maintain decent work throughout her adult life, and enjoy security and protection in her old age. If girls, compared to boys, face negative cultural attitudes and practices and discrimination from birth, they will grow up to be women with greater constraints and few choices and opportunities. I. INTRODUCTION To understand gender inequality, it is import...

  7. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively f...... explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates....

  8. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    western Johannesburg and also at the. Donald Gordon Medical Centre. Neonatal skin, like the respiratory system, bears the brunt of the extreme change in external environment that characterises birth. NEONATES. 488 CME September 2004 Vol.22 No.9. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH). Fig. 1. Café-au-lait macule. Fig. 2.

  9. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  10. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  11. Maternal risk factors for singleton preterm births and survival at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-24

    Feb 24, 2015 ... ratio [aOR] = 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.92, 6.07), Previous preterm birth (aOR = 5.06; 95% CI: 2.66, 9.12), ... on gestational age at birth and mode of delivery, but not on maternal sociodemographic risk factors for singleton preterm births. ... of preterms in this area have become important in order to.

  12. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  13. India's Conditional Cash Transfer Programme (the JSY to Promote Institutional Birth: Is There an Association between Institutional Birth Proportion and Maternal Mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Randive

    Full Text Available India accounts for 19% of global maternal deaths, three-quarters of which come from nine states. In 2005, India launched a conditional cash transfer (CCT programme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR through promotion of institutional births. JSY is the largest CCT in the world. In the nine states with relatively lower socioeconomic levels, JSY provides a cash incentive to all women on birthing in health institution. The cash incentive is intended to reduce financial barriers to accessing institutional care for delivery. Increased institutional births are expected to reduce MMR. Thus, JSY is expected to (a increase institutional births and (b reduce MMR in states with high proportions of institutional births. We examine the association between (a service uptake, i.e., institutional birth proportions and (b health outcome, i.e., MMR.Data from Sample Registration Survey of India were analysed to describe trends in proportion of institutional births before (2005 and during (2006-2010 the implementation of the JSY. Data from Annual Health Survey (2010-2011 for all 284 districts in above- mentioned nine states were analysed to assess relationship between MMR and institutional births.Proportion of institutional births increased from a pre-programme average of 20% to 49% in 5 years (p<0.05. In bivariate analysis, proportion of institutional births had a small negative correlation with district MMR (r = -0.11.The multivariate regression model did not establish significant association between institutional birth proportions and MMR [CI: -0.10, 0.68].Our analysis confirmed that JSY succeeded in raising institutional births significantly. However, we were unable to detect a significant association between institutional birth proportion and MMR. This indicates that high institutional birth proportions that JSY has achieved are of themselves inadequate to reduce MMR. Other factors including improved quality of care at

  14. Assisted reproductive technology and major birth defects in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michele; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; de Klerk, Nicholas; Burton, Peter; Bower, Carol

    2012-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects diagnosed by 6 years of age in all births and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly conceived by assisted reproductive technology (when this included intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in vitro fertilization [IVF]) and the remainder of nonassisted reproductive technology-conceived children born in Western Australia from 1994 to 2002. This retrospective cohort study used data linkage between three population-based registers (Reproductive Technology Register, Western Australian Register of Developmental Anomalies, and Midwives' Notification of Birth System) to identify all assisted reproductive technology (n=2,911) and nonassisted reproductive technology (n=210,997) births with and without birth defects diagnosed by age 6 and all terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. A major birth defect was diagnosed in 8.7% of assisted reproductive technology and 5.4% of nonassisted reproductive technology singletons (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.79), as well as 7.1% of assisted reproductive technology twins and 5.9% of nonassisted reproductive technology twins of unlike sex (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.77-1.51). The prevalence of birth defects in assisted reproductive technology singletons and twins decreased markedly over the study period. This change was evident across all three clinics contributing data over the whole study and was particularly marked for children conceived as a result of IVF. There has been a decrease in the prevalence of birth defects over time in children born as a result of assisted reproductive technology in Western Australia; however, the prevalence of major birth defects in assisted reproductive technology singletons remains increased compared with nonassisted reproductive technology singletons. II.

  15. Implications of teen birth for overweight and obesity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy; Choi, HwaJung; Richardson, Caroline R; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether teen birth was independently associated with overweight and obesity in a US cohort. We examined whether teen birth is independently associated with overweight and obesity in a multiyear US cohort using the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. We performed multinomial logistic regression adjusting for survey cohort, age at survey, race, education, and parity. We included women 20-59 years old at the time of survey, with at least 1 live birth, not currently or recently pregnant (unweighted, n = 5220; weighted, n = 48.4 million). Our outcome measure was the effect of teen birth on subsequent overweight and obesity. In bivariate analyses, women with a teen birth were significantly more likely than women without a teen birth to be overweight (relative risk ratios [RRRs], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.90) or obese (RRR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.56-2.16) at the time of the survey. In multivariate models, women with a teen birth remained significantly more likely to be overweight (adjusted RRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) or obese (adjusted RRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.61) than women without a teen birth. For women in the United States, giving birth as a teen is associated with subsequent overweight/obese status later in life. To inform clinical and policy interventions with the goal to improve the long-term health of teenage mothers, future studies must examine modifiable physiological and sociomedical reasons for early child-bearing and later risk of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep Disorder Diagnosis During Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Baer, Rebecca J; Rand, Larry; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L; Prather, Aric A

    2017-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that sleep disorder diagnosis would be associated with increased risk of preterm birth and to examine risk by gestational age, preterm birth type, and specific sleep disorder (insomnia, sleep apnea, movement disorder, and other). In this observational study, participants were from a cohort of nearly 3 million women in California between 2007 and 2012. Inclusion criteria were women with singleton neonates liveborn between 20 and 44 weeks of gestation without chromosomal abnormalities or major structural birth defects linked to a hospital discharge database maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development and without mental illness during pregnancy. Sleep disorder was defined based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic code (n=2,265). Propensity score matching was used to select a referent population at a one-to-one ratio. Odds of preterm birth were examined by gestational age (less than 34 weeks, 34-36 weeks, and less than 37 weeks of gestation) and type (spontaneous, indicated). Prevalence of preterm birth (before 37 weeks of gestation) was 10.9% in the referent group compared with 14.6% among women with a recorded sleep disorder diagnosis. Compared with the referent group, odds (95% CI, P value, percentage) of preterm birth were 1.3 (1.0-1.7, P=.023, 14.1%) for insomnia and 1.5 (1.2-1.8, P<.001, 15.5%) for sleep apnea. Risk varied by gestational age and preterm birth type. Odds of preterm birth were not significantly increased for sleep-related movement disorders or other sleep disorders. Insomnia and sleep apnea were associated with significantly increased risk of preterm birth. Considering the high prevalence of sleep disorders during pregnancy and availability of evidence-based nonpharmacologic interventions, current findings suggest that screening for severe presentations would be prudent.

  17. Impact of Preterm Birth on Glucocorticoid Variability in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, Shikha; Mitchell, Cameron J; Thorstensen, Eric B; Wall, Clare R; Perrella, Sharon L; Geddes, Donna T; Cameron-Smith, David

    2018-02-01

    Preterm birth is a stressful event for both the mother and infant. Whereas the initiation of breastfeeding is important for preterm infant health, little is known of the glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol and cortisone) in human milk following preterm birth. Research aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between human milk glucocorticoid concentrations and preterm birth. Human milk was sampled weekly for up to 6 weeks from 22 women who delivered a preterm infant at 28 to 32 weeks' gestation. Human milk was analyzed for total and free cortisol and cortisone concentrations using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Milk sampled from mothers of preterm infants had more cortisone than cortisol ( p hormones ( p = .001, r = .85). The cortisone was significantly higher in the milk of mothers who delivered infants after 30 weeks compared with those who delivered before 30 weeks of gestation ( p = .02). Glucocorticoid concentrations did not change over the sampling time (weeks 1 to 6 postpartum) and did not differ by infant gender. Glucocorticoids were present in all milk samples following preterm birth. Cortisone concentration tended to be higher in those who delivered after 30 weeks' gestation but did not increase further over the weeks following birth.

  18. Craniofacial anomalies amongst births at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, A; Rotich, E C; Chindia, M L; Macigo, F G; Ndavi, M; Were, F

    2012-05-01

    The pattern of congenital oral and craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) in the Kenyan population remains unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of occurrence of CFAs at two hospitals in Nairobi. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital was carried out from November 2006 to March 2007. Mothers who delivered at the hospitals consented to an interview and physical examination of their babies within 48 h of delivery. The anomalies were classified for type and magnitude. Data were analysed to determine the association of these anomalies with ages of the mothers, gender, weight, birth order, mode of delivery and birth status of the babies. During the study period, 7989 babies were born. The CFAs manifested in 1.8% of the total births and were more common in female (1.4%) than in male (1.0%) live births. 12.8% of stillbirths had CFAs, with lesions manifesting more in males (16.7%) than in females (6.9%). The commonest CFA was preauricular sinus (4.3/1000) followed by hydrocephalus (1.9/1000) then preauricular tags and cleft lip and palate (1.5/1000 and 1.3/1000 total births, respectively). Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcoholism and timing of separation in parents: findings in a midwestern birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/ other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA nevertogether couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins' birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth-5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender.

  20. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  1. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 達彦; ナガサカ, タツヒコ; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  2. Cumulative teen birth rates among girls in foster care at age 17: an analysis of linked birth and child protection records from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; King, Bryn

    2014-04-01

    This study used linked foster care and birth records to provide a longitudinal, population-level examination of the incidence of first and repeat births among girls who were in foster care at age 17. Girls in a foster care placement in California at the age of 17 between 2003 and 2007 were identified from statewide child protection records. These records were probabilistically matched to vital birth records spanning the period from 2001 to 2010. Linked data were used to estimate the cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth before age 20. Birth rates and unadjusted risk ratios were generated to characterize foster care experiences correlated with heightened teen birth rates. Between 2003 and 2007 in California, there were 20,222 girls in foster care at age 17. Overall, 11.4% had a first birth before age 18. The cumulative percentage who gave birth before age 20 was 28.1%. Among girls who had a first birth before age 18, 41.2% had a repeat teen birth. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and placement-related characteristics emerged. Expanded data and rigorous research are needed to evaluate prevention efforts and ensure parenting teens are provided with the needed services and supports. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2008-10-01

    Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors mediate the association. The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. Mothers with preterm birth compared with mothers with >12 years of education and the association interacted with parity, while income and occupation affected the risk to a lesser degree. The adjusted HR for less educated nulliparous and parous women were 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.42) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.31-1.87), respectively, compared with women with >12 years of education. For parous women with preterm birth to 1.43 (95% CI 1.19-1.72). Maternal educational level was the strongest predictor of preterm birth among five socioeconomic measures and the gradient did not differ significantly according to the degree of preterm birth. For parous women smoking explained some of the educational gradient but in general the selected risk factors only reduced the relative educational gradient in preterm birth marginally.

  4. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Key words: Skilled birth attendants, utilization, maternal mortality ratio .... maternal deaths . The historical evidence shows that countries that have been able to reduce maternal and child mortality have improved women's access to skilled health professional .... investigator in the language the respondents understood better.

  5. Thymic size at birth in preterm infants with severe respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The only maternal and postnatal factors influencing CT/T ratio were the presence of pre-eclamptic toxaemia (PET) and birth by caesarean section (CS), but these factors did not influence likelihood of survival. Factors found to be not associated with thymic size were antenatal steroid administration, maternal HIV status, ...

  6. Is Team Formation Gender Neutral? Evidence from Coauthorship Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Boschini, Anne; Sjögren, Anna

    2006-01-01

    We investigate if voluntary team formation is gender neutral. To this end, we model team formation as a random matching process influenced by the agents' preferences for team size and gender composition and derive how team formation depends on the gender ratio in the population of prospective team mates. We then test if the coauthorship pattern in articles published 1991-2002 in three top Economics journals is gender neutral, exploiting the variation in female presence across subfields of Eco...

  7. Gender Issues in Parenting Cleft Lip and Palate Babies in Southern Nigeria: A Study of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umweni, A. A.; Okeigbemen, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is a scarcity of studies on gender issues in parenting cleft lip and palate (CLAP) babies. The birth of a CLAP child presents an immediate visible handicap that is distressing to parents. The aims and objectives of this study are to determine the influence of gender on the attitude of parents on the birth of CLAP babies, to articulate the…

  8. The use of entropy index for gender inequality analysis | Ekhosuehi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Millennium Declaration, the proportion (or ratio) of females to males in a given sector is used as the indicator for gender inequality. A critical limitation in the proportion (or ratio) statistic is that it does not include randomness in gender disparity over a period of time. It is well-known that randomness, which is a key ...

  9. The Multiplicity of Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Lea

    2015-01-01

    people could quickly sum up the full pallet of meanings that comes with these gender categories. What does it mean to be a man or a woman? Is your sex/gender best captured by your biology (genitalia, hormones and chromosomes), your gender identity (the gender you perceive yourself to be) or your gender...... expression (how you chose to express your gender in clothes, jewelry, gestures, tone of voice)? Many people go through life never making those nuanced gender distinctions. However, where you situated yourself on the different gendered spectrums can have a significant effect on your life and well-being....

  10. PROBLEMATIKA TAFSIR FEMINIS: Studi Kritis Konsep Kesetaraan Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Adian Husaini; Rahmatul Husni

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Gender equality is a discourse that is still warm to be discussed by Muslim feminists. Initiators and supporters of gender equality often questioned about Islamic laws that were considered to be unfair since they had positioned men and women differently such as the obligotary for  adhan (call for prayer), the Friday prayers, the number of goats in aqiqah (welcoming celebretion of child’s birth), and the compulsory of breastfeeding and caring for the child. Through content analysis, ...

  11. Birth of ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowke, J. J.; Smith, D.; Nelson, K. E.; Crompton, R. W.; Murphy, A. B.

    2012-10-01

    Many observations of ball lightning report a ball of light, about 10 cm in diameter, moving at about walking speed, lasting up to 20 s and frequently existing inside of houses and even aeroplanes. The present paper reports detailed observations of the initiation or birth of ball lightning. In two cases, navigation crew of aircraft saw ball lightning form at the windscreen inside the cockpit of their planes. In the first case, the ball lightning occurred during a thunderstorm, with much lightning activity outside of the plane. In the second case, large "horns" of electrical corona were seen outside of the plane at the surface of the radome, just prior to the formation of the ball lightning. A third case reports ball lightning formed inside of a house, during a thunderstorm, at a closed glass window. It is proposed, based on two-dimensional calculations of electron and ion transport, that ball lightning in these cases is driven and formed by atmospheric ions impinging and collecting on the insulating surface of the glass or Perspex windows. This surface charge can produce electric fields inside of the cockpit or room sufficient to sustain an electric discharge. Charges of opposite sign to those outside of the window accumulate on the inside surface of the glass, leaving a ball of net charge moving inside of the cockpit or room to produce a pulsed discharge on a microsecond time scale.

  12. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    they are still largely unaffected by the influence of working life. Possible associations between low back pain, birth weight, birth length, ponderal index, gestational age and Apgar scores are investigated by the use of logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio for the lifetime prevalence of low...

  13. Preterm birth time trends in Europe: A study of 19 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Szamotulska, K.; Drewniak, N.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Chalmers, J.; Sakkeus, L.; Irgens, L.; Gatt, M.; Gissler, M.; Blondel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate time trends in preterm birth in Europe by multiplicity, gestational age, and onset of delivery. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine sources. Setting Nineteen European countries. Population Live births in 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. Methods Annual risk ratios of

  14. 45 CFR 283.5 - How will we use these birth data to determine bonus eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will we use these birth data to determine... DECREASE IN ILLEGITIMACY RATIO § 283.5 How will we use these birth data to determine bonus eligibility? (a) We will base eligibility determinations on final vital statistics data provided by NCHS showing the...

  15. Gender identity and gender of rearing in 46 XY disorders of sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaher, Arushi; Chauhan, Vasundhera; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Mehta, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD) may pose a challenge to live as a fully-functioning male or female. In this study, we prospectively assessed eleven 46 XY DSD patients who were being treated at our center over the last 8 months for gender dysphoria. To determine gender dysphoria, age-appropriate gender identity (GI) questionnaires were used. For patients, 12 years and below, parent report GI questionnaire for children was used and for those above 12 years of age, GI/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults was administered. Of 11 patients with 46 XY DSD, three were diagnosed with 5 alpha reductase deficiency (5aRD), two with partial gonadal dysgenesis, three with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, one each with ovotesticular, complete gonadal dysgenesis, and complete androgen insensitivity. Gender assigned at birth was female in eight and male in three patients. Among the eight reared as female, gender had been reassigned as male in three patients well before the present study was conducted. None of the eleven patients had gender dysphoria at the time of this study. Early gender of rearing was seen to be a critical indicator of present GI in our patients except in cases of 5aRD.

  16. Gender identity and gender of rearing in 46 XY disorders of sexual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi Gangaher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disorders of sexual development (DSD may pose a challenge to live as a fully-functioning male or female. In this study, we prospectively assessed eleven 46 XY DSD patients who were being treated at our center over the last 8 months for gender dysphoria. Materials and Methods: To determine gender dysphoria, age-appropriate gender identity (GI questionnaires were used. For patients, 12 years and below, parent report GI questionnaire for children was used and for those above 12 years of age, GI/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults was administered. Results: Of 11 patients with 46 XY DSD, three were diagnosed with 5 alpha reductase deficiency (5aRD, two with partial gonadal dysgenesis, three with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, one each with ovotesticular, complete gonadal dysgenesis, and complete androgen insensitivity. Gender assigned at birth was female in eight and male in three patients. Among the eight reared as female, gender had been reassigned as male in three patients well before the present study was conducted. None of the eleven patients had gender dysphoria at the time of this study. Conclusion: Early gender of rearing was seen to be a critical indicator of present GI in our patients except in cases of 5aRD.

  17. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...

  18. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... to this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be ...

  19. Changes in the newborn at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth - changes in the newborn ... heart and flows through the baby's body. At birth, the baby's lungs are filled with fluid. They ... gastrointestinal system doesn't fully function until after birth. In late pregnancy, the baby produces a tarry ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  1. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  2. [Sex ratio in Down syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N V

    2002-01-01

    Data from 55 publications providing the sex ratio (SR), i.e. ratio between male and female cases of Down syndrome (DS), are presented. In general, SR was skewed toward an excess of males in the majority of studied populations, either in populations with a high level of cases ascertainment (epidemiological studies) or in selected groups. No significant correlation involving the age of either patients or mothers was found. Some other factors which might influence the sex ratio in DS at birth are mentioned. Meta-analysis of data from epidemiological studies suggests the phenomenon is not restricted to free trisomy 21 alone but appears in translocation cases, both in mutant and inherited translocation carriers (SR = 1.31 and 1.36, respectively). In contrast to nonmosaic 47, +21 cases, where SR is close to 1.3, an excess of females was observed in mosaics 46/47, +21 (SR = 0.83). No male predominance was found among patients with DS not tested cytogenetically (SR = 0.98), which may be explained by female predominance in false-positive cases. In populations with a fraction of clinically diagnosed cases of 30% and over, SR has intermediate value of 1.1. The ratio showed a tendency to increase since 1940's, reaching a mean value of 1.35 in 1980's varying from 1.3 to 1.62 in different populations), which might be a consequence of the growing use of karyotyping to confirm diagnosis and of a real increase in proportion of males. In the 1990's, the ratio fell to 1.22 varying from 1.03 to 1.27. As SR is assumed to reflect a proportion of paternal contribution, the discrepancy between the proportions of paternal errors in cytogenetic studies on parental origin of the extra chromosome (24% in the 1980's) and in molecular studies (5-10% in the 1990's) discussed in the literature might be explained by temporal changes alone. Genetic mechanisms of male predominance in trisomy 21 are reviewed, among them models for joint segregation of chromosome 21 and Y chromosome in spermatogenesis

  3. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  4. Gender saturation in the Southern Caucasus: family composition and sex-selective abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garenne, Michel; Hohmann, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    The study investigates the complex relationships between sex-selective abortion and family composition in two countries of the Southern Caucasus: Armenia and Azerbaijan. Data were drawn from maternity histories recorded in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs). In both countries, the relationship between the sex ratio of the next birth and the number of girls already born changed from negative to positive after 1992, when sex-selective abortion became prevalent. In Azerbaijan, but not in Armenia, a similar change was noticed for the relationship between the sex ratio of the next birth and the number of boys already born, this time from positive to negative. All changes in slopes were highly statistically significant. These findings indicate that sex-selective abortion was prevalent in both countries, and could work both ways in Azerbaijan. The results are interpreted in terms of 'gender saturation', that is a desire of families to better balance the composition of the family when too many children of the same sex are already born, which is consistent with opinion surveys indicating a preference for balanced families.

  5. Cranial birth trauma; Kraniales Geburtstrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)

  6. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under

  7. Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association. The study also examines the association between age at substantiation of maltreatment, number of childhood maltreatment substantiations and high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. The data were from a prospective Australian pre-birth mother-child dyads study, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study followed 7223 mother-child dyads following the birth of a live, singleton baby at the Mater hospital. Recruitment was early in pregnancy, and then follow-ups at 3-5days postpartum and again when the child was 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years of age. The data were linked to agency-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment 0-14 years. This study extended the data linkage to 3766 (47.4% female) participants who had complete data on dietary fat intake behaviors at the 21-year follow-up. Consecutive logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals for high dietary fat intake for multiple and specific forms of childhood maltreatment, as well as age at and number of childhood maltreatment substantiations. Finally, a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction term was used to predict the outcome. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, substantiated childhood maltreatment including physical abuse were associated with high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. Similarly, substantiation of childhood maltreatment between the ages of 5 and 14 years was significantly

  8. Cross-national associations between gender and mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J; Brugha, Traolach S; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Medina Mora, Maria Elena; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C

    2009-07-01

    Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety and mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The gender roles hypothesis suggests that these differences narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal. To study time-space (cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative and to determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control. Face-to-face household surveys. Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific. Community-dwelling adults (N = 72,933). The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in female to male odds ratios of these disorders across cohorts defined by the following age ranges: 18 to 34, 35 to 49, 50 to 64, and 65 years and older. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in gender role traditionality on these odds ratios. In all cohorts and countries, women had more anxiety and mood disorders than men, and men had more externalizing and substance disorders than women. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (major depressive disorder) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in gender role traditionality. While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied

  9. [Care network for patients with gender dysphoria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Lorenzo; Hischier, Marion; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2016-09-21

    Gender dysphoria refers to the distress caused by the discrepancy between a person's gender identity and his or her sex assignment at birth. It can be alleviated by specialized multidisciplinary care, which is summarized in this article.Unfortunately, this disorder is still not widely known in the medical world and this can cause a discriminatory attitude on the part of caregivers and can lead to detrimental patient care.Faced with this finding and the complaints of some patients, we have decided to create a care network which includes healthcare professionals from various disciplines. The professionals in this network aim to improve the quality of care for patients with gender dysphoria and to create a leading care network in French-speaking Switzerland.

  10. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  11. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  12. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental public health tracking is the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data on environmental ... 2016) Key Findings: Gastroschisis – a Serious Birth Defect – Continues to Increase New CDC research shows that the ...

  13. Birth order and paediatric allergic disease: A nationwide longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Yorifuji, T; Fujii, Y; Yashiro, M; Okada, A; Ikeda, M; Doi, H; Tsukahara, H

    2018-05-01

    Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments, where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects post-natal environment. However, longitudinal studies are limited on this subject. This study sought to elucidate the relationships between birth order and allergic disease. From a nationwide longitudinal study that followed children born in 2001 (n = 47 015), we selected doctors' visits for 3 types of allergic disease-bronchial asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis-from infancy to 12 years of age and conducted binomial log-linear regression analysis to evaluate the associations between birth order and these diseases. We adjusted for the child and parental factors and estimated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. The associations between birth order and bronchial asthma were diverse; later birth order increased the risk in early childhood, but decreased the risks during school age. For example, the adjusted RR comparing third-born or higher and first-born children was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) between 30 and 42 months of age, but was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89) between 10 and 11 years. Later birth order was generally protective for food allergy but increased the risk of atopic dermatitis. The influence of birth order depended on the type of allergic disease and the childhood period. Childhood is unique in terms of physical and immunological development, and the immune response to the post-natal environment in childhood appears to be heterogeneous. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  15. RESIDENTIAL RADON AND BIRTH DEFECTS: A POPULATION-BASED ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter H; Lee, MinJae; Lupo, Philip J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cortez, Ruben K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Associations have been reported between maternal radiation exposure and birth defects. No such studies were found on radon. Our objective was to determine if there is an association between living in areas with higher radon levels and birth defects. METHODS The Texas Birth Defects Registry provided data on all birth defects from 1999–2009 from the entire state. Mean radon levels by geologic region came from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey. The association between radon and birth defects was estimated using multilevel mixed effect Poisson regression. RESULTS Birth defects overall were not associated with residential radon levels. Of the 100 other birth defect groups with at least 500 cases, 14 were significantly elevated in areas with high mean radon level in crude analyses, and 9 after adjustment for confounders. Cleft lip with/without cleft palate had an adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of 1.16 per 1 picoCurie/liter (pCi/l) increase in exposure to region mean radon, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.26. Cystic hygroma / lymphangioma had an aPR of 1.22 per 1 pCi/l increase, 95% CI 1.02, 1.46. Other associations were suggested but not as consistent: three skeletal defects, Down syndrome, other specified anomalies of the brain, and other specified anomalies of the bladder and urethra. CONCLUSIONS In the first study of residential radon and birth defects, we found associations with cleft lip w/wo cleft palate and cystic hygroma / lymphangioma. Other associations were suggested. The ecological nature of this study and multiple comparisons suggest that our results be interpreted with caution. PMID:25846606

  16. Gender and Behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender ...

  17. Congenital Anomalies among Live Births

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Rosa Vázquez Martínez; Cristobal Jorge Torres González; Alina Luisa Díaz Dueñas; Grisel Torres Vázquez; Dariel Diaz Díaz; Rafael de la Rosa López

    2014-01-01

    Background: congenital anomalies contribute significantly to mortality during early stages of life; they are the leading cause of infant death in developed countries.Objective: to determine the characteristics of congenital anomalies among live births. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos in 2012. Thirty-seven women who had live-born neonates with congenital anomalies were studied. The variables analyzed were: parental age, skin color, order of birth, famil...

  18. Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...

  19. Cesarean sections in a birth center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osava, Ruth Hitomi; Silva, Flora Maria Barbosa da; Tuesta, Esteban Fernandes; Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos de; Amaral, Maria Clara Estanislau do

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cesarean sections in a birth center of a hospital and identify factors associated. Cross-sectional study including medical records of 2,441 births assisted in a birth center in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, between March and April 2005. The dependent variable (type of delivery) included vaginal delivery and cesarean section. The independent variables were grouped into four categories: demographic characteristics; current and past obstetric history; intrapartum care; and perinatal outcomes. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated to assess the association between type of delivery and maternal and newborn variables. Of all deliveries, 14.9% were cesarean sections. Cesarean section in the current pregnancy was associated with past cesarean sections (PR = 3.19, 95%CI: 2.64,3.84); gestational age > 40 weeks (PR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.09;1.61); cervical dilation of up to 4 cm on admission (PR = 3.22, 95%CI: 2.31;4.50); and meconium-stained amniotic fluid (PR = 2.5, 95%CI: 2.05;3.06). Regarding newborn characteristics cesarean section was associated with birth weight >4 kg (PR = 1.86, 95%CI: 1.29;2.66). Among women with history of past cesarean sections, having had also a prior vaginal delivery was a protective factor for cesarean section in the current pregnancy (PR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.30;0.71). Factors related to fetal conditions including fetal stress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, breech presentation and macrosomia accounted for 47.8% (175) while those related to the mechanism of birth including arrest disorders, functional dystocia and malposition accounted for 31,3% (115) of all indications for a cesarian section [corrected]. Prevalence of c-section was consistent with World Health Organization recommendations. Increased risk of c-section was associated with prior history of c-sections, cervical dilation of at least 4 cm upon admission, gestational age > 40 weeks, meconium-stained amniotic fluid

  20. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  1. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  2. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with…

  3. Sexual orientation, gender identity, and romantic relationships in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth.

  4. Gender-Inclusive Housing Preferences: A Survey of College-Aged Transgender Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krum, Tiana E.; Davis, Kyle S.; Galupo, M. Paz

    2013-01-01

    Traditional on-campus housing assignments at colleges and universities are made on the basis of legal sex, where students are housed only with other students of the same legal sex. This method is problematic for transgender and gender-nonconforming students, who may not identify with the gender assigned to them at birth. Recently, some…

  5. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppold, Claire; Nomura, Shuhei; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hill, Sarah; Kanazawa, Yukio; Anbe, Hiroshi

    2017-05-19

    Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (<2500 g at birth) and preterm births (<37 weeks gestation at birth) were compared pre- and post-disaster, and regression models were conducted to assess for associations between these outcomes and evacuation and food avoidance. A total of 1101 live singleton births were included. There were no increased proportions of low birthweight or preterm births in any year after the disaster (merged post-disaster risk ratio of low birthweight birth: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-1.51; and preterm birth: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38-1.21). No significant associations between birth outcomes and residential area or food purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health.

  6. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Leppold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (<2500 g at birth and preterm births (<37 weeks gestation at birth were compared pre- and post-disaster, and regression models were conducted to assess for associations between these outcomes and evacuation and food avoidance. A total of 1101 live singleton births were included. There were no increased proportions of low birthweight or preterm births in any year after the disaster (merged post-disaster risk ratio of low birthweight birth: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.64–1.51; and preterm birth: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38–1.21. No significant associations between birth outcomes and residential area or food purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health.

  7. Maternal exposure to benzodiazepine and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: A case-control study using a claims database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yusuke; Takeshima, Nozomi; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2018-01-03

    To examine (1) if the use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth and/or low birth weight (LBW), and, if yes, (2) which types of benzodiazepines or antidepressants have stronger influences. A case-control study was performed using a large claims database in Japan. Cases were mothers who had given birth to preterm and/or LBW infants between 2005 and 2014 (737 with preterm births and 1615 with LBW). Controls were mothers who had neither experienced preterm birth nor given birth to an LBW infant. Overall, 42 058 births were included. The maternal use of benzodiazepines was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.69, P preterm deliveries (adjusted OR, 0.57; 0.08-4.16) and LBW (adjusted OR, 0.56; 0.14-2.29). Benzodiazepine use was associated with increased risk of preterm birth but not with LBW. Antidepressant use was not associated with both preterm deliveries and LBW. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Cohort Effects on the Gender Wage Gap in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naur, Michèle; Smith, Nina

    1996-01-01

    In this study the gender wage gap within three birth cohorts is analysed on the basis of a panel sample of Danish workers covering the period 1979-1990. During the latest decades there has been a considerable change in the female participat ion rate, the part time frequency and the educational...

  9. Religion and gender: challenges to development in Africa | Osim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion and gender: challenges to development in Africa. Stella Eme Osim. Abstract. Africa has in many respects been considered as the birth place of modern civilization and by this standard should have been at its peak in development. Nation-states have embarked on various developmental plans and policies which ...

  10. Do women want disclosure of fetal gender during prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    similar to those reported by Shipp et al,[5] that also found 'wanting the surprise of birth', 'the joy of suspense at delivery' as reasons for not wanting to know fetal sex before delivery. In conclusion, only about 6% of the study population declined to know fetal gender at ultrasound scan when asked by the sonologist. The main ...

  11. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  12. Respiratory morbidity in twins by birth order, gestational age and mode of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Tul, Natasa; Lasic, Mateja; Bregar, Andreja Trojner; Verdenik, Ivan; Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between respiratory morbidity in twins by gestational age, birth order and mode of delivery. All twin deliveries at birth order and to the mode of delivery. In contrast, RDS was more frequent among the second born twins in the vaginal birth groups born at 30-36 weeks [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5 for 33-36 weeks and 30-32 weeks, respectively], whereas this trend was seen in the cesarean birth groups born earlier (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.0 for 28-29 weeks). Cesarean delivery significantly increased the frequency of RDS in twin A as well as in twin B compared with vaginal birth, but only at gestational ages birth order have a gestational age dependent effect on the incidence of RDS.

  13. Does maternal birth outcome differentially influence the occurrence of infant death among African Americans and European Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Archer, Phillip W

    2011-11-01

    The United States continues to have one of the highest infant mortality rates (IMR). Although studies have examined the association between maternal and infant birth outcomes, few studies have examined the impact of maternal birth outcome on infant mortality. This study was designed to examine the influence of maternal low birth weight and preterm birth on infant mortality. The 1997-2007 Virginia birth and infant death registry was analyzed. The infant birth and death data was linked to maternal birth registry data using the mother's maiden name and date of birth. From the mother's birth registry data, the grandmother's demographic and pregnancy history was obtained. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. There was a statistically significant association between maternal birth outcome and subsequent infant mortality. Infants born from a mother who was low birth weight were 2.3 times more likely to have an infant die within the first year of life. Similarly, infants born from a mother born preterm were 2.2 times more likely to have an infant die. Stratification by race showed that there was no statistical association between maternal birth weight and infant death among Whites. However, a strong association was observed among Blacks. Maternal birth outcomes may be an important indicator for infant mortality. Future longitudinal studies are needed to understand the underlying cause of these associations.

  14. Formation of gender parity democracy in Ukraine: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Prokopchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, at the Millennium Summit at UN adopted the Millennium Development Goals , which cover global problems and are calculated for the period 2000­2015 years. Ukraine has signed the Millennium Development Goals and has taken over the political commitment to implement them. One of the goals of this international instrument provides for the promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women. Тhe global goals, objectives and indicators adapted to the peculiarities of Ukraine on the basis of national development. For the analysis of qualitative and quantitative measurements of changes in gender conditions in politics and public administration in Ukraine at present of the experts proposed one objectives and three indicators. Objective: To provide a gender ratio of at least 30 to 70% of either gender in representative bodies and high­level executive. Indicators: 1 Gender ratio among deputies of the Supreme soviet of Ukraine , women / men ( or vice versa , and 2 the gender ratio among members of local authorities , women / men ( or vice versa , and 3 the gender ratio among senior civil servants (1­2 categories , women / men ( or vice versa. In 2015, Ukraine should report at the United Nations on the implementation of the MDGs. In this paper, the author analyzed the state of gender equality in politics and governance in Ukrainian society. One of the main problems of the present stage of gender equality in politics and public administration in Ukraine the author notes : no systematic gender mainstreaming to implement personnel policies in the civil service at the central and local level; the lack of effective state control over observance of gender equality, not provided the institutional legal mechanisms for gender equality; and without the current regulatory framework on gender turns into an empty declaration; the lack of political will to implement the goals of gender equality. The author of the article provides recommendations on optimal

  15. Moving beyond sex: Assessing the impact of gender identity on human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations and uptake among a national sample of rural-residing LGBT young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Whitehead, Jennifer L; Stephenson, Rob

    2017-06-01

    While national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination estimates exist by sex, little is known about HPV vaccination rates by gender identity. We conducted a self-administered, anonymous online cross-sectional survey, with recruitment through Facebook ads, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in rural areas of the US. We compared HPV vaccine recommendation and uptake by self-reported sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Six hundred sixty respondents were age eligible for HPV vaccination: 84% reported gender identity aligned with their sex assigned at birth, while 10% reported gender identity the differed from their sex assigned at birth; an additional 6% reported non-binary gender identity. Only 14% of male sex assigned at birth and 44% of female sex assigned at birth received HPV vaccine, similar to estimates by current gender identity. Transgender respondents' HPV vaccination experience mirrored that of cisgender respondents with regard to sex assigned at birth. Providers may base HPV vaccine recommendations on individuals' sex assigned at birth, which may impact transgender individuals' vaccine coverage. Future HPV vaccine uptake studies should account for gender identity. With sex-specific catch-up HPV vaccination recommendations, the role of gender identity on provider recommendation and reimbursement needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  17. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth : Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marit F.; Hermus, Marieke A. A.; Boesveld, Inge I.C.; Franx, Arie; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Van Den Akker-Van Marle, Eiske M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  18. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Franx, A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der; Steegers, E.E.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  19. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Hitzert (Marit); M.A.A. Hermus (Marieke A.A.); Boesveld, I.I.C. (Inge I.C.); A. Franx (Arie); K.M. van der Pal-De Bruin (Karin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Van Den Akker-Van Marle, E.M.E. (Eiske M.E.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design

  20. 38 CFR 3.209 - Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth. 3.209 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.209 Birth. Age or... abstract of the public record of birth. Such a record established more than 4 years after the birth will be...

  1. Progestin-Only Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and ... ExpectDepo-Provera: An Injectable ContraceptiveTubal Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)Birth Control OptionsNatural Family PlanningBirth Control: How to Use ...

  2. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppold, Claire; Nomura, Shuhei; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hill, Sarah; Kanazawa, Yukio; Anbe, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (increased proportions of low birthweight or preterm births in any year after the disaster (merged post-disaster risk ratio of low birthweight birth: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–1.51; and preterm birth: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38–1.21). No significant associations between birth outcomes and residential area or food purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health. PMID:28534840

  3. Reproductive and Birth Outcomes in Haiti Before and After the 2010 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Do, Mai

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine the relationship between exposure to the 2010 Haiti earthquake and pregnancy wantedness, interpregnancy interval, and birth weight. From the nationally representative Haiti 2012 Demographic and Health Survey, information on "size of child at birth" (too small or not) was available for 7280 singleton births in the previous 5 years, whereas information on birth weight was available for 1607 births. Pregnancy wantedness, short (<1 year) interpregnancy interval, and maternal-reported birth weight were compared before and after the earthquake and by level of damage. Multiple logistic regression and linear regression analyses were conducted. Post-earthquake births were less likely to be wanted and more likely to be born after a short interpregnancy interval. Earthquake exposure was associated with increased likelihood of a child being born too small: timing of birth (after earthquake vs. before earthquake, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.45), region (hardest-hit vs. rest of country; aOR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.14- 1.80), and house damage (aOR: 1.27 95% CI: 1.02-1.58). Mean birth weight was 150 to 300 g lower in those exposed to the earthquake. Experience with the earthquake was associated with worse reproductive and birth outcomes, which underscores the need to provide reproductive health services as part of relief efforts.

  4. Demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual characteristics of adolescents with gender identity disorder or transvestic fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.

  5. Parental Choice of Alternative Birth Environments and Attitudes Toward Childrearing Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Susan Riemer; Donnenfeld, Penny B.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the attitudes and values of 64 prospective parents choosing maternity center, hospital, or home births. Maternity-center couples emerged on the whole as less traditional and more representative of sex-egalitarian attitudes toward parenting. Overall, differences by gender, not group, were found. (JAC)

  6. Estimating Lecithin/Sphingomyelin Area Ratio in Amniotic Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A knowledge of the pulmonary maturity of the unborn fetus is an important factor in deciding when to induce birth. A lecithin/sphingomyelin area ratio is obtained by thin-layer chromatography. A molybdenum spray is used to make visible only the choline-containing phospholipids, without necessitating the use of heat. This is ...

  7. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  8. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  9. Relationship Among Mothers' Glycemic Level, Periodontitis, and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Eliesita C; Cruz, Simone S; Adan, Luis Fernando F; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Passos-Soares, Johelle S; Trindade, Soraya C; Oliveira, Ernesto P; Oliveira, Michelle T; Cerqueira, Eneida de M M; Pereira, Antonio Luis; Barreto, Maurício L; Seymour, Gregory John

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of glycemic level on the relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was conducted with 372 females divided into cases (109 mothers of newborns with birth weight periodontal status. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. The likelihood of having children with LBW among the mothers with periodontitis was six times greater than that observed among mothers without periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR adjusted] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 15.17), even after adjustment. There was also a strong, statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and LBW in both the normal glycemic-level group (HbA1c levels Periodontitis and glycemic levels appeared to have opposing influences on birth weight, with periodontitis being associated with LBW and the magnitude of the association being altered depending on maternal blood glucose level.

  10. Brain Maturation, Cognition and Voice Pattern in a Gender Dysphoria Case under Pubertal Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Maiko A. Schneider; Poli M. Spritzer; Poli M. Spritzer; Poli M. Spritzer; Bianca Machado Borba Soll; Anna M. V. Fontanari; Marina Carneiro; Fernanda Tovar-Moll; Fernanda Tovar-Moll; Angelo B. Costa; Angelo B. Costa; Dhiordan C. da Silva; Karine Schwarz; Maurício Anes; Silza Tramontina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) (DMS-5) is a condition marked by increasing psychological suffering that accompanies the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender. Manifestation of GD can be seen early on during childhood and adolescence. During this period, the development of undesirable sexual characteristics marks an acute suffering of being opposite to the sex of birth. Pubertal suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) ...

  11. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...... the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers....

  12. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  13. Forced Marriage and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Charles M; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

    2017-08-01

    We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with children born to other mothers. The largest difference is between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the women involved but potentially also for their children.

  14. Losing women along the path to safe motherhood: why is there such a gap between women's use of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance? A mixed methods study in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Erin; Borchert, Matthias; Campbell, Oona M R; Sondorp, Egbert; Kaducu, Felix; Hill, Olivia; Okeng, Dennis; Odong, Vicki Norah; Lange, Isabelle L

    2015-11-04

    Thousands of women and newborns still die preventable deaths from pregnancy and childbirth-related complications in poor settings. Delivery with a skilled birth attendant is a vital intervention for saving lives. Yet many women, particularly where maternal mortality ratios are highest, do not have a skilled birth attendant at delivery. In Uganda, only 58 % of women deliver in a health facility, despite approximately 95 % of women attending antenatal care (ANC). This study aimed to (1) identify key factors underlying the gap between high rates of antenatal care attendance and much lower rates of health-facility delivery; (2) examine the association between advice during antenatal care to deliver at a health facility and actual place of delivery; (3) investigate whether antenatal care services in a post-conflict district of Northern Uganda actively link women to skilled birth attendant services; and (4) make recommendations for policy- and program-relevant implementation research to enhance use of skilled birth attendance services. This study was carried out in Gulu District in 2009. Quantitative and qualitative methods used included: structured antenatal care client entry and exit interviews [n = 139]; semi-structured interviews with women in their homes [n = 36], with health workers [n = 10], and with policymakers [n = 10]; and focus group discussions with women [n = 20], men [n = 20], and traditional birth attendants [n = 20]. Seventy-five percent of antenatal care clients currently pregnant reported they received advice during their last pregnancy to deliver in a health facility, and 58 % of these reported having delivered in a health facility. After adjustment for confounding, women who reported they received advice at antenatal care to deliver at a health facility were significantly more likely (aOR = 2.83 [95 % CI: 1.19-6.75], p = 0.02) to report giving birth in a facility. Despite high antenatal care coverage, a number of demand and supply side

  15. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  16. Birth-Weight, Pregnancy Term, Pre-Natal and Natal Complications Related to Child's Dental Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokocimer, T; Amir, E; Blumer, S; Peretz, B

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining whether certain pre-natal and natal conditions can predict specific dental anomalies. The conditions observed were: low birth-weight, preterm birth, pre-natal & natal complications. The dental anomalies observed were: enamel defects, total number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (total DMFT), disturbances in the tooth shape and disturbances in the number of teeth. Out of more than 2000 medical files of children aged 2-17 years old which were reviewed, 300 files met the selection criteria. Information recorded from the files included: age, gender, health status (the ASA physical status classification system by the American Society of Anesthesiologists), birth week, birth weight, total DMFT, hypomineralization, abnormal tooth shape, abnormal number of teeth and hypoplasia. Twenty one children out of 300 (7%) were born after a high-risk pregnancy, 25 children (8.3%) were born after high-risk birth, 20 children (6.7%) were born preterm - before week 37, and 29 children (9.7%) were born with a low birth weight (LBW) - 2500 grams or less. A relationship between a preterm birth and LBW to hypomineralization was found. And a relationship between a preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy to abnormal number of teeth was found. No relationship was found between birth (normal/high-risk) and the other parameters inspected. Preterm birth and LBW may predict hypomineralization in both primary and permanent dentitions. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy may predict abnormal number of teeth in both dentitions.

  17. Time course study of blood pressure in term and preterm infants immediately after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pichler

    Full Text Available To describe temporal changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and MBP, respectively in term and preterm infants immediately after birth.Prospective observational two-center study. In term infants SBP, DBP, and MBP were assessed non-invasively every minute for the first 15 minutes, and in preterm infants every minute for the first 15 minutes, as well as at 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after birth. Regression analyses were performed by gender and respiratory support in all neonates; and by mode of delivery, cord clamping time, and development of ultrasound-detected brain injury in preterm neonates.Term infants (n = 54 had a mean (SD birth weight of 3298 (442 g and gestational age of 38 (1 weeks, and preterm infants (n = 94 weighed 1340 (672 g and were 30 (3 weeks gestation. Term infants' SBP, DBP and MBP within the first 15 minutes after birth were independent of gender or respiratory support. Linear mixed regression analysis showed that preterm infants, who were female, born vaginally, had delayed cord clamping and did not require positive pressure ventilation nor develop periventricular injury or ventriculomegaly, had significantly higher SBP, DBP, and MBP at some measurement points within the first hour after birth.We present novel reference ranges of BP immediately after birth in a cohort of term and preterm neonates. They may aid in optimization of cardiovascular support during early transition at all gestations.

  18. Factors related to pregnancy and birth and the risk of childhood brain tumours: The ESTELLE and ESCALE studies (SFCE, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Rios, Paula; Lacour, Brigitte; Guerrini-Rousseau, Léa; Bertozzi, Anne-Isabelle; Leblond, Pierre; Faure-Conter, Cécile; Pellier, Isabelle; Freycon, Claire; Michon, Jean; Puget, Stéphanie; Ducassou, Stéphane; Orsi, Laurent; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2017-04-15

    Little is known of the causes of childhood brain tumors (CBT). The aims of this study were to investigate whether extremes of birth weight were associated with increased risk of CBT and whether maternal preconceptional folic acid supplementation or breastfeeding reduced the risk. In addition, other maternal characteristics and birth related factors were also investigated. We pooled data from two French national population-based case-control studies with similar designs conducted in 2003-2004 and 2010-2011. The mothers of 510 CBT cases (directly recruited from the national childhood cancer register) and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years, frequency matched by age and gender did a telephone interview, which focussed on demographic and perinatal characteristics, and maternal life style habits and reproductive history. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, study of origin and relevant confounders. No association was found between CBT and birth weight or fetal growth. The use of preconceptional folic acid supplementation was rare (5.3% in cases and 7.8% in controls) and the OR was 0.8 (95% CI 0.5, 1.4). There was no association with breastfeeding, even prolonged (six months or more; OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8, 1.4). Neither was there any association between CBT and other investigated factors (maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, congenital abnormality, maternal reproductive history or use of fertility treatments. Although large, this study was underpowered for subtype analyses. Pooling data with other population-based studies may provide further insight into findings by CBT subtypes. © 2017 UICC.

  19. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  20. Individual exposures to drinking water trihalomethanes, low birth weight and small for gestational age risk: a prospective Kaunas cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and impaired fetal growth is still inconsistent and inconclusive, in particular, for various exposure routes. We examined the relationship of individual exposures to THMs in drinking water on low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and birth weight (BW) in singleton births. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 4,161 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania), using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, to estimate an internal dose of THM. We used regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose and birth outcomes, adjusting for family status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, ethnic group, previous preterm, infant gender, and birth year. Results The estimated internal dose of THMs ranged from 0.0025 to 2.40 mg/d. We found dose-response relationships for the entire pregnancy and trimester-specific THM and chloroform internal dose and risk for LBW and a reduction in BW. The adjusted odds ratio for third tertile vs. first tertile chloroform internal dose of entire pregnancy was 2.17, 95% CI 1.19-3.98 for LBW; the OR per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose was 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19. Chloroform internal dose was associated with a slightly increased risk of SGA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87-1.63 and OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.68, respectively, for second and third tertile of third trimester); the risk increased by 4% per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09). Conclusions THM internal dose in pregnancy varies substantially across individuals, and depends on both water THM levels and water use habits. Increased internal dose may affect fetal growth. PMID:21501533

  1. Learning problems in kindergarten students with extremely preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Anselmo, Marcia G; Minich, Nori; Espy, Kimberly A; Hack, Maureen

    2011-09-01

    To assess learning problems among kindergarten students with extremely preterm birth and to identify risk factors. Cohort study. Children's hospital. A cohort of 148 children born between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2003, with extremely preterm birth, defined as less than 28 weeks' gestation or having a birth weight of less than 1000 g, and 111 classmate control individuals born at term with normal birth weight. The children were enrolled in the study during their first year in kindergarten and were assessed on measures of learning progress. Achievement testing, teacher ratings of learning progress, and individual educational assistance. Children with extremely preterm birth had lower mean standard scores than controls on achievement tests of spelling (8.52; 95% confidence interval, 4.58-12.46) and applied mathematics (11.02; 6.76-15.28). They had higher rates of substandard learning progress by teacher report in written language (odds ratio, 4.23; 95% CI, 2.32-7.73) and mathematics (7.08; 2.79-17.95). Group differences in mathematics achievement and in teacher ratings of learning progress were statistically significant even in children without neurosensory deficits or low global cognitive ability. Neonatal risk factors, early childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, and socioeconomic status predicted learning problems in children with extremely preterm birth; however, many children with problems were not enrolled in a special education program. Learning problems in children with extremely preterm birth are evident in kindergarten and are associated with neonatal and early childhood risk factors. Our findings support efforts to provide more extensive monitoring and interventions before and during the first year of school.

  2. Is Maternal Parity an Independent Risk Factor for Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hao T.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Case, Amy; McNeese, Melanie L.; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although associations between maternal parity and birth defects have been observed previously, few studies have focused on the possibility that parity is an independent risk factor for birth defects. We investigated the relation between levels of parity and a range of birth defects, adjusting each defect group for the same covariates. METHODS We included infants who had an estimated delivery date between 1997 and 2007 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite case-control study. Cases included infants or fetuses belonging to 38 phenotypes of birth defects (n = 17,908), and controls included infants who were unaffected by a major birth defect (n = 7173). Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 12 covariates using logistic regression. RESULTS Compared with primiparous mothers, nulliparous mothers were more likely to have infants with amniotic band sequence, hydrocephaly, esophageal atresia, hypospadias, limb reduction deficiencies, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, gastroschisis, tetralogy of Fallot, and septal cardiac defects, with significant ORs (1.2 to 2.3). Compared with primiparous mothers, multiparous mothers had a significantly increased risk of omphalocele, with an OR of 1.5, but had significantly decreased risk of hypospadias and limb reduction deficiencies, with ORs of 0.77 and 0.77. CONCLUSIONS Nulliparity was associated with an increased risk of specific phenotypes of birth defects. Most of the phenotypes associated with nulliparity in this study were consistent with those identified by previous studies. Research into biologic or environmental factors that are associated with nulliparity may be helpful in explaining some or all of these associations. PMID:22371332

  3. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2016-02-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women's representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men.

  4. Asthma and atopic dermatitis after early-, late-, and post-term birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Päivi; Haataja, Paula; Ojala, Riitta; Hirvonen, Mikko; Korppi, Matti; Paassilta, Marita; Uotila, Jukka; Gissler, Mika; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tammela, Outi

    2018-03-01

    To assess the incidence and risk factors of asthma and atopic dermatitis by seven years of age after early-term (ET) (37 +0 -38 +6 weeks), full-term (FT) (39 +0 -40 +6 weeks), late-term (LT) (41 +0 -41 +6 weeks), and especially post-term (PT) (≥42 weeks) birth. Altogether, 965 203 infants born between 1991 and 2008 in Finland were investigated in ET, FT, LT, and PT groups. Data on asthma medication reimbursement and hospital visits for atopic dermatitis were retrieved from national health databases. The frequencies of asthma medication reimbursement in the ET, FT, LT, and PT groups were 4.5%, 3.7%, 3.3%, and 3.2%, respectively. Hospital visits due to atopic dermatitis were most common after PT birth. Compared with FT births, ET births were associated with an increased risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20, 1.17-1.23), while LT (aOR, 95%CI 0.91, 0.89-0.93) births and PT (aOR, 95%CI 0.87, 0.83-0.92) births decreased this risk. PT birth (aOR, 95%CI 1.06, 1.01-1.10) predicted atopic dermatitis. From a population point of view, the most relevant risk factors for asthma were male sex, ET birth, smoking during pregnancy and birth by elective cesarean section, and for atopic dermatitis male sex, first delivery, birth in a level II hospital and birth by cesarean section. Early-term birth was a predictor of asthma, and PT birth was associated with atopic dermatitis. Counseling against smoking and following strict indications for planned ET deliveries and cesarean sections may be means to reduce the risk of later asthma. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  6. Gender, Discourse, and "Gender and Discourse."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hayley

    1997-01-01

    A critic of Deborah Tannen's book "Gender and Discourse" responds to comments made about her critique, arguing that the book's analysis of the relationship of gender and discourse tends to seek, and perhaps force, explanations only in those terms. Another linguist's analysis of similar phenomena is found to be more rigorous. (MSE)

  7. Delivery type not associated with global methylation at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virani Shama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth by cesarean delivery (CD as opposed to vaginal delivery (VD is associated with altered health outcomes later in life, including respiratory disorders, allergies and risk of developing type I diabetes. Epigenetic gene regulation is a proposed mechanism by which early life exposures affect later health outcomes. Previously, type of delivery has been found to be associated with differences in global methylation levels, but the sample sizes have been small. We measured global methylation in a large birth cohort to identify whether type of delivery is associated with epigenetic changes. Methods DNA was isolated from cord blood collected from the University of Michigan Women’s & Children Hospital and bisulfite-converted. The Luminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA and LINE-1 methylation assay were run on all samples in duplicate. Results Global methylation data at CCGG sites throughout the genome, as measured by LUMA, were available from 392 births (52% male; 65% CD, and quantitative methylation levels at LINE-1 repetitive elements were available for 407 births (52% male; 64% CD. LUMA and LINE-1 methylation measurements were negatively correlated in this population (Spearman’s r = −0.13, p =0.01. LUMA measurements were significantly lower for total CD and planned CD, but not emergency CD when compared to VD (median VD = 74.8, median total CD = 74.4, p = 0.03; median planned CD = 74.2, p = 0.02; median emergency CD = 75.3, p = 0.39. However, this association did not persist when adjusting for maternal age, maternal smoking and infant gender. Furthermore, total CD deliveries, planned CD and emergency CD deliveries were not associated with LINE-1 measurements as compared to VD (median VD = 82.2, median total CD = 81.9, p = 0.19; median planned CD = 81.9, p = 0.19; median emergency CD = 82.1, p = 0.52. This lack of association held when adjusting for maternal age

  8. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  9. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities. PMID:27900934

  10. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results: Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions: Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities.

  11. The Danish Medical Birth Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    on all births in Denmark and comprises primarily of data from the Danish National Patient Registry supplemented with forms on home deliveries and stillbirths. It contains information on maternal age provided by the Civil Registration System. Information on pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking......The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used...

  12. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  13. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  14. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of enteral feeds in the first days of their life in order to prevent NEC. Uhing reported that preterm infants ... where: SS = required sample size; Z = 95% confidence interval. (standard value of 1.96); P ... The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been.

  15. Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

  16. Sex ratio and time to pregnancy: analysis of four large European population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Mike; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky

    2007-01-01

    To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies.......To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies....

  17. Gender-Biased Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2001-01-01

    Looks at how gender shapes the way humans learn from biological and sociological perspectives. Indicates that teachers interact more frequently with males and that trainers should try to overcome gender bias. Suggests that discrimination persists in adult education. (JOW)

  18. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness...

  19. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  20. The Road to Parenthood: Income and First Births in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Ernesto Germán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of income on the risk of having the first births in Sweden from 1968 to 2009. Variations by gender are given particular atention. The study follows men and women from the moment they turn 18 until they enter parenthood and it is based on register-based data covering the entire population of Sweden. Complementary log-log models show that there is a positive association between income and the risk of childbearing. The association gets stronger over time and the differences between men and women diminish. Gender differences appear when the income effect is related to the demand for work in the economy. An income above the median does not increase the risk of childbearing for women when the demand for work is relatively high.