WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth defects systems

  1. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  2. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  3. Birth defects surveillance· A pilot system in the Cape Peninsula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other population- based, utilising ...

  4. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  5. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  6. Limb defects associated with major congenital anomalies : Clinical and epidemiological study from the international clearinghouse for birth defects monitoring systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosano, A; Botto, LD; Olney, RS; Khoury, MJ; Ritvanen, A; Goujard, J; Stoll, C; Cocchi, G; Merlob, P; Mutchinick, O; Cornel, MC; Castilla, EE; Martinez-Frias, ML; Zampino, G; Erickson, JD; Mastroiacovo, P

    2000-01-01

    Although limb defects associated with other congenital anomalies are rarely studied, they may provide insights into limb development that may be useful for etiologic studies and public health monitoring, me pooled data from II birth defect registries that are part of the International Clearinghouse

  7. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...

  8. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection

  9. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

  10. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  11. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental public health tracking is the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data on environmental ... 2016) Key Findings: Gastroschisis – a Serious Birth Defect – Continues to Increase New CDC research shows that the ...

  12. Central Nervous System Birth Defects in Surgically Treated Infants in Sarajevo Region of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aličelebić

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system (CNS are common. The prevalence of these anomalies shows considerable geographical variation and female predominance. The aim of this work was to obtain the frequency of different CNS congenital anomalies types and their sex distribution among cases hospitalized in a Department of Neurosurgery, University of Sarajevo Clinics Center, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the period January 2001 to December 2004. Retrospective study was carried out on the basis of the clinical records. Standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for the data analysis. A total of 103 cases were surgically treated in the period from 2001 through 2004. Out of that number 56 (54,4% were female patients, while 47 (46,6% were male patients. Seven different CNS birth defect types were found in this investigation. These were: spina bifida (42 cases or 40,78%, congenital hydrocephalus (35 cases or 33,98%, arachnoid cyst (15 cases or 14,56%, Dandy-Walker syndrome (5 cases or 4,85%, dermoid cyst (4 cases or 3,88%, one of Arnold-Chiari syndrome (0,98% and one of encefalocele (0,98%. According to this investigation, CNS congenital birth defects were slightly higher in females (54,4%. The most frequent types were spina bifida (40,78% both in females (22,33% and in males (18,45%, hydrocephalus (33,98% and arachnoid cyst (14,56%. The anomalies of the other organ systems, associated with CNS anomalies obtained in this investigation, were pes equinovarus, cheiloshisis, cardiomegalia and palatoshisis. They were found in six cases (5,82%, equal in both sexes.

  13. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  14. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle

  15. Quality of reporting on birth defects in birth certificates: case study from a Brazilian reference hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquetti, Daniela Varela; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the coverage, validity and reliability of Brazil's Information System on Live Births (SINASC) for birth defects in a hospital in the city of Campinas (São Paulo State). The study population consisted of 2,823 newborn infants delivered in 2004 at the Women's Integrated Health Care Center (CAISM). A birth defect registry (ECLAMC) was used as the gold-standard. All birth defect cases reported at CAISM in 2004 (92 cases) were selected from SINASC data files. All 168 birth defect cases from the same city and year registered at ECLAMC were also retrieved. An underreporting of 46.8% was observed for all birth defects, and 36.4% when considering only the major birth defects. The ascertained sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 54.2% and 99.8%. The reliability of three and four-digit ICD-10 coding for birth defects was 0.77 and 0.55 respectively (kappa statistic). These results suggest that information provided by birth certificates in Campinas still presents limitations when seeking to ascertain accurate estimates of the prevalence of birth defects, hence indicating the need for improvements in the SINASC database to enable it to portray birth defect prevalence at birth in this city.

  16. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  17. STUDY OF BIRTH DEFECTS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Birth defects are responsible for increased perinatal mortality and long-term morbidities. To reduce its incidence, which is the need of the hour we should know more about them and possible risk factors, which can be prevented. The aim of the study is to study the overall frequency of birth defects in a tertiary hospital and search for association with certain risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS All newborns/stillborns with birth defects during one year were enrolled for the study. Similar number of newborns without birth defect during this period was taken as control. Relevant information was documented in both the groups and analysed. RESULTS Out of 11,008 births, congenital anomaly was found in 130 cases. The prevalence of birth defects was 1.18 percent. Association of occurrence of birth defects with increased paternal age, consanguinity, fever and drug intake in first trimester was found. 57.6% of the newborns with birth defects were stillborn, born at an earlier gestational age (33.6 week v/s. 37.5 weeks. Commonest system to be affected was CNS (49.2%. CONCLUSION Screening for aneuploidy and birth defects should be universal. Routine folic acid supplementation and pregnancy termination of malformed babies will reduce the incidences.

  18. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  19. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  20. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print How do health care providers diagnose birth defects? Diagnosis of birth defects depends on the specific problem and parts ... a physical examination of the baby immediately after birth. For other conditions, newborn screening or prenatal testing ...

  1. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assisted reproductive technology and major birth defects in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michele; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; de Klerk, Nicholas; Burton, Peter; Bower, Carol

    2012-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects diagnosed by 6 years of age in all births and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly conceived by assisted reproductive technology (when this included intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in vitro fertilization [IVF]) and the remainder of nonassisted reproductive technology-conceived children born in Western Australia from 1994 to 2002. This retrospective cohort study used data linkage between three population-based registers (Reproductive Technology Register, Western Australian Register of Developmental Anomalies, and Midwives' Notification of Birth System) to identify all assisted reproductive technology (n=2,911) and nonassisted reproductive technology (n=210,997) births with and without birth defects diagnosed by age 6 and all terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. A major birth defect was diagnosed in 8.7% of assisted reproductive technology and 5.4% of nonassisted reproductive technology singletons (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.79), as well as 7.1% of assisted reproductive technology twins and 5.9% of nonassisted reproductive technology twins of unlike sex (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.77-1.51). The prevalence of birth defects in assisted reproductive technology singletons and twins decreased markedly over the study period. This change was evident across all three clinics contributing data over the whole study and was particularly marked for children conceived as a result of IVF. There has been a decrease in the prevalence of birth defects over time in children born as a result of assisted reproductive technology in Western Australia; however, the prevalence of major birth defects in assisted reproductive technology singletons remains increased compared with nonassisted reproductive technology singletons. II.

  3. Maternal autoimmune disease and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Meredith M; Browne, Marilyn L; Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Richardson, Sandra D; Blossom, Sarah J; Broussard, Cheryl S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the association between maternal autoimmune disease or its treatment and the risk of birth defects. We examined these associations using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Analyses included 25,116 case and 9897 unaffected control infants with estimated delivery dates between 1997 and 2009. Information on autoimmune disease, medication use, and other pregnancy exposures was collected by means of telephone interview. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for birth defects with five or more exposed cases; crude ORs and exact 95% CIs were estimated for birth defects with three to four exposed cases. Autoimmune disease was reported by 373 mothers (279 case and 94 control mothers). The majority of birth defects evaluated were not associated with autoimmune disease; however, a statistically significant association between maternal autoimmune disease and encephalocele was observed (OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.95-11.04). Eighty-two mothers with autoimmune disease used an immune modifying/suppressing medication during pregnancy; this was associated with encephalocele (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.37-24.61) and atrial septal defects (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.16-7.80). Our findings suggest maternal autoimmune disease and treatment are not associated with the majority of birth defects, but may be associated with some defects, particularly encephalocele. Given the low prevalence of individual autoimmune diseases and the rare use of specific medications, we were unable to examine associations of specific autoimmune diseases and medications with birth defects. Other studies are needed to confirm these findings. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:950-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Urinary System Birth Defects in Surgically Treated Infants in Sarajevo Region of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aličelebić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the urinary system are relatively common anomalies. In Bosnia and Herzegovina there is no existent unique evidence of congenital anomalies and registries. The aim of this study was to obtain the frequency of different urinary tract anomalies types and their sex distribution among cases hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the period from January 2002 to December 2006. Retrospective study was carried out on the basis of clinical records. Standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for the data analysis. Among 289 patients that were surgically treated 62,37% of the patients were male patients, while 37,63% were female patients. Twenty nine different urinary system anomalies types were found in this study. These were: vesicoureteral reflux (99 cases or 30,75%, hypospadias (62 cases or 19,26%, pelviureteric junction obstruction (42 cases or 13,04%, megaureter (35 cases or 10,87%, duplex pelvis and ureter (16 cases or 4,97%, bladder diverticulum (8 cases or 2,48%, ureterocoele (7 cases or 2,17%, stenosis of the external urethral opening (6 cases or 1,86%, ectopic kidney, duplex kidney and pelvis (each 5 cases or 1,55%, polycystic kidneys and urethral stricture (each 4 cases or 1,24%, multicystic kidney (3 cases or 0,93%, kidney agenesis, ureter agenesis, urethral diverticulum, ectopic ureter, horseshoe kidney and fetal kidney (each 2 cases or 0,62%, renal aplasia, urethral atresia, renal cyst, urachal cyst, epispadias, bladder exstrophy, renal hypoplasia, renal malrotation and Prune-Belly syndrome (each 1 case or 0,31%. According to this study, urinary tract anomalies were more common in male than in female patients (62,37%, Generally, the most frequent anomaly type was vesicoureteral reflux in total number of 99 cases, and in females (66 cases, but hypospadias was the most common anomaly in males (62 cases. The anomalies

  5. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth

  6. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  7. [Vascular disruption birth defects are not associated to chromosomal alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachajoa, Harry; Ariza, Yoseth; Isaza, Carolina; Méndez, Fabián

    2015-11-01

    It is estimated that 2 to 35 of newborns present a congenital malformation. Some publications suggest that vascular disruption birth defects are not associated with chromosomal alterations detected by conventional karyotype. to determine the frequency of chromosomal alterations detected by high resolution G banded karyotype in patients with vascular disruption birth defects in a Colombian population (South America). transversal study. Population: a sample of patients identified by an epidemiological surveillance system of congenital malformations in a reference hospital in Cali, Colombia. 41 cases of vascular disruption birth defects were identified during a 36 month period; in a descending order those were: transverse reduction defects, hydranencephaly and gastroschisis. Two expert cytogenetists performed independent evaluation of the genetic material of the patients, and no chromosomal alterations detectable by G banded karyotype were identified. It is recommended that genetic counseling in cases of defects by vascular disruption is carried out taking into account the empirical recurrence risks reported for each one the types of defects by vascular disruption and the use of karyotype should be limited to cases with other malformations or chromosomal abnormality suspected by phenotype.

  8. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Phase 1, Technical progress report: Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Year 04 began the second three-year grant period, the overall goals of which were to consolidate and continue the aims of the first period, with the important exception that a great deal more effort would be expended on promoting community awareness and knowledge, as these characteristics relate to the residents' perceptions of major potential health effects. It was anticipated that more time would be available during the second period to accomplish this aim because the difficult early work of gaining hospital and community acceptance would have been done. Specifically, the goals were to: Maintain and refine the cancer registry; Inaugurate the birth defects registry if it were funded; and Enhance community involvement and education

  9. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-17

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  11. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Birth Defects: Effects of Subfertility and Multiple Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Rebecca F; Getz, Kelly D; Heinke, Dominique; Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Declercq, Eugene R; Chen, Xiaoli; Lin, Angela E; Anderka, Marlene

    2017-08-15

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with birth defects, but the contributions of multiple births and underlying subfertility remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of subfertility and mediation by multiple births on associations between ART and nonchromosomal birth defects. We identified a retrospective cohort of Massachusetts live births and stillbirths from 2004 to 2010 among ART-exposed, ART-unexposed subfertile, and fertile mothers using linked information from fertility clinics, vital records, hospital discharges, and birth defects surveillance. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mediation analyses were performed to deconstruct the ART-birth defects association into the direct effect of ART, the indirect effect of multiple births, and the effect of ART-multiples interaction. Of 17,829 ART-exposed births, 355 had a birth defect, compared with 162 of 9431 births to subfertile mothers and 6183 of 445,080 births to fertile mothers. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6) for ART and 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) in subfertile compared with fertile deliveries. We observed elevated rates of several birth defects with ART, including tetralogy of Fallot and hypospadias. Subfertility and multiple births affect these associations, with multiple births explaining 36% of the relative effect of ART on nonchromosomal birth defects. Although the risk of birth defects with ART is small, a substantial portion of the relative effect is mediated through multiple births, with subfertility contributing an important role. Future research is needed to determine the impact of newer techniques, such as single embryo transfer, on these risks. Birth Defects Research 109:1144-1153, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluating alcohol related birth defects in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuler, Kristrina A.; Schroeder, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are yet undocumented among past communities, although alcohol is the leading cause of non-heritable birth defects in the US today. We evaluate potential ARBD at Newton Plantation, Barbados (ca. 1660-1820), where earlier studies suggest frequent, community-wide...

  13. Birth Defects in the Newborn Population: Race and Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Egbe

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This is a comprehensive description of racial differences in the risk of birth defects in the United States. Observed racial differences in the risk of birth defects may be related to genetic susceptibilities, to cultural or social differences that could modify exposures, or to the many potential combinations between susceptibilities and exposures.

  14. Knowledge of birth defects among nursing mothers in a developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the absence of established guidelines, where formal screening is unavailable for birth defects, a lot of responsibility is placed on parents in the recognition of these defects. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the awareness of mothers about birth effects in a developing country and assess what ...

  15. Birth Defects in India: Magnitude, Public Health Impact and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects refer to a group of diverse congenital conditions, which are responsible for stillbirths, neonatal deaths, chronic medical conditions and disability. Due to their low prevalence and high mortality, birth defects are not considered to be a significant health problem in India. Various data however identify that India may harbour a significant burden of birth defects, and that these conditions may be responsible for a considerable proportion of neonatal deaths in India. Although it is widely assumed that survival of patients with birth defects is low, data suggests that in 2002, there were nearly six million Indians living with impairments arising at birth. These data urge the need for implementation of a national birth defects programme in India, with a strong component of prevention. The need for significant research investments to understand the epidemiology and public health impact of birth defects in India is identified. Translation research, transcending the disciplines of medicine, public health and genetics is required to develop a low cost birth defects service as a component of the existing maternal and child health programme.

  16. Ambient air pollution and birth defects in brisbane, australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998-2004. METHODS: Ambient air pollution levels were averaged over weeks 3-8 of pregnancy among 150,308 births. Using a case-control design, we used conditional logistic regression and matched cases to 5 controls. Analyses were conducted using all births, and then births where the mother resided within 6 and 12 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor. FINDINGS: When analyzing all births there was no indication that ambient air pollution in Brisbane was associated with a higher risk of cardiac defects. Among births where the mother resided within 6 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor, a 5 ppb increase in O(3 was associated with an increased risk of pulmonary artery and valve defects (OR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.34, 7.52 while a 0.6 ppb increase in SO(2 was associated with an increased risk of aortic artery and valve defects (OR 10.76, 95% CI: 1.50, 179.8. For oral cleft defects among all births, the only adverse association was between SO(2 and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.62. However, various significant inverse associations were also found between air pollutants and birth defects. CONCLUSIONS: This study found mixed results and it is difficult to conclude whether ambient air pollution in Brisbane has an adverse association with the birth defects examined. Studies using more detailed estimates of air pollution exposure are needed.

  17. RESIDENTIAL RADON AND BIRTH DEFECTS: A POPULATION-BASED ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter H; Lee, MinJae; Lupo, Philip J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cortez, Ruben K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Associations have been reported between maternal radiation exposure and birth defects. No such studies were found on radon. Our objective was to determine if there is an association between living in areas with higher radon levels and birth defects. METHODS The Texas Birth Defects Registry provided data on all birth defects from 1999–2009 from the entire state. Mean radon levels by geologic region came from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey. The association between radon and birth defects was estimated using multilevel mixed effect Poisson regression. RESULTS Birth defects overall were not associated with residential radon levels. Of the 100 other birth defect groups with at least 500 cases, 14 were significantly elevated in areas with high mean radon level in crude analyses, and 9 after adjustment for confounders. Cleft lip with/without cleft palate had an adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of 1.16 per 1 picoCurie/liter (pCi/l) increase in exposure to region mean radon, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.26. Cystic hygroma / lymphangioma had an aPR of 1.22 per 1 pCi/l increase, 95% CI 1.02, 1.46. Other associations were suggested but not as consistent: three skeletal defects, Down syndrome, other specified anomalies of the brain, and other specified anomalies of the bladder and urethra. CONCLUSIONS In the first study of residential radon and birth defects, we found associations with cleft lip w/wo cleft palate and cystic hygroma / lymphangioma. Other associations were suggested. The ecological nature of this study and multiple comparisons suggest that our results be interpreted with caution. PMID:25846606

  18. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control group was randomly selected from the cases with normal live births. Blood tests were performed for children suspected to suffer from genetic blood disorders. The principal BD as per the ...

  19. Is Maternal Parity an Independent Risk Factor for Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hao T.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Case, Amy; McNeese, Melanie L.; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although associations between maternal parity and birth defects have been observed previously, few studies have focused on the possibility that parity is an independent risk factor for birth defects. We investigated the relation between levels of parity and a range of birth defects, adjusting each defect group for the same covariates. METHODS We included infants who had an estimated delivery date between 1997 and 2007 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite case-control study. Cases included infants or fetuses belonging to 38 phenotypes of birth defects (n = 17,908), and controls included infants who were unaffected by a major birth defect (n = 7173). Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 12 covariates using logistic regression. RESULTS Compared with primiparous mothers, nulliparous mothers were more likely to have infants with amniotic band sequence, hydrocephaly, esophageal atresia, hypospadias, limb reduction deficiencies, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, gastroschisis, tetralogy of Fallot, and septal cardiac defects, with significant ORs (1.2 to 2.3). Compared with primiparous mothers, multiparous mothers had a significantly increased risk of omphalocele, with an OR of 1.5, but had significantly decreased risk of hypospadias and limb reduction deficiencies, with ORs of 0.77 and 0.77. CONCLUSIONS Nulliparity was associated with an increased risk of specific phenotypes of birth defects. Most of the phenotypes associated with nulliparity in this study were consistent with those identified by previous studies. Research into biologic or environmental factors that are associated with nulliparity may be helpful in explaining some or all of these associations. PMID:22371332

  20. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooki, Syuichi

    2013-01-01

    Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART. Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities) in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25-29, 30-34 (reference), 35-39, and 40+ years). Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25-29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30-35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed. Maternal age is associated with several birth defects; however, older maternal age in itself does not produce noticeable extra risk for nonchromosomal birth defects overall.

  1. Follow-up studies of children with birth defects in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolv T. Lie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In two studies published from data in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we described the survival, tendency to reproduce and subsequent recurrence of birth defects in offspring for children with a range of categories of birth defects. The studies were done separately for girls and boys. The current review summarizes data from these reports and makes some comparisons between boys and girls. More boys than girls are born with birth defects. The survival and tendency to reproduce showed great variation from milder to more serious types of defects, and this pattern was relatively consistent for boys and girls. The recurrence of birth defects in the offspring was almost entirely for a similar type of birth defect. For boys with birth defects, however, there was also a tendency to have offspring with other types of birth defects. A total of 0.5% of birth defects in the next generation was attributable to mothers who themselves had birth defects. For fathers with birth defects this number was higher (1.6% both because more boys were born with birth defects in the previous generation, but also because fathers pass on more birth defects to the next generation

  2. Public health approach to birth defects: the Argentine experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, María Paz; Groisman, Boris; Barbero, Pablo; Liascovich, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Birth defects are a global problem, but their impact is particularly severe in low and middle income countries, where the conditions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation are more critical. The epidemiological transition in the infant mortality causes, and the concern of the community and the mass media about the teratogenic risk of environmental pollutants, has made health authorities aware of the importance of birth defects in Argentina. The objective of this paper is to outline those actions specifically taken in Argentina aimed at the prevention of birth defects at a national level. Firstly, we focus on birth defects in Argentina on a general basis, and then we present different laws and actions taken in terms of surveillance and public health programs, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Finally, we present the Teratology Information Service "Fetal Health Line", and the genetic services organization and health professionals training by the National Center of Medical Genetics and the National Program of Genetics Network. In conclusion, in the country, several programs focus on different approaches to the problem, and the challenge is to coordinate the teamwork between them. Finally, we list tips to address birth defects from the public health perspective.

  3. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  4. Environmental characteristics and prevalence of birth defects among children in post-war Iraq: implications for policies on rebuilding the Iraqi education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborz, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the prevalence of 'birth defects' and environmental characteristics, and considers implications for targeting resources to establish the educational inclusion of children affected. A household survey in four governorates across Iraq in 2010, conducted under the auspices of CARA, achieved interviews with 6032 households and collected data on more than 10,000 children and young people. Analyses suggested an association between reported presence of potential sources of contamination in local environments from human and domestic waste, and to some extent from naturally occurring contaminants and the detritus of warfare, with higher numbers of resident children having 'birth defects'. Children living in Basra were found to be most significantly impacted. This finding adds to a growing literature on associations between potential sources of environmental contaminants and impact on the health of children living in affected localities,

  5. Magnitude of Birth Defects in Central and Northwest Ethiopia from 2010-2014: A Descriptive Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla Taye

    Full Text Available Birth defects are defined as structural and functional defects that develop during the organogenesis period and present at birth or detected later in life. They are one of the leading causes of infant and child mortality, morbidity, and long term disability. The magnitude of birth defects varies from country to country and from race/ethnicity to race/ethnicity, and about 40-60% of their causes are unknown. The known causes of birth defects are genetic and environmental factors which may be prevented. For various reasons, there is lack of data and research on birth defects in Ethiopia.The major objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude of birth defects in Ethiopia.A hospital based, retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted. The subjects were babies/children aged 0-17years who visited selected hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Fourteen hospitals (8 in Addis Ababa, 6 in Amhara Region were selected purposively based on case load. A data retrieving form was developed to extract relevant information from record books.In the hospitals mentioned, 319,776 various medical records of children aged 0-17years were found. Of these, 6,076 (1.9% with 95% CI: 1.85%-1.95% children were diagnosed as having birth defects. The majority (58.5% of the children were male and 41.5% female. A slightly more than half (51.1% of the children were urban dwellers, while 48.9% were from rural areas. Among the participants of the study the proportion of birth defects ranged as follows: orofacial (34.2%, neural tube (30.8%, upper and lower limb (12.8%, cardiovascular system (10.3%, digestive system and abdominal wall (4.8%, unspecified congenital malformations (2.5%, Down syndrome (2%, genitourinary system (2%, head, face, and neck defects (0.4%, and others (0.3%. The trend of birth defects increased linearly over time [Extended Mantel-Haenszel chi square for linear trend = 356.7 (P<0.0001]. About 275 (4.5% of the cases had multiple (associated

  6. What Are the Types of Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Counselors (BSC) National Advisory Child Health and Human Development (NACHHD) Council Council Archive National Advisory Board on ... defects, such as missing or misshaped valves Abnormal limbs, such as a ... to the growth and development of the brain and spinal cord Functional or ...

  7. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xinming

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD occurrences worldwide to identify the scale of environmental risk factors for birth defects using exploratory spatial data analysis methods. Methods By birth defect registers based on hospital records and investigation in villages, the number of birth defects cases within a four-year period was acquired and classified by organ system. The neural-tube birth defect ratio was calculated according to the number of births planned for each village in the study area, as the family planning policy is strictly adhered to in China. The Bayesian modeling method was used to estimate the ratio in order to remove the dependence of variance caused by different populations in each village. A recently developed statistical spatial method for detecting hotspots, Getis's 7, was used to detect the high-risk regions for neural-tube birth defects in the study area. Results After the Bayesian modeling method was used to calculate the ratio of neural-tube birth defects occurrences, Getis's statistics method was used in different distance scales. Two typical clustering phenomena were present in the study area. One was related to socioeconomic activities, and the other was related to soil type distributions. Conclusion The fact that there were two typical hotspot clustering phenomena provides evidence that the risk for neural-tube birth defect exists on two different scales (a socioeconomic scale at 6.84 km and a soil type scale at 22.8 km for the area studied. Although our study has limited

  8. Attaining human dignity for people with birth defects: A historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People with birth defects have been stigmatised, marginalised and discriminated against for millennia, diminishing their human dignity and abrogating their human rights. Beginning with the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, promulgated in 1947, the circumstances in which human dignity in healthcare ...

  9. Knowledge of birth defects among nursing mothers in a developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Ibadan, Department of Surgery; University College Hospital, Department of Surgery. 2. ... degree of responsibility in the detection of babies with .... Awareness of birth defects. Socio-demographic variable. Age (years). Aware. No (%). Not aware. No (%). Total. No (%) χ2 p value. ≤ 30. 95 (21.3). 350 (78.7).

  10. Antihistamines and birth defects: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Rai, Ramona P; Anderson, Jaynia A; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 10 - 15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: i) selection of appropriate study population; ii) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and iii) ascertainment of birth defect outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well studied (e.g., loratadine); others, especially H2-receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defect risk could be made.

  11. Epidemiology of external birth defects in neonates in Southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is paucity of information on the prevalence of birth defects in Nigeria, particularly in our setting. This study determined the epidemiology of external congenital anomalies in Southwest Nigerian children. Patients and Methods: This was a stratifi ed, randomized study of neonates presenting with external ...

  12. Maternal exposure to radiographic exams and major structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyeyeun; Beasley, Charles W; Whitehead, Lawrence W; Emery, Robert J; Agopian, A J; Langlois, Peter H; Waller, Dorothy K

    2016-07-01

    An increasing number of radiologic exams are performed in the United States, but very few studies have examined the effects of maternal exposure to radiologic exams during the periconceptional period and birth defects. To assess the association between maternal exposure to radiologic exams during the periconceptional period and 19 categories of birth defects using a large population-based study of birth defects. We studied 27,809 case mothers and 10,200 control mothers who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and delivered between 1997 and 2009. Maternal exposure to radiologic exams that delivered ionizing radiation to the urinary tract, lumbar spine, abdomen, or pelvis were identified based on the mother's report of type of radiologic exams, organ or body part scanned and the month during which the exam occurred Overall, 0.9% of mothers reported exposure to one of these types of radiographic exams during the periconceptional period. We observed significant associations between maternal exposure during the first trimester and isolated Dandy-Walker malformation (odds ratio = 7.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-33) and isolated d-transposition of the great arteries (odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-10.3). However, the result for isolated Dandy-Walker malformation was based on only two exposed cases. These results should be interpreted cautiously because multiple statistical tests were conducted and measurements of exposure were based on maternal report. However, our results may be useful for generating hypotheses for future studies. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:563-572, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Traffic jam in the primitive streak: the role of defective mesoderm migration in birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herion, Nils J; Salbaum, J Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    Gastrulation is the process in which the three germ layers are formed that contribute to the formation of all major tissues in the developing embryo. We here review mouse genetic models in which defective gastrulation leads to mesoderm insufficiencies in the embryo. Depending on severity of the abnormalities, the outcomes range from incompatible with embryonic survival to structural birth defects, such as heart defects, spina bifida, or caudal dysgenesis. The combined evidence from the mutant models supports the notion that these congenital anomalies can originate from perturbations of mesoderm specification, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and mesodermal cell migration. Knowledge about the molecular pathways involved may help to improve strategies for the prevention of major structural birth defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  15. [Prevalence of birth defects according to the level of care in two hospitals, Cali, Colombia, 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachajoa, Harry; Villota, Vania A; Cruz, Luz Marina; Ariza, Yoseth

    2015-01-01

    Birth defects are morphologic alterations diagnosed prenatal or postnatally. Surveillance systems have been used to estimate the prevalence in high complexity care centers; however, the variation of the prevalence among different complexity care centers remains unknown. To compare the prevalence of birth defects among two different complexity care centers in Cali, Colombia. A descriptive hospital-based study following the methodology of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations was conducted during 20 months in a medium complexity hospital and a high complexity hospital. During the study period, 7,140 births were attended of which 225 had at least one birth defect. The prevalence of these was of 1.7% (IC95% 1.3-2.0) and 7.4% (IC95% 6.2-8.7) for the medium complexity hospital and the high complexity hospital, respectively. The highest frequencies for the high complexity care center were: ventricular septal defect, 10%; congenital hydronephrosis, 7%; abdominal wall defects, 6%, and hydrocephalus, 5%, while for the medium complexity were: polydactyly, 15%; preauricular skin tags, 8%; congenital talipes equino varus, 7%, and hemangioma, 6%. The prevalence of birth defects among different complexity care centers varies in quantity, type and severity of the anomaly diagnosed. The surveillance of birth defects is a useful tool for any level of care. It allows estimating more accurately the prevalence of the city, as well being a base for the planning and targeting of resources according to the prevalence of different congenital defects.

  16. Birth Defects Among Fetuses and Infants of US Women With Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein, Margaret A; Dawson, April L; Petersen, Emily E; Jones, Abbey M; Lee, Ellen H; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Ahmad, Nina; Macdonald, Jennifer; Evert, Nicole; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Oduyebo, Titilope; Fine, Anne D; Brown, Catherine M; Sommer, Jamie N; Gupta, Jyoti; Cavicchia, Philip; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L; Owen, S Michele; Petersen, Lyle R; Boyle, Coleen; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-01-03

    Understanding the risk of birth defects associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy may help guide communication, prevention, and planning efforts. In the absence of Zika virus, microcephaly occurs in approximately 7 per 10 000 live births. To estimate the preliminary proportion of fetuses or infants with birth defects after maternal Zika virus infection by trimester of infection and maternal symptoms. Completed pregnancies with maternal, fetal, or infant laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and outcomes reported in the continental United States and Hawaii from January 15 to September 22, 2016, in the US Zika Pregnancy Registry, a collaboration between the CDC and state and local health departments. Laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection in a maternal, placental, fetal, or infant sample. Birth defects potentially Zika associated: brain abnormalities with or without microcephaly, neural tube defects and other early brain malformations, eye abnormalities, and other central nervous system consequences. Among 442 completed pregnancies in women (median age, 28 years; range, 15-50 years) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection, birth defects potentially related to Zika virus were identified in 26 (6%; 95% CI, 4%-8%) fetuses or infants. There were 21 infants with birth defects among 395 live births and 5 fetuses with birth defects among 47 pregnancy losses. Birth defects were reported for 16 of 271 (6%; 95% CI, 4%-9%) pregnant asymptomatic women and 10 of 167 (6%; 95% CI, 3%-11%) symptomatic pregnant women. Of the 26 affected fetuses or infants, 4 had microcephaly and no reported neuroimaging, 14 had microcephaly and brain abnormalities, and 4 had brain abnormalities without microcephaly; reported brain abnormalities included intracranial calcifications, corpus callosum abnormalities, abnormal cortical formation, cerebral atrophy, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephaly, and cerebellar abnormalities

  17. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  18. Birth defects and genetic disorders among Arab Americans--Michigan, 1992-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Copeland, Glenn; Olney, Richard S

    2010-06-01

    Birth defects and genetic disorders are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in many countries. Population-based data on birth defects among Arab-American children have not been documented previously. Michigan has the second largest Arab-American community in the United States after California. Using data from the Michigan Birth Defects Registry (MBDR), which includes information on parents' country of birth and ancestry, birth prevalences were estimated in offspring of Michigan women of Arab ancestry for 21 major categories of birth defects and 12 congenital endocrine, metabolic, and hereditary disorders. Compared with other non-Hispanic white children in Michigan, Arab-American children had similar or lower birth prevalences of the selected types of structural birth defects, with higher rates of certain hereditary blood disorders and three categories of metabolic disorders. These estimates are important for planning preconception and antenatal health care, genetic counseling, and clinical care for Arab Americans.

  19. Fluoxetine and infantile hypertrophic pylorus stenosis : a signal from a birth defects drug exposure surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    Purpose We report an association found in a surveillance study which systematically evaluated combinations of specific birth defects and drugs used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Method The database of a population-based birth defects registry (birth years 1997-2007) was systematically

  20. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bager Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of folic acid use in pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. We studied 243 women with pregnancies complicated by some forms of birth defect(s. These patients were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies. The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7 percent. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome, and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with the folic acid use. Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy.

  1. Insights from Parents about Caring for a Child with Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemacks, Jodi; Fowles, Kristin; Mateus, Amanda; Thomas, Kayte

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects affect 1 in 33 babies. Having a child with a birth defect impacts the whole family. Parents of children who have birth defects face unique challenges and desire to make life better for their kids. They also want to help to prevent birth defects in the future. Some of the challenges parents face involve communication with healthcare professionals, quality of life issues, creating awareness and advocating for research and funding, finding resources and support, and helping teens transition to appropriate, specialized adult care. This paper addresses these issues and their sub-issues, provides examples, and makes suggestions for improvement and research. PMID:23965922

  2. Insights from Parents about Caring for a Child with Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mateus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects affect 1 in 33 babies. Having a child with a birth defect impacts the whole family. Parents of children who have birth defects face unique challenges and desire to make life better for their kids. They also want to help to prevent birth defects in the future. Some of the challenges parents face involve communication with healthcare professionals, quality of life issues, creating awareness and advocating for research and funding, finding resources and support, and helping teens transition to appropriate, specialized adult care. This paper addresses these issues and their sub-issues, provides examples, and makes suggestions for improvement and research.

  3. Clinical and risk factor analysis of cloacal defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Conway, Kristin M; Shen, Dereck; Rhoads, Anthony J; Carey, John C; Romitti, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Cloacal exstrophy (CE) and persistent cloaca (PC) (alternatively termed urorectal septum malformation sequence [URSMS]), represent two major cloacal defects (CDs). Clinical characteristics and risk factors often are studied for both defects combined, rather than exploring if these defects have different etiologies. We enumerated clinical features for 47 CE and 54 PC (inclusive of URSMS) cases from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Thirty-three CE cases were classified as isolated and 14 as multiple (presence of unassociated major defects); respective totals for PC cases were 26 and 28. We compared selected child and maternal characteristics between 11,829 non-malformed controls and CE and PC cases using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Compared to controls, CE and PC cases were statistically more likely (p < 0.05) to be preterm; CE cases were more likely to be multiple births. We conducted logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for any CD, CE, and PC with selected self-reported maternal prepregnancy and periconceptional (one month prior to 3 months following conception) exposures. In crude and adjusted analyses, we observed significant positive associations for any CD, CE, and PC with use of any fertility medication or assisted reproductive technology procedure. Significant positive associations observed only in crude analyses were any CD with maternal obesity or use of progesterone, any CD and CE with any x-ray, and any CD and PC with use of folate antagonist medications. Our findings provide some of the first insights into potential differing etiologies for CE and PC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.

  5. Effect of Concomitant Birth Defects and Genetic Anomalies on Infant Mortality in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Eric G; Strassle, Paula D; Stebbins, Rebecca C; Meyer, Robert E; Nelson, Jennifer S

    2017-08-15

    A substantial proportion of infants born with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) die in infancy. A better understanding of the heterogeneity associated with TOF, including extracardiac malformations and chromosomal anomalies is vital to stratifying risk and optimizing outcomes during infancy. Using the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program, infants diagnosed with TOF and born between 2003 and 2012 were included. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative 1-year mortality, stratified by the presence of concomitant birth defects (BDs) and chromosomal anomalies. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the direct effect of each concomitant BD, after adjusting for all others. A total of 496 infants with TOF were included, and 15% (n = 76) died. The number of concomitant BD systems was significantly associated with the risk of death at 1-year, p < 0.0001. Specifically, the risk of mortality was 8% among infants with TOF with or without additional cardiac defects, 16% among infants with TOF and 1 extracardiac BD system, 19% among infants with 2 extracardiac BD systems, and 39% among infants with ≥ 3 extracardiac BD systems. After adjustment, concomitant eye and gastrointestinal defects were significantly associated increased with 1-year mortality, odds ratio 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-7.32) and odds ratio 4.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.57, 12.45), respectively. Infants with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18 were also significantly more likely to die, p < 0.0001. Both concomitant BDs and genetic anomalies increase the risk of mortality among infants with TOF. Future studies are needed to identify the underlying genetic and socioeconomic risk factors for high-risk TOF infants. Birth Defects Research 109:1154-1165, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Are Children Born with Birth Defects at Increased Risk of Injuries in Early Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Rachel E; Salemi, Jason L; Tanner, Jean Paul; Anjohrin, Suzanne; Cavicchia, Philip; Lake-Burger, Heather; Kirby, Russell S

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the extent to which children with birth defects experience differential likelihood of various injuries and injury-related hospitalizations in early childhood. The Florida Birth Defects Registry was used to identify infants born 2006-2010 with select birth defects. Injury matrices were used to detect injuries in inpatient, ambulatory, and emergency department admissions for each infant up to their third birthday. χ 2 tests were used to compare sociodemographic and perinatal characteristics of children, by presence of an injury-related hospital admission. Adjusted multivariable logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to investigate birth defect and injury associations and related hospital use. We observed a 21% (99% CI: 1.16-1.27) increased odds of injury in children with birth defects. All birth defect subgroups had a statistically significantly increased odds of injury (excluding chromosomal defects), with adjusted ORs ranging from 1.19 to 1.40. The combination of birth defects and injuries resulted in 40% (99% CI: 1.36-1.44) more frequent injury-related hospital visits and a 3-fold (99% CI: 2.76-2.96) increase in time spent receiving inpatient medical care. Over 30% of children with critical congenital heart defects had an injury-related hospital admission. Children born with specific birth defects are at increased likelihood of various injuries during early life. Although the magnitude of this increased likelihood varied by the mechanism by which the injury occurred, the location of the injury, and the type of birth defect, our study findings support a direct association between birth defects and injuries in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Baseline Prevalence of Birth Defects Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection - Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, Janet D; Mai, Cara T; Petersen, Emily E; Liberman, Rebecca F; Forestieri, Nina E; Stevens, Alissa C; Delaney, Augustina; Dawson, April L; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Dunn, Julie E; Higgins, Cathleen A; Meyer, Robert E; Williams, Tonya; Polen, Kara N D; Newsome, Kim; Reynolds, Megan; Isenburg, Jennifer; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney-Delman, Dana M; Moore, Cynthia A; Boyle, Coleen A; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-03-03

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations † (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15-September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.

  8. Fluoxetine and infantile hypertrophic pylorus stenosis : A signal from a birth defects - Drug exposure surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Marian K.; De Walle, Hermien E.K.; Wilffert, Bob; De Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T.W.

    Background: One of the objectives of a birth defects registry is to detect possible new teratogens at an early stage. A surveillance study in which combinations of specific birth defects and drugs used in the first trimester of pregnancy are systematically evaluated is one of the methods to identify

  9. Factors associated with birth defects in the region of Corpus Christi, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance Branch of the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) has documented a high prevalence of certain birth defects in the Corpus Christi, TX region. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations...

  10. The association between use of spermicides or male condoms and major structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, M Shayne; Waller, D Kim; Canfield, Mark A; Scheuerle, Angela

    2009-11-01

    Women may become pregnant while using contraceptives. Commonly used contraceptives containing spermicides may or may not be associated with an increased occurrence of structural birth defects. Utilizing data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we assessed maternal reports of spermicide and male condom use 1 to 3 months following conception among case (n=11,050) and control (n=4723) mothers. We assessed the association between spermicide use and 27 types of birth defects and that between condom use and 32 types of birth defects. Maternal spermicide use during the first 3 months following conception was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of only 1 of 27 birth defects, perimembranous ventricular septal defects (adjusted odds ratio=2.40, 95% confidence interval=1.25-4.62). There was no significant association between maternal use of male condoms during the first 3 months following conception and any of 32 types of birth defects. The increased occurrence of perimembranous ventricular septal defects among spermicide users may be real or may be a chance finding. Overall, the findings are consistent with those of most previous studies that observed no increased risk for birth defects among spermicide users.

  11. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth defects in children: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilvania Nicoletti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth defects in children. We performed an electronic search of observational studies in the databases ovid MEDLINE (1950 to April 2010, LILACS and SciELO. We included 188 studies with a total of 13,564,914 participants (192,655 cases. Significant positive associations were found between maternal smoking and birth defects in the following body systems: cardiovascular (OR: 1.11; 95%CI: 1.03-1.19, digestive (OR: 1.18; 95%CI: 1.07-1.30, musculoskeletal (OR: 1.27; 95%CI: 1.16-1.39 and face and neck (OR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.19-1.37. The strength of association between maternal smoking and birth defects measured by the OR (95%CI is significantly related to the amount of cigarettes smoked daily (χ2 = 12.1; df = 2; p = 0.002. In conclusion, maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with congenital malformations in children and this association is dose-dependent.

  12. Under-reporting of major birth defects in Northwest Russia: a registry-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Anton A.; Brenn, Tormod; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Nieboer, Evert; Krettek, Alexandra; Anda, Erik Eik

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective was to assess the prevalence of selected major birth defects, based on data from two medical registries in Murmansk County, and compare the observed rates with those available for Norway and Arkhangelsk County, Northwest Russia. It included all newborns (≥22 completed weeks of gestation) registered in the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) and born between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009 (n=35,417). The infants were followed-up post-partum for 2 years through direct linkage to the Murmansk Regional Congenital Defects Registry (MRCDR). Birth defects identified and confirmed in both registries constituted the “cases” and corresponded to one or more of the 21 birth defect types reportable to health authorities in Moscow. The overall prevalence of major birth defects recorded in the MRCDR was 50/10,000 before linkage and 77/10,000 after linkage with the MCBR. Routine under-reporting to the MRCDR of 40% cases was evident. This study demonstrates that birth registry data improved case ascertainment and official prevalence assessments and reduced the potential of under-reporting by physicians. The direct linkage of the two registries revealed that hypospadias cases were the most prevalent among the major birth defects in Murmansk County. A bbreviations: ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision; MCBR, Murmansk County Birth Registry; MRCDR, Murmansk Regional Congenital Defects Registry; MGC, Murmansk Genetics Center PMID:28853333

  13. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs.

  14. Neural Tube Defects in Costa Rica, 1987–2012: Origins and Development of Birth Defect Surveillance and Folic Acid Fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz Barboza-Argüello, María; Umaña-Solís, Lila M.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L.; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica—through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas—CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987–2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992–1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987–1991; 1996–1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999–2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003–2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1–10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3–5.3) for the post–fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P Costa Rica. Costa Rica’s experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs. PMID:24952876

  15. Feasibility of Investigating Whether There is a Relationship Between Birth Defects and Services in the Gulf War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, John

    2000-01-01

    The California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP) completed its study on the "Feasibility of Investigating Whether There is a Relationship Between Birth Defects and Service in the Gulf War" under contract...

  16. The effect of assisted reproductive technology on the incidence of birth defects among livebirths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter-Maor, Gil; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Spence, Andrea R; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2018-02-15

    Our study objective is to examine the association between births conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) and birth defects using a large database from the United States. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Period-linked birth-infant death data files and fetal death database for 2011-2013, we conducted a retrospective cohort study comprised of live births that occurred in the USA during that time. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between ART and birth defects, both overall and by specific defects. There were 11,862,780 live births between 2011 and 2013. Of these births, 11,791,730 were spontaneous pregnancies and 71,050 were conceived by ART, with an increasing trend in incidence of ART during the study period and an overall increasing trend of birth defects. Overall, infants conceived by ART had a greater risk of having birth defects than did infants conceived spontaneously (77/10,000 vs 25/10,000, respectively, OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.94-2.35). The malformations most commonly associated with ART were cyanotic heart defects (OR 2.74, 95% CI 2.42-3.09), cleft lip and/or palate (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14-1.89), and hypospadias (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.42-2.19). There were no differences in risk of omphalocele or neural tube defects between the two groups. There is an overall and type-specific increased risk of birth defects in the ART population. Appropriate counseling and specialized ultrasound evaluations should be considered in pregnancies conceived by ART.

  17. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haiying; Zhang Keli

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: → Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. → An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. → Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  18. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an, Sichuan 625014 (China); Zhang Keli, E-mail: keli@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. {yields} An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. {yields} Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  19. A case-control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Waller, D Kim; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-10-16

    Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ≥15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ≥15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15-19, 20-29, and ≥ 30 minutes) were similar. Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ≥15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile.

  20. Mothers' beliefs as to causation and prevention of birth defects in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Elegbe, I

    1984-06-01

    The type of birth defects ever seen or heard of and beliefs as to the causation and means of preventing the defects were investigated among 225 newly deliverd and nursing mothers through interviews. The majority were between the ages of 20 to 29 years; 9.3% were between 35 and 40 years. The bulk of the respondents are illiterates. More than 75% of the mothers had 2 or more children. The most common birth defects seen were amputated leg; dislocated hips; lamed hand or funny elbows or ankles; extra digits; and missing digits. Common perceptions of the causes were God's will (32.9%) and evil doers or evil powers due to witchcraft or sorcery (40.9%). Poor nutrition or poor antenatal care was reported by only 2.2%; while 1.3% attributed the cause to an excessive combination of native and modern drugs. The majority believed that avoidance of walking at night and midafternoon during pregnancy would prevent birth defects. 10.2% and 5.3% were of the opinion that praying to God and going to the herbalist respectively would prevent birth defects. Prevention of birth defects is an essential task for all health workers in Nigeria. The causes of birth defects should be brodcast on radio and television and published in national dialects in the newspapers. 83.6% claimed that they were not informed of various means of preventing birth defects during prenatal clinic visits. The schools should include prevention and causation of birth defects in a health education curriculum.

  1. International adoption of children with birth defects: current knowledge and areas for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Meagan E; Nelson, Katherine R; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2014-12-01

    To summarize the existing literature on the international adoption of children with birth defects and identify areas for further research. International adoption brings thousands of children to the United States each year, and children with birth defects are overrepresented in this population. Studies have demonstrated disparities in the health of children adopted from different countries as well as the complexity of medical care needed after adoption. Although the health of children involved in international adoption has been well studied, there is a lack of information about the experiences of the adoptive parents of children with birth defects. We discuss a pilot study conducted on adoptive parents of children with a specific birth defect, orofacial clefting, and discuss areas for future research.

  2. Associations between maternal periconceptional exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and major birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Botto, Lorenzo D; Anderka, Marlene T; Krikov, Sergey V; Tarpey, Morgan K; Feldkamp, Marcia L

    2016-11-01

    While associations between secondhand smoke and a few birth defects (namely, oral clefts and neural tube defects) have been noted in the scientific literature, to our knowledge, there is no single or comprehensive source of population-based information on its associations with a range of birth defects among nonsmoking mothers. We utilized data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based multisite case-control study, to examine associations between maternal reports of periconceptional exposure to secondhand smoke in the household or workplace/school and major birth defects. The multisite National Birth Defects Prevention Study is the largest case-control study of birth defects to date in the United States. We selected cases from birth defect groups having >100 total cases, as well as all nonmalformed controls (10,200), from delivery years 1997 through 2009; 44 birth defects were examined. After excluding cases and controls from multiple births and whose mothers reported active smoking or pregestational diabetes, we analyzed data on periconceptional secondhand smoke exposure-encompassing the period 1 month prior to conception through the first trimester. For the birth defect craniosynostosis, we additionally examined the effect of exposure in the second and third trimesters as well due to the potential sensitivity to teratogens for this defect throughout pregnancy. Covariates included in all final models of birth defects with ≥5 exposed mothers were study site, previous live births, time between estimated date of delivery and interview date, maternal age at estimated date of delivery, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, nativity, household income divided by number of people supported by this income, periconceptional alcohol consumption, and folic acid supplementation. For each birth defect examined, we used logistic regression analyses to estimate both crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for both

  3. Control selection and participation in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Anderka, Marlene; Caton, Alissa R; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Hockett Sherlock, Stacey M; Meyer, Robert E; Ramadhani, Tunu; Robbins, James M; Shaw, Gary M; Mathews, T J; Royle, Marjorie; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the representativeness of controls in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects in 10 centers across the United States, researchers compared 1997-2003 birth certificate data linked to selected controls (n = 6,681) and control participants (n = 4,395) with those from their base populations (n = 2,468,697). Researchers analyzed differences in population characteristics (e.g., percentage of births at > or =2,500 g) for each group. Compared with their base populations, control participants did not differ in distributions of maternal or paternal age, previous livebirths, maternal smoking, or diabetes, but they did differ in other maternal (i.e., race/ethnicity, education, entry into prenatal care) and infant (i.e., birth weight, gestational age, and plurality) characteristics. Differences in distributions of maternal, but not infant, characteristics were associated with participation by selected controls. Absolute differences in infant characteristics for the base population versus control participants were controls from hospitals compared with centers that selected controls from electronic birth certificates. These findings suggest that control participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study generally are representative of their base populations. Hospital-based control selection may slightly underascertain infants affected by certain adverse birth outcomes.

  4. Analytic Methods for Evaluating Patterns of Multiple Congenital Anomalies in Birth Defect Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Evans, Jane A; Lupo, Philip J

    2018-01-15

    It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs. This article reviews the literature with regard to analytic methods that have been used to evaluate patterns of MCAs, in particular those using birth defect registry data. A popular method for MCA assessment involves a comparison of the observed to expected ratio for a given combination of MCAs, or one of several modified versions of this comparison. Other methods include use of numerical taxonomy or other clustering techniques, multiple regression analysis, and log-linear analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, as well as specific applications, were outlined. Despite the availability of multiple analytic approaches, relatively few MCA combinations have been assessed. The availability of large birth defects registries and computing resources that allow for automated, big data strategies for prioritizing MCA patterns may provide for new avenues for better understanding co-occurrence of birth defects. Thus, the selection of an analytic approach may depend on several considerations. Birth Defects Research 110:5-11, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Acardia : Epidemiologic Findings and Literature Review From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Carey, John C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Halliday, Jane; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Luna Munoz, Leonora; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2011-01-01

    Acardia is a severe, complex malformation of monozygotic twinning, but beyond clinical case series, very few epidemiologic data are available. The goals of this study were to assess the epidemiologic characteristics of acardia from birth defect registries in the International Clearinghouse for Birth

  6. Using bayesian models to assess the effects of under-reporting of cannabis use on the association with birth defects, national birth defects prevention study, 1997-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Devine, O.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on associations between periconceptional cannabis exposure and birth defects have mainly relied on self-reported exposure. Therefore, the results may be biased due to under-reporting of the exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential effects of this form of

  7. Folic acid sensitive birth defects in association with intrauterine exposure to folic acid antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.M.; Walle, H.E.K.de; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2005-01-01

    Since the protective effect of folic acid (FA) on birth defects is well known, it is reasonable to assume intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists increases the risk on these defects. We have therefore performed case-control analyses to investigate the risk of intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists,

  8. Population-Based Surveillance of Birth Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus Infection - 15 States and U.S. Territories, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Augustina; Mai, Cara; Smoots, Ashley; Cragan, Janet; Ellington, Sascha; Langlois, Peter; Breidenbach, Rebecca; Fornoff, Jane; Dunn, Julie; Yazdy, Mahsa; Scotto-Rosato, Nancy; Sweatlock, Joseph; Fox, Deborah; Palacios, Jessica; Forestieri, Nina; Leedom, Vinita; Smiley, Mary; Nance, Amy; Lake-Burger, Heather; Romitti, Paul; Fall, Carrie; Prado, Miguel Valencia; Barton, Jerusha; Bryan, J Michael; Arias, William; Brown, Samara Viner; Kimura, Jonathan; Mann, Sylvia; Martin, Brennan; Orantes, Lucia; Taylor, Amber; Nahabedian, John; Akosa, Amanda; Song, Ziwei; Martin, Stacey; Ramlal, Roshan; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Isenburg, Jennifer; Moore, Cynthia A; Gilboa, Suzanne; Honein, Margaret A

    2018-01-26

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1). Population-based birth defects surveillance systems are critical to monitor all infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of known exposure or laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. CDC analyzed data from 15 U.S. jurisdictions conducting population-based surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.* Jurisdictions were stratified into the following three groups: those with 1) documented local transmission of Zika virus during 2016; 2) one or more cases of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents; and 3) less than one case of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents. A total of 2,962 infants and fetuses (3.0 per 1,000 live births; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-3.2) (2) met the case definition. † In areas with local transmission there was a non-statistically significant increase in total birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection from 2.8 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 3.0 cases in the second half (p = 0.10). However, when neural tube defects and other early brain malformations (NTDs) § were excluded, the prevalence of birth defects strongly linked to congenital Zika virus infection increased significantly, from 2.0 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 2.4 cases in the second half, an increase of 29 more cases than expected (p = 0.009). These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection and the need for continued monitoring in areas at risk for Zika.

  9. Organizing population data into complex family pedigrees: application of a second-order data linkage to state birth defects registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shihfen; Mason, Craig A

    2004-09-01

    Researchers and health officials are increasingly using electronic linkage of large-scale health data systems as a tool for assembling a comprehensive picture of birth defects at a population level. Current linkage and database techniques are limited to first-order linkage--linking information on a single individual in one database with information on that same individual in another database. For example, while current strategies may indicate whether a child with a certain birth defect also has a specific metabolic disorder or risk factor, they are unable to readily determine whether he or she also has any siblings or other relatives with the same pattern. In contrast, the current manuscript proposes a second-order linkage--one that organizes data so that individual-level data can readily be organized into families or extended family pedigrees across an entire population. The ability to link and organize population data into family pedigrees can have significant, broad impact upon health research and service delivery. This can lead to large-scale analysis of genetic factors and, with the linking of environmental data, the potential for large-scale studies of gene-environment interactions. In addition, it expands the potential for epidemiological research by readily allowing the examination of familial effects upon population rates of birth defects, and provides valuable information that can assist in applied public health. An example of a second order database incorporating an electronic birth defects registry is presented. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Maternal occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and major structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyeyeun; Agopian, A J; Whitehead, Lawrence W; Beasley, Charles W; Langlois, Peter H; Emery, Robert J; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-04-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is known to be carcinogenic and mutagenic, but little is known about the association between maternal occupational exposure to IR and birth defects. We studied 38,009 mothers who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and delivered between 1997 and 2009. We assessed odds ratios [ORs] for the association between maternal occupations with potential exposure to IR and 39 birth defects. We observed significant odds ratios (ORs) for isolated hydrocephaly (adjusted OR [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-4.2), isolated anotia/microtia (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-4.0), isolated colonic atresia (crude OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.5-22.3), isolated omphalocele (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6) and isolated anencephaly (crude OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.94). We also observed a nonsignificant OR for birth defects in aggregate (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.9-4.6) among mothers with potential occupational exposure to fluoroscopy. We assessed 39 birth defects, observing that maternal occupations with potential exposure to IR were associated with a significantly increased risk for 4 birth defects and a significantly protected risk for 1 birth defect. These results should be interpreted cautiously because our measurement of exposure is qualitative, some of these associations may be due to occupational exposures that are correlated with IR and some may be due to chance. However, these findings serve as the first evaluation of these relationships in a large study and may be useful for generating hypotheses for future studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Maternal hypertensive disorders, antihypertensive medication use, and the risk of birth defects: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Bennekom, C.M. Van; Louik, C.; Werler, M.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Mitchell, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study previously identified associations between specific maternal hypertensive disorders and/or prenatal exposure to antihypertensive medication and birth defects. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Slone Birth Defects Study, 1998-2010. POPULATION: A total of 5568 cases with birth

  12. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  13. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  14. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  15. Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jilei; Zhang, Chaosheng; Pei, Lijun; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    The risk of birth defects is generally accredited with genetic factors, environmental causes, but the contribution of environmental factors to birth defects is still inconclusive. With the hypothesis of associations of geochemical features distribution and birth defects risk, we collected birth records and measured the chemical components in soil samples from a high prevalence area of birth defects in Shanxi province, China. The relative risk levels among villages were estimated with conditional spatial autoregressive model and the relationships between the risk levels of the villages and the 15 types of chemical elements concentration in the cropland and woodland soils were explored. The results revealed that the arsenic levels in cropland soil showed a significant association with birth defects occurring risk in this area, which is consistent with existing evidences of arsenic as a teratogen and warrants further investigation on arsenic exposure routine to birth defect occurring risk. - Highlights: • Association between soil geochemical components and birth defects risk was proposed. • The relative risk difference among villages were estimated with CAR model. • Arsenic levels in cropland showed a significant association to birth defect risk. • The finding warrants further investigation on arsenic as a teratogen. - The difference of risk levels estimate by spatial statistics to birth defect significantly associated with arsenic levels in cropland soils warrants further investigation

  16. Selected birth defects among males following the United States terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parvati; Yang, Wei; Shaw, Gary M; Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A

    2017-10-02

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) preceded an increase in male fetal deaths and reduced male live births among exposed gestational cohorts across several geographic locations in the United States, including California. We analyze whether the extreme stressor of 9/11 may have selected against frail males in utero by testing if the prevalence of male births with selected defects in California fell among cohorts exposed to the stressor during gestation. We used data from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program from July 1985 to January 2004 (223 conception cohorts). We included six birth defects that as a group of phenotypes disproportionately affect males. We applied time-series methods and defined as "exposed to 9/11" the cohorts conceived in February, March, April, May, June, July, and August 2001. Three of the seven monthly conception cohorts exposed to 9/11 in utero show lower than expected odds of live born males with the studied defects: February 2001 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.71), May 2001 (OR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.81), and August 2001 (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.93). The population-wide stressor of 9/11 precedes a reduction in the risk of live born males with selected birth defects. Our analysis contributes to the understanding of adaptation to stress among pregnant women exposed to large and unexpected ambient stressors. Results further support the notion that the prevalence of live born defects may reflect temporal variation in cohort selection in utero against frail males. Birth Defects Research 109:1277-1283, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Birth defects in newborns and stillborns: an example of the Brazilian reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fett-Conte Agnes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study constitutes a clinical and genetic study of all newborn and stillborn infants with birth defects seen in a period of one year in a medical school hospital located in Brazil. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence, causes and consequences of the defects. Methods For all infants we carried out physical assessment, photographic records, analysis of medical records and collection of additional information with the family, besides the karyotypic analysis or molecular tests in indicated cases. Result The incidence of birth defects was 2.8%. Among them, the etiology was identified in 73.6% (ci95%: 64.4-81.6%. Etiology involving the participation of genetic factors single or associated with environmental factors was more frequent 94.5%, ci95%: 88.5-98.0% than those caused exclusively by environmental factors (alcohol in and gestational diabetes mellitus. The conclusive or presumed diagnosis was possible in 85% of the cases. Among them, the isolated congenital heart disease (9.5% and Down syndrome (9.5% were the most common, followed by gastroschisis (8.4%, neural tube defects (7.4% and clubfoot (5.3%. Maternal age, parental consanguinity, exposure to teratogenic agents and family susceptibility were some of the identified risk factors. The most common observed consequences were prolonged hospital stays and death. Conclusions The current incidence of birth defects among newborns and stillbirths of in our population is similar to those obtained by other studies performed in Brazil and in other underdeveloped countries. Birth defects are one of the major causes leading to lost years of potential life. The study of birth defects in underdeveloped countries should continue. The identification of incidence, risk factors and consequences are essential for planning preventive measures and effective treatments.

  18. Maternal Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Bertke, Stephen J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Romitti, Paul A.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Malik, Sadia; Lupo, Philip J.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Bell, Erin; Druschel, Charlotte; Correa, Adolfo; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects, affecting approximately 1% of live births. Pesticide exposure has been suggested as an etiologic factor for CHDs, but previous results were inconsistent. METHODS We examined maternal occupational exposure to fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides for 3328 infants with CHDs and 2988 unaffected control infants of employed mothers using data for 1997 through 2002 births from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based multisite case-control study. Potential pesticide exposure from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy was assigned by an expert-guided task-exposure matrix and job history details self-reported by mothers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS Maternal occupational exposure to pesticides was not associated with CHDs overall. In examining specific CHD subtypes compared with controls, some novel associations were observed with higher estimated pesticide exposure: insecticides only and secundum atrial septal defect (OR =1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.7, 40 exposed cases); both insecticides and herbicides and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (OR =5.1; 95% CI, 1.7–15.3, 4 exposed cases), as well as pulmonary valve stenosis (OR =3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.1, 5 exposed cases); and insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (OR =2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–4.0, 13 exposed cases). CONCLUSION Broad pesticide exposure categories were not associated with CHDs overall, but examining specific CHD subtypes revealed some increased odds ratios. These results highlight the importance of examining specific CHDs separately. Because of multiple comparisons, additional work is needed to verify these associations. PMID:26033688

  19. Birth defects in perinatal infants in areas contiguous to Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant before its normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ling; Yin Zhihua; Han Zhonghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the status of birth defects among the perinatal infants in the areas contiguous to Hongyanhe nuclear power plant before its normal operation, so as to provide background information for the evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plant on birth defects. Methods: From 1 October 1995 to 30 September 2009 the midwifery units at second class and above of Wafangdian City were asked to be in charge of recording the birth defects among the perinatal infants born during this period within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. Results: The total number of birth defects was 697, and the maternal number Was 83779. The average defect rate Was 83.20/10 4 . There were significant differences in the birth defect rate among different years (χ 2 =39.54, P<0.05), however, without linear trend therein,and among the survey areas (χ 2 =15.36, P<0.05) as well. The top five birth defects were congenital heart disease (148 cases), cleft lip with cleft palate (67 cases), congenital hydrocephalus (63 cases), and spina bifida (37 cases) and cleft lip (36 cases). Conclusions: The birth defect rate within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant is lower than that of the region of Liaoning Province and the national rate of birth defects. (authors)

  20. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1988-01-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system...

  1. Proceedings of the Conference on Birth Defects for Educators (May 4, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael S., Ed.; Davidson, Mary W., Ed.

    Six papers from a 1978 conference on birth defects focus on prevention. G. Stickle ("The Health of America's Babies: How Do We Stack Up?'" reviews risk in pregnancy, cites inadequate prenatal care and maternal nutrition, and discusses examples of how the United States is not applying its knowledge of how to improve pregnancy outcome. In "Genetic…

  2. Overview of Epidemiology, Genetics, Birth Defects, and Chromosome Abnormalities Associated With CDH

    OpenAIRE

    Pober, Barbara R.

    2007-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations.

  3. A study of handling cytotoxic drugs and risk of birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirangi, Adeleh; Bower, Carol; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Preen, David B; Bruce, Neville

    2014-06-12

    We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies) who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05-4.15)). Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03) and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00-3.48) and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18-5.42). This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs.

  4. AGORA, a data- and biobank for birth defects and childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Iris A. L. M.; van der Zanden, Loes F. M.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Wijers, Charlotte H. W.; Thonissen, Michelle; Dokter, Elisabeth M. J.; Marcelis, Carlo L. M.; de Blaauw, Ivo; Wijnen, Marc H. W. A.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Bokkerink, Jos P. M.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; Koster-Kamphuis, Linda; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A. M.; Kapusta, Livia; van Heijst, Arno F. J.; Liem, Kian D.; de Gier, Robert P. E.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Bergé, Stefaan J.; van der Biezen, Jan Jaap; Verdonck, An; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Hens, Greet; Roosenboom, Jasmien; Lilien, Marc R.; de Jong, Tom P.; Broens, Paul; Wijnen, Rene; Brooks, Alice; Franke, Barbara; Brunner, Han G.; Carels, Carine E. L.; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Feitz, Wout F. J.; Roeleveld, Nel

    2016-01-01

    Research regarding the etiology of birth defects and childhood cancer is essential to develop preventive measures, but often requires large study populations. Therefore, we established the AGORA data- and biobank in the Netherlands. In this study, we describe its rationale, design, and ongoing data

  5. AGORA, a data- and biobank for birth defects and childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Iris A. L. M.; van der Zanden, Loes F. M.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Wijers, Charlotte H. W.; Thonissen, Michelle; Dokter, Elisabeth M. J.; Marcelis, Carlo L. M.; de Blaauw, Ivo; Wijnen, Marc H. W. A.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Bokkerink, Jos P. M.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; Koster-Kamphuis, Linda; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A. M.; Kapusta, Livia; van Heijst, Arno F. J.; Liem, Kian D.; de Gier, Robert P. E.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Berge, Stefaan J.; van der Biezen, Jan Jaap; Verdonck, An; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Hens, Greet; Roosenboom, Jasmien; Lilien, Marc R.; de Jong, Tom P.; Broens, Paul; Wijnen, Rene; Brooks, Alice; Franke, Barbara; Brunner, Han G.; Carels, Carine E. L.; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Feitz, Wout F. J.; Roeleveld, Nel

    BACKGROUNDResearch regarding the etiology of birth defects and childhood cancer is essential to develop preventive measures, but often requires large study populations. Therefore, we established the AGORA data- and biobank in the Netherlands. In this study, we describe its rationale, design, and

  6. Differences in risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias in the national birth defects prevention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, S.G.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Olney, R.S.; Carmichael, S.L.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. METHODS: A wide variety of data

  7. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dastgiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using folic acid during pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. Material and Methods : In this study, 243 pregnant women that were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies were evaluated. They were referred to Legal Medicine Organization of East Azarbaijan province to get permission for therapeutic termination of pregnancy. Results : The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7%. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79% (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94% (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with use folic acid. Conclusion : Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy for maternal and child health promotion. ​

  8. Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry: Annual Report on Birth Defects Among Infants Born to U.S. Military Families, January 1, 2000 Through December 31, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    atresia, stenosis 746.1 Tricuspid valve atresia, stenosis 746.2 Ebstein’s anomaly 746.3 Aortic valve stenosis 746.7 Hypoplastic...International Classification of Diseases , 9th 4 Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) system.10 The Standard Ambulatory Data Record system...Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the National Birth Defects Prevention Network; and the Henry M

  9. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-02-23

    Feb 23, 2011 ... errors of metabolism (IEM) comprise a large class of genetic diseases involving disorders of metabolism. The majority are due to defects of single genes that code for enzymes that facilitate conversion of various substances (substrates) into others (products). In a Western study, the overall incidence of the ...

  10. Cloacal exstrophy: an epidemiologic study from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Botto, Lorenzo D; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canfield, Mark A; Castilla, Eduardo E; Clementi, Maurizio; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Siffel, Csaba; Carey, John C

    2011-11-15

    Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex). Historically, the prevalence ranges from 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 births, with higher rates in females. Cloacal exstrophy is likely etiologically heterogeneous as suggested by its recurrence in families and occurrence in monozygotic twins. The defect has been described in infants with limb-body wall, with trisomy 18, and in one pregnancy exposed to Dilantin and diazepam. Due to its rarity, the use of a nonspecific diagnostic code for case identification, and lack of validation of the clinical findings, cloacal exstrophy remains an epidemiologic challenge. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, associated anomalies and maternal characteristics among infants born with cloacal exstrophy. We used data from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research submitted from 18 birth defect surveillance programs representing 24 countries. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally by two authors. Cases of persistent cloaca were excluded. A total of 186 cases of cloacal exstrophy were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 131,579 births: ranging from 1 in 44,444 births in Wales to 1 in 269,464 births in South America. Live birth prevalence was 1 in 184,195 births. Prevalence ratios did not vary by maternal age. Forty-two (22.6%) cases met the criteria for the OEIS complex, whereas 60 (32.3%) were classified as OEI and 18 (9.7%) as EIS (one with suspected VATER (0.5%)). Other findings included two cases with trisomy 13 (one without a karyotype confirmation), one with mosaic trisomy 12 (0.5%), one with mosaic 45,X (0.5%) and one classified as having amnion band sequence (0.5%). Twenty-seven (14.5%) infants had other

  11. Arsenic levels in the soil and risk of birth defects: a population-based case-control study using GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jilei; Chen, Gong; Liao, Yilan; Song, Xinming; Pei, Lijun; Wang, Jinfeng; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly dangerous metal that has been linked to a number of adverse health effects in both adults and children, including birth defects. Yet few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between arsenic levels in the soil and the risk of birth defects. The purpose of the authors' study was to examine this association among people exposed to environmental pollution in a developed area of China. The authors used global positioning system to locate the coordinates of 80 villages in 40 towns for soil sampling. Soil samples were analyzed for arsenic content. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to arsenic and birth defects, controlling for potentially confounding factors. The authors found that exposure to arsenic in any amount increased the risk of birth defects. The positive association found between arsenic exposure and birth defects warrants further study, and future large-scale population-based studies are needed with an emphasis on individual-level exposure and confounding variables.

  12. Birth defects after assisted reproductive technology according to the method of treatment in Japan: nationwide data between 2004 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooki, Syuichi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze birth defects (congenital anomalies) after assisted reproductive technology (ART) according to the method of treatment, namely in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). Individual lists of all ART pregnancies resulting in birth defects from birth year 2004 to 2012 presented in the annual reports by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology were used as the initial sources of information. Relative risks (RRs) with the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with IVF as the reference group when calculating RR of ICSI for IVF, and with FET as the reference group when calculating the RR of fresh embryo transfer for FET. In total, 2725 stillbirths or live births with birth defects were analyzed. The prevalence of birth defects was slightly yet significantly higher in ICSI compared with IVF throughout the study period (RR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.02-1.29) and in the 2004-2006 period (RR = 1.26, 95 % CI 1.00-1.58). The prevalence of birth defects was significantly higher for fresh embryo transfer compared with FET in the 2004-2006 period (RR = 1.39, 95 % CI 1.12-1.72). The prevalence of birth defects in multiple births was significantly lower in fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (RR = 0.70, 95 % CI 0.55-0.90, live births of 2007-2012). The present descriptive epidemiological study suggests that the impacts of different ART methods on birth defects might differ.

  13. A Study of Handling Cytotoxic Drugs and Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Female Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleh Shirangi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05–4.15. Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03 and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00–3.48 and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18–5.42. This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs.

  14. Overview of Epidemiology, Genetics, Birth Defects, and Chromosome Abnormalities Associated With CDH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations. PMID:17436298

  15. Overview of epidemiology, genetics, birth defects, and chromosome abnormalities associated with CDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Barbara R

    2007-05-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. A Study of Handling Cytotoxic Drugs and Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Female Veterinarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirangi, Adeleh; Bower, Carol; Holman, C. D’Arcy J.; Preen, David B.; Bruce, Neville

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies) who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05–4.15)). Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03) and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00–3.48) and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18–5.42). This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs. PMID:24927037

  17. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, L.K.; Buck, G.M.; Druschel, C.M.; Fitzgerald, E.F.; Sever, L.E.; Vena, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ≤1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ≥2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ≥2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

  18. Methods for developing useful estimates of the costs associated with birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amy P; Canfield, Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Cost estimates for birth defects are useful to policy makers in deciding the best use of resources to prevent these conditions. Much of the effort in this area has focused on spina bifida, in part because cost savings can be estimated from folic acid-preventable cases. However, comprehensive cost-of-illness estimates for this condition may be too outdated, too general, or not applicable to individual states' environments. Using the live birth prevalence for spina bifida in Texas, we applied recent spina bifida cost estimates to approximate total lifetime medical and other costs for an average live birth cohort of spina bifida cases in Texas. In addition, we queried various government programs that provide services for persons with spina bifida to provide program-specific annual costs for this condition. Applying a recently published average lifetime medical cost of $635,000 per case of spina bifida to the average annual birth cohort of 120 Texas cases, an estimated $76 million in direct and indirect medical and other costs will be incurred in Texas over the life span of that cohort. Examples of estimated medical costs for one year are $5 million for infants using actual employer-paid insurance claims data and $6 million combined for children in two public sector programs. Stakeholders and state policy makers may look to state birth defects registries for useful cost data. Although comprehensive state-specific figures are not available, applying prevalence data to existing estimates and obtaining actual claims and program expenditures may help close this information gap.

  19. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands : A 30-year population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Essen, Anthonie J; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964-1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964-1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other

  20. Preventive program of birth defects: incidence of anencephaly in Maracaibo, Venezuela. 1993-1996 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Fuenmayor, H; Valera, V; Socorro Candanoza, L; Bracho, A; Herrera, M; Rodriguez, Z; Concho, E

    1996-01-01

    Incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia, and specifically in the Eastern Coast of Lake Maracaibo, an oil exploitation area, has been declared high since the beginning of the 80's, coincident with the generalized use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for fetal evaluation. Through the Birth Defects Preventive Program, established at the Hospital Chiquinquira in Maracaibo, we have developed a fourfold strategy for the study of birth defects: i) analysis of more than 32,332 ultrasound evaluations within the Ultrasound Service, between 1993 and 1996, ii) a case-control malformation registry beginning in 1995, iii) a study of malformed stillbirths at the Pathology Service, observed after 4232 deliveries within this hospital, and iv) a registry of over 638 mothers with high risk pregnancy for fetal defects detected at the prenatal clinic and carried out at the Perinatal Medical Genetics Service. As a reference population we study 345 medical histories obtained from the Medical Genetics and Prenatal Diagnostic Service at Hospital Coromoto, and oil companies related medical facility. This approach has led us to conclude that the incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia is 0.75/1000, significantly similar to that expected for most populations

  1. Prevalence of Birth Defects Among Infants of Gulf War Veterans in Arkansas, Arizona, California, Georgia, Hawaii, and Iowa, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    unilateral absence/agenesis/dysplasia/hypoplasia of kidneys (right), polycystic kidneys (left, infantile type), congenital hydronephrosis (left...categories, and expected 1.2 of 24 birth defects cat - Araneta MRG, Destiche DA, Schlangen KM, et al. 2000. Birth defects prev- alence among infants of Persian ...San Diego, California ’Birth Defects and Pediatric Genetics Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia ’Hawaii Birth

  2. Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Preet Allagh

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India. Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement.The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9. The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5. Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn.The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.

  3. Birth Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts in India: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagh, Komal Preet; Shamanna, B. R.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V. S.; Ness, Andy R.; Doyle, Pat; Neogi, Sutapa B.; Pant, Hira B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Methods A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India). Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement. Results The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9). The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn. Conclusion The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India. PMID:25768737

  4. Racial/ethnic differences in survival of United States children with birth defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Gang; Canfield, Mark A; Mai, Cara T; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meyer, Robert E; Anderka, Marlene; Copeland, Glenn E; Kucik, James E; Nembhard, Wendy N; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-04-01

    To examine racial/ethnic-specific survival of children with major birth defects in the US. We pooled data on live births delivered during 1999-2007 with any of 21 birth defects from 12 population-based birth defects surveillance programs. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to calculate cumulative survival probabilities and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality risk. For most birth defects, there were small-to-moderate differences in neonatal (<28 days) survival among racial/ethnic groups. However, compared with children born to non-Hispanic white mothers, postneonatal infant (28 days to <1 year) mortality risk was significantly greater among children born to non-Hispanic black mothers for 13 of 21 defects (hazard ratios [HRs] 1.3-2.8) and among children born to Hispanic mothers for 10 of 21 defects (HRs 1.3-1.7). Compared with children born to non-Hispanic white mothers, a significantly increased childhood (≤ 8 years) mortality risk was found among children born to Asian/Pacific Islander mothers for encephalocele (HR 2.6), tetralogy of Fallot, and atrioventricular septal defect (HRs 1.6-1.8) and among children born to American Indian/Alaska Native mothers for encephalocele (HR 2.8), whereas a significantly decreased childhood mortality risk was found among children born to Asian/Pacific Islander mothers for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (HR 0.6). Children with birth defects born to non-Hispanic black and Hispanic mothers carry a greater risk of mortality well into childhood, especially children with congenital heart defect. Understanding survival differences among racial/ethnic groups provides important information for policy development and service planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. External birth defects in Southern Vietnam: a population-based study at the grassroots level of health care in Binh Thuan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Truong; Nguyen, Dung The; Nguyen, Phuong Van Ngoc; Tran, Dong A; Gillerot, Yves; Reding, Raymond; Robert, Annie

    2013-04-30

    There currently exists no data on birth defects from population-based studies in Vietnam. Our study's aim was to assess external birth defect (EBD) prevalence among live newborns in Binh Thuan Province in Vietnam with the help of health workers at all levels of the health system. A 2-month training session for 452 health professionals (HP) practicing delivery care in 127 Commune Health Stations (CHS) and in 12 provincial or district hospitals (DH) was setup in 2006. After a successful 6-month pilot study, a one-year registry of EBDs was established in 2008. All live newborns were screened for EBDs within 24 hours after birth in all DH obstetric departments and in all CHSs. Trained local HPs collected information by filling out a predesigned form and by photographing the affected newborn. EBDs were coded using the International Classification of Diseases system-10, Clinical Modification. The study was repeated in 2010. Throughout 2010, out of a total of 13,954 newborns, 84 cases with one or more EBDs were reported, representing an overall prevalence rate of 60.2 per 10,000 live births. The most common groups of EBDs were limbs (27.2/10,000), orofacial clefts (20.1/10,000) and the central nervous system (7.9/10,000). This first population-based study in Vietnam, which required coordination efforts at the local level, provides baseline prevalences of external birth defects. Data on EBDs from this study in southern Vietnam may be useful for setting up a regional population-based registry of birth defects in Vietnam.

  6. Diabetes and obesity-related genes and the risk of neural tube defects in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Waller, D Kim; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-12-15

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999-2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy.

  7. Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Shinde, Mayura U; Zhan, F Benjamin; Gong, Xi; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-11-19

    Some studies have noted an association between maternal occupational exposures to chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring, but data are lacking on the potential impact of industrial air emissions of these solvents on birth defects. With data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for births occurring in 1996-2008, we examined the relation between maternal residential proximity to industrial air releases of chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring of 60,613 case-mothers and 244,927 control-mothers. Maternal residential exposures to solvent emissions were estimated with metrics that took into account residential distances to industrial sources and annual amounts of chemicals released. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between residential proximity to emissions of 14 chlorinated solvents and selected birth defects, including neural tube, oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. All risk estimates were adjusted for year of delivery and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence. Relative to exposure risk values of 0, neural tube defects were associated with maternal residential exposures (exposure risk values >0) to several types of chlorinated solvents, most notably carbon tetrachloride (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.86); chloroform (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04, 1.87); ethyl chloride (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08, 1.79); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11, 2.18); and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08, 2.06). Significant associations were also noted between a few chlorinated solvents and oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. We observed stronger associations between some emissions and neural tube, oral cleft, and heart defects in offspring of mothers 35 years or older, such as spina bifida with carbon tetrachloride (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.09, 5.72), cleft palate

  8. Systemic sclerosis, birth order and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul A J; Lester, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    A recent study identified increasing birth order to be a risk factor for the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This finding supports the theory that transplacental microchimerism may be a key pathological event in the initiation of SSc. We investigated the relationship between birth order and parity and the age of onset of SSc in South Australia. A retrospective analysis of patient data in the South Australian Scleroderma Register was performed. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire. Control data was collected prospectively using a similar questionnaire. The relationship between birth order, family size or parity and risk of subsequent development of SSc was analyzed by mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and eighty-seven index probands were identified and compared with 457 controls. Controls were well matched for gender, but not for age. No statistically significant relationship was identified between SSc and birth order, parity in females, family size, age at first pregnancy in females or gender of first child in parous females. Our data suggests that parity, age at first pregnancy and the gender of the first child are not relevant factors in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSc. Birth order and family size in both genders also appears irrelevant. These results argue against microchimerism as being relevant in the pathogenesis of SSc and add further support to the theory that stochastic events may be important in the etiopathogenesis of SSc. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2 assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3 provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects. METHODS: We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ≥ 28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59, exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30, maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33, drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95, maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57, and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53. Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary

  10. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  11. Effects and safety of periconceptional oral folate supplementation for preventing birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana C; Rayco-Solon, Pura

    2015-12-14

    It has been reported that neural tube defects (NTD) can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear. This review aims to examine whether periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube and other congenital anomalies (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes in mothers or babies. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane review on this topic. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2015). Additionally, we searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 August 2015) and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies, checked data entry for accuracy and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. Five trials involving 7391 women (2033 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 5358 with no history of NTDs) were included. Four comparisons were made: 1) supplementation with any folate versus no intervention, placebo or other micronutrients without folate (five trials); 2) supplementation with folic acid alone versus no treatment or placebo (one trial); 3) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus other micronutrients without folate (four trials); and 4) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus the same other micronutrients without

  12. Should aggregate US Census data be used as a proxy for individual household income in a birth defects registry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Lisa; Ramadhani, Tunu; Farag, Noha H; Canfield, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Birth Defects Registries do not have access to income data and low household income is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes of stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth defects. We compared 1999 income data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with 2000 Census block group income data for the residence location of these same mothers. We geocoded 339 case mothers and 121 control mothers and assessed household income among case and control mothers by using NBDPS and census block group data. Correlation and concordance were assessed between the 2 data sources' household income data. The household income distribution was similar between case and control mothers within each data source. Both case and control mothers in the NBDPS's lowest household income category (income than was documented in their census block group's median household income (p-valueincome data (control mothers, rs=0.53; case mothers, rs=0.32). There was also poor to fair concordance between the 2 data sources (control mothers, kw=0.28; 95% CI=0.19-0.37 and case mothers, kw=0.18; 95% CI=0.13-0.24). These findings demonstrate dissimilar household incomes between NBDPS and census block group data. Caution should be used if block-level data is used as a proxy for individual-level household incomes in population-based birth defects surveillance and research.

  13. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS......: This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins...

  14. Committee Opinion No. 717 Summary: Sulfonamides, Nitrofurantoin, and Risk of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The evidence regarding an association between the nitrofuran and sulfonamide classes of antibiotics and birth defects is mixed. As with all patients, antibiotics should be prescribed for pregnant women only for appropriate indications and for the shortest effective duration. During the second and third trimesters, sulfonamides and nitrofurantoins may continue to be used as first-line agents for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and other infections caused by susceptible organisms. Prescribing sulfonamides or nitrofurantoin in the first trimester is still considered appropriate when no other suitable alternative antibiotics are available. Pregnant women should not be denied appropriate treatment for infections because untreated infections can commonly lead to serious maternal and fetal complications.

  15. Committee Opinion No. 717: Sulfonamides, Nitrofurantoin, and Risk of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The evidence regarding an association between the nitrofuran and sulfonamide classes of antibiotics and birth defects is mixed. As with all patients, antibiotics should be prescribed for pregnant women only for appropriate indications and for the shortest effective duration. During the second and third trimesters, sulfonamides and nitrofurantoins may continue to be used as first-line agents for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and other infections caused by susceptible organisms. Prescribing sulfonamides or nitrofurantoin in the first trimester is still considered appropriate when no other suitable alternative antibiotics are available. Pregnant women should not be denied appropriate treatment for infections because untreated infections can commonly lead to serious maternal and fetal complications.

  16. Preterm birth and congenital heart defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, Enora; Lelong, Nathalie; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Houyel, Lucile; Bonnet, Damien; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Kayem, Gilles; Goffinet, François; Khoshnood, Babak

    2012-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) and congenital heart defect (CHD) are 2 major causes of mortality and disability of perinatal origin. There are limited data on the relation between CHD and PTB. Our objective was to use population-based data to estimate the risk of PTB in newborns with CHD and to study specific associations between categories of CHD and PTB. We used data from a population-based cohort study of CHD (EPIdémiologique sur le devenir des enfants porteurs de CARDiopathies congénitales study), including 2189 live births with CHD (excluding isolated atrial septal defects) born between 2005 and 2008. We categorized CHD by using an anatomic and clinical classification. Data from the French National Perinatal Survey of 2003 were used to compare PTB in the EPIdémiologique sur le devenir des enfants porteurs de CARDiopathies congénitales study to that of the general population. Of the newborns with CHD, 13.5% were preterm. The odds of PTB were twofold higher than for the general population (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.6-2.5), essentially due to an increase in spontaneous PTB for newborns with CHD. The risk of PTB associated with CHD persisted after exclusion of chromosomal or other anomalies. There were significant variations in risk of PTB across the categories of CHD after adjustment for known risk factors of PTB and factors related to medical management of pregnancy and delivery. We found a higher risk of PTB in newborns with CHD, which was essentially due to spontaneous PTB. Risk of PTB varied for categories of CHD. Our finding may be helpful for generating hypotheses about the developmental links between CHD and PTB.

  17. Epidemiology of birth defects, perinatal mortality and thyroid cancer before and after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Scherb, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal trends of birth defects and perinatal mortality in Germany and Europe as well as in least and most contaminated regions have been compared and investigated by trends. In numerous data sets, especially from northern and eastern Europe, positive and significant trend variations with upward 'disturbances' in temporal relation associated with the Chernobyl accident 1986 have been identified and spatial associations with regional fallout have been found. A surprisingly consistent picture evolves of significantly raised stillbirth rates after Chernobyl of ca. 5 % in Poland, ca. 10 % in parts of Germany and Sweden, ca. 20 % in Denmark and Finland, and up to ca. 30% in Iceland and Hungary. Low as compared to higher contaminated regions show weaker or stronger effects, respectively. The additional relative risks for birth defects are in the same order of magnitude as the additional relative risks for stillbirth, namely 0,5%-20 %/kBq·m 2 . Using well-known conversion coefficients, the excess relative risk of 1 %/kBq·m 2 translates theoretically to a preliminary relative risk of 1,6/mSv/a. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma among children affected by Chernobyl fallout has increased dramatically in certain parts of Europe. Less evidence exists for a similar effect among adolescents and adults. The cancer registry of the Czech Republic provides an opportunity to study various determinants of the occurrence of thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl accident, the thyroid cancer incidence of the Czech Republic reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender. The additional increases of thyroid cancer in the whole population of the Czech Republic are consistent with reports from other countries. To investigate trends in the sex distribution of newborns before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden

  18. Birth defects in juvenile Wistar rats after exposure to immunosuppressive drugs during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Pilutin, Anna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Kędzierska, Karolina; Domański, Leszek; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and their active metabolites can cross the placental barrier and enter fetal circulation. The adverse effects on the fetus include chromosomal aberrations, structural malformations, organ-specific toxicity and intrauterine growth retardation. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of "safe" and "contraindicated" immunosuppressive drugs on birth defects in juvenile Wistar rats after exposure of pregnant female rats to these drugs. The study was conducted on 32 female Wistar rats, subjected to immunosuppressive regimens most commonly used in therapy of human kidney transplant recipients. The animals received drugs by oral gavage 2 weeks before pregnancy and during 3 weeks of pregnancy. Treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and everolimus turned out to be toxic. We have noticed a significantly reduced number of live births in all pregnant rats exposed to these drugs in combination with calcineurin inhibitors and prednisone. Malformations and histological changes of fetal organs were confirmed after mycophenolate mofetil exposure during pregnancy. Mycophenolate mofetil turned out to be more toxic when used with tacrolimus than with cyclosporin (delivery of live offspring was possible only in the latter group). Everolimus in combination with cyclosporin effectively suppressed the fetal maturation in utero, but did not contribute to the development of malformations.

  19. Birth outcomes of cases with isolated atrial septal defect type II--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-07-01

    In general, epidemiological studies have evaluated cases with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities together. The aim of this study is to describe the birth outcomes of cases with isolated/single atrial septal defect type II (ASD-II, i.e. only a fossa ovalis defect) after surgical correction or lethal outcome in the light of maternal sociodemographic data. Comparison of birth outcomes and maternal characteristics of cases with ASD-II and controls without defect. The population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Hungarian newborn infants with or without ASD-II. Medically recorded birth outcomes, maternal age and birth order were evaluated. Marital and employment status was based on maternal information. The lifestyle factors were analyzed in a subsample of mothers visited at home based on a personal interview with mothers and their close relatives, and the family consensus was accepted. Mean gestational age at delivery and birthweight, rate of preterm birth and low birthweight, maternal age, birth order, marital and employment status. The evaluation of 471 cases with ASD-II and 38,151 controls without any defects showed a female excess in cases with ASD-II, having shorter gestational age and lower mean birthweight, and thus a higher rate of preterm births and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction and shorter gestational age were found in cases with ASD-II, particularly in female children. These factors may have a general developmental process in which there was not closure of the foramen ovale, thus echocardiographic screening of these babies might be of value. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  1. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C.; Stewart, Thomas G.; Luben, Thomas J.; Davis, J. Allen; Langlois, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    We performed an exploratory analysis of ozone (O 3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Data on births were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) in Texas. Air pollution concentrations were previously determined by combining modeled air pollution concentrations with air monitoring data. The analysis generated hypotheses for future, confirmatory studies; although many of the observed associations were null. The hypotheses are provided by an observed association between O 3 and craniosynostosis and inverse associations between PM 2.5 and septal and obstructive heart defects in the TBDR. Associations with PM 2.5 for septal heart defects and ventricular outflow tract obstructions were null using the NBDPS. Both the TBDR and the NBPDS had inverse associations between O 3 and septal heart defects. Further research to confirm the observed associations is warranted. - Highlights: • Air pollution concentrations combined modeled air data and air monitoring data. • No associations were observed between the majority of birth defects and PM 2.5 and O 3 . • Estimated associations between PM 2.5 and certain heart defects varied by dataset. • Results were suggestive of an inverse association between O 3 and septal heart defects. • Higher O 3 concentrations may be associated with increased odds of craniosynostosis. - Although most observed associations between ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations and birth defects were null, some were present and warrant further consideration

  2. Preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Lupo, Philip J; Agopian, A J; Canfield, Mark A; Case, Amy P; Carmichael, Suzan L; Mitchell, Laura E

    2014-06-01

    Despite public health campaigns encouraging women to take a daily folic acid supplement, the proportion of reproductive age women, in the United States, who comply with this recommendation is less than optimal. The objective of this analysis was to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use to define subgroups of women who may benefit from targeted folic acid campaigns. This study included 6570 mothers of live born infants from the control population of National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2005). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to define subgroups of women with different patterns of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. Race/ethnicity, education, age at delivery, nativity, employment, income, number of dependents, smoking, and birth control use were significantly associated with preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use. Based on a CART analysis, education, race/ethnicity, and age were the most distinguishing factors between women with different preconceptional supplementation patterns. Non-white women with <4 years of a college education were the least likely to use folic acid-containing supplements (11%). However, even in the most compliant subgroup (women with ≥4 years of college), only 60% of women supplemented with folic acid. These results demonstrate the need for continued efforts to increase folic acid supplementation among all reproductive aged women. However, the success of such efforts may be improved if maternal characteristics such as education, race/ethnicity, and age, are considered in the development of future interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hypospadias and maternal exposure to atrazine via drinking water in the National Birth Defects Prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer J; Emch, Michael; Meyer, Robert E; Langlois, Peter; Weyer, Peter; Mosley, Bridget; Olshan, Andrew F; Band, Lawrence E; Luben, Thomas J

    2016-07-15

    Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals might increase the risk of hypospadias by interrupting normal urethral development. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study, we considered the role of maternal exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide and potential endocrine disruptor, via drinking water in the etiology of 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias. We used data on 343 hypospadias cases and 1,422 male controls in North Carolina, Arkansas, Iowa, and Texas from 1998-2005. Using catchment level stream and groundwater contaminant models from the US Geological Survey, we estimated atrazine concentrations in public water supplies and in private wells. We assigned case and control mothers to public water supplies based on geocoded maternal address during the critical window of exposure for hypospadias (i.e., gestational weeks 6-16). Using maternal questionnaire data about water consumption and drinking water, we estimated a surrogate for total maternal consumption of atrazine via drinking water. We then included additional maternal covariates, including age, race/ethnicity, parity, and plurality, in logistic regression analyses to consider an association between atrazine and hypospadias. When controlling for maternal characteristics, any association between hypospadias and daily maternal atrazine exposure during the critical window of genitourinary development was found to be weak or null (odds ratio for atrazine in drinking water = 1. 00, 95 % CI = 0.97 to 1.03 per 0.04 μg/day increase; odds ratio for maternal consumption = 1.02, 95 % CI = 0.99 to 1.05; per 0.05 μg/day increase). While the association that we observed was weak, our results suggest that additional research into a possible association between atrazine and hypospadias occurrence, using a more sensitive exposure metric

  4. Surveillance of birth defects: Brazil and the US Vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas: Brasil e Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Varela Luquetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of birth defects in the society have substantially increased over the last decades in countries where the reduction of infant mortality by other causes has occurred. Birth defects surveillance represents an important source of information for planning X health policies and resource allocation. In this article, we discuss the potential utilizations, methodology options, limitations, and policy issues related to birth defects surveillance. Also, the birth defects surveillance programs from US and Brazil are described and compared as an illustration of the development of surveillance systems in two countries with clearly dissimilar health systems and resource allocation for birth defects programs. Finally, we propose measures for the improvement of the existing systems in both countries focusing at the utilization of preexisting resources.O impacto das anomalias congênitas na sociedade vem aumentando substancialmente nas últimas décadas nos países onde ocorreu a diminuição da mortalidade infantil por outras causas. A vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas representa uma importante fonte de informação para o planejamento de políticas de saúde e alocação de recursos. Neste artigo, os potenciais usos, opções de metodologia, limitações e questões de políticas de saúde relacionadas à vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas são abordados. Além disso, os programas dos Estados Unidos e Brasil são descritos e comparados para ilustrar sistemas em dois países com sistemas de saúde e alocação de recursos para as anomalias congênitas claramente diferentes. Finalmente, apresentamos propostas de medidas para melhorar os sistemas existentes em ambos os países, focalizando na utilização de recursos pré-existentes.

  5. Births resulting from assisted reproductive technology: comparing birth certificate and National ART Surveillance System Data, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Marie E; Boulet, Sheree; Martin, Joyce A; Kissin, Dmitry

    2014-12-10

    This report compares data on births resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures from 2011 birth certificates with data from the 2011 National ART Surveillance System (NASS) among the subset of jurisdictions that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate as of January 1, 2011, with information on ART. Birth certificate data are based on 100% of births registered in 27 states and the District of Columbia. NASS data included all ART cycles initiated in 2010 or 2011 for which a live birth in 2011 was reported. The same reporting area was used for both data sources and represents 67% of all births in the United States in 2011. A ratio was computed by dividing the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures for NASS data by the percentage for birth certificate data. A ratio of 1.0 represents equivalent levels of reporting. Because this reporting area is not a random sample of births, the results are not generalizable to the United States as a whole. Overall, the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures was 2.06 times higher for NASS data (1.44%) compared with birth certificate data (0.70%). The ratio for each jurisdiction varied from 1.04 for Utah and Wisconsin to 7.50 for Florida. Higher-risk groups had more consistent reporting. between data sources [e.g., triplet or higher-order multiples (1.36) compared with singletons (2.11)]. Births resulting from ART procedures appear to be underreported on the birth certificate; however, the magnitude of underreporting varied by jurisdiction and maternal-infant health characteristics.

  6. Birth defects and congenital health risks in children conceived through assisted reproduction technology (ART): a meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Assisted Reproduction Treatment (ART) is here to stay. This review addresses the parental background of birth defects, before, during and after conception and focuses both on the underlying subfertility and on the question whether ART as a treatment is an additional contributing factor. Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. Summaries were discussed in a Delphi panel set-up by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Several birth defects and adult diseases arise during the earliest stages of ovarian development and oocyte differentiation: this is the case of cleft palate disorders in offspring from female rat exposed to Dioxin during fetal life or the polycystic ovary diseases in female offspring (primates) exposed to elevated androgen concentration during fetal life. Human oocytes and embryos often fail to stop the propagation of aneuploid cells but maintain their ability to repair DNA damages including those introduced by the fertilizing sperm. There is a 29 % increased risk of birth defects in the newborns spontaneously conceived by subfertile couples and the risk is further increased (34 %) when conception is achieved by treating infertlity with ART (Danish IVF Registry). Periconceptional conditions are critical for ART babies: their birth weight is in general smaller (Norvegian Registry) but a more prolonged culture time doubled the number of large babies (Finnish Registry). The long-term developmental effects of ART on child and subsequent health as an adult remains a subject worthy of futher monitoring and investigation.

  7. Notes from the Field: Zika Virus-Associated Neonatal Birth Defects Surveillance - Texas, January 2016-July 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Noemi Borsay; Broussard, Kelly; Evert, Nicole; Canfield, Mark

    2017-08-11

    On November 28, 2016, the Texas Department of State Health Services (Texas DSHS) reported its first confirmed case of local mosquitoborne Zika virus transmission in the city of Brownsville, located in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico border. Zika virus infection during pregnancy has been linked to adverse congenital outcomes including microcephaly, neural tube defects, early brain malformations, structural eye abnormalities, congenital deafness, and limb contractures (1). On January 1, 2016, Texas DSHS established enhanced surveillance to identify women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy and suspected cases of Zika virus-associated birth defects among completed pregnancies.

  8. Exposure to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs during Pregnancy and the Risk of Selected Birth Defects: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Marleen M. H. J.; Roeleveld, Nel; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2011-01-01

    Background Since use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during pregnancy is common, small increases in the risk of birth defects may have significant implications for public health. Results of human studies on the teratogenic risks of NSAIDs are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of selected birth defects after prenatal exposure to prescribed and over-the-counter NSAIDs. Methods and Findings We used data on 69,929 women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 1999 and 2006. Data on NSAID exposure were available from a self-administered questionnaire completed around gestational week 17. Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Only birth defects suspected to be associated with NSAID exposure based upon proposed teratogenic mechanisms and previous studies were included in the multivariable logistic regression analyses. A total of 3,023 women used NSAIDs in gestational weeks 0–12 and 64,074 women did not report NSAID use in early pregnancy. No associations were observed between overall exposure to NSAIDs during pregnancy and the selected birth defects separately or as a group (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.4–1.1). Associations between maternal use of specific types of NSAIDs and the selected birth defects were not found either, although an increased risk was seen for septal defects and exposure to multiple NSAIDs based on small numbers (2 exposed cases; crude odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 0.9–15.7). Conclusions Exposure to NSAIDs during the first 12 weeks of gestation does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of the selected birth defects. However, due to the small numbers of NSAID-exposed infants for the individual birth defect categories, increases in the risks of specific birth defects could not be excluded. PMID:21789231

  9. Suspected Spontaneous Reports of Birth Defects in the UK Associated with the Use of Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Pamela; Vaidya, Bijay

    2011-01-01

    The concept of a carbimazole embryopathy underlies current Endocrine Society advice to avoid this drug in early pregnancy, favouring propylthiouracil as an alternative for the treatment of maternal hyperthyroidism. We aimed to establish whether suspected spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions in the UK via the Yellow Card Scheme supports a carbimazole embryopathy and the lack of association between propylthiouracil and congenital anomalies. All birth defects related to maternal treat...

  10. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  11. Low birth weight and zygosity status is associated with defective muscle glycogen and glycogen synthase regulation in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An adverse intrauterine environment indicated by both low birth weight and monozygosity is associated with an age- or time-dependent reduction in glucose disposal and nonoxidative glucose metabolism in twins, suggesting impaired regulation of muscle glycogen synthesis. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: We measured the activities of glycogen synthase (GS), GS kinase (GSK)3 alpha, GS phosphorylation, and glycogen levels in muscle biopsies obtained from 184 young and elderly twins before and after a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. RESULTS: Elderly monozygotic twins had significantly lower...... fractional GS activity amidst higher glycogen and GS protein levels compared with dizygotic twins. In addition, we demonstrated strong nongenetic associations between birth weight and defect muscle glycogen metabolism in elderly--but not in younger--twins. Thus, for every 100 g increase in birth weight...

  12. Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and birth defects and infant mortality in nearby communities 1971-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.C.; Rouleau, J.

    1991-10-01

    This study was commissioned to examine whether there were elevated rates of stillbirth, birth defects, or death in the first year of life between 1971 and 1988 among offspring of residents of communities within a 25-kilometre radius of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The study was also to investigate whether there were any statistical associations between the monthly airborne or waterborne tritium emissions from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and the rates of these reproductive outcomes. Overall analysis did not support a hypothesis of increased rates of stillbirths, neonatal mortality or infant mortality near the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, or a hypothesis of increased birth prevalence of birth defects for 21 of 22 diagnostic categories. The prevalence of Down Syndrome was elevated in both Pickering and Ajax; however, there was no consistent pattern between tritium release levels and Down Syndrome prevalence, chance could not be ruled out for the associations between Down Syndrome and tritium releases or ground-monitored concentrations, the association was detected in an analysis where multiple testing was done which may turn up significant associations by change, and maternal residence at birth and early in pregnancy needs to be verified. The association between Down Syndrome and low-level radiation remains indeterminate when existing evidence from epidemiological studies is summed. The estimated radiation exposure from the nuclear plant for residents of Pickering and Ajax is lower by a factor of 100 than the normal natural background radiation. Further study is recommended. (21 tabs., 29 figs., 5 maps, 37 refs.)

  13. Cloacal Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Siffel, Csaba; Carey, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex).

  14. Defeitos congênitos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: uma avaliação através do SINASC (2000-2004 Birth defects in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an evaluation through birth certificates (2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Ramos Guerra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de defeitos congênitos em nascidos vivos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, com base no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2004. Através de um estudo seccional e descritivo, estudaram-se as variáveis relativas aos defeitos congênitos (presença e aparelho ou sistema acometido, aos serviços de saúde, às mães, às gestações, aos recém-natos e aos partos. Constatou-se uma prevalência de defeitos congênitos de 83/10 mil nascidos vivos. Os sistemas orgânicos mais afetados foram o osteomuscular, nervoso central, genital, as fendas lábio-palatinas e as anomalias cromossômicas. A maioria dos casos nasceu nas maternidades municipais e na rede privada, e maior prevalência de defeitos congênitos ocorreu no Instituto Fernandes Figueira da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Os defeitos congênitos foram mais prevalentes entre os filhos de mulheres mais velhas e menos instruídas. O percentual de casos ignorados foi alto, chegando a 21% em algumas maternidades. Uma maior divulgação das informações do SINASC sobre defeitos congênitos deveria ser estimulada. Estudos de confiabilidade são recomendados para melhor aproveitamento das informações.To evaluate the occurrence of birth defects in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Live Birth Information System (SINASC, we performed a cross-sectional study on all live newborns with birth defects from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004. The variables referred to birth defects (presence and system affected, type of health service, mothers, gestations, live births, and deliveries. Prevalence of birth defects was 83/10,000 live births. The most frequent birth defects involved the musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, cleft lip and palate, and chromosomal anomalies. The majority of cases were born in public (municipal and private maternity hospitals, with the highest prevalence

  15. First-trimester exposure to metformin and risk of birth defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassina, Matteo; Donà, Marta; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Litta, Pietro; Clementi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is generally considered a non-teratogenic drug; however, only a few studies specifically designed to assess the rate of congenital anomalies after metformin use have been published in the literature. The objects of the present study were to review all of the prospective and retrospective studies reporting on women treated with metformin at least during the first trimester of their pregnancy and to estimate the overall rate of major birth defects. Databases were searched for English language articles until December 2013. Inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis were: a case group of women with PCOS or pre-pregnancy type 2 diabetes and first-trimester exposure to metformin; a disease-matched control group which was not exposed to metformin or other oral anti-diabetic agents; and a list of the major anomalies in both the study and the control groups. A random effects model was used for the meta-analysis of data, using odds ratios. Studies not fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis but reporting relevant data on major malformations in women diagnosed with PCOS were then used to estimate the overall birth defects rate. Meta-analysis of nine controlled studies with women affected by PCOS detected that the rate of major birth defects in the metformin-exposed group was not statistically increased compared with the disease-matched control group and that there was no significant heterogeneity among the studies. The metformin-exposed sample was composed of 351 pregnancies and the OR of major birth defects was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.18-4.08; Pheterogeneity = 0.71). By evaluating all of the non-overlapping PCOS studies reported in the literature, even those without an appropriate control group, the overall rate of major anomalies was 0.6% in the sample of 517 women who discontinued the therapy upon conception or confirmation of pregnancy and 0.5% in the sample of 634 women who were treated with metformin throughout the first trimester of

  16. Development of Cloud Based Casting Defects Categorization System (CDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sata Amit V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Defects affect the properties and behavior of the casting during its service life. Since the defects can occur due to different reasons, they must be correctly identified and categorized, to enable applying the appropriate remedial measures. several different approaches for categorizing casting defects have been proposed in technical literature. They mainly rely on physical description, location, and formation of defects. There is a need for a systematic approach for classifying investment casting defects, considering appropriate attributes such as their size, location, identification stage, inspection method, consistency, appearance of defects. A systematic approach for categorization of investment casting defects considering multiple attributes: detection stage, size, shape, appearance, location, consistency and severity of occurrence. Information about the relevant attributes of major defects encountered in investment casting process has been collected from an industrial foundry. This has been implemented in a cloud-based system to make the system freely and widely accessible.

  17. Substitution and defect chemistry of La-Cu-O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, P.L.; McCarron, E.M.; Kunchur, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper substitutional effects of strontium in La-Cu-O system and defects accommodating stoichiometric deviations is investigated. The extended shear defects are analyzed using electron microscopy and the role in superconducting transport properties has been examined by magnetic measurements. The initial results suggest that the defects enhance flux pinning

  18. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  19. Birth Defects in Infants Born in 1998-2004 to Men and Women Serving in the US Military During the 1990-1991 Gulf War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    pregnancy during the Persian Gulf War: the risk to women veterans. Ann Epide- miol 14:109–116. Araneta MR, Moore CA, Olney RS, et al. 1997. Goldenhar...Reefhuis J, Honein MA. 2004. Maternal age and non-chromosomal birth defects, Atlanta–1968–2000: teenager or thirty-something, who is at risk ? Birth...Team. 2008. Pregnancy , birth, and infant health outcomes from the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry, 2003–2006. Clin Infect Dis 46 Suppl

  20. Avaliação das declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre defeitos congênitos Evaluation of the birth certificates as source of information on birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lívia Geremias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos congênitos (DC em uma coorte de nascidos vivos (NV vinculando-se os bancos de dados do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM e do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo para avaliar as declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre DC. A população de estudo é uma coorte de NV hospitalares do 1º semestre de 2006 de mães residentes e ocorridos no Município de São Paulo no período de 01/01/2006 a 30/06/2006, obtida por meio da vinculação dos bancos de dados das declarações de nascido vivo e óbitos neonatais provenientes da coorte. RESULTADOS: Os DC mais prevalentes segundo o SINASC foram: malformações congênitas (MC e deformidades do aparelho osteomuscular (44,7%, MC do sistema nervoso (10,0% e anomalias cromossômicas (8,6%. Após a vinculação, houve uma recuperação de 80,0% de indivíduos portadores de DC do aparelho circulatório, 73,3% de DC do aparelho respiratório e 62,5% de DC do aparelho digestivo. O SINASC fez 55,2% das notificações de DC e o SIM notificou 44,8%, mostrando-se importante para a recuperação de informações de DC. Segundo o SINASC, a taxa de prevalência de DC na coorte foi de 75,4%00 NV; com os dados vinculados com o SIM, essa taxa passou para 86,2%00 NV. CONCLUSÕES: A complementação de dados obtida pela vinculação SIM/SINASC fornece um perfil mais real da prevalência de DC do que aquele registrado pelo SINASC, que identifica os DC mais visíveis, enquanto o SIM identifica os mais letais, mostrando a importância do uso conjunto das duas fontes de dados.OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of birth defects in a live birth cohort, linking the live birth information system (SINASC and the mortality information system (SIM databases. METHODS: Descriptive study to assess linked databases of hospital live births (LB and neonatal deaths of resident mothers that occurred in the city of S

  1. [Prevalence in birth defects diagnosed by ultrasound: three years experience in university maternal fetal medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Giraldo, Saulo; Alfonso-Ospina, Luis; Parra-Meza, Carolina; Lancheros-García, Eder Ariel; Rojas-Arias, José Luis; Acuña-Osorio, Edgar

    2015-11-01

    To establish the prevalence of congenital malformations diagnosed in Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit of Hospital de San José, Bogotá-Colombia and comparing them to national and international reports. Retrospective, descriptive observational where the quantification of all malformed fetuses diagnosed in Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit from June 2010 to June 2013 was performed. 236 malformed fetuses, a total of 11,914 births, for a prevalence of 1.98% were included at a mean gestational age at diagnosis of 26.7 weeks (SD 7.1 weeks). The most common congenital malformations were at the level of Central Nervous System (CNS) 88 (37%) in total and within them, the most prevalent was ventriculomegaly 16 (7%). Of the 236 malformed fetuses, 165 fetuses (70.2%) had only one affected system 29 (12.3%) 2 compromised systems and 42 (17.5%) over 3 affected systems. Karyotyping was offered to all antenatal patients, however, accepted only 63 (26.7%), and 39 (62%) with normal results and the other aneuploidies were found, having Trisomy 21 as the most common. It was possible to establish a concordance of 86% between the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis. The perinatal mortality found in this study was 34.7%, mainly in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia 16 cases (88.8%), fetal non-immune hydrops 8 cases (80%), cardiovascular abnormalities 31 cases (46.2%) genitourinary and 13 cases (24%), and fetuses with CNS malformations such as sequence acranea-anencefalia, holoprosencephaly and encephalocele mortality occurred in 100%. In this study the prevalence of congenital anomalies was found comparable to that reported at local and global levels, which were diagnosed and adequately characterized by more than two-thirds by obstetrical ultrasound performed by trained personnel in prenatal diagnosis. Perinatal morbidity and mortality remain high thoracic, cardiovascular, renal and non-immune hydrops congenital anomalies.

  2. Genetic Mutations, Birth Lengths, Weights and Head Circumferences of Children with IGF-I Receptor Defects. Comparison with other Congenital Defects in the GH/IGF-I axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essakow, Jenna Lee; Lauterpacht, Aharon; Lilos, Pearl; Kauli, Rivka; Laron, Zvi

    2016-09-01

    In recent years more and more genetic defects along the GHRH-GH-IGF-I axis have been reported. Mutations of the IGF-I receptor (R) are a rare abnormality of whom only the heterozygote progenies survive. To summarize, from the literature, data on birth length, weight and head circumference of neonates with IGF-I-R mutations, and to correlate the data with that of other types of mutations in the GH/IGF-I axis. Sixty seven neonates from 24 published articles were included and forty seven different mutations of the IGF-I (R) located on chromosome 15 have been identified. Mean (±SD) birth length (BL), available for 26, (10 M, 16F) neonates with a gestational age of 34-41weeks, was 44.2±4cm; one was premature (30cm at 31 weeks). There was a significant correlation between birth length and gestational age (GA) r=0.71 (p>.001). Mean birth weight (BW) of 41 neonates (18M, 23F) was 2388±743gr. Two premature neonates weighed 650gr and 950gr respectively. The BW correlated significantly with gestational age, (males: r=0.68; p=0.007, females: r=0.49; p=0.024). The BMI of 25 neonates ranged from 6 to 13. In 22 records marked microcephaly was ascertained or stated. Nine of 16 mothers were short (133 -148cm), m±SD = 150.5±7.3cm. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  3. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and craniosynostosis among offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jacqueline L; Langlois, Peter H; Lawson, Christina C; Scheuerle, Angela; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Waters, Martha A; Symanski, Elaine; Romitti, Paul A; Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Evidence in animal models and humans suggests that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may lead to birth defects. To our knowledge, this relationship has not been evaluated for craniosynostosis, a birth defect characterized by the premature closure of sutures in the skull. We conducted a case-control study to examine associations between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. We used data from craniosynostosis cases and control infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with estimated delivery dates from 1997 to 2002. Industrial hygienists reviewed occupational data from the computer-assisted telephone interview and assigned a yes/no rating of probable occupational PAH exposure for each job from 1 month before conception through delivery. We used logistic regression to assess the association between occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. The prevalence of exposure was 5.3% in case mothers (16/300) and 3.7% in control mothers (107/2,886). We observed a positive association between exposure to PAHs during the 1 month before conception through the third month of pregnancy and craniosynostosis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-3.05) after adjusting for maternal age and maternal education. The number of cases for each craniosynostosis subtype limited subtype analyses to sagittal craniosynostosis; the odds ratio remained similar (OR = 1.76, 95% CI, 0.82-3.75), but was not significant. Our findings support a moderate association between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. Additional work is needed to better characterize susceptibility and the role PAHs may play on specific craniosynostosis subtypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pullout Performances of Grouted Rockbolt Systems with Bond Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Li, Zihan; Wang, Shanyong; Wang, Shuren; Fu, Lei; Tang, Chunan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the pullout behaviour of fully grouted rockbolts with bond defects. The cohesive zone model (CZM) is adopted to model the bond-slip behaviour between the rockbolt and grout material. Tensile tests were also conducted to validate the numerical model. The results indicate that the defect length can obviously influence the load and stress distributions along the rockbolt as well as the load-displacement response of the grouted system. Moreover, a plateau in the stress distribution forms due to the bond defect. The linear limit and peak load of the load-displacement response decrease as the defect length increases. A bond defect located closer to the loaded end leads to a longer nonlinear stage in the load-displacement response. However, the peak loads measured from the specimens made with various defect locations are almost approximately the same. The peak load for a specimen with the defects equally spaced along the bolt is higher than that for a specimen with defects concentrated in a certain zone, even with the same total defect length. Therefore, the dispersed pattern of bond defects would be much safer than the concentrated pattern. For the specimen with dispersed defects, the peak load increases with an increase in the defect spacing, even if the total defect length is the same. The peak load for a grouted rockbolt system with defects increases with an increases in the bolt diameter. This work leads to a better understanding of the load transfer mechanism for grouted rockbolt systems with bond defects, and paves the way towards developing a general evaluation method for damaged rockbolt grouted systems.

  5. Vaginal birth after two previous caesarean deliveries in a patient with uterus didelphys and an interuterine septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ang'a, Njoki; Ratzersdorfer, Jonathan; Abdelhak, Yaakov

    2017-06-05

    Uterus didelphys is a congenital abnormality characterised by double uteri, double cervices and a double or single vagina that affects 0.3% to 11% of the general female population. A 23-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 3003, with uterus didelphys, acquired an iatrogenic interuterine septal defect during an otherwise routine primary caesarean delivery for fetal malpresentation. The defect was repaired but noted to have dehisced during her second pregnancy. A repeat caesarean section was performed due to fetal malpresentation after an unsuccessful external cephalic version. The dehisced defect was left unrepaired. During her third pregnancy, the placenta implanted in the right uterus, but the fetus migrated to the left uterus at approximately 28 weeks gestation. The umbilical cord traversed the interuterine septal defect. With the fetus in the vertex presentation at term gestation, the patient underwent a vaginal birth after two previous caesarean deliveries without any major perinatal complications. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Distillability Sudden Birth of Entanglement for Qutrit-Qutrit Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiang; Ali Mazhar

    2014-01-01

    We report the sudden appearance of distillability between two statistically independent reservoirs modelled as qutrit-qutrit systems. This feature of bipartite quantum systems is different from the previously observed phenomenon of entanglement sudden birth. It is found that the states of reservoirs first become bound entangled, thus exhibiting entanglement sudden birth, consequently followed by the sudden birth of distillability, and it is shown that whenever distillability is lost abruptly from principal system, it also necessarily appears abruptly among reservoirs' degrees of freedom. This surprising observation reflects yet another peculiarity of dynamical aspects of quantum entanglement

  7. Suspected Spontaneous Reports of Birth Defects in the UK Associated with the Use of Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Bowman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a carbimazole embryopathy underlies current Endocrine Society advice to avoid this drug in early pregnancy, favouring propylthiouracil as an alternative for the treatment of maternal hyperthyroidism. We aimed to establish whether suspected spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions in the UK via the Yellow Card Scheme supports a carbimazole embryopathy and the lack of association between propylthiouracil and congenital anomalies. All birth defects related to maternal treatment with carbimazole or propylthiouracil reported over a 47-year period via the Yellow Card Scheme were analysed. 57 cases with 97 anomalies were reported following in utero exposure to carbimazole. These anomalies included aplasia cutis, choanal atresia, tracheo-oesophageal fistula, and patent vitellointestinal duct, which have previously been reported in association with carbimazole/methimazole exposure in utero. Only 6 cases with 11 anomalies were reported for propylthiouracil, all within the last 15 years. Therefore, these findings may support a carbimazole embryopathy. There are few birth defects associated with propylthiouracil, but this should be interpreted in the context of higher historical prescription rates for carbimazole.

  8. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric; Kegley, Susan E; Brown, Timothy J; English, Paul B; Lammer, Edward J; Shaw, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    We examined associations of birth defects with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications in California. Subjects included 367 cases representing five types of birth defects and 785 nonmalformed controls born 1997 to 2006. Associations with any versus no exposure to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Overall, 46% of cases and 38% of controls were classified as exposed to pesticides within a 500 m radius of mother's address during a 3-month periconceptional window. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for 85 groups and 95 chemicals with five or more exposed cases and control mothers. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) excluded 1.0 for 11 ORs for groups and 22 ORs for chemicals, ranging from 1.9 to 3.1 for groups and 1.8 to 4.9 for chemicals except for two that were oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups copper-containing compounds, 2,6-dinitroanilines, neonicotinoids, petroleum derivatives and polyalkyloxy compounds; craniosynostosis and 10 pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups alcohol/ethers, avermectins, n-methyl-carbamates, neonicotinoids, ogranophosphates (two chemicals), polyalkyloxy compounds (two chemicals), and pyrethroids; and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n = 62) and a copper-containing compound. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mapping Disease at an Approximated Individual Level Using Aggregate Data: A Case Study of Mapping New Hampshire Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Demidenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited by data availability, most disease maps in the literature are for relatively large and subjectively-defined areal units, which are subject to problems associated with polygon maps. High resolution maps based on objective spatial units are needed to more precisely detect associations between disease and environmental factors. Method: We propose to use a Restricted and Controlled Monte Carlo (RCMC process to disaggregate polygon-level location data to achieve mapping aggregate data at an approximated individual level. RCMC assigns a random point location to a polygon-level location, in which the randomization is restricted by the polygon and controlled by the background (e.g., population at risk. RCMC allows analytical processes designed for individual data to be applied, and generates high-resolution raster maps. Results: We applied RCMC to the town-level birth defect data for New Hampshire and generated raster maps at the resolution of 100 m. Besides the map of significance of birth defect risk represented by p-value, the output also includes a map of spatial uncertainty and a map of hot spots. Conclusions: RCMC is an effective method to disaggregate aggregate data. An RCMC-based disease mapping maximizes the use of available spatial information, and explicitly estimates the spatial uncertainty resulting from aggregation.

  10. Cumulative costs for the prosthetic reconstructions and maintenance in young adult patients with birth defects affecting the formation of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incici, Erol; Matuliene, Giedre; Hüsler, Jürg; Salvi, Giovanni E; Pjetursson, Bjarni; Brägger, Urs

    2009-07-01

    To assess retrospectively the cumulative costs for the long-term oral rehabilitation of patients with birth defects affecting the development of teeth. Patients with birth defects who had received fixed reconstructions on teeth and/or implants > or =5 years ago were asked to participate in a comprehensive clinical, radiographic and economic evaluation. From the 45 patients included, 18 were cases with a cleft lip and palate, five had amelogenesis/dentinogenesis imperfecta and 22 were cases with hypodontia/oligodontia. The initial costs for the first oral rehabilitation (before the age of 20) had been covered by the Swiss Insurance for Disability. The costs for the initial rehabilitation of the 45 cases amounted to 407,584 CHF (39% for laboratory fees). Linear regression analyses for the initial treatment costs per replaced tooth revealed the formula 731 CHF+(811 CHF x units) on teeth and 3369 CHF+(1183 CHF x units) for reconstructions on implants (Phealthy teeth, fewer tooth units need to be replaced and the cumulative long-term costs seem to be similar compared with cases restored on teeth.

  11. Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

  12. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  13. Differences in risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Sander Groen In 't; van Rooij, Iris A L M; van Gelder, Marleen M H J; Olney, Richard S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2014-09-01

    Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between second and third degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Validation of birth outcomes from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS): population-based analysis from the Massachusetts Outcome Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Gopal, Daksha; Liberman, Rebecca F; Anderka, Marlene; Kotelchuck, Milton; Luke, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    To assess the validity of outcome data reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) compared with data from vital records and the birth defects registry in Massachusetts. Longitudinal cohort. Not applicable. A total of 342,035 live births and fetal deaths from Massachusetts mothers giving birth in the state from July 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008; 9,092 births and fetal deaths were from mothers who had conceived with the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and whose cycle data had been reported to the SART CORS. Not applicable. Percentage agreement between maternal race and ethnicity, delivery outcome (live birth or fetal death), plurality (singleton, twin, or triplet+), delivery date, and singleton birth weight reported in the SART CORS versus vital records; sensitivity and specificity for birth defects among singletons as reported in the SART CORS versus the Massachusetts Birth Defects Monitoring Program (BDMP). There was >95% agreement between the SART CORS and vital records for fields of maternal race/ethnicity, live birth/fetal death, and plurality; birth outcome date was within 1 day with 94.9% agreement and birth weight was within 100 g with 89.6% agreement. In contrast, sensitivity for report of any birth defect was 38.6%, with a range of 18.4%-50.0%, for specific birth defect categories. Although most SART CORS outcome fields are accurately reported, birth defect variables showed poor sensitivity compared with the gold standard data from the BDMP. We suggest that reporting of birth defects be discontinued. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento en menores de 5 años de edad en México de 1998 a 2006 Birth defects mortality in five-year-old minors of age, Mexico, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdés-Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar la mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento (DAN entre 1998 y 2006. Seleccionar los municipios con alta mortalidad en OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to birth defects from 1998-2006. To select municipalities with high mortality among children under 5 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The source of information was mortality records from vital statistics collected by SSA/INEGI. We used the 2005 Municipal Geostatistical Framework by INEGI and SIGEPI for the spatial analysis. The selection criteria were municipalities with 80% and over of deaths due to birth defects. RESULTS: Deaths diminished 8% during 1998-2006 and rates decreased 20%. A total of 42.57% - 48% of deaths are due to circulatory system defects and 13.69% - 19.39% are due to the nervous system; the former rose 4% and the latter fell 32%. Eighty percent or more occur in children under 5 years and the rate in this group fell 8.63%. A total of 1 025 (41.82% municipalities are priorities, 104 (10.14% are high and 102 (9.95% are very high priorities, where 66% of deaths occur among children under 5 years old. DISCUSSION: The interventions to decrease mortality due to birth defects should be directed towards one-year-old children (75% and towards 8.4% of the municipalities that are a very high priority, since they represent 66% of the deaths.

  16. Multivitamins, Folic Acid and Birth Defects: Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviors of Hispanic Women in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background: Consumption of folic acid prior to conception can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) issued a recommendation that all women of childbearing age capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 [mu]g of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for a NTD-affected…

  17. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  18. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  19. A Comparative Study of Computer-Aided Clinical Diagnosis of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-21

    Disease Frame in PIP FRAME NAME: ACHONDROPLASIA TYPE: SYNDROME FINDING: STATURE WITH LEVEL SHORT, TYPE DISPROPORTIONATE. AND ONSET AT-BIRTH FINDING...ready for use by the medical community. ---- _ ------ - M -1 n . .i -97. H.B. Sherman Appendix I - List of Syndromes ACHONDROPLASIA ACROFACIAL...Appendix 11 - List of Clinical Cases Case Number Case Name 1 SPONDYLOEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA CONGENITA 2 ACHONDROPLASIA 3 SPONDYLOEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA

  20. Quality of reporting on birth defects in birth certificates: case study from a Brazilian reference hospital Qualidade da notificação de defeitos congênitos nas declarações de nascido vivo: estudo de caso em hospital de referência no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Varela Luquetti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the coverage, validity and reliability of Brazil's Information System on Live Births (SINASC for birth defects in a hospital in the city of Campinas (São Paulo State. The study population consisted of 2,823 newborn infants delivered in 2004 at the Women's Integrated Health Care Center (CAISM. A birth defect registry (ECLAMC was used as the gold-standard. All birth defect cases reported at CAISM in 2004 (92 cases were selected from SINASC data files. All 168 birth defect cases from the same city and year registered at ECLAMC were also retrieved. An underreporting of 46.8% was observed for all birth defects, and 36.4% when considering only the major birth defects. The ascertained sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 54.2% and 99.8%. The reliability of three and four-digit ICD-10 coding for birth defects was 0.77 and 0.55 respectively (kappa statistic. These results suggest that information provided by birth certificates in Campinas still presents limitations when seeking to ascertain accurate estimates of the prevalence of birth defects, hence indicating the need for improvements in the SINASC database to enable it to portray birth defect prevalence at birth in this city.O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a cobertura, validade e confiabilidade do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC para anomalias congênitas, em hospital de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. A população de estudo consistiu nos 2.843 nascidos vivos do Centro de Atenção Integrada à Saúde da Mulher (CAISM, em 2004. Na base de dados SINASC, foram selecionados os 92 casos com diagnóstico de anomalia congênita no CAISM. Para o mesmo período, na base de dados ECLAMC, foram selecionados os 168 registros de nascidos vivos com anomalia congênita considerados como padrão-ouro, também no CAISM. Observou-se subnotificação de 46,8% para o conjunto dos casos de anomalias congênitas e de 36,4% quando a análise foi

  1. Epigenetic Alterations of H19 and LIT1 Distinguish Patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome with Cancer and Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Michael R.; Niemitz, Emily L.; McNeil, D. Elizabeth; Brandenburg, Sheri A.; Lee, Maxwell P.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital cancer-predisposition syndrome associated with embryonal cancers, macroglossia, macrosomia, ear pits or ear creases, and midline abdominal-wall defects. The most common constitutional abnormalities in BWS are epigenetic, involving abnormal methylation of either H19 or LIT1, which encode untranslated RNAs on 11p15. We hypothesized that different epigenetic alterations would be associated with specific phenotypes in BWS. To test this hypothesis, we performed a case-cohort study, using the BWS Registry. The cohort consisted of 92 patients with BWS and molecular analysis of both H19 and LIT1, and these patients showed the same frequency of clinical phenotypes as those patients in the Registry from whom biological samples were not available. The frequency of altered DNA methylation of H19 in patients with cancer was significantly higher, 56% (9/16), than the frequency in patients without cancer, 17% (13/76; P=.002), and cancer was not associated with LIT1 alterations. Furthermore, the frequency of altered DNA methylation of LIT1 in patients with midline abdominal-wall defects and macrosomia was significantly higher, 65% (41/63) and 60% (46/77), respectively, than in patients without such defects, 34% (10/29) and 18% (2/11), respectively (P=.012 and P=.02, respectively). Additionally, paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of 11p15 was associated with hemihypertrophy (P=.003), cancer (P=.03), and hypoglycemia (P=.05). These results define an epigenotype-phenotype relationship in BWS, in which aberrant methylation of H19 and LIT1 and UPD are strongly associated with cancer risk and specific birth defects. PMID:11813134

  2. Spatial distribution of orofacial cleft defect births in Harris County, Texas, 1990 to 1994, and historical evidence for the presence of low-level radioactivity in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Irina; Burau, Keith D; Walston, Jane

    2007-06-01

    While both ionizing and nonionizing radiation are known to impair human reproductive capacity, the role of low-level domestic radiation continues to be an unsettled issue. We examined the geostatistical distribution (residential longitude and latitude) of orofacial cleft birth cases adjusted for the underlying population distribution. Furthermore, we examined the cleft birth rates enumerated by zip codes for possible associations with levels of radium and radon in drinking water. Cleft births and unaffected live births in Harris County, Texas, from 1990 to 1994, were geocoded by residential addresses and tested for spatial clusters using the space-time clustering program SaTScan. Historical sample data on local variations in water quality facilitated the assessment of the association of orofacial cleft defect births with low-level radiation exposure. A cluster of significantly greater than expected numbers of cleft defect births was identified in northwest Harris County, (relative risk = 3.0, P = 0.043), where the presence of elevated levels of radium (> 3 pCi/L) and radon (> 300 pCi/L) in the tap water has been known since the 1980s. Despite the ecological design of the study, lacking individual exposure measurements for cleft birth residences, there was strong suggestive evidence of an association between elevated radiation levels in tap water and elevated cleft birth prevalence rates by zip codes. Attention of physicians is invited to environmental causes as potential risk factors for orofacial cleft. This would aid in genetic counseling and the development of future preventive measures.

  3. Trends in cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects, metropolitan Atlanta, 1968-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jodi M; Crider, Krista S; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Cragan, Janet D; Olney, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the use of cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects. Utilizing data from 1968 to 2005 from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, we analyzed trends in the frequency and timing (prenatal or postnatal) of cytogenetic testing and the prevalence of recognized chromosome abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects (n = 51,424). Cytogenetic testing of pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 7.2% in 1968 to 25.0% in 2005, as did the identification of chromosomal abnormalities (2.2% in 1968 to 6.8% in 2005). The use of prenatal cytogenetic testing decreased from 1996 to 2005 among women aged ≥35 years. Identification of chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 1968 to 2005, possibly due to increased testing, improved diagnostic techniques, or increasing maternal age. The decline in prenatal cytogenetic testing observed among mothers aged ≥35 years may be related to the availability of improved prenatal screening techniques, resulting in a reduction in the utilization of invasive diagnostic tests. Published 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Software defect, feature and requirements management system

    OpenAIRE

    Indriūnas, Paulius

    2006-01-01

    Software development is an iterative process which is based on teamwork and information exchange. In order to keep this process running, proper informational flow control techniques in a software development company have to be applied. As number of employees grows, manual control of this process becomes inaffective and automated solutions takes over this task. The most common informational units in the software development process are defects, new features and requirements. This paper address...

  5. Making birth defects ‘preventable’: Pre-conceptional vitamin supplements and the politics of risk reduction☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gailani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, governments and health organizations around the world have adopted policies designed to increase women’s intake of the B-vitamin ‘folic acid’ before and during the first weeks of pregnancy. Building on initial clinical research in the United Kingdom, folic acid supplementation has been shown to lower the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Recent debate has focused principally on the need for mandatory fortification of grain products with this vitamin. This article takes a longer view, tracing the transformation of folic acid from a routine prenatal supplement to reduce the risk of anaemia to a routine ‘pre-conceptional’ supplement to ‘prevent’ birth defects. Understood in the 1950s in relation to social problems of poverty and malnutrition, NTDs were by the end of the century more likely to be attributed to individual failings. This transition was closely associated with a second. Folic acid supplements were initially prescribed to ‘high-risk’ women who had previously borne a child with a NTD. By the mid-1990s, they were recommended for all women of childbearing age. The acceptance of folic acid as a ‘risk-reducing drug’ both relied upon and helped to advance the development of preventive and clinical practices concerned with women’s health before pregnancy. PMID:24268931

  6. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter J

    2013-03-21

    Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. For this population-based case-control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (>30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]<1.12). Similar results were found for OCs and LDs with the exception of animal nitrites and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (aORs and CIs for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 =1.24; CI=1.05-1.48), animal nitrites and cleft lip (4th quartile aOR=1.32; CI=1.01-1.72), and total nitrite and intercalary LD (4th quartile aOR=4.70; CI=1.23-17.93). Overall, odds of NTDs, OCs or LDs did not appear to be significantly associated with estimated dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.

  7. Association between prenatal exposure to antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: an analysis of the French perinatal cohort study (ANRS CO1/CO11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Sibiude

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV drug used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388 were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%-4.7%, according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%. Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.8, p = 0

  8. Exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Roeleveld, N.; Nordeng, H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during pregnancy is common, small increases in the risk of birth defects may have significant implications for public health. Results of human studies on the teratogenic risks of NSAIDs are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated

  9. Design of Gear Defect Detection System Based on Machine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhiheng; Duan, Xianyun; Tong, Jigang; Li, Ping; Chen, min; Lin, Qinglin

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve such problems as low efficiency, low quality and instability of gear surface defect detection, we designed a detection system based on machine vision, sensor coupling. By multisensory coupling, and then CCD camera image collection of gear products, using VS2010 to cooperate with Halcon library for a series of analysis and processing of images. At last, the results are fed back to the control end, and the rejected device is removed to the collecting box. The system has successfully identified defective gear. The test results show that this system can identify and eliminate the defects gear quickly and efficiently. It has reached the requirement of gear product defect detection line automation and has a certain application value.

  10. Sperm-storage defects and live birth in Drosophila females lacking spermathecal secretory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Schnakenberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC: Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1, which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2, which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1 reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2 causes ovoviviparity--the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects.

  11. Sperm-storage defects and live birth in Drosophila females lacking spermathecal secretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakenberg, Sandra L; Matias, Wilfredo R; Siegal, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC): Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1), which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2), which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1) reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2) causes ovoviviparity--the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects.

  12. Triple surveillance: a proposal for an integrated strategy to support and accelerate birth defect prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) easily qualifies as a high‐value opportunity to improve childhood survival and health: the unmet need is significant (major preventable burden), the intervention is transformative (providing sufficient folic acid), and delivery strategies (e.g., fortification) are effective in low‐resource countries. Yet, NTD prevention is lagging. Can public health surveillance help fix this problem? Critics contend that surveillance is largely unnecessary, that limited resources are best spent on interventions, and that surveillance is unrealistic in developing countries. The counterargument is twofold: (1) in the absence of surveillance, interventions will provide fewer benefits and cost more and (2) effective surveillance is likely possible nearly everywhere, with appropriate strategies. As a base strategy, we propose “triple surveillance:” integrating surveillance of cause (folate insufficiency), of disease occurrence (NTD prevalence), and of health outcomes (morbidity, mortality, and disability). For better sustainability and usefulness, it is crucial to refocus and streamline surveillance activities (no recreational data collection), weave surveillance into clinical care (integrate in clinical workflow), and, later, work on including additional risk factors and pediatric outcomes (increase benefits at low marginal cost). By doing so, surveillance becomes not a roadblock but a preferential path to prevention and better care. PMID:29532515

  13. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  14. How Can We Use Bioinformatics to Predict Which Agents Will Cause Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of genomic sequences from a growing number of human and model organisms has provided an explosion of data, information, and knowledge regarding biological systems and disease processes. High-throughput technologies such as DNA and protein microarray biochips are ...

  15. Strategies to achieve sustainability and quality in birth defects registries: the experience of the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Boris; Bidondo, Maria Paz; Gili, Juan Antonio; Barbero, Pablo; Liascovich, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    In many low-and middle-income countries, birth defects are not considered a public health priority and are perceived by the medical community as rare, unpreventable events. In this context, a registry of birth defects should address not only the collection, analysis, and dissemination of information but also contribute to local interventions like prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. We describe the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC) in terms of case definition, data collection, quality assurance, and data sending, coding, analysis, and information dissemination and we present the strategies used to ensure its sustainability. We emphasize strategies for motivating the people collecting data, such as training activities, participation in research projects, returning the processed data, making useful clinical information available, giving non-monetary rewards, and linking cases to genetic services.

  16. A STUDY ON PREVAL E NCE OF BIRTH DEFECTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH RISK FACTORS IN FAKHRUDHIN ALI AH MED MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Congenital anomalies or Birth Defects are a global problem. It is the most common cause of disability in developed and developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the overall prevalence of clinically detectable congenital anomalies in newborns along with the different forms of congenital anomalies and associated risk factors if any over a period of one year. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: I t’s an observational analytical cross sectional type of study. Seven thousand seven hundred and ninety eight babies born during the period from 1 st Nov, 2013 to 31 st Oct, 2014 were analyzed. Details of cases were recorded after parent’s interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. RESULTS: In our study, we have found that out of the total no. of 7798 babies born during the said period, the total number of congenital anomalies found were 53 0.7%. Cleft lip and palate was the most common anomaly followed by clubfoot. System wise, congenital anomaly of the musculoskeletal system was the highest (45.3%. A male preponderance is seen with M:F = 4:3. Maximum number of anomalies was found in the 20 - 25 y rs of age group. Moreover, anomalies were found more in primi gravida. Various risk factors were associated in 9 numbers of cases out of 53. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of congenital anomaly was found to be 0.7% and therefore awareness about preventable risk f actors should be created and early prenatal diagnosis and management of anomalies is recommended.

  17. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harmful substance, like mercury . During pregnancy, don’t eat fish with high levels of mercury, like swordfish, king mackerel, shark and tilefish. Your baby doesn't get enough oxygen in the womb . This can happen if the placenta isn't working properly ...

  19. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  20. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  1. Descriptive and risk factor analysis for choanal atresia: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Romitti, Paul A.; Sun, Lixian; Carey, John C.; Burns, Trudy L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Lin, Angela E.; Olney, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Choanal atresia causes serious posterior nasal obstruction. This defect is the leading cause of nasal surgery in newborns, although its etiology is largely unknown. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case–control study, were used to examine associations between maternal self-reports of exposures and occurrence of choanal atresia in their offspring. Overall, 117 case and 8350 control mothers with deliveries from 1997 through 2007 provided telephone interview reports of pre-pregnancy (one year before conception) and periconceptional (one month before through three months after conception) exposures. The exposures analyzed were pre-pregnancy dietary intake, pre-pregnancy and periconceptional caffeine consumption, and periconceptional cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and medication use. Independent associations between each exposure and all choanal atresia cases combined (n = 117) and isolated choanal atresia cases (those without additional unrelated major defects; n = 61) were examined. Odds ratios (ORs), both unadjusted (uORs) and adjusted (aORs) for potential confounders, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. For all choanal atresia cases combined, positive associations were observed with maternal pre-pregnancy intake in the highest quartile for vitamin B-12 (aOR = 1.9; CI = 1.1,3.1), zinc (aOR = 1.7; CI = 1.0,3.1), and niacin (aOR = 1.8; CI = 1.0,3.1), and intake in the lowest quartile for methionine (aOR = 1.6; CI = 1.0,2.6) and vitamin D (aOR = 1.6; CI = 1.0,2.4) compared to intake in the two intermediate quartiles combined. Further, a positive association was observed with periconceptional use of thyroid medications (uOR = 2.6; CI = 1.0,6.3) compared to no use of such medications. Among isolated choanal atresia cases, negative associations were observed for pantothenic acid (aOR = 0.4; CI = 0.2,0.9) and fat (aOR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2,1.0) intake in the lowest

  2. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: panorama atual Birth defects and health strategies in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O impacto dos defeitos congênitos no Brasil vem aumentando progressivamente, tendo passado da quinta para a segunda causa dos óbitos em menores de um ano entre 1980 e 2000, apontando para a necessidade de estratégias específicas na política de saúde. Foram localizadas, no Brasil, direcionadas aos defeitos congênitos, ações governamentais e não-governamentais. Estas envolvem serviços de informação sobre agentes teratogênicos na gravidez e sobre doenças metabólicas geneticamente determinadas, monitorização de defeitos congênitos, programa de triagem neonatal e tratamento de algumas doenças genéticas, imunização contra rubéola, além da fortificação de farinhas com ácido fólico como ação preventiva de certos defeitos congênitos. Apesar da importância de tais iniciativas, é pouco provável que seja possível atender à questão dos defeitos congênitos de forma integrada. Para a efetivação de um sistema de atenção voltado aos defeitos congênitos, deverá ser formulada política específica, de âmbito nacional, com a participação ativa do Ministério da Saúde, utilizando, como espinha dorsal, os serviços de genética existentes. Só assim, será possível a estruturação de uma rede regionalizada, hierarquizada e funcional voltada à atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil.Birth defects have increased progressively in Brazil, shifting from the fifth to the second cause of infant mortality from 1980 to 2000, thus highlighting the need for specific health policy strategies. Some governmental and nongovernmental actions related to birth defects in Brazil include information services on teratogenic agents and inborn errors of metabolism, monitoring of birth defects, neonatal screening and treatment of some genetic diseases, and rubella immunization. In addition, flour fortification with folic acid for prevention of certain birth defects has begun recently. Despite the importance of such initiatives, it is

  3. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  4. Detection of defects in composite material by laser NDT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusnisyam Yusuf; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Khairiah Yazid; Ilham Mukhriz Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    Digital Shearography is an optical nondestructive testing (NDT) technique that is being widely employed in production and quality control applications within aircraft, oil and gas, automotive and materials research, which is a big challenge for traditional NDT techniques. The purpose of our work is to develop a laser shearography non-destructive testing system which is capable of mapping stress distribution in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) component. High intensity laser interferometer arrangement is utilized to map stress affected areas which leads to the assessment of the sample under investigation. The system provides a fast and real-time inspection capability in revealing defect through the mapping of high stress concentration areas. In this study, the laser system is utilized to test stress concentration area in Composite sample that contains defects. The Composite sample has the dimension of 40 mm width, 200 mm long and 200 mm height. The study shows that the system is capable to detect and observed the presence of moisture and debonding area in a composite sample. For comparison the Radiography technique is utilized to validate the location and shape of the same defect in the material. (author)

  5. Confiabilidade das informações das declarações de nascido vivo com registro de defeitos congênitos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 2004 Reliability of birth defect data on birth certificates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Ramos Guerra

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a confiabilidade das informações sobre defeitos congênitos contidas nas declarações de nascido vivo do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no ano de 2004 comparando-as com os prontuários hospitalares destas crianças e de suas mães na internação para o parto. Após a seleção de 24 maternidades do SUS, os tipos de defeitos congênitos constantes nos prontuários foram transcritos em formulários de coleta próprios, codificados com base na CID-10 e comparados com os arquivos do SINASC. Verificou-se uma maior freqüência de defeitos congênitos dos sistemas osteomuscular e nervoso central e percentual de concordância acima de 50% nos aparelhos digestivo, urinário e osteomuscular, órgãos genitais e de anomalias cromossômicas. O kappa ajustado pela prevalência variou conforme as análises para 2 ou 3 dígitos da CID-10, com melhores resultados nos aparelhos osteomuscular, genito-urinário, digestivo e as anomalias cromossômicas e os piores nos sistemas nervoso central e cárdio-circulatório, malformações congênitas da face, olhos pescoço e orelhas e fendas lábio-palatinas. Os resultados encontrados são insatisfatórios e apontam para a necessidade de qualificação do pessoal envolvido no preenchimento das declarações assim como a padronização da codificação dos defeitos congênitos.This study assessed the reliability of birth certificate data related to birth defects in Brazil's Live Birth Information System (SINASC. We selected 24 maternity hospitals in the Unified National Health System (SUS and compared the reports of birth defects from birth certificates with medical records of mothers and live born infants in the city of Rio de Janeiro for the year 2004. After transposing the data to a specific form, the birth defects were coded by types and organ systems and compared to the SINASC data. The most commonly affected organs involved the central

  6. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  7. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  8. Prevention of birth defects in the pre-conception period: knowledge and practice of health care professionals (nurses and doctors in a city of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Romariz Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2 test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85. Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.

  9. Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.

  10. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan R.; Jones, Abbey M.; Petersen, Emily E.; Lee, Ellen H.; Rice, Marion E.; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R.; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M.; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer; Gould, Carolyn; Fine, Anne D.; Polen, Kara D.; Lake-Burger, Heather; Hillard, Christina L.; Hall, Noemi; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Slaughter, Karnesha; Sommer, Jamie N.; Adamski, Alys; Raycraft, Meghan; Fleck-Derderian, Shannon; Gupta, Jyoti; Newsome, Kimberly; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.; Petersen, Lyle; Boyle, Coleen; Jamieson, Denise J.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Adair, Jennifer; Ruberto, Irene; Haselow, Dirk T.; Im, Lucille; Jilek, Wendy; Lehmann, Monica S.; Olney, Richard; Porse, Charsey Cole; Ramstrom, Karen C.; Sowunmi, Similoluwa; Marzec, Natalie S.; Davis, Karin; Esponda-Morrison, Brenda; Fraser, M. Zachariah; O'Connor, Colleen Ann; Chung, Wendy; Richardson, Folasuyi; Sexton, Taylor; Stocks, Meredith E.; Woldai, Senait; Bundek, Amanda M.; Zambri, Jennifer; Goldberg, Cynthia; Eisenstein, Leah; Jackson, Jennifer; Kopit, Russell; Logue, Teresa; Mendoza, Raphael; Feldpausch, Amanda; Graham, Teri; Mann, Sylvia; Park, Sarah Y.; Carter, Kris Kelly; Potts, Emily J.; Stevens, Taryn; Simonson, Sean; Tonzel, Julius L.; Davis, Shari; Robinson, Sara; Hyun, Judie K.; Jenkins, Erin M.; Piccardi, Monika; Reid, Lawrence D.; Dunn, Julie E.; Higgins, Cathleen A.; Lin, Angela E.; Munshi, Gerlinde S.; Sandhu, Kayleigh; Scotland, Sarah J.; Soliva, Susan; Copeland, Glenn; Signs, Kimberly A.; Schiffman, Elizabeth; Byers, Paul; Hand, Sheryl; Mulgrew, Christine L.; Hamik, Jeff; Koirala, Samir; Ludwig, Lisa A.; Fredette, Carolyn Rose; Garafalo, Kristin; Worthington, Karen; Ropri, Abubakar; Ade, Julius Nchangtachi; Alaali, Zahra S.; Blog, Debra; Brunt, Scott J.; Bryant, Patrick; Burns, Amy E.; Bush, Steven; Carson, Kyle; Dean, Amy B.; Demarest, Valerie; Dufort, Elizabeth M.; Dupuis II, Alan P.; Sullivan-Frohm, Ann; Furuya, Andrea Marias; Fuschino, Meghan; Glaze, Viola H.; Griffin, Jacquelin; Hidalgo, Christina; Kulas, Karen E.; Lamson, Daryl M.; Lance, Lou Ann; Lee, William T.; Limberger, Ronald; Many, Patricia S.; Marchewka, Mary J.; Naizby, Brenda Elizabeth; Polfleit, MaryJo; Popowich, Michael; Rahman, Tabassum; Rem, Timothy; Robbins, Amy E.; Rowlands, Jemma V.; Seaver, Chantelle; Seward, Kimberley A.; Smith, Lou; Sohi, Inderbir; St. George, Kirsten; Souto, Maria I.; Wester, Rachel Elizabeth; Wong, Susan J.; Zeng, Li; Ackelsberg, Joel; Alex, Byron; Ballen, Vennus; Baumgartner, Jennifer; Bloch, Danielle; Clark, Sandhya; Conners, Erin; Cooper, Hannah; Davidson, Alexander; Dentinger, Catherine; Deocharan, Bisram; DeVito, Andrea; Fu, Jie; Hrusa, Gili; Iqbal, Maryam; Iwamoto, Martha; Jones, Lucretia; Kubinson, Hannah; Lash, Maura; Layton, Marcelle; Lee, Christopher T.; Liu, Dakai; McGibbon, Emily; Moy, Morgan; Ngai, Stephanie; Parton, Hilary B.; Peterson, Eric; Poy, Jose; Rakeman, Jennifer; Stoute, Alaina; Thompson, Corinne; Weiss, Don; Westheimer, Emily; Winters, Ann; Younis, Mohammad; Chan, Ronna L.; Cronquist, Laura Jean; Caton, Lisa; Lind, Leah; Nalluswami, Kumar; Perella, Dana; Brady, Diane S.; Gosciminski, Michael; McAuley, Patricia; Drociuk, Daniel; Leedom, Vinita; Witrick, Brian; Bollock, Jan; Hartel, Marie Bottomley; Lucinski, Loraine Swanson; McDonald, Morgan; Miller, Angela M.; Ponson, Tori Armand; Price, Laura; Nance, Amy E.; Peterson, Dallin; Cook, Sally; Martin, Brennan; Oltean, Hanna; Neary, Jillian; Baker, Melissa A.; Cummons, Kathy; Bryan, Katie; Arnold, Kathryn E.; Arth, Annelise C.; Bollweg, Brigid C.; Cragan, Janet D.; Dawson, April L.; Denison, Amy M.; Dziuban, Eric J.; Estetter, Lindsey; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Free, Rebecca J.; Galang, Romeo R.; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Green, Caitlin; Hale, Gillian L.; Hayes, Heather M.; Igbinosa, Irogue; Keating, M. Kelly; Khan, Sumaiya; Kim, Shin Y.; Lampe, Margaret; Lewis, Amanda; Mai, Cara; Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Miers, Brooke; Moore, Jazmyn; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Nahabedian, John; Panella, Amanda; Parihar, Vaunita; Patel, Mitesh M.; Rabeneck, D. Brett; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Ritter, Jana M.; Rollin, Dominique C.; Sanders, Jeanine H.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Simeone, Regina M.; Simon, Elizabeth L.; Sims, John R.; Spivey, Pamela J.; Talley-McRae, Helen; Tshiwala, Alphonse K.; VanMaldeghem, Kelley; Viens, Laura; Wainscott-Sargent, Anne; Williams, Tonya; Zaki, Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Background In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. Methods This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016. Birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy include brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly, eye abnormalities, other consequences of central nervous system dysfunction, and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations. Results During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 states were reported to the USZPR. Zika virus–associated birth defects were reported for 51 (5%) of the 972 fetuses/infants from completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4%–7%); the proportion was higher when restricted to pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection (24/250 completed pregnancies [10%, 95% CI = 7%–14%]). Birth defects were reported in 15% (95% CI = 8%–26%) of fetuses/infants of completed pregnancies with confirmed Zika virus infection in the first trimester. Among 895 liveborn infants from pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection, postnatal neuroimaging was reported for 221 (25%), and Zika virus testing of at least one infant specimen was reported for 585 (65%). Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice These findings highlight why pregnant women should avoid Zika virus exposure. Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory

  11. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus-Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure - U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan R; Jones, Abbey M; Petersen, Emily E; Lee, Ellen H; Rice, Marion E; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer; Gould, Carolyn; Fine, Anne D; Polen, Kara D; Lake-Burger, Heather; Hillard, Christina L; Hall, Noemi; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Slaughter, Karnesha; Sommer, Jamie N; Adamski, Alys; Raycraft, Meghan; Fleck-Derderian, Shannon; Gupta, Jyoti; Newsome, Kimberly; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L; Moore, Cynthia A; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Petersen, Lyle; Boyle, Coleen; Jamieson, Denise J; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-04-07

    In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016. Birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy include brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly, eye abnormalities, other consequences of central nervous system dysfunction, and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations. During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 states were reported to the USZPR. Zika virus-associated birth defects were reported for 51 (5%) of the 972 fetuses/infants from completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4%-7%); the proportion was higher when restricted to pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection (24/250 completed pregnancies [10%, 95% CI = 7%-14%]). Birth defects were reported in 15% (95% CI = 8%-26%) of fetuses/infants of completed pregnancies with confirmed Zika virus infection in the first trimester. Among 895 liveborn infants from pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection, postnatal neuroimaging was reported for 221 (25%), and Zika virus testing of at least one infant specimen was reported for 585 (65%). These findings highlight why pregnant women should avoid Zika virus exposure. Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection during pregnancy should receive postnatal

  12. Health Care for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Certain Korea Veterans--Covered Birth Defects and Spina Bifida. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    This rule adopts as final a proposed rule of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to amend its regulations concerning the provision of health care to birth children of Vietnam veterans and veterans of covered service in Korea diagnosed with spina bifida, except for spina bifida occulta, and certain other birth defects. In the proposed rule published on May 15, 2015, VA proposed changes to more clearly define the types of health care VA provides, including day health care and health-related services, which we defined as homemaker or home health aide services that provide assistance with Activities of Daily Living or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living that have therapeutic value. We also proposed changes to the list of health care services that require preauthorization by VA. This final rule addresses comments received from the public and adopts as final the proposed rule, without change.

  13. System for Analyzing Microscopic Defects and Defect Propagation Due to Aging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed for sensing and characterizing incipient defects, and assessing the effects of aging in aerospace components. Next generation materials,...

  14. Study on on-machine defects measuring system on high power laser optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chi; Shi, Feng; Lin, Zhifan; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Guilin

    2017-10-01

    The influence of surface defects on high power laser optical elements will cause some harm to the performances of imaging system, including the energy consumption and the damage of film layer. To further increase surface defects on high power laser optical element, on-machine defects measuring system was investigated. Firstly, the selection and design are completed by the working condition analysis of the on-machine defects detection system. By designing on processing algorithms to realize the classification recognition and evaluation of surface defects. The calibration experiment of the scratch was done by using the self-made standard alignment plate. Finally, the detection and evaluation of surface defects of large diameter semi-cylindrical silicon mirror are realized. The calibration results show that the size deviation is less than 4% that meet the precision requirement of the detection of the defects. Through the detection of images the on-machine defects detection system can realize the accurate identification of surface defects.

  15. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  16. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: A prospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Huan; Ma, Duan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. Material/Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20?45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the indepen...

  17. A population-based analysis of mortality in patients with Turner syndrome and hypoplastic left heart syndrome using the Texas Birth Defects Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diego A; Ethen, Mary K; Canfield, Mark A; Nembhard, Wendy N; Morris, Shaine A

    2017-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is strongly associated with Turner syndrome (TS); outcome data when these conditions coexist is sparse. We aimed to investigate long-term survival and causes of death in this population. The Texas Birth Defects Registry was queried for all live born infants with HLHS during 1999-2007. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses to compare survival among patients with HLHS with TS (HLHS/TS+) to patients who had HLHS without genetic disorders or extracardiac birth defects (HLHS/TS-). Of the 542 patients with HLHS, 11 had TS (2.0%), 71 had other extracardiac birth defects or genetic disorders, and 463 had neither. The median follow-up time was 4.2 y (interquartile range [IQR] 2.1-6.5). Comparing those with HLHS/TS+ to HLHS/TS-, 100% versus 35% were female (P < .001), and median birth weight was 2140 g (IQR 1809-2650) versus 3196 g (IQR 2807-3540, P < .001). Neonatal mortality was 36% in HLHS/TS+ versus 27% in HLHS/TS- (log rank = 0.431). Ten of the 11 TS+ patients died during the study period for cumulative mortality of 91% versus 50% (hazard ratio (HR) for TS+: 2.90, 95% CI 1.53-5.48). Six patients died prior to surgery, 5 underwent Stage 1 palliation (S1P), 3 died after S1P, 2 survived past S2P, and one of these died at age 19 mo. The underlying cause of death was listed as congenital heart disease on all the death certificates of HLHS/TS+ patients. In multivariable analysis controlling for low birth weight (<2500 g), TS remained associated with significantly increased cumulative mortality, although females without TS had higher mortality than males (HR for TS+ versus males: 2.42, 95% CI 1.24-4.73; HR for TS- females versus males: 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.83). TS with HLHS is associated with significant mortality. The increased mortality in females without documented TS calls to question if TS is undetected in a portion of females with HLHS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of folic acid awareness on knowledge and consumption for the prevention of birth defects among Hispanic women in several U.S. Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Christine E; Hamner, Heather C; Flores, Alina L

    2010-04-01

    The neural tube defects (NTDs) anencephaly and spina bifida, are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect about 3000 pregnancies per year in the United States. Research has found a strong link between periconceptional folic acid consumption and NTD prevention. Because Hispanic women have higher rates of NTD-affected births, targeted folic acid promotion efforts were conducted in several major cities from 1999 to 2002. Efforts included paid and unpaid placements of Spanish language public service announcements (PSAs) and community-level education through the use of promotoras. Analyses focused on whether or not women's reported awareness of folic acid, regardless of promotion type, impacted their knowledge or behavior. Women who reported awareness of folic acid had greater folic acid knowledge and use of vitamins containing folic acid than those not aware. Analyses also examined the use of vitamins containing folic acid by pregnancy intention among women who reported awareness of folic acid. The results were varied. Pregnancy wanters were most likely to use vitamins containing folic acid daily. For this group, however, awareness did not play as large a role in whether they reported consuming a vitamin containing folic acid or not, as it did for pregnancy waiters and avoiders.

  19. Automatic cross-sectioning and monitoring system locates defects in electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G.; Slaughter, B.

    1971-01-01

    System consists of motorized grinding and lapping apparatus, sample holder, and electronic control circuit. Low power microscope examines device to pinpoint location of circuit defect, and monitor displays output signal when defect is located exactly.

  20. Birth outcomes of cases with left-sided obstructive defects of the heart in the function of maternal socio-demographic factors: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the birth outcomes and maternal variables of cases with different types of left-sided obstructive defects (LSOD) of the heart. Live-born infants were selected from the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, and 302 cases with LSOD, 469 matched controls and 38,151 all controls without any defect, and 20,750 malformed controls with other isolated defects were compared. The diagnosis of LSOD was based on autopsy report or the documents of surgical intervention. Four types of LSOD were differentiated: 56 cases with valvular aortic stenosis (VAS), 76 cases with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), 113 cases with coarctation of the aorta (COA) and 57 cases with other congenital abnormalities of aorta (OCA). Cases with LSOD had male excess (64.6%) with a higher rate of preterm birth (14.2 vs. 6.6%) and low birthweight (15.6 vs. 4.3%) compared to matched controls. The high rate of preterm birth was particularly characteristic for HLHS (17.1%) while intrauterine fetal growth restriction was found in cases OCA (22.8%) and COA (13.3%). The mothers of cases with LSOD had higher birth order and lower socio-economic status than controls without any defect. The general pattern of birth outcomes and maternal variables were similar in the types of LSOD cases, but the higher rate of preterm birth and low birthweight indicated some association with their adverse fetal development.

  1. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children : what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.; Rodrigues, Catarina; Verkerk, M.A.; van den Berg, P.P.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  2. Conjoined Twins : A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Luna-Munoz, Leonora; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Dutra, Maria da Graca; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Metneki, Julia; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Rissman, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin

    2011-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was

  3. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children - what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Rodrigues, C.H.; Verkerk, M.A.; Berg, P.P. van den; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  4. A case of extensive Aplasia Cutis Congenita with underlying skull defect and central nervous system malformation: discussion of large skin defects, complications, treatment and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhead, A; Poindexter, G; Morrell, D S

    2009-08-01

    Aplasia Cutis Congenita (ACC) is a rare condition characterized by the absence of a portion of skin at birth. Skin defects are usually small (0.5 to 3 cm) and located on the scalp. Although there can be other physical or genetic abnormalities, ACC is most often a benign isolated condition. Rarely is an underlying bony defect present, and this association increases the rate of complications. We report a case of a newborn male with ACC of the entire crown and vertex scalp, non-ossified parietal skull and dysplastic corpus callosum. The patient's skull and skin defects were treated non-surgically, and he recovered well.

  5. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  6. Quantum control of topological defects in magnetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, So; Mohseni, Masoud

    2018-02-01

    Energy-efficient classical information processing and storage based on topological defects in magnetic systems have been studied over the past decade. In this work, we introduce a class of macroscopic quantum devices in which a quantum state is stored in a topological defect of a magnetic insulator. We propose noninvasive methods to coherently control and read out the quantum state using ac magnetic fields and magnetic force microscopy, respectively. This macroscopic quantum spintronic device realizes the magnetic analog of the three-level rf-SQUID qubit and is built fully out of electrical insulators with no mobile electrons, thus eliminating decoherence due to the coupling of the quantum variable to an electronic continuum and energy dissipation due to Joule heating. For a domain wall size of 10-100 nm and reasonable material parameters, we estimate qubit operating temperatures in the range of 0.1-1 K, a decoherence time of about 0.01-1 μ s , and the number of Rabi flops within the coherence time scale in the range of 102-104 .

  7. Efficacy of a novel IGS system in atrial septal defect repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefleh, Fuad N.; Baker, G. Hamilton; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2013-03-01

    Congenital heart disease occurs in 107.6 out of 10,000 live births, with Atrial Septal Defects (ASD) accounting for 10% of these conditions. Historically, ASDs were treated with open heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass, allowing a patch to be sewn over the defect. In 1976, King et al. demonstrated use of a transcatheter occlusion procedure, thus reducing the invasiveness of ASD repair. Localization during these catheter based procedures traditionally has relied on bi-plane fluoroscopy; more recently trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and intra-cardiac echocardiography (ICE) have been used to navigate these procedures. Although there is a high success rate using the transcatheter occlusion procedure, fluoroscopy poses radiation dose risk to both patient and clinician. The impact of this dose to the patients is important as many of those undergoing this procedure are children, who have an increased risk associated with radiation exposure. Their longer life expectancy than adults provides a larger window of opportunity for expressing the damaging effects of ionizing radiation. In addition, epidemiologic studies of exposed populations have demonstrated that children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects radiation. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses pre-operative and intra-operative images to guide surgery or an interventional procedure. Central to every IGS system is a software application capable of processing and displaying patient images, registration between multiple coordinate systems, and interfacing with a tool tracking system. We have developed a novel image-guided surgery framework called Kit for Navigation by Image Focused Exploration (KNIFE). In this work we assess the efficacy of this image-guided navigation system for ASD repair using a series of mock clinical experiments designed to simulate ASD repair device deployment.

  8. The App-Runx1 region is critical for birth defects and electrocardiographic dysfunctions observed in a Down syndrome mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Raveau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS leads to complex phenotypes and is the main genetic cause of birth defects and heart diseases. The Ts65Dn DS mouse model is trisomic for the distal part of mouse chromosome 16 and displays similar features with post-natal lethality and cardiovascular defects. In order to better understand these defects, we defined electrocardiogram (ECG with a precordial set-up, and we found conduction defects and modifications in wave shape, amplitudes, and durations in Ts65Dn mice. By using a genetic approach consisting of crossing Ts65Dn mice with Ms5Yah mice monosomic for the App-Runx1 genetic interval, we showed that the Ts65Dn viability and ECG were improved by this reduction of gene copy number. Whole-genome expression studies confirmed gene dosage effect in Ts65Dn, Ms5Yah, and Ts65Dn/Ms5Yah hearts and showed an overall perturbation of pathways connected to post-natal lethality (Coq7, Dyrk1a, F5, Gabpa, Hmgn1, Pde10a, Morc3, Slc5a3, and Vwf and heart function (Tfb1m, Adam19, Slc8a1/Ncx1, and Rcan1. In addition cardiac connexins (Cx40, Cx43 and sodium channel sub-units (Scn5a, Scn1b, Scn10a were found down-regulated in Ts65Dn atria with additional down-regulation of Cx40 in Ts65Dn ventricles and were likely contributing to conduction defects. All these data pinpoint new cardiac phenotypes in the Ts65Dn, mimicking aspects of human DS features and pathways altered in the mouse model. In addition they highlight the role of the App-Runx1 interval, including Sod1 and Tiam1, in the induction of post-natal lethality and of the cardiac conduction defects in Ts65Dn. These results might lead to new therapeutic strategies to improve the care of DS people.

  9. Home birth integration into the health care systems of eleven international jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Amanda; Hutton, Eileen K; Simioni, Julia; Anvari, Ella; Bowen, Megan; Kruegar, Samantha; Darling, Elizabeth K

    2018-02-13

    The purpose of this study was to develop assessment criteria that could be used to examine the level of integration of home birth within larger health care systems in developed countries across 11 international jurisdictions. An expert panel developed criteria and a definition to assess home birth integration within health care systems. We selected jurisdictions based on the publications that were eligible for inclusion in our systematic review and meta-analysis on planned place of birth. We sent the authors of the included publications a questionnaire about home birth practitioners and practices in their respective health care system at the time of their studies. We searched published peer-reviewed, non-peer-reviewed, and gray literature, and the websites of professional bodies to document information about home birth integration in each jurisdiction based on our criteria. Where information was lacking, we contacted experts in the field from the relevant jurisdiction. Home birth is well integrated into the health care system in British Columbia (Canada), England, Iceland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Ontario (Canada), and Washington State (USA). Home birth is less well integrated into the health care system in Australia, Japan, Norway, and Sweden. This paper is the first to propose criteria for the evaluation of home birth integration within larger maternity care systems. Application of these criteria across 11 international jurisdictions indicates differences in the recognition and training of home birth practitioners, in access to hospital facilities, and in the supplies and equipment available at home births, which give rise to variation in the level of integration across different settings. Standardized criteria for the evaluation of systems integration are essential for interpreting planned home birth outcomes that emerge from contextual differences. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Environmental pollution by depleted uranium in Iraq with special reference to Mosul and possible effects on cancer and birth defect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Riyad Abdullah; Matti, Lilyan Yaqup; Al-Salih, Hana Said; Godbold, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Iraq is suffering from depleted uranium (DU) pollution in many regions and the effects of this may harm public health through poisoning and increased incidence of various cancers and birth defects. DU is a known carcinogenic agent. About 1200 tonnes of ammunition were dropped on Iraq during the Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003. As a result, contamination occurred in more than 350 sites in Iraq. Currently, Iraqis are facing about 140,000 cases of cancer, with 7000 to 8000 new ones registered each year. In Baghdad cancer incidences per 100,000 population have increased, just as they have also increased in Basra. The overall incidence of breast and lung cancer, Leukaemia and Lymphoma, has doubled even tripled. The situation in Mosul city is similar to other regions. Before the Gulf Wars Mosul had a higher rate of cancer, but the rate of cancer has further increased since the Gulf Wars.

  11. Comparison of binary mask defect printability analysis using virtual stepper system and aerial image microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Khoi A.; Spence, Chris A.; Dakshina-Murthy, S.; Bala, Vidya; Williams, Alvina M.; Strener, Steve; Eandi, Richard D.; Li, Junling; Karklin, Linard

    1999-12-01

    As advanced process technologies in the wafer fabs push the patterning processes toward lower k1 factor for sub-wavelength resolution printing, reticles are required to use optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase-shifted mask (PSM) for resolution enhancement. For OPC/PSM mask technology, defect printability is one of the major concerns. Current reticle inspection tools available on the market sometimes are not capable of consistently differentiating between an OPC feature and a true random defect. Due to the process complexity and high cost associated with the making of OPC/PSM reticles, it is important for both mask shops and lithography engineers to understand the impact of different defect types and sizes to the printability. Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) has been used in the mask shops for a number of years for reticle applications such as aerial image simulation and transmission measurement of repaired defects. The Virtual Stepper System (VSS) provides an alternative method to do defect printability simulation and analysis using reticle images captured by an optical inspection or review system. In this paper, pre- programmed defects and repairs from a Defect Sensitivity Monitor (DSM) reticle with 200 nm minimum features (at 1x) will be studied for printability. The simulated resist lines by AIMS and VSS are both compared to SEM images of resist wafers qualitatively and quantitatively using CD verification.Process window comparison between unrepaired and repaired defects for both good and bad repair cases will be shown. The effect of mask repairs to resist pattern images for the binary mask case will be discussed. AIMS simulation was done at the International Sematech, Virtual stepper simulation at Zygo and resist wafers were processed at AMD-Submicron Development Center using a DUV lithographic process for 0.18 micrometer Logic process technology.

  12. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed

  13. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T. (Medical Birth Registry of Norway, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-08-15

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed.

  14. Cross Talk between Cell Cell and Cell Matrix Adhesion Signaling Pathways during Heart Organogenesis: Implications for Cardiac Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linask, Kersti K.; Manisastry, Shyam; Han, Mingda

    2005-06-01

    The anterior posterior and dorsal ventral progression of heart organogenesis is well illustrated by the patterning and activity of two members of different families of cell adhesion molecules: the calcium-dependent cadherins, specifically N-cadherin, and the extracellular matrix glycoproteins, fibronectin. N-cadherin by its binding to the intracellular molecule [beta]-catenin and fibronectin by its binding to integrins at focal adhesion sites, are involved in regulation of gene expression by their association with the cytoskeleton and through signal transduction pathways. The ventral precardiac mesoderm cells epithelialize and become stably committed by the activation of these cell matrix and intracellular signaling transduction pathways. Cross talk between the adhesion signaling pathways initiates the characteristic phenotypic changes associated with cardiomyocyte differentiation: electrical activity and organization of myofibrils. The development of both organ form and function occurs within a short interval thereafter. Mutations in any of the interacting molecules, or environmental insults affecting either of these signaling pathways, can result in embryonic lethality or fetuses born with severe heart defects. As an example, we have defined that exposure of the embryo temporally to lithium during an early sensitive developmental period affects a canonical Wnt pathway leading to [beta]-catenin stabilization. Lithium exposure results in an anterior posterior progression of severe cardiac defects.

  15. Estudo de prevalência de defeitos congênitos no Vale do Paraíba Paulista Prevalence study of birth defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilene Otaviano Pinto

    2007-09-01

    . The independent variables were analyzed to estimate the association between congenital anomalies and maternal and newborn data registered in the Birth Certificates. Qui-square test, linear trend qui-square and Student t test were performed by the Epi-Info 6.04d statistical program. RESULTS: We analyzed 41,838 records, but 628 (1.5% birth certificates did not present the specific field fulfilled and 317 (0.76% neonates presented birth defects. There was a positive association between congenital anomalies and premature delivery, stillbirths, type of delivery, low birth weight and low Apgar score. The osteomuscular and nervous systems were most frequently affected. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of malformations observed in the present study was lower than those described in other studies, possibly due to under notification.

  16. Assessing the Risk of Birth Defects Associated with Exposure to Fixed-Dose Combined Antituberculous Agents during Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Awodele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (≤0.05 low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (≤0.05 elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents

  17. Assessing the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele in a Kenyan hospital from 2005–2010: implications for a neural tube defects surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githuku, Jane N; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Ao, Trong; Hamner, Heather; Amwayi, Samuel; Gura, Zeinab; Omolo, Jared; Albright, Leland; Guo, Jing; Arvelo, Wences

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural tube defects such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Data on the prevalence of neural tube defects in Kenya are limited. This study characterizes and estimates the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele reported in a referral hospital in Kenya from 2005-2010. Methods Cases were defined as a diagnosis of spina bifida or encephalocele. Prevalence was calculated as the number of cases by year and province of residence divided by the total number of live-births per province. Results From a total of 6,041 surgical records; 1,184 (93%) had reported diagnosis of spina bifida and 88 (7%) of encephalocele. Estimated prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele from 2005-2010 was 3.3 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-3.5] cases per 10,000 live-births. The highest prevalence of cases were reported in 2007 with 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) cases per 10,000 live-births. Rift Valley province had the highest prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele at 6.9 (95% CI: 6.3-7.5) cases per 10,000 live-births from 2005-2010. Conclusion Prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele is likely underestimated, as only patients seeking care at the hospital were included. Variations in regional prevalence could be due to referral patterns and healthcare access. Implementation of a neural tube defects surveillance system would provide a more thorough assessment of the burden of neural tube defects in Kenya. PMID:26113894

  18. Assessing the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele in a Kenyan hospital from 2005-2010: implications for a neural tube defects surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githuku, Jane N; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Ao, Trong; Hamner, Heather; Amwayi, Samuel; Gura, Zeinab; Omolo, Jared; Albright, Leland; Guo, Jing; Arvelo, Wences

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Data on the prevalence of neural tube defects in Kenya are limited. This study characterizes and estimates the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele reported in a referral hospital in Kenya from 2005-2010. Cases were defined as a diagnosis of spina bifida or encephalocele. Prevalence was calculated as the number of cases by year and province of residence divided by the total number of live-births per province. From a total of 6,041 surgical records; 1,184 (93%) had reported diagnosis of spina bifida and 88 (7%) of encephalocele. Estimated prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele from 2005-2010 was 3.3 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-3.5] cases per 10,000 live-births. The highest prevalence of cases were reported in 2007 with 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) cases per 10,000 live-births. Rift Valley province had the highest prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele at 6.9 (95% CI: 6.3-7.5) cases per 10,000 live-births from 2005-2010. Prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele is likely underestimated, as only patients seeking care at the hospital were included. Variations in regional prevalence could be due to referral patterns and healthcare access. Implementation of a neural tube defects surveillance system would provide a more thorough assessment of the burden of neural tube defects in Kenya.

  19. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system...) Metal parts contacting the journal; or (e) Is— (1) Missing; or (2) Not in contact with the journal. ...

  20. Is it good to be too light? Birth weight thresholds in hospital reimbursement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Simon; Wichert, Sebastian; Wuppermann, Amelie

    2018-02-02

    Birth weight manipulation has been documented in per-case hospital reimbursement systems, in which hospitals receive more money for otherwise equal newborns with birth weight just below compared to just above specific birth weight thresholds. As hospitals receive more money for cases with weight below the thresholds, having a (reported) weight below a threshold could benefit the newborn. Also, these reimbursement thresholds overlap with diagnostic thresholds that have been shown to affect the quantity and quality of care that newborns receive. Based on the universe of hospital births in Germany from the years 2005-2011, we investigate whether weight below reimbursement relevant thresholds triggers different quantity and quality of care. We find that this is not the case, suggesting that hospitals' financial incentives with respect to birth weight do not directly impact the care that newborns receive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, Maria I.; Fernandez, Julian R.; Monti, Ana M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo 3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, Al Mo and Mo Al , as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair Al Mo +Mo Al , in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al 5 Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author) [es

  2. Multiple organ system defects and transcriptional dysregulation in the Nipbl(+/- mouse, a model of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimako Kawauchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS is a multi-organ system birth defects disorder linked, in at least half of cases, to heterozygous mutations in the NIPBL gene. In animals and fungi, orthologs of NIPBL regulate cohesin, a complex of proteins that is essential for chromosome cohesion and is also implicated in DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Mice heterozygous for a gene-trap mutation in Nipbl were produced and exhibited defects characteristic of CdLS, including small size, craniofacial anomalies, microbrachycephaly, heart defects, hearing abnormalities, delayed bone maturation, reduced body fat, behavioral disturbances, and high mortality (75-80% during the first weeks of life. These phenotypes arose despite a decrease in Nipbl transcript levels of only approximately 30%, implying extreme sensitivity of development to small changes in Nipbl activity. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that Nipbl deficiency leads to modest but significant transcriptional dysregulation of many genes. Expression changes at the protocadherin beta (Pcdhb locus, as well as at other loci, support the view that NIPBL influences long-range chromosomal regulatory interactions. In addition, evidence is presented that reduced expression of genes involved in adipogenic differentiation may underlie the low amounts of body fat observed both in Nipbl+/- mice and in individuals with CdLS.

  3. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Huan; Ma, Duan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20-45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the independent variables in multivariate logistic regression. 55.6% of the subjects took contraception at all times, and 33.9% had pregnancy planning in the next six months. 49.7% of the interviewed women knew the benefits of folic acid and 34.6% realized the correct time of folic acid intake; and 14.9% of these women actually took folic acid daily. Planning to be pregnant in the next six months was associated with knowledge of folic acid benefits, correct time of folic acid intake and actual intake. A higher education level was correlated with the knowledge of folic acid benefits and correct time of folic acid intake, but was not linked to actual intake of folic acid. The knowledge and use of folic acid were at low to moderate levels in women at childbearing age in Shanghai, China, and general knowledge of folic acid benefits and correct time of folic acid intake should be conveyed to these women.

  4. Defect Detection of Velvet Bathrobe Fabrics and Grading with Demerit Point Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Mutlu Ala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabric defects that may occur at different stages of woven terry fabric production requires quality control and classification of fabrics as first or second grade before sending to customer. In this study, before shipping of two different terry fabric orders, defects were detected by inspection of fabric rolls on a lighted control board by experienced experts. Number of the defects and dimensions of the defects seen during the inspection were noted on quality control charts. Detected defects were defined and scored according to different demerit point systems. In this way, the fabric rolls were classified according to the demerit point systems before being shipped to garment enterprises. Disputes can be avoided with classification made by a demerit point system on which manufacturer and the customer have agreed.

  5. The effects of preterm birth and its antecedents on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Jonathan G; De Matteo, Robert; Harding, Richard; Black, Mary J

    2016-06-01

    Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. It prematurely exposes the developing cardiovascular system to the hemodynamic transition that occurs at birth and to the subsequent functional demands of life ex utero. This review describes the current knowledge of the effects of preterm birth, and some of its common antecedents (chorioamnionitis, intra-uterine growth restriction, and maternal antenatal corticosteroid administration), on the structure of the myocardium. A thorough literature search was conducted for articles relating to how preterm birth, and its antecedents, affect development of the heart. Given that sheep are an excellent model for the studies of cardiac development, this review has focused on experimental studies in sheep as well as clinical findings. Our review of the literature demonstrates that individuals born preterm are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, including increased mean arterial pressure, abnormally shaped and sub-optimally performing hearts and changes in the vasculature. The review highlights how antenatal corticosteroids, intra-uterine growth restriction, and exposure to chorioamnionitis also have the potential to impact cardiac growth in the preterm newborn. Preterm birth and its common antecedents (antenatal corticosteroids, intra-uterine growth restriction, and chorioamnionitis) have the potential to adversely impact cardiac structure immediately following birth and in later life. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming, E-mail: heavenlzm@126.com; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  7. Separate influences of birth order and gravidity/parity on the development of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Tonya; del Junco, Deborah J; Arnett, Frank C; Assassi, Shervin; Tan, Filemon K; McNearney, Terry; Fischbach, Michael; Perry, Marilyn; Mayes, Maureen D

    2010-03-01

    Birth order has been valuable in revealing the role of environmental influences on the risk of developing certain diseases such as allergy and atopy. In addition, pregnancy has profound effects on the immune system such as short-term effects that permit fetal survival as well as longer-term effects that could influence late-onset diseases. In order to better evaluate these influences, we studied the association of birth order and gravidity/parity as risk factors for systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Data regarding SSc cases and their unaffected sibling controls were obtained from the Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository. The case-sibling design was used to minimize confounding due to differences in age, race, ethnicity, or calendar time. The gravidity/parity analysis was based on sibships with at least one SSc-affected and one unaffected sister. Birth order was examined in 974 sibships, comparing SSc cases (n = 987) with their unaffected siblings (n = 3,088). The risk of scleroderma increased with increasing birth order (odds ratio [OR] 1.25, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-1.50 for birth order 2-5; OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.57-3.15 for birth order 6-9; and OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.68-7.45 for birth order 10-15). Gravidity/parity was analyzed in 168 sibships (256 unaffected sisters, 172 SSc cases). We found an association between a history of one or more pregnancies and SSc (OR 2.8). Birth order and pregnancy were independently associated with a higher risk of developing SSc. These findings suggest that immune development in early childhood and/or pregnancy-associated events, including but not limited to microchimerism, plays a role in SSc susceptibility.

  8. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. MR imaging of central nervous system birth injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heier, L.A.; Zimmerman, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on head injuries due to birth trauma that have been evaluated with plain radiography, US, and CT. In the past, patient monitoring and transportation difficulties for a neonate have limited the use of MR. Does MR provide more information that would assist the management and prognostic assessment of these patients? An MR examination was requested on all neonates born or transferred to our institution with a documented traumatic delivery. CT and MR studies were compared for seven patients, including three cases of difficult forceps delivery, one case of double footling breech with forceps head extraction, two cases of shoulder dystocias, and one case of vacuum extraction. CT caused underestimation of subdural hematomas and contusions in three of five patients with this injury. The appreciation of a large subdural hematoma at MR resulted in surgical intervention. Both unsuspected cervical cord contusion and complete cord transection were identified on sagittal head MR images. Four of four skull fractures identified at CT were not seen at MR

  10. Helical Defect Packings in a Quasi-One-Dimensional System of Cylindrically Confined Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamchi, Mahdi Zaeifi; Bowles, Richard K.

    2015-07-01

    We use a combination of analytical theory and molecular dynamics simulation to study the inherent structure landscape of a system of hard spheres confined to narrow cylindrical channels of diameter 1 +√{3 }/2 defects that change the local chirality of the helix lowers the packing density and alters the local packing structure. The helical sections between defects become asymmetrical and are better described as a double helix with angular twists between the first and second nearest neighbors that are determined by the defect separation distance. Increasing the fraction of defects unwinds the two helical strands so that the least dense structure is a nonhelical packing of two zigzag chains. We also show that the packing effects of the helical section induce a long-range, entropically driven attraction between the defects.

  11. Risk of central nervous system defects in offspring of women with and without mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Fraser, William D; Low, Nancy; Arbour, Laura; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Auger, Nathalie

    2018-02-22

    We sought to determine the relationship between maternal mental illness and the risk of having an infant with a central nervous system defect. We analyzed a cohort of 654,882 women aged less than 20 years between 1989 and 2013 who later delivered a live born infant in any hospital in Quebec, Canada. The primary exposure was mental illness during pregnancy or hospitalization for mental illness before pregnancy. The outcomes were neural and non-neural tube defects of the central nervous system in any offspring. We computed risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between mental disorders and risk of central nervous system defects in log-binomial regression models adjusted for age at delivery, total parity, comorbidity, socioeconomic deprivation, place of residence, and time period. Maternal mental illness was associated with an increased risk of nervous system defects in offspring (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.64-1.89). Hospitalization for any mental disorder was more strongly associated with non-neural tube (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-1.99) than neural tube defects (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.59). Women at greater risk of nervous system defects in offspring tended to be diagnosed with multiple mental disorders, have more than one hospitalization for mental disease, or be 17 or older at first hospitalization. A history of mental illness is associated with central nervous system defects in offspring. Women hospitalized for mental illness may merit counseling at first symptoms to prevent central nervous system defects at pregnancy.

  12. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  13. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  14. Improved recursive Green's function formalism for quasi one-dimensional systems with realistic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Fabian; Zienert, Andreas; Schuster, Jörg; Schreiber, Michael

    2017-04-01

    We derive an improved version of the recursive Green's function formalism (RGF), which is a standard tool in the quantum transport theory. We consider the case of disordered quasi one-dimensional materials where the disorder is applied in form of randomly distributed realistic defects, leading to partly periodic Hamiltonian matrices. The algorithm accelerates the common RGF in the recursive decimation scheme, using the iteration steps of the renormalization decimation algorithm. This leads to a smaller effective system, which is treated using the common forward iteration scheme. The computational complexity scales linearly with the number of defects, instead of linearly with the total system length for the conventional approach. We show that the scaling of the calculation time of the Green's function depends on the defect density of a random test system. Furthermore, we discuss the calculation time and the memory requirement of the whole transport formalism applied to defective carbon nanotubes.

  15. Embryos, genes, and birth defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferretti, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    ... Structural anomalies The genesis of chromosome abnormalities Embryo survival The cause of high levels of chromosome abnormality in human embryos Relative parental risks - age, translocations, inversions, gonadal and germinal mosaics 33 33 34 35 36 44 44 45 4 Identification and Analysis of Genes Involved in Congenital Malformation Syndromes Peter J. Scambler Ge...

  16. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cases, the infection can cause intellectual disability, hearing loss, and vision problems. CMV can be spread by contact with an infected child’s urine or other body fluids. Pregnant women who work with young children, such as day care workers or health care workers, should take steps to ...

  17. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  18. Electronic transport properties of 1D-defects in graphene and other 2D-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willke, P.; Wenderoth, M. [IV. Physical Institute, Solids and Nanostructures, Georg-August-University Goettingen (Germany); Schneider, M.A. [Lehrstuhl fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The continuous progress in device miniaturization demands a thorough understanding of the electron transport processes involved. The influence of defects - discontinuities in the perfect and translational invariant crystal lattice - plays a crucial role here. For graphene in particular, they limit the carrier mobility often demanded for applications by contributing additional sources of scattering to the sample. Due to its two-dimensional nature graphene serves as an ideal system to study electron transport in the presence of defects, because one-dimensional defects like steps, grain boundaries and interfaces are easy to characterize and have profound effects on the transport properties. While their contribution to the resistance of a sample can be extracted by carefully conducted transport experiments, scanning probe methods are excellent tools to study the influence of defects locally. In this letter, the authors review the results of scattering at local defects in graphene and other 2D systems by scanning tunneling potentiometry, 4-point-probe microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy and conventional transport measurements. Besides the comparison of the different defect resistances important for device fabrication, the underlying scattering mechanisms are discussed giving insight into the general physics of electron scattering at defects. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score and Classification System (AMADEUS) for Assessment of Preoperative Cartilage Defect Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Pia M; Welsch, Götz H; Brittberg, Mats; Trattnig, Siegfried; Braun, Sepp; Imhoff, Andreas B; Salzmann, Gian M

    2017-07-01

    Objective To design a simple magnetic resonance (MR)-based assessment system for quantification of osteochondral defect severity prior to cartilage repair surgery at the knee. Design The new scoring tool was supposed to include 3 different parameters: (1) cartilage defect size, (2) depth/morphology of the cartilage defect, and (3) subchondral bone quality, resulting in a specific 3-digit code. A clearly defined numeric score was developed, resulting in a final score of 0 to 100. Defect severity grades I through IV were defined. For intra- and interobserver agreement, defects were assessed by 2 independent readers on preoperative knee MR images of n = 44 subjects who subsequently received cartilage repair surgery. For statistical analyses, mean values ± standard deviation (SD), interclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and linear weighted kappa values were calculated. Results The mean total Area Measurement And DEpth & Underlying Structures (AMADEUS) score was 48 ± 24, (range, 0-85). The mean defect size was 2.8 ± 2.6 cm 2 . There were 36 of 44 full-thickness defects. The subchondral bone showed defects in 21 of 44 cases. Kappa values for intraobserver reliability ranged between 0.82 and 0.94. Kappa values for interobserver reliability ranged between 0.38 and 0.85. Kappa values for AMADEUS grade were 0.75 and 0.67 for intra- and interobserver agreement, respectively. ICC scores for the AMADEUS total score were 0.97 and 0.96 for intra- and interobserver agreement, respectively. Conclusions The AMADEUS score and classification system allows reliable severity encoding, scoring and grading of osteochondral defects on knee MR images, which is easily clinically applicable in daily practice.

  20. The Mirror Neuron System: Grasping Others' Actions from Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Jean-Francois; Theoret, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    In the adult human brain, the presence of a system matching the observation and the execution of actions is well established. This mechanism is thought to rely primarily on the contribution of so-called "mirror neurons", cells that are active when a specific gesture is executed as well as when it is seen or heard. Despite the wealth of evidence…

  1. Evolution of the Galaxy and the Birth of the Solar System: The Short ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... An attempt is made, probably for the first time, to understand the origin of the solar system in context with the evolution of the galaxy as a natural consequence of the birth of several generations of stellar clusters. The galaxy is numerically simulated to deduce the inventories of the short-lived nuclides, 26Al, ...

  2. Seasonality of birth in children with central nervous system tumours in Denmark, 1970-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Grell, Kathrine; Frederiksen, K

    2008-01-01

    We investigated possible seasonal variation of births among children central nervous system tumour in Denmark (N=1640), comparing them with 2,582,714 children born between 1970 and 2003. No such variation was seen overall, but ependymoma showed seasonal variation....

  3. Socioeconomic status and prevalence of congenital heart defects: does universal access to health care system eliminate the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mohammad M; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim; Moore, Aideen M; Guttmann, Astrid

    2011-12-01

    A twofold increase in the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) has been reported since the early 1970s with higher rates among children from low socioeconomic status (SES). This increase and the observed SES gap are postulated to be reflective of higher ascertainment, especially increased use of ultrasound and echography. The purpose of this study was to examine if trends over time in the prevalence of CHD were the same for high and low SES groups. Using the child's health number as a unique identifier and through record linkage, children born in Ontario between 1994 and 2007 were followed for the diagnosis of CHD. Using postal codes and census information, SES quintiles were assigned to each child. We used adjusted rates and used multivariate models to compare trends in the prevalence rate among children born in different SES groups. Children born in low SES areas (23% of all births) had significantly higher rates of CHDs (rate ratio = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-1.24). While prevalence of nonsevere CHDs declined in all SES groups since 2000, severe CHDs, especially atrial septal defects were on the rise during the study period. It is assumed that increased ascertainment is responsible for observed increase in the prevalence of CHD, especially minor defects. While the trend and pattern over time changed for severe and nonsevere CHDs, the SES gap remained consistent during the study period. Our results indicate that even free and universal access to a health care system does not eliminate the SES gap observed in the prevalence of CHD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Automated stent defect detection and classification with a high numerical aperture optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Carlos; Laguarta, Ferran; Cadevall, Cristina; Matilla, Aitor; Ibañez, Sergi; Artigas, Roger

    2017-06-01

    Stent quality control is a highly critical process. Cardiovascular stents have to be inspected 100% so as no defective stent is implanted in a human body. However, this visual control is currently performed manually and every stent could need tenths of minutes to be inspected. In this paper, a novel optical inspection system is presented. By the combination of a high numerical aperture (NA) optical system, a rotational stage and a line-scan camera, unrolled sections of the outer and inner surfaces of the stent are obtained and image-processed at high speed. Defects appearing in those surfaces and also in the edges are extremely contrasted due to the shadowing effect of the high NA illumination and acquisition approach. Therefore by means of morphological operations and a sensitivity parameter, defects are detected. Based on a trained defect library, a binary classifier sorts each kind of defect through a set of scoring vectors, providing the quality operator with all the required information to finally take a decision. We expect this new approach to make defect detection completely objective and to dramatically reduce the time and cost of stent quality control stage.

  5. Defect-related internal dissipation in mechanical resonators and the study of coupled mechanical systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Czaplewski, David A.; Sullivan, John Patrick; Modine, Normand Arthur; Wendt, Joel Robert; Aslam, Dean (Michigan State University, Lansing, MI); Sepulveda-Alancastro, Nelson (University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR)

    2007-01-01

    Understanding internal dissipation in resonant mechanical systems at the micro- and nanoscale is of great technological and fundamental interest. Resonant mechanical systems are central to many sensor technologies, and microscale resonators form the basis of a variety of scanning probe microscopies. Furthermore, coupled resonant mechanical systems are of great utility for the study of complex dynamics in systems ranging from biology to electronics to photonics. In this work, we report the detailed experimental study of internal dissipation in micro- and nanomechanical oscillators fabricated from amorphous and crystalline diamond materials, atomistic modeling of dissipation in amorphous, defect-free, and defect-containing crystalline silicon, and experimental work on the properties of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled mechanical oscillator arrays. We have identified that internal dissipation in most micro- and nanoscale oscillators is limited by defect relaxation processes, with large differences in the nature of the defects as the local order of the material ranges from amorphous to crystalline. Atomistic simulations also showed a dominant role of defect relaxation processes in controlling internal dissipation. Our studies of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled oscillator arrays revealed that it is possible to create mechanical systems that should be ideal for the study of non-linear dynamics and localization.

  6. Development of Geometry Normalized Electromagnetic System (GNES) instrument for metal defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zakaria; Surbakti, Muhammad Syukri; Syahreza, Saumi; Mat Jafri, Mohd. Zubir; Tan, Kok Chooi

    2017-10-01

    It has been already made, calibrated and tested a geometry normalized electromagnetic system (GNES) for metal defect examination. The GNES has an automatic data acquisition system which supporting the efficiency and accuracy of the measurement. The data will be displayed on the computer monitor as a graphic display then saved automatically in the Microsoft Excel format. The transmitter will transmit the frequency pair (FP) signals i.e. 112.5 Hz and 337.5 Hz; 112.5 Hz and 1012.5 Hz; 112.5 Hz and 3037.5 Hz; 337.5 Hz and 1012.5 Hz; 337.5 Hz and 3037.5 Hz. Simultaneous transmissions of two electromagnetic waves without distortions by the transmitter will induce an eddy current in the metal. This current, in turn, will produce secondary electromagnetic fields which are measured by the receiver together with the primary fields. Measurement of percent change of a vertical component of the fields will give the percent response caused by the metal or the defect. The response examinations were performed by the models with various type of defect for the master curves. The materials of samples as a plate were using Aluminum, Brass, and Copper. The more of the defects is the more reduction of the eddy current response. The defect contrasts were tended to decrease when the more depth of the defect position. The magnitude and phase of the eddy currents will affect the loading on the coil thus its impedance. The defect must interrupt the surface eddy current flow to be detected. Defect lying parallel to the current path will not cause any significant interruption and may not be detected. The main factors which affect the eddy current response are metal conductivity, permeability, frequency, and geometry.

  7. System reliability evaluation of a touch panel manufacturing system with defect rate and reworking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Huang, Cheng-Fu; Chang, Ping-Chen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, portable consumer electronic products, such as cell phone, GPS, digital camera, tablet PC, and notebook are using touch panel as interface. With the demand of touch panel increases, performance assessment is essential for touch panel production. This paper develops a method to evaluate system reliability of a touch panel manufacturing system (TPMS) with defect rate of each workstation and takes reworking actions into account. The system reliability which evaluates the possibility of demand satisfaction can provide to managers with an understanding of the system capability and can indicate possible improvements. First, we construct a capacitated manufacturing network (CMN) for a TPMS. Second, a decomposition technique is developed to determine the input flow of each workstation based on the CMN. Finally, we generate the minimal capacity vectors that should be provided to satisfy the demand. The system reliability is subsequently evaluated in terms of the minimal capacity vectors. A further decision making issue is discussed to decide a reliable production strategy. -- Graphical abstract: The proposed procedure to evaluate system reliability of the touch panel manufacturing system (TPMS). Highlights: • The system reliability of a touch panel manufacturing system (TPMS) is evaluated. • The reworking actions are taken into account in the TPMS. • A capacitated manufacturing network is constructed for the TPMS. • A procedure is proposed to evaluate system reliability of TPMS

  8. Maternal systemic or cord blood inflammation is associated with birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A L; Pedersen, S H; Urassa, M; Michael, D; Andreasen, A; Todd, J; Kinung'hi, S M; Changalucha, J; McDermid, J M

    2017-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for foetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n = 44) and HIV-negative (n = 70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed. Linear regression modelled associations between maternal or cord blood cytokines and birth anthropometry. Health indicators (haemoglobin, mid-upper-arm circumference, body mass index) in HIV-positive mothers without considerable immunosuppression did not differ from HIV-negative women. Despite this, HIV-exposed infants had lower birthweight and length. Subgroup analyses indicated that HIV management using HAART was associated with lower plasma TNF-α, as were longer durations of any antiretroviral therapy (≥2 months). Greater maternal plasma TNF-α was associated with earlier delivery (-1.7 weeks, P = 0.039) and lower birthweights (-287 g; P = 0.020), while greater umbilical cord TNF-α (-1.43 cm; P = 0.036) and IL-12p70 (-2.4 cm; P = 0.008) were associated with shorter birth length. Birthweight was inversely associated with cord IL-12p70 (-723 g; P = 0.001) and IFN-γ (-482 g, P = 0.007). Maternal cytokines during pregnancy did not correlate with umbilical cord cytokines at delivery. Systemic inflammation identified in maternal plasma or umbilical cord blood was associated with poorer birth anthropometrics in HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants. Controlling maternal and/or foetal systemic inflammation may improve birth anthropometry. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Scanning Electron Microscope Mapping System Developed for Detecting Surface Defects in Fatigue Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Peter T.

    2002-01-01

    An automated two-degree-of-freedom specimen positioning stage has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to map and monitor defects in fatigue specimens. This system expedites the examination of the entire gauge section of fatigue specimens so that defects can be found using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Translation and rotation stages are driven by microprocessor-based controllers that are, in turn, interfaced to a computer running custom-designed software. This system is currently being used to find and record the location of ceramic inclusions in powder metallurgy materials. The mapped inclusions are periodically examined during interrupted fatigue experiments. The number of cycles to initiate cracks from these inclusions and the rate of growth of initiated cracks can then be quantified. This information is necessary to quantify the effect of this type of defect on the durability of powder metallurgy materials. This system was developed with support of the Ultra Safe program.

  10. Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Huanyang

    2014-09-19

    Zero-index-metamaterials (ZIM) have drawn much attention due to their intriguing properties and novel applications. Particularly, in a parallel plated ZIM waveguide system with defects, total reflection or transmission of wave can be achieved by adjusting the properties of defects. This effect has been explored extensively in different types of ZIM (e.g., epsilon-near-zero metamaterials, matched impedance ZIM, or anisotropic ZIM). Almost all previous literatures showed that only monopole modes are excited inside the defects if they are in circular cylinder shapes. However, the underlying physics for excited modes inside defects is wrongly ignored. In this work, we uncover that additional modes could be excited by theoretical analysis, which is important as it will correct the current common perception. For the case of matched impedance zero-index metamaterials (MIZIM), the additional dipole modes can be excited inside the defects when total transmission occurs. Moreover, we also observe the same results in Dirac-cone-like photonic crystals which have been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally to function as MIZIM. For another case of epsilon-near-zero metamaterials (ENZ), we find that additional higher order modes (e.g., tri-pole) can be excited inside the defects when total transmission happens. Numerical simulations are performed to verify our finding regarding the additional modes.

  11. Theoretical study of native point defects in strained-layer superlattice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Yu, Zhi Gang

    2018-04-01

    We developed a theoretical approach that employs first-principles Hamiltonians, tight-binding Hamiltonians, and Green's function techniques to obtain energy levels arising from native point defects (NPDs) in InAs-GaSb and InAs-InAs1-xSbx strained layer superlattice (SLS) systems. In InAs and GaSb regions, we considered four types of NPDs—anion vacancy, cation vacancy, anion anti-site, and cation anti-site—as well as isoelectronic substitution at anion sites (Sb at the As site and As at the Sb site). Additionally, we considered three types of defects—the cation at the second anion site, the second anion at the cation site, and second anion vacancy—in the InAs1-xSbx alloy region of the SLS. For a selected few designs, we studied NPDs both in the bulk region and near the interfaces of the SLS. We have considered 12 designs of InAs-GaSb systems and two designs of InAs-InAs0.7Sb0.3 systems lattice-matched to the GaSb substrate. The calculated defect levels not only agreed well with available measurements, but also revealed the connection between mid-gap levels and specific NPDs. We further calculated defect formation energies both in compounds and in all superlattices considered above. Since the absolute value of defect formation energy depends considerably on growth conditions, we evaluated the formation energies in SLS with respect to their value in the corresponding bulk or alloy. The calculated defect formation energies, together with defect energy level results, allow us to identify a few promising SLS designs for high-performing photodetectors.

  12. Analyzing Defects in the "Caenorhabditis Elegans" Nervous System Using Organismal and Cell Biological Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziewicz, Megan; Vitullo, Toni; Simmons, Bethany; Kohn, Rebecca Eustance

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this laboratory exercise is to increase student understanding of the impact of nervous system function at both the organismal and cellular levels. This inquiry-based exercise is designed for an undergraduate course examining principles of cell biology. After observing the movement of "Caenorhabditis elegans" with defects in their…

  13. Topological invariants of Floquet systems: General formulation, special properties, and Floquet topological defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunyu; Yan, Zhongbo; Wang, Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Periodically driven (Floquet) systems have been under active theoretical and experimental investigations. This paper aims at a systematic study in the following aspects of Floquet systems: (i) a systematic formulation of topological invariants of Floquet systems based on the cooperation of topology and symmetries. Topological invariants are constructed for the ten symmetry classes in all spatial dimensions, for both homogeneous Floquet systems (Floquet topological insulators and superconductors) and Floquet topological defects. Meanwhile, useful representative Dirac Hamiltonians for all the symmetry classes are obtained and studied. (ii) A general theory of Floquet topological defects, based on the proposed topological invariants. (iii) Models and proposals of Floquet topological defects in low dimensions. Among other defect modes, we investigate Floquet Majorana zero modes and Majorana Pi modes in vortices of topologically trivial superconductors under a periodic drive. In addition, we clarified several notable issues about Floquet topological invariants. Among other issues, we prove the equivalence between the effective-Hamiltonian-based band topological invariants and the frequency-domain band topological invariants.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of a Rotor-Bearing-SFD System with the Bearing Inner Race Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a rotor-bearing-SFD system with the inner race defect of bearing is investigated. The contact force between the rolling element and the race is calculated in Hertzian contact and elastohydrodynamic lubrication condition. The supporting force of the SFD is simulated by integrating the pressure distribution derived from Reynolds’s equation. The equations of motion of the rotor-bearing-SFD system are derived and solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic behavior and the fault characteristics are analyzed with two configurations of the SFD: (1 mounted on the unfaulted bearing and (2 mounted on the faulty bearing. According to the analysis of time-frequency diagram, waterfall plot, and spectral diagram, the results show that the characteristics of inner race defects on bearing frequencies are related to the characteristic multiple frequency of the inner race defect and the fundamental frequency. The speed and defect width have different influence on the distribution and amplitude of frequency. The SFD can enhance the system stability under the bearing fault but the enhancement decreases with the increasing speed. Meanwhile, the beneficial effect of the SFD varies according to the mounted position in the rotor system.

  15. Dynamic behavior of an eco-epidemic system with impulsive birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Aihua; Xue, Yakui; Jin, Zhen

    2008-09-01

    In the paper, we investigate an eco-epidemic system with impulsive birthE The conditions for the stability of infection-free periodic solution are given by applying Floquet theory of linear periodic impulsive equation. And we give the conditions of persistence by constructing a consequence of some abstract monotone iterative schemes. By using the method of coincidence degree, a set of sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of at least one strictly positive periodic solution. Finally, numerical simulation shows that there exists a stable positive periodic solution with a maximum value no larger than a given level. Thus, we can use the stability of the positive periodic solution and its period to control insect pests at acceptably low levels.

  16. Study of the predominant defect development in rails of underground systems after preventive grinding and lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Serhii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the method of contact surface treatment and to define the rational surface roughness in the wheel/rail contact for the minimal growth rate of contact fatigue defects the program of experiments in operational conditions was developed. On the basis of the results and calculations the coefficients of regression equations, which describe dependencies of the wear rate on the parameters of the contact surface treatment in real operational conditions were obtained. Besides, the diagrams of dependencies of the friction coefficient on the roughness of railhead contact surface of the high rails with and without lubrication, when laid in curves of underground systems, were built. The experiments conducted in operational conditions of Kharkiv Metro revealed the influence of roughness of the railhead side surface of the high rails in curves on the contact fatigue defect development after preventive grinding and lubrication. According to the results of the experiments it was established that the rail preventive grinding with simultaneous lubrication led to slower contact fatigue defect development in rails of underground systems. The rational roughness of the railhead side surface of the high rails in curves after preventive grinding, which led to the minimal rate of defect development, was defined.

  17. ICD-10 impact on ascertainment and accuracy of oral cleft cases as recorded by the Brazilian national live birth information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Ricardo Lima; Castilla, Eduardo E; Dutra, Maria da Graça; Orioli, Iêda M

    2018-02-09

    We compared Brazilian oral cleft (OC) frequencies between the population-based Brazilian System of Live Birth (SINASC) and the hospital-based Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), trying to understand the paucity of cleft of lip and palate (CLP) in the first system. SINASC uses the International Classification of Disease version 10 (ICD-10) for congenital defects coding, ECLAMC uses ICD-8 with modifications. In SINASC, the CLP frequency was 1.7 per 10,000 (95% confidence limits 1.7-1.8), cleft lip (CL) 1.6 (1.5-1.7), and cleft palate (CP) 2.0 (1.9-2.1). In ECLAMC, the CLP frequency was 10.4 per 10,000 (9.0-12.1), CL 5.5 (4.5-6.7), and CP 4.4. (4.5-6.7). In SINASC, only 33% of the oral clefts were CLP, versus 51% in ECLAMC. Part of this discrepancy may have been due to the relative excess of CP and CL cases. Although congenital defect frequencies are usually lower in population than in hospital-based registries, differences in the proportion of the main OC categories are not expected and are probably due to ICD-10 coding issues, such as lumping of unilateral CL and CL without other specifications. ICD-10 codes, whose deficiency for oral clefts is fully explained in the literature, lack modifiers for severity, or clinical subtypes. This paper shows the practical aspect of the ICD-10 system deficiency in capturing cleft lip and palate (CLP) subtypes, as demonstrated in SINASC covering three million births per year. Such errors are expected to occur in any registry that uses the ICD-10 coding system, and must be adjusted, given its relevance worldwide. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  19. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  20. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  1. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  2. Bladder Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siffel, Csaba; Correa, Adolfo; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We

  3. Dynamics of Defects and Dopants in Complex Systems: Si and Oxide Surfaces and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Taras; Yu, Decai; Banarjee, Sanjay; Hwang, Gyeong

    2004-10-01

    Fabrication of forthcoming nanometer scale electronic devices faces many difficulties including formation of extremely shallow and highly doped junctions. At present, ultra-low-energy ion implantation followed by high-temperature thermal annealing is most widely used to fabricate such ultra-shallow junctions. In the process, a great challenge lies in achieving precise control of redistribution and electrical activation of dopant impurities. Native defects (such as vacancies and interstitials) generated during implantation are known to be mainly responsible for the TED and also influence significantly the electrical activation/deactivation. Defect-dopant dynamics is rather well understood in crystalline Si and SiO2. However, little is known about their diffusion and annihilation (or precipitation) at the surfaces and interfaces, despite its growing importance in determining junction profiles as device dimensions get smaller. In this talk, we will present our density functional theory calculation results on the atomic and electronic structure and dynamical behavior of native defects and dopant-defect complexes in disordered/strained Si and oxide systems, such as i) clean and absorbent-modified Si(100) surface and subsurface layers, ii) amorphous-crystalline Si interfaces and iii) amorphous SiO2/Si interfaces. The fundamental understanding and data is essential in developing a comprehensive kinetic model for junction formation, which would contribute greatly in improving current process technologies.

  4. Postablative reconstruction of vulvar defects with local fasciocutaneous flaps and superficial fascial system repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Tzakas, Elias

    2012-08-01

    Postablative reconstruction of vulvar defects is a difficult challenge because of the functional, locational and cosmetic importance of this region. Local flaps carry a high incidence of delayed wound healing as local flaps may redistribute but not eliminate local wound tension. Repair of the superficial fascial system may avert local complications by minimising tension to the skin and increasing the initial biomechanical strength of wound. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome of local fasciocutaneous flaps used for postablative reconstruction of vulvar defects in which the superficial fascial system was repaired. A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients with vulvar carcinoma in situ or vulvar carcinoma, who underwent ablation and immediate reconstruction with local fasciocutaneous flaps and superficial fascial system repair. Postoperative complications were recorded and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Twelve of the 13 flaps healed primarily. Complications included 2 superficial wound infections, both of which were treated successfully with antibiotic therapy. One flap was complicated by minor wound dehiscence, which healed with conservative treatment. Local fasciocutaneous flaps with superficial fascial system repair provide excellent design flexibility and can be designed and tailored to reconstruct postablative vulvar defects with good outcomes and minimal morbidity.

  5. A graphical automated detection system to locate hardwood log surface defects using high-resolution three-dimensional laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liya Thomas; R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an automated defect detection system and a state-of-the-art Graphic User Interface (GUI) for hardwood logs. The algorithm identifies defects at least 0.5 inch high and at least 3 inches in diameter on barked hardwood log and stem surfaces. To summarize defect features and to build a knowledge base, hundreds of defects were measured, photographed, and...

  6. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C; Lähteenmäki, P; Träger, C; Stokland, T; Grell, K; Gustafson, G; Kogner, P; Sehested, A; Schüz, J

    2010-05-25

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease. In a large case-control study nested in the populations of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland of 4.4 million children, we studied the association of birth order and seasonal variation of birth with subsequent risk for CNS tumours. We identified 3983 children from the national cancer registries, and information on exposure was obtained from the high-quality national administrative health registries. We investigated the association between childcare attendance during the first 2 years of life and the risk for CNS tumours in a subset of Danish children with CNS tumours, using information from the Danish Childcare database. We observed no association between birth order and risk of CNS tumours overall (odds ratio (OR) for second born or later born vs first born, 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10) or by histological subgroup, and children with CNS tumours did not show a seasonal variation of birth that was distinct from that of the background population. Childcare attendance compared with homecare showed a slightly increased OR (1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.86) for CNS tumours, with the highest risk observed in children attending a crèche. The strongest association was observed for embryonal CNS tumours. We found no effect of age at enrolment or duration of enrolment in childcare. These results do not support the hypothesis that the burden of exposure to infectious disease in early childhood has an important role in the aetiology of paediatric CNS tumours.

  7. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert′s Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Rathee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. But each treatment plan undertaken should be customized according to patient needs. A variety of factors such as quality and quantity of existing contiguous hard and soft tissues, systemic condition and economic status of the patient play an important role in treatment planning, clinical outcome and prognosis. This case report presents the restoration of a Seibert′s Class III ridge defect by an economical modification of Andrews Bridge in a 32 Year old patient.

  8. Cranial birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de

  9. Modeling the induced mutation process in bacterial cells with defects in excision repair system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugay, A. N.; Vasilyeva, M. A.; Krasavin, E. A.; Parkhomenko, A. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model of the UV-induced mutation process in Escherichia coli cells with defects in the uvrA and polA genes has been developed. The model describes in detail the reaction kinetics for the excision repair system. The number of mismatches as a result of translesion synthesis is calculated for both wild-type and mutant cells. The effect of temporal modulation of the number of single-stranded DNA during postreplication repair has been predicted. A comparison of effectiveness of different repair systems has been conducted.

  10. Emerging economic viability of grid defection in a northern climate using solar hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantamneni, Abhilash; Winkler, Richelle; Gauchia, Lucia; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    High demand for photovoltaic (PV), battery, and small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technologies are driving a virtuous cycle of technological improvements and cost reductions in off-grid electric systems that increasingly compete with the grid market. Using a case study in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, this paper quantifies the economic viability of off-grid PV+battery+CHP adoption and evaluates potential implications for grid-based utility models. The analysis shows that already some households could save money by switching to a solar hybrid off-grid system in comparison to the effective electric rates they are currently paying. Across the region by 2020, 92% of seasonal households and ~75% of year-round households are projected to meet electricity demands with lower costs. Furthermore, ~65% of all Upper Peninsula single-family owner-occupied households will both meet grid parity and be able to afford the systems by 2020. The results imply that economic circumstances could spur a positive feedback loop whereby grid electricity prices continue to rise and increasing numbers of customers choose alternatives (sometimes referred to as a “utility death spiral”), particularly in areas with relatively high electric utility rates. Utility companies and policy makers must take the potential for grid defection seriously when evaluating energy supply strategies. - Highlights: •Quantifies the economic viability of off-grid hybrid photovoltaic (PV) systems. •PV is backed up with batteries and combined heat and power (CHP). •Case study in Michigan by household size (energy demand) and income. •By 2020, majority of single-family owner-occupied households can defect. •To prevent mass-scale grid defection policies needed for grid-tied PV systems.

  11. Defective Bone Repair in C57Bl6 Mice With Acute Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, D A; Hui, D; Gao, C; Awlia, A; Al-Saran, Y; Li, A; Henderson, J E; Martineau, P A

    2017-03-01

    Bone repair is initiated with a local inflammatory response to injury. The presence of systemic inflammation impairs bone healing and often leads to malunion, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Our research objective was to use a mouse model of cortical bone repair to determine the effect of systemic inflammation on cells in the bone healing microenvironment. QUESTION/PURPOSES: (1) Does systemic inflammation, induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration affect the quantity and quality of regenerating bone in primary bone healing? (2) Does systemic inflammation alter vascularization and the number or activity of inflammatory cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts in the bone healing microenvironment? Cortical defects were drilled in the femoral diaphysis of female and male C57BL/6 mice aged 5 to 9 months that were treated with daily systemic injections of LPS or physiologic saline as control for 7 days. Mice were euthanized at 1 week (Control, n = 7; LPS, n = 8), 2 weeks (Control, n = 7; LPS, n = 8), and 6 weeks (Control, n = 9; LPS, n = 8) after surgery. The quantity (bone volume per tissue volume [BV/TV]) and microarchitecture (trabecular separation and thickness, porosity) of bone in the defect were quantified with time using microCT. The presence or activity of vascular endothelial cells (CD34), macrophages (F4/80), osteoblasts (alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), and osteoclasts (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]) were evaluated using histochemical analyses. Only one of eight defects was bridged completely 6 weeks after surgery in LPS-injected mouse bones compared with seven of nine defects in the control mouse bones (odds ratio [OR], 0.04; 95% CI, 0.003-0.560; p = 0.007). The decrease in cortical bone in LPS-treated mice was reflected in reduced BV/TV (21% ± 4% vs 39% ± 10%; p inflammation reduced the amount and impaired the quality of bone regenerated in mouse femurs. The effects were associated with impaired revascularization

  12. Trabecular metal acetabular revision system (cup-cage construct to address the massive acetabular defects in revision arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Malhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of total hip replacements in the younger clique has added to the demand for revision procedures. Revision situations are often encountered with infection, loss of bone stock and bone defects. There are various methods of reconstruction of acetabular defects. The management options of type 3B Paprosky acetabular defects are limited with allograft and conventional cages. Trabecular metal technology has evolved to address these bone defects. Trabecular metal acetabular revision system (TMARS cup-cage construct is a new technique to address massive acetabular defects. We describe a case of failed hip reconstruction done for a Giant cell tumour of proximal femur managed by a two stage procedure, initial debridement and second stage reconstruction of acetabulum with TMARS cup-cage construct and femur with allograft prosthesis composite.

  13. Clinical documentation variations and NLP system portability: a case study in asthma birth cohorts across institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Wang, Yanshan; Wi, Chung-Il; Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Ryu, Euijung; Ali, Mir H; Juhn, Young J; Liu, Hongfang

    2017-11-30

    To assess clinical documentation variations across health care institutions using different electronic medical record systems and investigate how they affect natural language processing (NLP) system portability. Birth cohorts from Mayo Clinic and Sanford Children's Hospital (SCH) were used in this study (n = 298 for each). Documentation variations regarding asthma between the 2 cohorts were examined in various aspects: (1) overall corpus at the word level (ie, lexical variation), (2) topics and asthma-related concepts (ie, semantic variation), and (3) clinical note types (ie, process variation). We compared those statistics and explored NLP system portability for asthma ascertainment in 2 stages: prototype and refinement. There exist notable lexical variations (word-level similarity = 0.669) and process variations (differences in major note types containing asthma-related concepts). However, semantic-level corpora were relatively homogeneous (topic similarity = 0.944, asthma-related concept similarity = 0.971). The NLP system for asthma ascertainment had an F-score of 0.937 at Mayo, and produced 0.813 (prototype) and 0.908 (refinement) when applied at SCH. The criteria for asthma ascertainment are largely dependent on asthma-related concepts. Therefore, we believe that semantic similarity is important to estimate NLP system portability. As the Mayo Clinic and SCH corpora were relatively homogeneous at a semantic level, the NLP system, developed at Mayo Clinic, was imported to SCH successfully with proper adjustments to deal with the intrinsic corpus heterogeneity.

  14. Attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China: A follow-up study based on Maternal and Newborn's Health Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiqun; Wu, Keye; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Huanqing; Yang, Qi; Chen, Dafang

    2018-02-01

    to evaluate the independent association between attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China, measured either as the occurrence of preterm birth or low birth weight. a follow-up study. the data was collected from maternal and newborn's health monitoring system at 6 provinces in China. all pregnant women registered in the system at their first prenatal care visit. We included 40152 registered pregnant women who had delivered between October 2013 and September 2014. attendance at prenatal care was evaluated using Kessner index. χ 2 tests were used to examine the correlations between demographic characteristics and preterm birth or low birth weight. The associations between attendance at prenatal care and birth outcomes were explored using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models. the prevalence for preterm birth and low birth weight was 3.31% and 2.55%. The null models showed region clustering on birth outcomes. Compared with women who received adequate prenatal care, those with intermediate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.62, 95%CI 1.37-1.92) or inadequate prenatal care (adjusted OR 2.78, 95%CI 2.24-3.44) had significantly increased risks for preterm birth, and women with intermediate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.31, 95%CI 1.10-1.55) or inadequate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.70, 95%CI 1.32-2.19) had significantly increased risks for low birth weight. We found very significant dose-response patterns for both preterm birth (p-trendprenatal care in China has independent effects on both preterm birth and low birth weight. Appropriate timing and number of prenatal care visits can help to reduce the occurrence of preterm birth or low birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase Retrieval System for Assessing Diamond Turning and Optical Surface Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce; Maldonado, Alex; Bolcar, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    An optical design is presented for a measurement system used to assess the impact of surface errors originating from diamond turning artifacts. Diamond turning artifacts are common by-products of optical surface shaping using the diamond turning process (a diamond-tipped cutting tool used in a lathe configuration). Assessing and evaluating the errors imparted by diamond turning (including other surface errors attributed to optical manufacturing techniques) can be problematic and generally requires the use of an optical interferometer. Commercial interferometers can be expensive when compared to the simple optical setup developed here, which is used in combination with an image-based sensing technique (phase retrieval). Phase retrieval is a general term used in optics to describe the estimation of optical imperfections or aberrations. This turnkey system uses only image-based data and has minimal hardware requirements. The system is straightforward to set up, easy to align, and can provide nanometer accuracy on the measurement of optical surface defects.

  16. A Knowledge-Based System For Analysis, Intervention Planning and Prevention of Defects in Immovable Cultural Heritage Objects and Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, J.; Cacciotti, R.; Kuneš, P.; ČerÅanský, M.; Bláha, J.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents a project aiming to develop a knowledge-based system for documentation and analysis of defects of cultural heritage objects and monuments. The MONDIS information system concentrates knowledge on damage of immovable structures due to various causes, and preventive/remedial actions performed to protect/repair them, where possible. The currently built system is to provide for understanding of causal relationships between a defect, materials, external load, and environment of built object. Foundation for the knowledge-based system will be the systemized and formalized knowledge on defects and their mitigation acquired in the process of analysis of a representative set of cases documented in the past. On the basis of design comparability, used technologies, materials and the nature of the external forces and surroundings, the developed software system has the capacity to indicate the most likely risks of new defect occurrence or the extension of the existing ones. The system will also allow for a comparison of the actual failure with similar cases documented and will propose a suitable technical intervention plan. The system will provide conservationists, administrators and owners of historical objects with a toolkit for defect documentation for their objects. Also, advanced artificial intelligence methods will offer accumulated knowledge to users and will also enable them to get oriented in relevant techniques of preventive interventions and reconstructions based on similarity with their case.

  17. Dynamical Analysis of a Delayed Predator-Prey System with Birth Pulse and Impulsive Harvesting at Different Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lansun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a delayed Holling type II predator-prey system with birth pulse and impulsive harvesting on predator population at different moments. Firstly, we prove that all solutions of the investigated system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Secondly, the conditions of the globally attractive prey-extinction boundary periodic solution of the investigated system are obtained. Finally, the permanence of the investigated system is also obtained. Our results provide reliable tactic basis for the practical biological economics management.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Radiant Heat Transfer in Mirror Systems Considering Deep Reflecting Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Leonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing large-sized mirror concentrating systems (MCS for high-temperature solar power plants, one must have at disposal reasonably reliable and economical methods and tools, making it possible to analyze its characteristics, to predict them depending on the operation conditions and accordingly to choose the most suitable system for the solution of particular task.Experimental determination of MCS characteristics requires complicated and expensive experimentation, having significant limitations on interpretation of the results, as well as limitations imposed due to the size of the structure. Therefore it is of particular interest to develop a mathematical model capable of estimating power characteristics of MCS considering the influence of operating conditions, design features, roughness and other surface defects.For efficient solution of the tasks the model must ensure simulation of solar radiant flux as well as simulation of geometrical and optical characteristics of reflection surface and their interaction. In this connection a statistical mathematical model of radiation heat exchange based on use of Monte Carlo methods and Finite Element Method was developed and realized in the software complex, making it possible to determine main characteristics of the MCS.In this paper the main attention is given to definition of MCS radiation characteristics with account for deep reflecting surface defects (cavities, craters. Deep cavities are not typical for MCS, but their occurrence is possible during operation as a result of erosion or any physical damage. For example, for space technology it is primarily micrometeorite erosion.

  19. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy are defective in the taurine-deficient heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-12-01

    Taurine depletion leads to impaired mitochondrial function, as characterized by reduced ATP production and elevated superoxide generation. These defects can fundamentally alter cardiomyocyte function and if left unchanged can result in cell death. To protect against these stresses, cardiomyocytes possess quality control processes, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, which can rejuvenate cells through the degradation of damaged proteins and organelles. Hence, the present study tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species generated by damaged mitochondria initiates UPS and autophagy in the taurine-deficient heart. Using transgenic mice lacking the taurine transporter (TauTKO) as a model of taurine deficiency, it was shown that the levels of ubiquitinated protein were elevated, an effect associated with a decrease in ATP-dependent 26S β5 proteasome activity. Treating the TauTKO mouse with the mitochondria-specific antioxidant, mitoTEMPO, largely abolished the increase in ubiquitinated protein content. The TauTKO heart was also associated with impaired autophagy, characterized by an increase in the initiator, Beclin-1, and autophagosome content, but a defect in the generation of active autophagolysosomes. Although mitoTEMPO treatment only restores the oxidative balance within the mitochondria, it appeared to completely disrupt the crosstalk between the damaged mitochondria and the quality control processes. Thus, mitochondrial oxidative stress is the main trigger initiating the quality control systems in the taurine-deficient heart. We conclude that the activation of the UPS and autophagy is another fundamental function of mitochondria.

  20. System for determining and locating a defective fuel element in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosgrove, R.O.; Moody, E.; Sletten, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    A system for detecting and locating defective fuel elements in a nuclear reactor, e.g. a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) is described. In such a reactor, there are a large number of fuel rods situated in a radio-active core. A continuous flow of a liquid heat exchange metal, e.g. liquid sodium flows past the fuel rods. The system according to the invention first obtains a combined sample of the heat exchanger liquid, which emerges from at least one selected group of containers containing a large number of fuel rods. This combined sample is examined regarding the presence or absence of a predetermined contaminating fission material, particularly fission material emitting neutrons, which gets into the heat exchange liquid due to a defect (break) in one or more fuel rods. If the presence of a contaminating fission material is detected in the combined sample, individual samples of heat exchange liquid are taken from the individual containers, one at a time. These individual samples are also examined for the presence or absence of the contaminating fission material. Thus the fuel rod container which is responsible for the presence of the contaminating fission material in the combined sample is identified. (orig.) [de

  1. Genetic defects in a His-Purkinje system transcription factor, IRX3, cause lethal cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Akiko; Sasano, Tetsuo; Kimura, Wataru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Aiba, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Nogami, Akihiko; Fukamizu, Seiji; Sakurada, Harumizu; Takahashi, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ishikura, Tomoyuki; Koseki, Haruhiko; Arimura, Takuro; Kimura, Akinori; Hirao, Kenzo; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Shimizu, Wataru; Miura, Naoyuki; Furukawa, Tetsushi

    2016-05-07

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF), the main cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD), occurs most frequently in the acute phase of myocardial infarction: a certain fraction of VF, however, develops in an apparently healthy heart, referred as idiopathic VF. The contribution of perturbation in the fast conduction system in the ventricle, the His-Purkinje system, for idiopathic VF has been implicated, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Irx3/IRX3 encodes a transcription factor specifically expressed in the His-Purkinje system in the heart. Genetic deletion of Irx3 provides a mouse model of ventricular fast conduction disturbance without anatomical or contraction abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine the link between perturbed His-Purkinje system and idiopathic VF in Irx3-null mice, and to search for IRX3 genetic defects in idiopathic VF patients in human. Telemetry electrocardiogram recording showed that Irx3-deleted mice developed frequent ventricular tachyarrhythmias mostly at night. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias were enhanced by exercise and sympathetic nerve activation. In human, the sequence analysis of IRX3 exons in 130 probands of idiopathic VF without SCN5A mutations revealed two novel IRX3 mutations, 1262G>C (R421P) and 1453C>A (P485T). Ventricular fibrillation associated with physical activities in both probands with IRX3 mutations. In HL-1 cells and neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes, IRX3 transfection up-regulated SCN5A and connexin-40 mRNA, which was attenuated by IRX3 mutations. IRX3 genetic defects and resultant functional perturbation in the His-Purkinje system are novel genetic risk factors of idiopathic VF, and would improve risk stratification and preventive therapy for SCD in otherwise healthy hearts. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Histochemical examination of systemic administration of eldecalcitol combined with guided bone regeneration for bone defect restoration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiuchun; Du, Juan; Liu, Di; Liu, Hongrui; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to elucidate the histological alterations after systemic administration of eldecalcitol (ELD) combined with guided bone regeneration during the restoration of bone defect healing in rats. The femurs of 8-week-old Wister rats were used to generate bone defect models. The defect was covered with a collagen membrane, and ELD group was administrated with eldecalcitol (50 ng/kg body weight) intragastrically once every other day. Femora were harvested at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-surgery. Decalcify tissue slices were made and used for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Bone biomarkers of RANKL, OPG and osteocalcin (OCN) were detected by western blot. The results revealed that the system administration of ELD could improve new bone formation demonstrated by the increased bone volume/tissue volume ratio and accelerated mineralization. ELD suppressed osteoclastic bone resorption by reducing the number of osteoclasts, decreasing the expression of cathepsin-K and the ratio of RANKL/OPG at the early stage of bone defect restoration (1 and 2 weeks) and upregulating OCN expression at the later stage of bone defect healing (4 and 8 weeks). These data suggested that systemic administration of eldecalcitol accelerated bone formation and promoted bone maturation by decreasing bone resorption and promoting bone mineralization during bone defect restoration.

  3. Correlates of poor perinatal outcomes in non-hospital births in the context of weak health system: the Nigerian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi

    2014-09-30

    Nigeria's high perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) could be most effectively reduced by targeting factors that are associated with increased newborn deaths. Low access to skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and weak health system are recognized factors associated with high PNMR but other socio-demographic and reproductive factors could have significant influences as well. Identification of the major factors associated with high PNMR would be required in designing interventions to improve perinatal outcomes. For this cross-sectional study, data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008 were used to estimate the PNMR of non-hospital births in identified socio-demographic and reproductive situations that are known to influence PNMR. The estimated PNMR were compared using logistic regression analysis. The PNMR was 36 per 1000 live births. North central region had the lowest PNMR while the south east region had the highest rate (odds ratio 1.59; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.45). Other correlates of high PNMR were belonging to the poorest wealth quintile (odds ratio 1.87; 95% CI: 1.30, 2.70), maternal age group 15-19 years (odds ratio 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.22), multiple birth (odds ratio 3.12; 95% CI: 2.11, 4.59), history of previous perinatal death (odds ratio 3.31; 95% CI: 2.73, 4.02), birth interval shorter than 18 months (odds ratio 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.17) and having a small birth size (odds ratio 2.56; 95% CI 1.79, 3.69). Birth attendant, place of birth, parity, maternal education and rural/urban residence had no association with PNMR. Reproductive factors that require midwifery skills were found to contribute most to PNMR. We recommend general strengthening of the health system, recruitment of SBAs and retraining of available birth attendants with emphasis on identification and referral of complicated cases. Family planning should be a core MCH activity to address the issues of teenage pregnancy and short pregnancy intervals.

  4. Two inhibitory systems and CKIs regulate cell cycle exit of mammalian cardiomyocytes after birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tane, Shoji; Okayama, Hitomi; Ikenishi, Aiko; Amemiya, Yuki [School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Nakayama, Keiichi I. [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takeuchi, Takashi, E-mail: takeuchi@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan)

    2015-10-16

    Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which they exit their cell cycle after birth, and the exit is maintained. Previously, we showed that two inhibitory systems (the G1-phase inhibitory system: repression of cyclin D1 expression; the M-phase inhibitory system: inhibition of CDK1 activation) maintain the cell cycle exit of mouse adult cardiomyocytes. We also showed that two CDK inhibitors (CKIs), p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, regulate the cell cycle exit in a portion of postnatal cardiomyocytes. It remains unknown whether the two inhibitory systems are involved in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes and whether p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} also inhibit entry to M-phase. Here, we showed that more than 40% of cardiomyocytes entered an additional cell cycle by induction of cyclin D1 expression at postnatal stages, but M-phase entry was inhibited in the majority of cardiomyocytes. Marked cell cycle progression and endoreplication were observed in cardiomyocytes of p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice at 4 weeks of age. In addition, tri- and tetranucleated cardiomyocytes increased significantly in p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice. These data showed that the G1-phase inhibitory system and two CKIs (p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}) inhibit entry to an additional cell cycle in postnatal cardiomyocytes, and that the M-phase inhibitory system and p21{sup Cip1} inhibit M-phase entry of cardiomyocytes which have entered the additional cell cycle. - Highlights: • Many postnatal cardiomyocytes entered an additional cell cycle by cyclin D1 induction. • The majority of cardiomyocytes could not enter M-phase after cyclin D1 induction. • Cell cycle progressed markedly in p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice after postnatal day 14. • Tri- and tetranucleated cardiomyocytes increased in p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice.

  5. Fiber-Optic Defect and Damage Locator System for Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Vahid Sotoudeh; Dr. Richard J. Black; Dr. Behzad Moslehi; Mr. Aleks Plavsic

    2010-10-30

    IFOS in collaboration with Auburn University demonstrated the feasibility of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) integrated sensor system capable of providing real time in-situ defect detection, localization and quantification of damage. In addition, the system is capable of validating wind turbine blade structural models, using recent advances in non-contact, non-destructive dynamic testing of composite structures. This new generation method makes it possible to analyze wind turbine blades not only non-destructively, but also without physically contacting or implanting intrusive electrical elements and transducers into the structure. Phase I successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technology with the construction of a 1.5 kHz sensor interrogator and preliminary instrumentation and testing of both composite material coupons and a wind turbine blade.

  6. Birthing Healthy Babies (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-11

    Birth defects are common, costly, and critical. If you’re pregnant or planning to get pregnant, you can take steps to improve your chances of giving birth to a healthy child. This podcast discusses ways to prevent birth defects.  Created: 1/11/2018 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/11/2018.

  7. Low birth weight activates the renin?angiotensin system, but limits cardiac angiogenesis in early postnatal life

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin?angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21?days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and p...

  8. Comparison of the four proposed Apgar scoring systems in the assessment of birth asphyxia and adverse early neurologic outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Dalili

    Full Text Available To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes.This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, and neonatal seizure.The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97% and specificity (99% in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95% and specific (97%. The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95% but not sensitive (67% and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81% and low specificity (81% in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02 and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01.The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates.

  9. Comparison of the Four Proposed Apgar Scoring Systems in the Assessment of Birth Asphyxia and Adverse Early Neurologic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalili, Hosein; Nili, Firouzeh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Hardani, Amir Kamal; Shariat, Mamak; Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and neonatal seizure. Results The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97%) and specificity (99%) in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95%) and specific (97%). The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95%) but not sensitive (67%) and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81%) and low specificity (81%) in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02) and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01). Conclusions The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates. PMID:25811904

  10. Effect of systemic administration of nicotine on healing in osseous defects. An experimental study in rabbits. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Sørensen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of systemic administration of nicotine on bone healing in osseous defects in the tibia of rabbits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits received nicotine (n=8; test group) or saline (n=8; control group) via subcutaneously...... 4 weeks and in the left leg after 6 weeks of nicotine/placebo exposure. Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created for the bone defects. After 8 weeks, the animals were killed. Tissue blocks including the bone defects were prepared for histological analysis. RESULTS: The animals in the test...... group lost weight, while the control group gained weight during the experiment. The prostaglandin E(2) levels in plasma increased significantly following nicotine exposure in the test group. No significant differences in the percentage of vessels and bone density in the osseous defects were found...

  11. Abrogation of the Twin Arginine Transport System in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Leads to Colonization Defects during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M. Megan; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Guo, Jinbai; Aldrich, Lindsay; Bokhari, Danial; Santiviago, Carlos A.; McClelland, Michael; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    2011-01-01

    TatC (STM3975) is a highly conserved component of the Twin Arginine Transport (Tat) systems that is required for transport of folded proteins across the inner membrane in gram-negative bacteria. We previously identified a ΔtatC mutant as defective in competitive infections with wild type ATCC14028 during systemic infection of Salmonella-susceptible BALB/c mice. Here we confirm these results and show that the ΔtatC mutant is internalized poorly by cultured J774-A.1 mouse macrophages a phenotype that may be related to the systemic infection defect. This mutant is also defective for short-term intestinal and systemic colonization after oral infection of BALB/c mice and is shed in reduced numbers in feces from orally infected Salmonella-resistant (CBA/J) mice. We show that the ΔtatC mutant is highly sensitive to bile acids perhaps resulting in the defect in intestinal infection that we observe. Finally, the ΔtatC mutant has an unusual combination of motility phenotypes in Salmonella; it is severely defective for swimming motility but is able to swarm well. The ΔtatC mutant has a lower amount of flagellin on the bacterial surface during swimming motility but normal levels under swarming conditions. PMID:21298091

  12. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  13. Photonic crystal channel drop filter based on ring-shaped defects for DWDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideban, Ali; Habibiyan, Hamidreza; Ghafoorifard, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel configuration of channel drop filters based on two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs in silicon-on-insulator platforms. The structure is composed of two photonic crystal line-defect waveguides as input and output ports, along with an L3 cavity with ring-shaped border holes. The effects of structural parameters and fabrication errors on resonance frequency and drop efficiency are investigated. Band structure and propagation of electromagnetic field through device are calculated by plane wave expansion and finite-difference time-domain methods. The results show that the quality factor and line-width of output signal are 5690 and 0.27 nm, respectively, indicating that the proposed filter can be properly used in dense wavelength division multiplexing systems with 0.8 nm channel spacing.

  14. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T.F.; Anastopoulos, A.D.; Garrett, M.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Oades, R.D.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Sergeant, J.A.; Kollins, S.H.; Faraone, S.V.; Ashley-Koch, A.; Consortium, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related

  15. Dietary factors and biomarkers of systemic inflammation in older people: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Janie; Kyle, Janet A M; Starr, John M; McNeill, Geraldine; Deary, Ian J

    2015-10-14

    Epidemiological studies have reported inverse associations between various single healthy diet indices and lower levels of systemic inflammation, but rarely are they examined in the same sample. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential relationships between biomarkers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen) and overall foods (dietary patterns), single foods (fruits and vegetables), and specific nutritive (antioxidants) and non-nutritive (flavonoids) food components in the same narrow-age cohort of older adults. The dietary intake of 792 participants aged 70 years from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 was assessed using a 168-item FFQ. Models were adjusted for age, sex, childhood cognitive ability, lifestyle factors and history of disease. Using logistic regression analyses, CRP (normal v. elevated) was favourably associated (at Pfruit intake (unstandardised β = (0·100, OR 0·91, 95 % CI 0·82, 0·99), including flavonoid-rich apples (unstandardised β = (0·456, OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·439, 0·946). Using linear regression analyses, fibrinogen (continuous) was inversely associated (at Pfruit intake (standardised β = (0·083), and combined fruit and vegetable intake (standardised β = (0·084). We observed no association between food components (antioxidant nutrients or specific flavonoid subclasses) and inflammatory markers. In the present cross-sectional study, nutrient-dense dietary patterns were associated with lower levels of systemic inflammation in older people. The results are consistent with dietary guidelines that promote a balanced diet based on a variety of plant-based foods.

  16. Different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs from vitrified ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Dattena, M; Mayorga Muñoz, I M

    2015-02-01

    It has been reported that different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs. The aim of this study was to test body weight and lambing rate of lambs born from five different in vitro culture systems after vitrification. Oocytes of Sarda sheep were matured in TCM-199 plus 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) using systems: (i) 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA4); (ii) 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA8); (iii) BSA8-hyaluronan (BSA8-HA); (iv) BSA8-charcoal-stripped FBS (BSA8-CH); or (v) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; serum) and fertilized with fresh semen. The presumptive zygotes were cultured up to the blastocyst stage with BSA8, BSA8-HA, BSA8-CH or serum or BSA4. In the third and fifth days of culture 5% charcoal-stripped FBS was added into BSA8-CH and serum, while 8 mg/ml or 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA was added as BSA8, BSA8-HA and BSA4 respectively; 6 mg/ml HA was added to BSA8-HA. In total, 240 vitrified blastocysts were transferred into synchronized ewes. The lambing rate was not significant different between BSA groups or between serum groups (BSA8-CH and serum), while serum groups showed significant lower values when compared with BSA groups. Only BSA8 groups produced heavy lambs (≥4.5 kg) with a significant difference between BSA4 and BSA8 groups (P < 0.05).

  17. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  18. Necessity and effects of dynamic systems for railway wheel defect detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vesković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available State of railway vehicles highly influences transport safety due to vehicle derailments and in the same time worsens the quality of freight and passenger transportation. One of important elements that influence the state of railway vehicles is the wheel state. Wheel defects are common in railway transport. Therefore, timely defect detection is very important. This paper presents ways and effects of timely detection of wheel defects.

  19. Chip yield for FETs fabricated on low-surface-defect GaAs wafers grown by a new MBE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Shigeta, J.; Miyata, T.; Kawata, M. (Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, N. (Kasado Works, Hitachi Ltd., Yamachuci (Japan)); Takahashi, K. (Mechanical Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    A very low defect density is achieved with a new MBE system, in which the diameter of the top-heated Ga cell is as big as 60 mm and the distance between the wafer and the cell is optimized at 450 mm by simulation. This system grows GaAs wafers with a defect density of 14.6 cm[sup -2] for defects larger than 0.67 [mu]m[sup 2]. Our chip yield estimation for field effect transistors in the LSIs fabricated on the wafers shows that the grown wafer can integrate 100,000 FETs if each FET gate is 0.3 [mu]m long and 5 [mu]m wide and a chip yield of 42% is assumed

  20. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  1. Birth Outcomes of Children Fathered by Men Treated with Systemic Corticosteroids during the Conception Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M D; Friedman, S; Magnussen, B

    2018-01-01

    the association between paternal use of SCS prior to conception and adverse birth outcomes. The study includes data from all singletons born in Denmark from 1January 1997 through 2013 (N=1,013,994). Children fathered by men who redeemed a prescription of SCS within 3 months before conception (N=2,380) constituted...... the exposed groups. The outcomes were congenital abnormalities (CAs), pre-term birth and small for gestational age (SGA). We adjusted for co-variates in multilevel logistic regression analyses. The adjusted odds ratios for pre-term birth and SGA were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.55-1.21) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.68-1.64...... the effect of paternal use of SCS prior to conception on birth outcomes. We found no significantly increased risk of pre-term birth or SGA. In children of fathers who redeemed at least two prescriptions of SCS within 3 months before conception, we found an increased risk of CAs, though not statistically...

  2. Reducing one million child deaths from birth asphyxia – a survey of health systems gaps and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manandhar Ananta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millions of child deaths and stillbirths are attributable to birth asphyxia, yet limited information is available to guide policy and practice, particularly at the community level. We surveyed selected policymakers, programme implementers and researchers to compile insights on policies, programmes, and research to reduce asphyxia-related deaths. Method A questionnaire was developed and pretested based on an extensive literature review, then sent by email (or airmail or fax, when necessary to 453 policymakers, programme implementers, and researchers active in child health, particularly at the community level. The survey was available in French and English and employed 5-point scales for respondents to rate effectiveness and feasibility of interventions and indicators. Open-ended questions permitted respondents to furnish additional details based on their experience. Significance testing was carried out using chi-square, F-test and Fisher's exact probability tests as appropriate. Results 173 individuals from 32 countries responded (44%. National newborn survival policies were reported to exist in 20 of 27 (74% developing countries represented, but respondents' answers were occasionally contradictory and revealed uncertainty about policy content, which may hinder policy implementation. Respondents emphasized confusing terminology and a lack of valid measurement indicators at community level as barriers to obtaining accurate data for decision making. Regarding interventions, birth preparedness and essential newborn care were considered both effective and feasible, while resuscitation at community level was considered less feasible. Respondents emphasized health systems strengthening for both supply and demand factors as programme priorities, particularly ensuring wide availability of skilled birth attendants, promotion of birth preparedness, and promotion of essential newborn care. Research priorities included operationalising

  3. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  4. Production and Maintenance Planning for a Deteriorating System with Operation-Dependent Defectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rivera-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides new insights to the area of sustainable manufacturing systems at analyzing the novel paradigm of integrated production logistics, quality, and maintenance design. For this purpose, we investigate the optimal production and repair/major maintenance switching strategy of an unreliable deteriorating manufacturing system. The effects of the deterioration process are mainly observed on the failure intensity and on the quality of the parts produced, where the rate of defectives depends on the production rate. When unplanned failures occur, either a minimal repair or a major maintenance could be conducted. The integration of availability and quality deterioration led us to propose a new stochastic dynamic programming model where optimality conditions are derived through the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations. The model defined the joint production and repair/major maintenance switching strategies minimizing the total cost over an infinite planning horizon. In the results, the influence of the deterioration process were evident in both the production and maintenances control parameters. A numerical example and an extensive sensitivity analysis were conducted to illustrate the usefulness of the results. Finally, the proposed control policy was compared with alternative strategies based on common assumptions of the literature in order to illustrate its efficiency.

  5. Changes in the newborn at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth - changes in the newborn ... heart and flows through the baby's body. At birth, the baby's lungs are filled with fluid. They ... gastrointestinal system doesn't fully function until after birth. In late pregnancy, the baby produces a tarry ...

  6. Birth, growth and progresses through the last twelve years of a regional scale landslide warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Riccardo; Segoni, Samuele; Rosi, Ascanio; Lagomarsino, Daniela; Catani, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    SIGMA is a regional landslide warning system that operates in the Emilia Romagna region (Italy). In this work, we depict its birth and the continuous development process, still ongoing, after over a decade of operational employ. Traditionally, landslide rainfall thresholds are defined by the empirical correspondence between a rainfall database and a landslide database. However, in the early stages of the research, a complete catalogue of dated landslides was not available. Therefore, the prototypal version of SIGMA was based on rainfall thresholds defined by means of a statistical analysis performed over the rainfall time series. SIGMA was purposely designed to take into account both shallow and deep seated landslides and it was based on the hypothesis that anomalous or extreme values of accumulated rainfall are responsible for landslide triggering. The statistical distribution of the rainfall series was analyzed, and multiples of the standard deviation (σ) were used as thresholds to discriminate between ordinary and extraordinary rainfall events. In the warning system, the measured and the forecasted rainfall are compared with these thresholds. Since the response of slope stability to rainfall may be complex, SIGMA is based on a decision algorithm aimed at identifying short but exceptionally intense rainfalls and mild but exceptionally prolonged rains: while the former are commonly associated with shallow landslides, the latter are mainly associated with deep-seated landslides. In the first case, the rainfall threshold is defined by high σ values and short durations (i.e. a few days); in the second case, σ values are lower but the decision algorithm checks long durations (i.e. some months). The exact definition of "high" and "low" σ values and of "short" and "long" duration varied through time according as it was adjusted during the evolution of the model. Indeed, since 2005, a constant work was carried out to gather and organize newly available data (rainfall

  7. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Research & Professionals Our research Research ...

  8. Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects: Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kit Prevent Mosquito Bites Controlling Mosquitoes at Home Sexual Transmission and Prevention Plan for Travel Zika & Blood Transfusion ... CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test ...

  9. National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  10. Study of program defects of 22nm nanoimprint template with an advanced e-beam inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Jun; Nakanishi, Yuko; Yusa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Shiho; Kurihara, Masaaki; Toyama, Nobuhito; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Xiao, Hong; Kuan, Chiyan; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Jau, Jack

    2009-10-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a candidate of alternative, low cost of ownership lithography solution for deep nano-meter device manufacturing12. For the NIL template pattern making, we have been developing the processes with 100keV SB EB writer and 50keV VSB EB writer to achieve the fine resolution of near 20nm1-7. However, inspection of nanoimprint template posed a big challenge to inspection system due to the small geometry, 1x comparing to 4x of Optical mask and EUV mask. Previous studies of nanoimprint template inspection were performed indirectly on a stamped wafer and/or on a round quartz wafer13. Electron beam inspection (EBI) systems have been widely used in semiconductor fabs in nanometer technology nodes. Most commonly EBI applications are electrical defects, or voltage contrast (VC) defects detection and monitoring8-11. In this study, we used a mask EBI system developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI) to directly inspect a NIL template with line/space and hole patterns half pitched from 22nm to 90nm and with program defects sized from 4nm to 92nm. Capability of inspection with 10nm pixel size has been demonstrated and capability of capturing program defects sized 12nm and smaller has been shown. This study proved the feasibility of EBI as inspection solution of nanoimprint template for 22nmHP and beyond.

  11. Disruptions to the cerebellar GABAergic system in juvenile guinea pigs following preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia C; Palliser, Hannah K; Dyson, Rebecca M; Berry, Mary J; Hirst, Jonathan J

    2018-04-01

    Children that are born preterm are at an increased risk of developing cognitive problems and behavioural disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is increasing interest in the role of the cerebellum in these processes and the potential involvement of GABAergic pathways in neurodevelopmental disorders. We propose that preterm birth, and the associated loss of the trophic intrauterine environment, alters the development of the cerebellum, contributing to ongoing neurobehavioral disorders. Guinea pigs were delivered preterm (GA62) or spontaneously at term (GA69), and tissues collected at corrected postnatal day (PND) 28. Neurodevelopmental and GABAergic markers myelin basic protein (MBP), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), calbindin (Purkinje cells), and GAD67 (GABA synthesis enzyme) were analysed in cerebellar lobules IX and X by immunohistochemistry. Protein expression of GAD67 and GAT1 (GABA transporter enzyme) were quantified by western blot, whilst neurosteroid-sensitive GABA A receptor subunits were measured by RT-PCR. MBP immunostaining was increased in lobule IX of preterm males, and reduced in lobule X of preterm females when compared to their term counterparts. GAD67 staining was decreased in lobule IX and X of the preterm males, but only in lobule X of the preterm females compared to term cohorts for each sex. Internal granule cell layer width of lobule X was decreased in preterm cohorts of both sexes compared to terms. There were no differences between gestational age groups for NeuN staining, GAD67 and GAT1 protein expression as measured by western blotting, or GABA A receptor subunits as measured by RT-PCR between preterm and term for either sex. The present findings suggest that components of the cerebellar GABAergic system of the ex-preterm cerebellum are disrupted. The higher expression of myelin in the preterm males may be due to a deficit in axonal pruning, whereas females have a deficit in myelination at 28 corrected days of

  12. Quality care during labour and birth: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Good outcomes during pregnancy and childbirth are related to availability, utilisation and effective implementation of essential interventions for labour and childbirth. The majority of the estimated 289,000 maternal deaths, 2.8 million neonatal deaths and 2.6 million stillbirths every year could be prevented by improving access to and scaling up quality care during labour and birth. Methods The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops engaged technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for skilled birth attendance and basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care. Results Across 12 countries the most critical bottlenecks identified by workshop participants for skilled birth attendance were health financing (10 out of 12 countries) and health workforce (9 out of 12 countries). Health service delivery bottlenecks were found to be the most critical for both basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care (9 out of 12 countries); health financing was identified as having critical bottlenecks for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (9 out of 12 countries). Solutions to address health financing bottlenecks included strengthening national financing mechanisms and removing financial barriers to care seeking. For addressing health workforce bottlenecks, improved human resource planning is needed, including task shifting and improving training quality. For health service delivery, proposed solutions included improving quality of care and establishing public private partnerships. Conclusions Progress towards

  13. Method for Vibration Response Simulation and Sensor Placement Optimization of a Machine Tool Spindle System with a Bearing Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongrui; Niu, Linkai; He, Zhengjia

    2012-01-01

    Bearing defects are one of the most important mechanical sources for vibration and noise generation in machine tool spindles. In this study, an integrated finite element (FE) model is proposed to predict the vibration responses of a spindle bearing system with localized bearing defects and then the sensor placement for better detection of bearing faults is optimized. A nonlinear bearing model is developed based on Jones' bearing theory, while the drawbar, shaft and housing are modeled as Timoshenko's beam. The bearing model is then integrated into the FE model of drawbar/shaft/housing by assembling equations of motion. The Newmark time integration method is used to solve the vibration responses numerically. The FE model of the spindle-bearing system was verified by conducting dynamic tests. Then, the localized bearing defects were modeled and vibration responses generated by the outer ring defect were simulated as an illustration. The optimization scheme of the sensor placement was carried out on the test spindle. The results proved that, the optimal sensor placement depends on the vibration modes under different boundary conditions and the transfer path between the excitation and the response. PMID:23012514

  14. Coagulation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Doreen E; Broadman, Lynn M

    2006-09-01

    The present understanding of the coagulation process emphasizes the final common pathway and the proteolytic systems that result in the degradation of formed clots and the prevention of unwanted clot formations, as well as a variety of defense systems that include tissue repair, autoimmune processes, arteriosclerosis, tumor growth, the spread of metastases, and defense systems against micro-organisms. This article discusses diagnosis and management of some of the most common bleeding disorders. The goals are to provide a simple guide on how best to manage patients afflicted with congenital or acquired clotting abnormalities during the perioperative period, present a brief overview of the methods of testing and monitoring the coagulation defects, and discuss the appropriate pharmacologic or blood component therapies for each disease.

  15. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, S; Lai, K; Yang, Z; Zeng, K

    2017-05-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to identify the association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and preterm birth. In this study, we studied the effects of SLE, SLE disease activity, a history of nephritis and active nephritis on preterm birth. Searches were conducted before 20 May 2016 of PubMed, Embase, Medline and Cochrane Library of literature and article reference lists. Eleven observational case-control studies and thirteen cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risk (RR) for the risk of preterm birth in SLE patients versus controls was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.72-3.32); for active SLE patients versus inactive was 2.98 (95% CI: 2.32-3.83); for SLE patients with a history of lupus nephritis versus those without nephritis it was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.35-1.95); and for SLE patients with active nephritis versus those with quiescent nephritis it was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.17-2.70). In summary, this study identified a significant association in the above results. This association was more significant in active SLE patients versus inactive. With respect to SLE itself, active inflammation (such as disease activity) may be more hazardous for the management of the pregnancy. This suggests that it is essential to control disease activity in order to achieve a better outcome of SLE pregnancy.

  17. Repair of segmental bone defect using Totally Vitalized tissue engineered bone graft by a combined perfusion seeding and culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the "Totally Vitalized TEBG" (TV-TEBG which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. METHODS: In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. RESULTS: Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and

  18. Demonstration of defect free EUV mask for 22nm NAND flash contact layer using electron beam inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Kawashima, Satoshi; Inazuki, Yuichi; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long Eric; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Xiao, Hong; Jau, Jack

    2011-04-01

    Fabrication of defect free EUV masks including their inspection is the most critical challenge for implementing EUV lithography into semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM) beyond 22nm half-pitch (HP) node. The contact to bit-line (CB) layers of NAND flash devices are the most likely the first lithography layers that EUV will be employed for manufacturing due to the aggressive scaling and the difficulty for making the pattern with the current ArF lithography. To assure the defect free EUV mask, we have evaluated electron beam inspection (EBI) system eXplore™ 5200 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI) [1]. As one knows, the main issue of EBI system is the low throughput. To solve this challenge, a function called Lightning Scan™ mode has been recently developed and installed in the system, which allows the system to only inspect the pattern areas while ignoring blanket areas, thus dramatically reduced the overhead time and enable us to inspect CB layers of NAND Flash device with much higher throughput. In this present work, we compared the Lightning scan mode with Normal scan mode on sensitivity and throughput. We found out the Lightning scan mode can improve throughput by a factor of 10 without any sacrifices of sensitivity. Furthermore, using the Lightning scan mode, we demonstrated the possibility to fabricate the defect free EUV masks with moderate inspection time.

  19. OH-point defects in quartz in B- and Li-bearing systems and their application to pegmatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M. A.; Stalder, R.; Konzett, J.; Hauzenberger, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    OH incorporation in quartz in Al-, B- and Li-bearing systems (granitic systems containing tourmaline or spodumene) was studied experimentally in order to investigate the effect of pressure, temperature and chemical impurities on the generation of OH-defects. High-pressure experiments were carried out at pressures between 5 and 25 kbar and temperatures between 800 and 900 °C, and OH-contents in quartz were calculated from IR absorption spectra measured on oriented quartz crystals. IR absorption features were assigned to impurity substitutions, such as AlOH (3,420, 3,379 and 3,315 cm-1) and BOH (3,595 cm-1), LiOH (3,483 cm-1), and hydrogarnet substitution (4H)Si defects (3,583 cm-1). Results indicate a negative correlation of incorporated Al-specific OH-defect content versus pressure (630 ± 130 wt ppm H2O at 5 kbar to 102 ± 6 wt ppm H2O at 25 kbar), but no clear correlation of B-specific OH-defects with pressure. In runs initially containing spodumene, virtually OH-free quartzes were observed at pressures ≥10 kbar, where impurity cations compensate each other forming an anhydrous eucryptite-defect component. In contrast, at 5 kbar, both Li- ad Al-specific OH-defects are observed (corresponding to 470 ± 75 wt ppm H2O). Results from this study may therefore be used to monitor formation conditions of quartz in terms of pressure and trace metal saturation of the crystallizing petrological system. IR spectra obtained from natural quartz grains from a tourmaline-bearing pegmatite exhibit B- and Al-related OH-bands. The B-related OH-band is also exhibited in quartz from a tourmaline + spodumene-bearing pegmatite. Li- and Al-related OH-bands, however, are subordinate or not observed at all in the spodumene-bearing system, which suggests that OH-vibrations do not reflect absolute Li-contents in quartz due to efficient coupled substitution involving Al. Data from experimental runs and natural specimens indicate that the B-related OH-band can be used as a rough proxy for

  20. Phase-field models of microstructure evolution in a system with elastic inhomogeneity and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenyang

    In this thesis, the phase-field approach is employed to study the effect of elastic inhomogeneity and structural defects on phase separation kinetics and morphological evolution in bulk and film systems, the precipitation of theta ' phase (Al2Cu) in Al-Cu alloys, and solute strengthening of alloys. By combining the iteration method for calculating the elastic energy and a semi-implicit spectral method for solving the Cahn-Hilliard equation an extremely efficient phase-field model is developed for studying morphological evolution in coherent systems with large elastic inhomogeneity. Spinodal decomposition in a thin film with periodically distributed arrays of interfacial dislocations is simulated. The results show that the periodic stress field associated with the array of interfacial dislocations leads to a directional phase separation and the formation of ordered microstructures. The metastable theta' (Al2Cu) precipitates are one of the primary strengthening precipitates in Al-Cu alloys. They are of a plate-like shape with strong interfacial energy and mobility anisotropies. A phase-field model which can automatically incorporate the thermodynamic and kinetic information from databases is developed. The relationships between phase-field model parameters and material thermodynamic and kinetic properties are established. Systematic simulations of theta' growth in 1D, 2D and 3D are carried out. The growth of a single theta ' precipitate in 1D exactly reproduces the results from analytical solutions. The phase-filed model can serve as a basis for quantitative understanding of the influence of elastic energy, interface energy anisotropy and interface mobility anisotropy on the precipitation of theta' in Al-Cu alloys. Precipitates and solutes are commonly used to strengthen alloys. A phase field model of dislocation dynamics, which employs 12 order parameter fields to describe the dislocation distribution in a single fcc crystal, and one composition field to describe

  1. RTS Noise and Dark Current White Defects Reduction Using Selective Averaging Based on a Multi-Aperture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In extremely low-light conditions, random telegraph signal (RTS noise and dark current white defects become visible. In this paper, a multi-aperture imaging system and selective averaging method which removes the RTS noise and the dark current white defects by minimizing the synthetic sensor noise at every pixel is proposed. In the multi-aperture imaging system, a very small synthetic F-number which is much smaller than 1.0 is achieved by increasing optical gain with multiple lenses. It is verified by simulation that the effective noise normalized by optical gain in the peak of noise histogram is reduced from 1.38e⁻ to 0.48 e⁻ in a 3 × 3-aperture system using low-noise CMOS image sensors based on folding-integration and cyclic column ADCs. In the experiment, a prototype 3 × 3-aperture camera, where each aperture has 200 × 200 pixels and an imaging lens with a focal length of 3.0 mm and F-number of 3.0, is developed. Under a low-light condition, in which the maximum average signal is 11e⁻ per aperture, the RTS and dark current white defects are removed and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR of the image is increased by 6.3 dB.

  2. RTS noise and dark current white defects reduction using selective averaging based on a multi-aperture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takasawa, Taishi; Seo, Min Woong; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-01-16

    In extremely low-light conditions, random telegraph signal (RTS) noise and dark current white defects become visible. In this paper, a multi-aperture imaging system and selective averaging method which removes the RTS noise and the dark current white defects by minimizing the synthetic sensor noise at every pixel is proposed. In the multi-aperture imaging system, a very small synthetic F-number which is much smaller than 1.0 is achieved by increasing optical gain with multiple lenses. It is verified by simulation that the effective noise normalized by optical gain in the peak of noise histogram is reduced from 1.38e⁻ to 0.48 e⁻ in a 3 × 3-aperture system using low-noise CMOS image sensors based on folding-integration and cyclic column ADCs. In the experiment, a prototype 3 × 3-aperture camera, where each aperture has 200 × 200 pixels and an imaging lens with a focal length of 3.0 mm and F-number of 3.0, is developed. Under a low-light condition, in which the maximum average signal is 11e⁻ per aperture, the RTS and dark current white defects are removed and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the image is increased by 6.3 dB.

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of defect spinels in the lithium-manganese-oxide system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thackeray, MM

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-manganese-oxides prepared at moderate temperatures are under investigation as insertion electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. The structures of two defect-spinel compounds synthesized by the reaction of MnCO3 and Li2CO3 at 400°C...

  4. A Computer Vision System forLocating and Identifying Internal Log Defects Using CT Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; Frederick Lamb; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    A number of researchers have shown the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT) imaging to detect internal defects in logs. However, if these devices are ever to play a role in the forest products industry, automatic methods for analyzing data from these devices must be developed. This paper reports research aimed at developing a...

  5. Synthesis and structural characterization of defect spinels in the Lithium-Manganese-Oxide system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thackeray, MM

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-manganese-oxides prepared at moderate temperatures are under investigation as insertion electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. The structures of two defect-spinel compounds synthesised by the reaction of MnCO3 and Li2CO3 at 400...

  6. Post-market Surveillance Study With the HYPERION Hip Endoprosthesis System in Defect Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Osteoarthritis; Avascular Necrosis; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Functional Deformities; Pseudoarthrosis; Revision of Endoprosthesis-treated Hips; Fracture, Proximal Humeral; Provision of Non-endoprosthetic Previous Operations of the Hip Joint (e.g., Transposition Osteotomies); Femur Fracture; Pseudarthrosis; Trochanteric Fractures; Bridging of Large Bone Defects; Revisions

  7. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  8. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  9. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  10. Detection of delamination defects in plate type fuel elements applying an automated C-Scan ultrasonic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchadjian, P.; Desimone, C.; Ziobrowski, C.; Garcia, A.

    2002-01-01

    For the inspection of plate type fuel elements to be used in Research Nuclear Reactors it was applied an immersion pulse-echo ultrasonic technique. For that reason an automated movement system was implemented according to the axes X, Y and Z that allows to automate the test and to show the results obtained in format of C-Scan, facilitating the immediate identification of possible defects and making repetitive the inspection. In this work problems found during the laboratory tests and factors that difficult the inspection are commented. Also the results of C-Scans over UMo fuel elements with pattern defects are shown. Finally, the main characteristics of the transducer with the one the better results were obtained are detailed. (author)

  11. An mHealth monitoring system for traditional birth attendant-led antenatal risk assessment in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroux, Lisa; Martinez, Boris; Coyote Ixen, Enma; King, Nora; Hall-Clifford, Rachel; Rohloff, Peter; Clifford, Gari D

    Limited funding for medical technology, low levels of education and poor infrastructure for delivering and maintaining technology severely limit medical decision support in low- and middle-income countries. Perinatal and maternal mortality is of particular concern with millions dying every year from potentially treatable conditions. Guatemala has one of the worst maternal mortality ratios, the highest incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and one of the lowest gross national incomes per capita within Latin America. To address the lack of decision support in rural Guatemala, a smartphone-based system is proposed including peripheral sensors, such as a handheld Doppler for the identification of foetal compromise. Designed for use by illiterate birth attendants, the system uses pictograms, audio guidance, local and cloud processing, SMS alerts and voice calling. The initial prototype was evaluated on 22 women in highland Guatemala. Results were fed back into the refinement of the system, currently undergoing RCT evaluation.

  12. Mollified birth in natural-age-grid Galerkin methods for age-structured biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayati, Bruce P; Dupont, Todd F

    2009-01-01

    We present natural-age-grid Galerkin methods for a model of a biological population undergoing aging. We use a mollified birth term in the method and analysis. The error due to mollification is of arbitrary order, depending on the choice of mollifier. The methods in this paper generalize the methods presented in [1], where the approximation space in age was taken to be a discontinuous piecewise polynomial subspace of L 2 . We refer to these methods as 'natural-age-grid' Galerkin methods since transport in the age variable is computed through the smooth movement of the age grid at the natural dimensionless velocity of one. The time variable has been left continuous to emphasize this smooth motion, as well as the independence of the time and age discretizations. The methods are shown to be superconvergent in the age variable

  13. Nascimentos pré-termo no Brasil entre 1994 e 2005 conforme o Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC Preterm births in Brazil from 1994 to 2005 according to the Information System on Live Births (SINASC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela F. Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A monitorização da prematuridade é muito importante, considerando seu impacto na morbidade e mortalidade infantis e seus custos econômicos e sociais. Este estudo utilizou dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, implantado em 1990 e expandido de forma gradativa até cobrir cerca de 90% de todos os nascimentos no país, para descrever a evolução da prematuridade no Brasil, regiões e capitais, entre os anos de 1994 e 2005. Observou-se um aumento na proporção de partos prematuros no país como um todo e uma diminuição no número de nascimentos sem informação da idade gestacional. As regiões Sudeste, Sul e Centro-Oeste acompanharam a tendência do país, ao contrário das regiões Norte e Nordeste. São comparados os achados do SINASC com os de estudos de base populacional. O SINASC vem apresentando progressiva melhora na cobertura e qualidade dos dados, mas ainda existem problemas com a acurácia da idade gestacional, levando a uma subestimação da prevalência de prematuridade. Por causa de sua importância, torna-se necessário aprofundar os esforços para o ganho de acurácia do sistema.Monitoring preterm births is essential given their impact on infant morbidity and mortality and their economic and social costs. This article is based on data from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC, implemented in 1990 and expanded gradually to cover 90% of all births in the country. Preterm birth time trends are presented for Brazil, regions, and capitals from 1994 to 2005. At the national level, there was an increase in the preterm birth rate, accompanied by a reduction in the proportion of missing information on gestational age. The Southeast, South, and Central-West regions followed the national trend, while the preterm birth rate fell in the North and Northeast regions. We compared the findings from SINASC with those from population-based studies. The coverage and quality of SINASC has increased over time

  14. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert's Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system

    OpenAIRE

    Rathee, Manu; Sikka, Neha; Jindal, Sahil; Kaushik, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. B...

  15. [Application of acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system in treatment of old acetabular posterior wall fracture with bone defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liehu; Bao, Guangquan; Zhang, Chuncai; Liu, Xinwei; Niu, Yunfei; Xu, Shuogui; Su, Jiacan

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS) combined with autologous iliac bone in the treatment of old acetabular posterior wall fracture with bone defect. Between January 2002 and February 2009, 17 patients with old acetabular posterior wall fracture and bone defect were treated, including 11 males and 6 females with an average age of 41.7 years (range, 20-60 years). The time from fracture to admission was 14-180 days (mean, 63 days). The displacement of the acetabular articular surface was more than or equal to 3 mm. According to the America Association of Orthopedic Surgeon (AAOS) acetabular fracture and defect classification standard, there were 4 cases of type I, 6 cases of type II, 5 cases of type III, and 2 cases of type IV. After the residual fracture fragments of the acetabular posterior wall and soft tissue hyperplasia were removed, the femoral head was reduced, and posterior wall defect was repaired with autologous iliac bone graft; ATMFS was used to fix acetabular posterior wall and artificial capsular ligament to reconstruct the hip so as to prevent re-dislocation of the femoral head. According to Matta imaging assessment standard, the results were excellent in 8 cases, good in 6 cases, fair in 2 cases, and poor in 1 case with an excellent and good rate of 82.3%. All incisions healed by first intention, and no sciatic nerve injury occurred. All patients were followed up 1-8 years (mean, 3.9 years). The mean time of fracture union was 3.6 months (range, 2-6 months). Avascular necrosis of femoral head occurred in 1 case, heterotopic ossification around the acetabulum in 1 case. According to Merle d'Aubigné-Postel scoring system evaluation, the clinical results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 6 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case with an excellent and good rate of 88.2%. ATMFS combined with autologous iliac bone graft and artificial ligament reconstruction of the hip joint capsule is a good

  16. Electronic excitations in metallic systems: from defect annihilation to track formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, A.; Lesueur, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the effects of high electronic energy deposition in metallic targets irradiated with GeV heavy ions. The main result of these investigations is that high electronic excitations lead to various and sometimes conflicting effects according to the nature of the target: - partial annealing of the defects induced by elastic collisions, - creation of additional disorder, - phase transformation (tracks formation and amorphization), - anisotropic growth. These different effects of high electronic energy deposition in metallic targets are probably manifestations at various degrees of the same basic energy transfer process between the excited electrons and the target atoms. Up to now no theoretical model explains these effects. 24 refs

  17. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  18. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  19. Fetal abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A bifurcation giving birth to order in an impulsively driven complex system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, Akshay, E-mail: akshayseshadri@gmail.com; Sujith, R. I., E-mail: sujith@iitm.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2016-08-15

    Nonlinear oscillations lie at the heart of numerous complex systems. Impulsive forcing arises naturally in many scenarios, and we endeavour to study nonlinear oscillators subject to such forcing. We model these kicked oscillatory systems as a piecewise smooth dynamical system, whereby their dynamics can be investigated. We investigate the problem of pattern formation in a turbulent combustion system and apply this formalism with the aim of explaining the observed dynamics. We identify that the transition of this system from low amplitude chaotic oscillations to large amplitude periodic oscillations is the result of a discontinuity induced bifurcation. Further, we provide an explanation for the occurrence of intermittent oscillations in the system.

  1. Defect visualization of aircraft UHF antenna radome using full-field pulse-echo ultrasonic propagation imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H. J.; Hong, S. C.; Lee, J. R.; Kim, J. H.

    2016-10-01

    Most of aircraft antennas usually have various types of radome made of composite materials for protecting antenna structures. However, these antenna radome structures, which are installed on the outside of airplane, are easy to be damaged by external forces such as drag, foreign object, bird strike and others. In this study, full-field pulse-echo ultrasonic propagation imaging (PE UPI) system is proposed as the non-destructive inspection technique to visualize manufacturing defects in composite antenna radome. Based on the results of the sample case study, it is shown that the ultrasonic wave propagation imaging (UWPI) that is generated by the proposed full-field PE UPI system is able to highlight the intact internal condition of antenna structure and its defect area. Additional damage visualization techniques like ultrasonic energy mapping (UEM), variable time window amplitude map (VTWAM) and also ultrasonic spectral imaging (USI) algorithms are applied to improve the reliability of the damage visualization. It can be concluded that the proposed PE UPI system is an effective non-destructive inspection technique for the composite radome structures.

  2. The Potential Utility and Technical Feasibility of a Computer-Based Tracking System for Birth through Five Year Old Children with Handicaps in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luick, Anthony H.

    A plan for a long term tracking system for handicapped children (birth to 5 years old) in Illinois is considered. The plan, based on agreements among five state agencies, could be used in a variety of ways, including for direct client care, statistical recordkeeping, and service evaluation. Advantages of an interactive system are identified, and…

  3. Season of birth and primary central nervous system tumors: a systematic review of the literature with critical appraisal of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Ntinopoulou, Erato; Chatzopoulou, Despoina; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-09-01

    Season of birth has been considered a proxy of seasonally varying exposures around perinatal period, potentially implicated in the etiology of several health outcomes, including malignancies. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we have systematically reviewed published literature on the association of birth seasonality with risk of central nervous system tumors in children and adults. Seventeen eligible studies using various methodologies were identified, encompassing 20,523 cases. Eight of 10 studies in children versus four of eight in adults showed some statistically significant associations between birth seasonality and central nervous system tumor or tumor subtype occurrence, pointing to a clustering of births mostly in fall and winter months, albeit no consistent pattern was identified by histologic subtype. A plethora of perinatal factors might underlie or confound the associations, such as variations in birth weight, maternal diet during pregnancy, perinatal vitamin D levels, pesticides, infectious agents, immune system maturity, and epigenetic modifications. Inherent methodological weaknesses of to-date published individual investigations, including mainly underpowered size to explore the hypothesis by histological subtype, call for more elegant concerted actions using primary data of large datasets taking also into account the interplay between the potential underlying etiologic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of colostrum period management on BW and immune system in lambs: from birth to weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, A.; Martell-Jaizme, D.

    2015-01-01

    (natural rearing (NR) group). Forty lambs were removed from their dams at birth. Lambs were bottle-fed with a pool of sheep colostrum, receiving either 4 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C4 group) or 8 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C8 group). The total colostrum amount was equally divided into three meals at 2...... frequency, can affect the final immune status of lambs....

  5. Neural tube defects in Gauteng, South Africa: Recurrence risks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neural tube defects in Gauteng, South Africa: Recurrence risks and associated factors. G Teckie, A Krause, JGR Kromberg. Abstract. Background. After congenital heart disease, neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common serious structural birth defects in human infants. Objectives. To (i) determine the recurrence risks ...

  6. Rapid Detection Methods for Asphalt Pavement Thicknesses and Defects by a Vehicle-Mounted Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zehua; Ye, Shengbo; Gao, Yunze; Fang, Guangyou; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Xue, Zhongjun; Zhang, Tao

    2016-12-06

    The thickness estimation of the top surface layer and surface layer, as well as the detection of road defects, are of great importance to the quality conditions of asphalt pavement. Although ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods have been widely used in non-destructive detection of pavements, the thickness estimation of the thin top surface layer is still a difficult problem due to the limitations of GPR resolution and the similar permittivity of asphalt sub-layers. Besides, the detection of some road defects, including inadequate compaction and delamination at interfaces, require further practical study. In this paper, a newly-developed vehicle-mounted GPR detection system is introduced. We used a horizontal high-pass filter and a modified layer localization method to extract the underground layers. Besides, according to lab experiments and simulation analysis, we proposed theoretical methods for detecting the degree of compaction and delamination at the interface, respectively. Moreover, a field test was carried out and the estimated results showed a satisfactory accuracy of the system and methods.

  7. Effect of maternal height and weight on risk of preterm birth in singleton and twin births resulting from in vitro fertilization: a retrospective cohort study using the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Richard P; Xiong, Xu; Gee, Rebekah E; Pridjian, Gabriella

    2012-02-01

    To examine the effect of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of preterm birth of singleton and twin pregnancies conceived by vitro fertilization (IVF). Retrospective cohort study using 2006-2008 data from the Society for Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS). SART-associated assisted reproductive technology programs. 56,556 singleton and 23,804 twin live births resulting from fresh nondonor IVF cycles. None. Rates of very early preterm (VEPTB; risk of preterm birth. Maternal overweight and obesity were associated with significantly increased risk of VEPTB and VPTB in twin pregnancies. For very obese women (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) twins were associated with a threefold increased risk of VEPTB (6.1% vs. 2.0%) and a twofold increased risk of VPTB (11.5% vs. 5.9%) compared with women of normal weight (BMI 18.4-24.9 kg/m(2)). Obesity and short stature significantly increase the risk of VEPTB and VPTB in twins conceived by IVF. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The sustainability of the pay-as-you-go system with falling birth rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Cardoso, P.

    2002-01-01

    A model is presented that explains the mix between funded and unfunded pension systems. It turns out that total pension and the relative shares of the two systems may be explained and are determined by the population growth rate, technological growth, the time-preference discount rate, the relative

  9. Low birth weight activates the renin–angiotensin system, but limits cardiac angiogenesis in early postnatal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. PMID:25649246

  10. Low birth weight activates the renin-angiotensin system, but limits cardiac angiogenesis in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-02-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhuji Rifai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the eddy current technique (ECT for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM. The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient.

  12. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Razali, Ramdan; Ali, Kharudin; Faraj, Moneer A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of the eddy current technique (ECT) for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT) use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM). The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient. PMID:28335399

  13. Birth-Weight, Pregnancy Term, Pre-Natal and Natal Complications Related to Child's Dental Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokocimer, T; Amir, E; Blumer, S; Peretz, B

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining whether certain pre-natal and natal conditions can predict specific dental anomalies. The conditions observed were: low birth-weight, preterm birth, pre-natal & natal complications. The dental anomalies observed were: enamel defects, total number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (total DMFT), disturbances in the tooth shape and disturbances in the number of teeth. Out of more than 2000 medical files of children aged 2-17 years old which were reviewed, 300 files met the selection criteria. Information recorded from the files included: age, gender, health status (the ASA physical status classification system by the American Society of Anesthesiologists), birth week, birth weight, total DMFT, hypomineralization, abnormal tooth shape, abnormal number of teeth and hypoplasia. Twenty one children out of 300 (7%) were born after a high-risk pregnancy, 25 children (8.3%) were born after high-risk birth, 20 children (6.7%) were born preterm - before week 37, and 29 children (9.7%) were born with a low birth weight (LBW) - 2500 grams or less. A relationship between a preterm birth and LBW to hypomineralization was found. And a relationship between a preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy to abnormal number of teeth was found. No relationship was found between birth (normal/high-risk) and the other parameters inspected. Preterm birth and LBW may predict hypomineralization in both primary and permanent dentitions. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy may predict abnormal number of teeth in both dentitions.

  14. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  15. Motion control in double-walled carbon nanotube systems using a Stone-Thrower-Wales defect cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Zhang Yongwei

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the motion of a single molecule will have an important impact in nano-mechanical systems. Multi-walled carbon nanotube systems, which have extremely low intertube friction and strong motion confinement, can form the basis for mechanically based motion control. We devise two molecular motion control units based on double-walled carbon nanotubes embedded with a Stone-Thrower-Wales defect cluster, and perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the characteristics of these two control units. We show that one of the molecular control units is able to perform a logic operation on one logic input and produce three logic outputs, while the other is able to produce two logic outputs. Potential applications of the motion control units include molecular switches, shuttles and mechanically based logic devices.

  16. Defective pulmonary innate immune responses post-stem cell transplantation; review and results from one model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racquel eDomingo-Gonzalez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Infectious pulmonary complications limit the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT as a therapy for malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Susceptibility to pathogens in both autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients persists despite successful immune reconstitution. As studying the causal effects of these immune defects in the human population can be limiting, a bone marrow transplant (BMT mouse model can be used to understand the defect in mounting a productive innate immune response post-transplantation. When syngeneic BMT is performed, this system allows the study of BMT-induced alterations in innate immune cell function that are independent of the confounding effects of immunosuppressive therapy and graft-versus-host disease. Studies from several laboratories, including our own show that pulmonary susceptibility to bacterial infections post-BMT are largely due to alterations in the lung alveolar macrophages. Changes in these cells post-BMT include cytokine and eicosanoid dysregulations, scavenger receptor alterations, changes in micro RNA profiles, and alterations in intracellular signaling molecules that limit bacterial phagocytosis and killing. The changes that occur highlight mechanisms that promote susceptibility to infections commonly afflicting HSCT recipients and provide insight into therapeutic targets that may improve patient outcomes post-HSCT.

  17. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    western Johannesburg and also at the. Donald Gordon Medical Centre. Neonatal skin, like the respiratory system, bears the brunt of the extreme change in external environment that characterises birth. NEONATES. 488 CME September 2004 Vol.22 No.9. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH). Fig. 1. Café-au-lait macule. Fig. 2.

  18. Sharing clinical information across care settings: the birth of an integrated assessment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrard Jean-Claude

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population ageing, the emergence of chronic illness, and the shift away from institutional care challenge conventional approaches to assessment systems which traditionally are problem and setting specific. Methods From 2002, the interRAI research collaborative undertook development of a suite of assessment tools to support assessment and care planning of persons with chronic illness, frailty, disability, or mental health problems across care settings. The suite constitutes an early example of a "third generation" assessment system. Results The rationale and development strategy for the suite is described, together with a description of potential applications. To date, ten instruments comprise the suite, each comprising "core" items shared among the majority of instruments and "optional" items that are specific to particular care settings or situations. Conclusion This comprehensive suite offers the opportunity for integrated multi-domain assessment, enabling electronic clinical records, data transfer, ease of interpretation and streamlined training.

  19. Sharing clinical information across care settings: the birth of an integrated assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Leonard C; Berg, Katherine; Fries, Brant E; Henrard, Jean-Claude; Hirdes, John P; Steel, Knight; Morris, John N

    2009-01-01

    Background Population ageing, the emergence of chronic illness, and the shift away from institutional care challenge conventional approaches to assessment systems which traditionally are problem and setting specific. Methods From 2002, the interRAI research collaborative undertook development of a suite of assessment tools to support assessment and care planning of persons with chronic illness, frailty, disability, or mental health problems across care settings. The suite constitutes an early example of a "third generation" assessment system. Results The rationale and development strategy for the suite is described, together with a description of potential applications. To date, ten instruments comprise the suite, each comprising "core" items shared among the majority of instruments and "optional" items that are specific to particular care settings or situations. Conclusion This comprehensive suite offers the opportunity for integrated multi-domain assessment, enabling electronic clinical records, data transfer, ease of interpretation and streamlined training. PMID:19402891

  20. Prevalence of neural tube defects and folic acid knowledge and consumption--Puerto Rico, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of infant mortality in both the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine and brain; two of the most common NTDs are spina bifida and anencephaly. In the United States, NTD prevalence is higher among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black women. In Puerto Rico, where most residents are Hispanic, the prevalence of NTDs (8.68 per 10,000 live births) is higher than in the mainland United States (5.59). Consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy can prevent NTDs. To assess trends in NTD prevalence and prevalence of knowledge and consumption of folic acid supplements in Puerto Rico, data were analyzed from the Birth Defects Surveillance System (BDSS) for 1996-2005 and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 1997-2006. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that prevalence of folic acid knowledge and consumption among women of childbearing age increased from 1997 to 2003 but decreased from 2003 to 2006. During similar periods, NTD prevalence declined from 1996 to 2003 but did not change significantly from 2003 to 2005. To resume the decline in prevalence of NTDs, additional measures might be needed to increase folic acid supplement use among Puerto Rican women of childbearing age.

  1. 49 CFR 232.609 - Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operative brakes when including the freight cars equipped with stand-alone ECP brake systems; and (3) The... systems. 232.609 Section 232.609 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT...

  2. Method of determining external defects of a structure by analyzing a series of its images in the monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich

    2015-03-01

    geometrical parameters by analyzing a series of images. This is the issue and the subject of this work, which developed the computational algorithms to detect external defects. At the stage of preliminary image processing there is the delineation of characteristic points in the image and the calculation of the optical flow in the area of these points. When determining the defect position, the characteristic points of the image are determined using the detector of Harris-Laplace, which are located in the central part of the image. The characteristic points outside the frame are considered to be background. There is an identification of the changes in characteristic points in the frame in relation to the background by using a pyramidal iterative scheme. In the second stage servo frame focuses on a specific point with the greatest change in relation to the background in the current time. The algorithm for object detection and determination of its parameters includes three procedures: detection procedure start; the procedure of the next image processing; stop procedure for determining the parameters of the object. The method described here can be used to create information-measuring system of monitoring based on the use of photodetectors with high-definition and recognition of defects (color differences and differences in the form compared to the background. Since almost each examination of a building or structure begins with a visual examination and determination of the most probable places of occurrence and presence of the defects, the proposed method can be combined with this stage and it will simplify the process of diagnosing, screening for the development of projects on reconstruction and placement of additional equipment on the existing infrastructure.

  3. Birth rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkin, R

    1980-06-01

    Despite the marked decline in Singapore's crude birth rate from 42.7/1000 population to 22.1/1000 population from 1957 to 1970, the government adopted a policy of sterilization by coercion with the passage in 1970 of the Voluntary Sterilisation Act. Although sterilization is supposedly voluntary, various regulations make it extremely difficult for couples who wish to retain their fertility. Couples under 40 years of age with more than 2 children must agree to accept sterilization or their children are assigned to a low priority category in regard to primary school admittance. An individual who wishes to marry a non-Singaporean cannot obtain a marriage application unless one of the parties to the marriage agrees to have a sterilization after the birth of their 2nd child. Singapore, with a population density of almost 4000/square kilometer, needs to be concerned about population growth; however, since the population had for the most part already adopted a 2 child family norm, these coercive policies appear to be blatantly excessive.

  4. Central nervous system abnormalities on midline facial defects with hypertelorism detected by magnetic resonance image and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Vera Lucia Gil da Silva; Giffoni, Silvio David Araujo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study were to describe and to compare structural central nervous system (CNS) anomalies detected by magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in individuals affected by midline facial defects with hypertelorism (MFDH) isolated or associated with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The investigation protocol included dysmorphological examination, skull and facial X-rays, brain CT and/or MRI. We studied 24 individuals, 12 of them had an isolated form (Group I) and the others, MCA with unknown etiology (Group II). There was no significant difference between Group I and II and the results are presented in set. In addition to the several CNS anomalies previously described, MRI (n=18) was useful for detection of neuronal migration errors. These data suggested that structural CNS anomalies and MFDH seem to have an intrinsic embryological relationship, which should be taken in account during the clinical follow-up. (author)

  5. Evaluation of a platelet lysate bilayered system for periodontal regeneration in a rat intrabony three-wall periodontal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Cai, Xinjie; Plachokova, Adelina S; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John; Gomes, Manuela E; Walboomers, X Frank

    2018-02-01

    With currently available therapies, full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues after periodontitis cannot be achieved. In this study, a combined compartmentalized system was tested, composed of (a) a platelet lysate (PL)-based construct, which was placed along the root aiming to regenerate the root cementum and periodontal ligament, and (b) a calcium phosphate cement composite incorporated with hyaluronic acid microspheres loaded with PL, aiming to promote the regeneration of alveolar bone. This bilayered system was assessed in a 3-wall periodontal defect in Wistar rats. The periodontal healing and the inflammatory response of the materials were scored for a period up to 6 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, histomorphometrical measurements were performed to assess the epithelial downgrowth, the formation of alveolar bone, and the formation of new connective tissue attachment. Our data showed that the stabilization of platelet-origin proteins on the root surface increased the overall periodontal healing score and restricted the formation of long epithelial junctions. Nevertheless, the faster degradation of the cement component with incorporated hyaluronic acid microspheres compromised the stability of the system, which hampered the periodontal regeneration. Overall, in this work, we proved the positive therapeutic effect of the immobilization of a PL-based construct over the root surface in a combined compartmentalized system to assist predictable healing of functional periodontium. Therefore, after optimization of the hard tissue analogue, the system should be further elaborated in (pre)clinical validation studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Reliability analysis of digital radiography systems in the testing of real material defects; Zuverlaessikeitsanalyse von digitalen Radiographie-Systemen bei der Pruefung von realen Materialdefekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanzler, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Nondestructive testing (ndt) systems are essential for areas in our lives, in which there is a high risk for failures that would induce high costs or even damage to people and the environment (i.e. transportation, energy production, chemical industry). It is necessary to find and to characterise every defect in the material which might jeopardise the functionality of the tested part. But in the praxis the testing system will be used at their limits, i.e. for detecting small defects. Thus, there is a probability that critical defects might be overseen, which must be quantified. The evaluation is especially important for safety-relevant areas. The probability of detection (POD) characteristic is an objective number, which is widely used in these cases. It is used to provide a statement about the tested ndt system. The POD can provide the statement whether the system is working well enough to be accepted to find the defects. The original POD method was developed for one-dimensional defects in thin parts used in the aircraft industry. In reality, the evaluation is a compromise between statistics and costs. On the one hand, the real testing situation should be evaluated for the later use. On the other hand, the evaluation of real defects including the metallography and the comparison with the signals is a complex and expensive task. To find a coordinate system to compare the data is, therefore, an important prerequisite, before starting to evaluate. Therefore, this thesis will present a practical approach. The research community, as well, sees the POD of the real defects as a challenge. It is necessary to extend the one-parametric POD approach by evaluating the whole NDT indication. The area of the NDT indication is one important fact which should be included. The thesis will introduce two new aspects to the calculation of the POD: 1. The area of the indication will be introduced by using a smoothing algorithm, which is based on the known Observer-POD. The Observer

  7. Defecting and Fitting System for Multi-pattern Functions using Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuda, Takeshi; Katsuki, Satoshi; Nagadori, Nobuyuki; Fukawa, Gakuto

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a new neural network system which differentiates the multi-pattern mixed data into multiple pattern fitting functions, and its application for structural monitoring system to detect the change of structural characteristics. All parameters dominating cause of output monitoring signals are not necessarily monitored in real monitoring system. In such case, the relationship between output and input monitoring data are seemed to be relating to multiple functions controlled by hidden parameter. The proposed neural network systems can differentiate those data into multiple pattern-fitting functions, and can detect the appearance of new pattern of input-output relationship of structural monitoring data caused by a damage or deterioration

  8. Traditional Birth Attendance (TBA) in a health system: what are the roles, benefits and challenges: A case study of incorporated TBA in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio

    2014-01-01

    One current strategy to overcome the issue of shortage of qualified health workers has focused on the use of community health workers in the developing countries to deliver health care services specifically to the most vulnerable communities in the rural areas. Timor-Leste is the one of the world's newest developing countries that has incorporated the traditional birth attendance in its health system through a family health promoter initiative in response to reproductive and child health, hence to improve primary health care delivery and increase number of healthcare workforce. The study utilized a non-systematic review of the literature using key words such as community health workers, traditional birth attendants, reproductive health, child health and health outcomes. A case study from Timor-Leste was also used. Traditional birth attendants have performed wide variety of tasks including outreach and case finding, health and patient education, referrals, home visits and care management. Evidence indicated that there were, to varying degrees, positive associations between traditional birth attendance training and maternity care. Traditional birth attendance training was found to be associated with significant increases in attributes such as knowledge, attitude, behavior, advice for antenatal care, and pregnancy outcomes. However, some challenges faced by traditional birth attendants' role in encouraging women to go to health center for preventive services would be the compliance and refusal of the referral. The implementation case study from Timor-Leste shows that integrating traditional birth attendance into a national healthcare system through Family Health Promoter program has been programmatic effective. It is recommended that the implementation should consider regular communication between health staff and community leaders in recruiting members of family health promoters, and the use of supportive supervision tools to identify weaknesses in the management of

  9. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Guilherme D’Aprile; de Fatima Soto, Sônia; de Castro, Isac; Rodrigues, Thiago Guimarães; Moriya, Henrique Takachi; de Almeida, Francine Maria; Pazetti, Rogerio; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs) from birth until adulthood. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs) and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20) than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4), whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0) than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22) at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3) and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3) offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0) and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0) at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4) and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6) offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8), neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1) and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8) counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages. PMID:28355363

  10. The Effect of Severe Birth Asphyxia on the Hemostasis System in Newborns During the First Hour of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Golub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In newborns with severe intranatal asphyxia, the hemostasis system adaptation is impaired, thus increasing the risk of bleeding during the first day of life.The purpose of the work was to evaluate the effect of severe birth asphyxia and metabolic acidosis on the newborns' hemostasis system, based on the thromboelastography (TEG findings.Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of medical records of 40 severely asphyxiated newborns (group 1 and 20 healthy newborns (group 2 was performed. The study was carried out during the first hour of life of the newborns.Results. Infants in group 1 demonstrated a reduced activity of platelets and enzymatic components of the coagulation. The enzymatic phase of the coagulation hemostasis (P<0.001 and the kinetics of clot strength growth significantly decreased in group 1 newborns, as compared to the second group (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively. The fibrin network growth rate and its structurization in group 1 newborns was lower than that in group 2 newborns (P<0.05. The platelet activity in group 1 infants was reduced as compared to group 2 (P< 0.05.Fibrinolysis in newborns did not differ at the 30th minute of the study. The correlation analysis demonstrated that decreased pH and Be values and hyperlactacidemia correlated; platelet and coagulation hemostasis parameters were altered with a shift to hypocoagulation. Conclusion. Thromboelastographic study of whole blood samples demonstrated a shift of the hemostatic system to hypocoagulation for both platelet and enzymatic components of hemostasis, without any changes in the clot lysis in severely asphyxiated newborns.

  11. GASP. VIII. Capturing the Birth of a Tidal Dwarf Galaxy in a Merging System at z ˜ 0.05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Moretti, Alessia; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Fasano, Giovanni; Fritz, Jacopo; Gullieuszik, Marco; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Jaffé, Yara; Bettoni, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    Within the GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with MUSE (GASP) sample, we identified an ongoing 1:1 merger between 2 galaxies and the consequent formation of a tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG). The system is observed at z = 0.05043 and is part of a poor group. Exploiting the exquisite quality of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE)/Very Large Telescope data, we present the spatially resolved kinematics and physical properties of gas and stars of this object and describe its evolutionary history. An old (luminosity weighted age ˜2 × 109 yr), gas-poor, early-type-like galaxy is merging with a younger (luminosity weighted age ˜2.5 × 108 yr), gas-rich, late-type galaxy. The system has a quite strong metallicity gradient, which is indicative of an early-stage phase. Comparing the spatial extension of the star formation at different epochs, we date the beginning of the merger between 2 × 107 yr birth of the TDG. This stellar structure has a mass of ˜6 × 109 M ⊙, a radius of ˜2 kpc, and even though it has already accreted large quantities of gas and stars, it is still located within the disk of the progenitor, is characterized by a high velocity dispersion, indicating that it is still forming, is dusty, and has high levels of star formation (star formation rate ˜ 0.3 M ⊙ yr-1). This TDG is originated in an early-stage merger, while these structures usually form in more evolved systems.

  12. Placenta previa, anemia, care in antenatal, employment score: Development of a scoring system to predict low birth weight in underserved area in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lumbanraja, Sarma Nursani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early intervention of low birth weight (LBW) should reduce maternal and fetal morbidity. In underserved areas, with inadequacy of health technologies, it was very important to develop a simple scoring system based on the LBW risk factors. Aims and Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a scoring system to predict LBW in underserved area. Materials and Methods: This case–control study enrolled total of women with a singleton LBW in Padang Sidempuan General Hospi...

  13. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K

    2010-01-01

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease....

  14. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system as a bridge to reparative surgery in ventricular septal defect complicating acute inferoposterior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozado, Jose; Pascual, Isaac; Avanzas, Pablo; Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Alvarez, Ruben; Díaz, Rocio; Díaz, Beatriz; Martín, María; Carro, Amelia; Muñiz, Guillermo; Silva, Jacobo; Moris, Cesar

    2017-09-01

    Post-infarction ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a rare but potentially lethal complication of acute myocardial infarction. Medical management is usually futile, so definitive surgery remains the treatment of choice but the risk surgery is very high and the optimal timing for surgery is still under debate. A 55-year-old man with no previous medical history attended the emergency-room for 12 h evolution of oppressive chest pain and strong anginal pain 7 days ago. On physical examination, blood pressure was 96/70 mmHg, pansystolic murmur over left sternal border without pulmonary crackles. An electrocardiogram revealed sinus rhythm 110 bpm, elevation ST and Q in inferior-posterior leads. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed inferoposterior akinesia, posterior-basal septal rupture (2 cm × 2 cm) with left-right shunt. Suspecting VSD in inferior-posterior acute myocardial infarction evolved, we performed emergency coronarography with 3-vessels disease and complete subacute occlusion of the mid segment of the right coronary artery. Left ventriculography demonstrated shunting of contrast from the left ventricule to the right ventricule. He was rejected for heart transplantation because of his age. Considering the high surgical risk to early surgery and his hemodynamic and clinical stability, delayed surgical treatment is decided, and 4 days after admission the patient suffered hemodynamic instability so venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system (ECMO) is implanted as a bridge to reparative surgery. The 9th day after admission double bypass, interventricular defect repair with pericardial two-patch exclusion technique, and ECMO decannulation were performed. The patient's postoperative course was free of complications and was discharged 10 days post VSD repair surgery. Follow-up 3-month later revealed the patient to be in good functional status and good image outcome with intact interventricular septal patch without shunt. ECMO as a bridge to reparative

  15. Birthing Healthy Babies (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-11

    Every four and a half minutes a baby is born with a birth defect in the United States. That means nearly 120,000 babies, or about three percent of all babies born each year. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Gilboa discusses ways to prevent birth defects.  Created: 1/11/2018 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/11/2018.

  16. Disruption of the folate pathway in zebrafish causes developmental defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Marina S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and congenital heart defects. The biological mechanisms through which folate prevents birth defects are not well understood. We explore the use of zebrafish as a model system to investigate the role of folate metabolism during development. Results We first identified zebrafish orthologs of 12 human folate metabolic genes. RT-PCR and in situ analysis indicated maternal transcripts supply the embryo with mRNA so that the embryo has an intact folate pathway. To perturb folate metabolism we exposed zebrafish embryos to methotrexate (MTX, a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (Dhfr an essential enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway. Embryos exposed to high doses of MTX exhibited developmental arrest prior to early segmentation. Lower doses of MTX resulted in embryos with a shortened anterior-posterior axis and cardiac defects: linear heart tubes or incomplete cardiac looping. Inhibition of dhfr mRNA with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in embryonic lethality. One function of the folate pathway is to provide essential one-carbon units for dTMP synthesis, a rate-limiting step of DNA synthesis. After 24 hours of exposure to high levels of MTX, mutant embryos continue to incorporate the thymidine analog BrdU. However, additional experiments indicate that these embryos have fewer mitotic cells, as assayed with phospho-histone H3 antibodies, and that treated embryos have perturbed cell cycles. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that human and zebrafish utilize similar one-carbon pathways. Our data indicate that folate metabolism is essential for early zebrafish development. Zebrafish studies of the folate pathway and its deficiencies could provide insight into the underlying etiology of human birth defects and the natural role of folate in development.

  17. Defective Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Signaling Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a complex autoimmune disease involving injuries in multiple organs and systems. Exaggerated inflammatory responses are characterized as end-organ damage in patients with SLE. Although the explicit pathogenesis of SLE remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that dysregulation of cytokine signals contributes to the progression of SLE through the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT signaling pathway. Activated STAT proteins translocate to the cell nucleus and induce transcription of target genes, which regulate downstream cytokine production and inflammatory cell infiltration. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1 is considered as a classical inhibitor of cytokine signaling. Recent studies have demonstrated that SOCS1 expression is decreased in patients with SLE and in murine lupus models, and this negatively correlates with the magnitude of inflammation. Dysregulation of SOCS1 signals participates in various pathological processes of SLE such as hematologic abnormalities and autoantibody generation. Lupus nephritis is one of the most serious complications of SLE, and it correlates with suppressed SOCS1 signals in renal tissues. Moreover, SOCS1 insufficiency affects the function of several other organs, including skin, central nervous system, liver, and lungs. Therefore, SOCS1 aberrancy contributes to the development of both systemic and local inflammation in SLE patients. In this review, we discuss recent studies regarding the roles of SOCS1 in the pathogenesis of SLE and its therapeutic implications.

  18. Multiscale Systems Modeling of Male Reproductive Tract Defects: from Genes to Populations (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB...

  19. Bipolar and panic disorders may be associated with hereditary defects in the innate immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie; Köhler, Karl Ole; Steffensen, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) represent important arms of the innate immune system, and different deficiencies may result in infections or autoimmune diseases. Both bipolar and panic disorders are associated with increased...

  20. Embedded defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriola, M.; Vachaspati, T.; Bucher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the Z string and a one-parameter family of strings called the W(α) string. It is argued that although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member becomes physically distinct when multistring configurations are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The Z string is shown to be unstable for all values of the Higgs boson mass when θ W =π/4. W strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron

  1. Applying the global positioning system and google earth to evaluate the accessibility of birth services for pregnant women in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Wang, Jung-Der; Yu, Joseph Kwong-Leung; Rn, Tzu-Yi Chiang; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rn, Hsiu-Hung Wang; Nyasulu, Yohane M Z; Kolola-Dzimadzi, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the combined use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Google Earth for measuring the accessibility of health care facilities for pregnant women in northern Malawi. We used GPS and Google Earth to identify 5 major health care facilities in Mzuzu (Malawi) and the homes of 79 traditional birth attendants (TBAs). The distance and time required for each TBA to reach the nearest health care facility were measured by both GPS and by self-report of the TBAs. A convenience sample of 1138 pregnant women was interviewed about their choices of birth sites for current and previous pregnancies and the time and cost required to access health care facilities. The correlation coefficient between the objective measurements by GPS and subjective reports by TBAs for time required from their homes to health care facilities was 0.654 (P birth at a health care facility. However, only 48.7% of women actually gave birth in a health care facility in a previous pregnancy, and 32.6% were assisted by TBAs. Combined GPS and Google Earth can be useful in the evaluation of accessibility of health care facilities, especially for emergency obstetric care. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. Giant aneurysms of the carotid system presenting as visual field defect.

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris, J B; Ross Russell, R W

    1980-01-01

    Visual field loss was the presenting symptom in 19 patients with large intracranial aneurysms of the carotid system. Location of the aneurysm was cavernous, carotid-ophthalmic (two), supraclinoid (nine), anterior communicating (six). Other features were pain and a long history of fluctuating visual loss. Cavernous or carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms mostly caused purely uniocular field loss consistent with optic nerve compression. Supraclinoid aneurysms most often caused a lateral chiasmal syndro...

  3. Position Dependent Spontaneous Emission Spectra of a Λ-Type Atomic System Embedded in a Defective Photonic Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entezar, S. Roshan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the position dependent spontaneous emission spectra of a Λ-type three-level atom with one transition coupled to the free vacuum reservoir and the other one coupled to a double-band photonic band gap reservoir with a defect mode in the band gap. It is shown that, for the atom at the defect location, we have a two-peak spectrum with a wide dark line due to the strong coupling between the atom and the defect mode. While, when the atom is far from the defect location (or in the absence of the defect mode), the spectrum has three peaks with two dark lines due to the coupling between the atom and the photonic band gap reservoir with the largest density of states near the band edges. On the other hand, we have a four-peak spectrum for the atom at the space in between. Moreover, the average spontaneous emission spectra of the atoms uniformly embedded in high dielectric or low dielectric regions are described. It is shown that the atoms embedded in high (low) dielectric regions far from the defect location, effectively couple to the modes of the lower (upper) photonic band. However, the atoms embedded in high dielectric or low dielectric regions at the defect location, are coupled mainly to the defect modes. While, the atoms uniformly embedded in high (low) dielectric regions with a normal distance from the defect location, are coupled to both of defect and lower (upper) photonic band modes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. Tumorigenic fragments of APC cause dominant defects in directional cell migration in multiple model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Nelson

    2012-11-01

    Nonsense mutations that result in the expression of truncated, N-terminal, fragments of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumour suppressor protein are found in most sporadic and some hereditary colorectal cancers. These mutations can cause tumorigenesis by eliminating β-catenin-binding sites from APC, which leads to upregulation of β-catenin and thereby results in the induction of oncogenes such as MYC. Here we show that, in three distinct experimental model systems, expression of an N-terminal fragment of APC (N-APC results in loss of directionality, but not speed, of cell motility independently of changes in β-catenin regulation. We developed a system to culture and fluorescently label live pieces of gut tissue to record high-resolution three-dimensional time-lapse movies of cells in situ. This revealed an unexpected complexity of normal gut cell migration, a key process in gut epithelial maintenance, with cells moving with spatial and temporal discontinuity. Quantitative comparison of gut tissue from wild-type mice and APC heterozygotes (APCMin/+; multiple intestinal neoplasia model demonstrated that cells in precancerous epithelia lack directional preference when moving along the crypt-villus axis. This effect was reproduced in diverse experimental systems: in developing chicken embryos, mesoderm cells expressing N-APC failed to migrate normally; in amoeboid Dictyostelium, which lack endogenous APC, expressing an N-APC fragment maintained cell motility, but the cells failed to perform directional chemotaxis; and multicellular Dictyostelium slug aggregates similarly failed to perform phototaxis. We propose that N-terminal fragments of APC represent a gain-of-function mutation that causes cells within tissue to fail to migrate directionally in response to relevant guidance cues. Consistent with this idea, crypts in histologically normal tissues of APCMin/+ intestines are overpopulated with cells, suggesting that a lack of migration might cause cell

  5. Fault self-defection of automatic testing systems by means of aspect-oriented programming

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Di Lucca, G; Inglese, V; Spiezia, G

    2007-01-01

    An Aspect Oriented approach to implement fault detection in automatic measurement systems is proposed. Faults are handled by means of "aspects", a specific software unit to better modularize issues transversal to many modules ("crosscutting concerns"). In this way, maintainability and reusability of a measurement software are improved: indeed, once a modification of the fault detection policy occurs, only the related aspects have to be modified. As an experimental case study, this technique has been applied to the fault self-detection of a flexible framework for magnetic measurements, developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

  6. Introduction to the Congenital Heart Defects: Anatomy of the Conduction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeremy P; Aboulhosn, Jamil A

    2017-06-01

    The position and course of the conduction system in congenital heart disease are intricately tied to the underlying congenital malformation. Although only subtle differences exist between the anatomy of the conduction axis for simple congenital heart lesions and normal anatomy, almost every patient with congenital heart disease harbors some important anatomic variation. This article summarizes the body of literature by retaining original classical concepts and by attempting to translate the available knowledge into useful points for the congenital heart disease specialist. This discussion spans the entire spectrum of simple to complex congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Properties of vacancies type defects in intermetallic compounds of the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, M.I; Fernandez, J.R; Monti, A.M

    2006-01-01

    There are five intermetallic compounds in the Al-Mo system that are stable at low temperatures. Of these, the richest phases in some of the two components are the compounds Al 12 Mo and AlMo 3 , whose Pearson symbols are cI26 and cP8, respectively. In both structures, the atoms of the minority component occupy positions bcc and each one of them is surrounded by 12 atoms first neighbors of the other component. These 13 atoms form icosahedron shaped units or heaps. Unlike what occurs in Al 12 Mo, the AlMo 3 heaps are superposed by sharing atoms from the majority component. The neighboring environment of the majority component is mixed but differs considerably in one or another intermetallic. In each structure, the sites occupied by any given species are crystallographically equivalent, that is, they can self generate from one of the positions and from the crystalline structure's elements of symmetry. This work studies the energy of vacancies and antisites in both compounds and the atomic-jump processes to vacant sites. Computer simulation techniques were used based on minimizing the system's energy. Many-body embedded-atom potentials were used to represent the atomic interactions. The potential mixture used resulted in an adjustment to the crystalline structure of the AlMo 3 phase at low temperatures and to its formation energy (cw)

  8. Electrical conductivity, defect structure and density in the ceria - gadolinia system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggestad, K.; Toft Soerensen, O.

    1985-03-01

    Previous studies on the ceria-gadolinia system have mainly been done on oxides rich in ceria. The purpose of the present work is therefore to establish how the conductivity, density and structure depend on the gadolinia content especially at high doping levels. Five different compositions were examined: Cesub(1-x)Gdsub(x)Osub(2-x/2) with x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9. Oxide powders of these compositions were prepared by homogeneous precipitation of carbonates by hydrolysis of urea followed by calcination in air. Specimens were prepared by pressing and sinterig in air at 1550degC. Conductivity measurements on discs cut from the sintered specimens in the temperature range 400 - 900degC showed that the oxygen-ion conductivity decreases with increasing gadolinia content with a corresponding increase of the activation enthalpy for oxygen-ion migration. A model describing the variation of the theoretical density in this system is presented. From this model the densities of the sintered specimens was found to be in the range 93 - 99% TD. Finally X-ray diffraction on the calcined powders showed that fcc single-phase material exists up to about x = 0.4 after which a bcc phase is formed. (author)

  9. THE RESTRICTED SURGICAL RELEVANCE OF MORPHOLOGIC CRITERIA TO CLASSIFY SYSTEMIC-PULMONARY COLLATERAL ARTERIES IN PULMONARY ATRESIA WITH VENTRICULAR SEPTAL-DEFECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DERUITER, MC; GITTENBERGERDEGROOT, AC; BOGERS, AJJC; ELZENGA, NJ

    1994-01-01

    Now that systemic-pulmonary collateral arteries are used for unifocalization in patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, the question arises whether morphologic criteria of these collateral arteries could help to provide better results. In an attempt to classify the morphologic

  10. Are mixed electoral systems the best choice for central and Eastern Europe or the reason for defective party systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Mixed electoral systems have been celebrated enthusiastically in the literature and by political practitioners, arguing that they combine the best of both worlds with regards to several aspects of political representation. This article calls this view into question, arguing that the mixed...... incentives of mixed electoral systems might hamper the stabilization and institutionalization of party systems in young democracies. Empirical results from 19 democracies in Central and Eastern Europe suggest that the learning and stabilization effect that is exerted through simple electoral systems fails...... under mixed systems. Using a variance model analysis, this study rejects the common belief that mixed systems lead to more moderate party systems with regards to party system fractionalization. Rather, outcomes under mixed systems vary much more widely than under proportional representation...

  11. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  12. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 582 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or ...

  13. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrative Staff Donate Contact MENU CLOSE back Accredited Birth Centers You are here: Home Accredited Birth Centers ... not CABC-accredited. How do you find a birth center here? Skip Instructions! Get to the Map… ...

  14. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of ...

  15. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... health problems new moms may have after giving birth? Chances are that you’ll be healthy after ...

  16. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  17. Quantum computing with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel

    2011-03-01

    The development of a quantum computer is contingent upon the identification and design of systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information. One of the most promising candidates consists of a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center, since it is an individually-addressable quantum system that can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. While the success of the NV-1 stems from its nature as a localized ``deep-center'' point defect, no systematic effort has been made to identify other defects that might behave in a similar way. We provide guidelines for identifying other defect centers with similar properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate systems. To elucidate these points, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). Using hybrid functionals, we report formation energies, configuration-coordinate diagrams, and defect-level diagrams to compare and contrast the properties of these defects. We find that the NC VSi - 1 center in SiC, a structural analog of the NV-1 center in diamond, may be a suitable center with very different optical transition energies. We also discuss how the proposed criteria can be translated into guidelines to discover NV analogs in other tetrahedrally coordinated materials. This work was performed in collaboration with J. R. Weber, W. F. Koehl, B. B. Buckley, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, and D. D. Awschalom. This work was supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF.

  18. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Study on structural defects in silicon-based amorphous materials; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Amorphous silicon kei zairyo no kozo kekkan ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for structural defects of silicon-based amorphous materials for solar cells. The study on light generation defects of the a-Si:H system and rejuvenation process by annealing establishes the effects of light irradiation time on changed neutral dangling bond density as a result of light irradiation at varying temperature of 77K, room temperature and 393K. The study on annealing to rejuvenate light generation defects of various types of a-Si-H systems establishes the activation energy distribution with respect to annealing to remove light-induced defects, showing that hydrogen affects the distribution of light-induced defects. The study on decaying process of light-induced ESR for undoped and N-doped a-Si:H systems observes the decaying process of light-induced ESR, after light is cut off, extending for a period of several seconds to several hours at 77K for the a-Si-H systems containing N in a range from 0 to 12at%. The other results presented are space distribution of neutral defects of light-irradiated a-Si-H systems, and rejuvenation process of light-induced spin for the a-Si(1-x)N(x):H composition. 6 figs.

  19. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing ...

  20. Cranial birth trauma; Kraniales Geburtstrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)

  1. Internal defect propagation studies in carbon steel in H2S-H2O system (Pre print No. MI-1C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvi, M.S.; Kini, R.A.; Tangri, V.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1989-04-01

    Carbon steel is the material of construction for major equipment of heavy water plant using H 2 S-H 2 O exchange process for production of heavy water. The main corrosion product in this system is iron sulphide and hydrogen which is liberated in nascent form. It is known that such hydrogen liberated in-situ in the equipment has tendency to penetrate in the metal, giving rise to phenomena of embrittlement. Similarly, if parent metal has internal defect then this nascent hydrogen gets trapped in them and gets converted to diatomic form and consequent rise in pressure. This leads to the spread of the defect and can lead to severe loss in the strength of metal. This phenomena was studied on the walls of an autoclave used in a corrosion test assembly for simulated investigation of material of construction for H 2 S-H O exchange process. These studies indicate that internal defect propagation and generation definitely takes place in the system. However, no failures were encountered. These studies have been very qualitative in nature but showed the importance of this aspect of corrosion in H 2 S-H 2 O system and is a subject matter for further studies. It also implies that intial testing of plates for internal defects is very important. (author). 3 figs

  2. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky,Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Melby-Thompson, Charles M. [Department of Physics, Fudan University,220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Meyer, René [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Sugimoto, Shigeki [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-06-28

    We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  3. A van der Waals DFT study of PtH{sub 2} systems absorbed on pristine and defective graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Corral, Ignacio [Instituto de Química del Sur (INQUISUR), UNS-CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, B8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, B8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Piriz, Sebastián; Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat/DETEMA, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario de Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales (CINQUIFIMA), Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Juan, Alfredo, E-mail: cajuan@uns.edu.ar [Instituto de Física del Sur (IFISUR), UNS-CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, B8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, B8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Avena, Marcelo [Instituto de Química del Sur (INQUISUR), UNS-CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, B8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, B8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • We performed DFT calculations including van der Waals interactions. • Kubas-type Pt-H2 complex is stable on defective graphene. • Carbon vacancy decreases the reactivity of the metal decoration. • The interaction between σ-H and π-C states favors the Kubas-type complex. - Abstract: We used a density functional that incorporates van der Waals interactions to study hydrogen adsorption onto Pt atoms attached to carbon-vacancies on graphene layers, considering molecular and dissociated hydrogen-platinum coordination structures. PtH{sub 2} complexes adsorbed on several sites of pristine graphene were also studied for comparison. Our results indicate that both a Kubas-type dihydrogen complex and a classic hydride without H−H bond are the preferential PtH{sub 2} systems on the vacancy site of graphene. In contrast, the Kubas complex is unstable onto pristine graphene and the hydride is obtained at all adsorption sites. Our simulations suggest that the C-vacancy decreases the reactivity of the metal decoration, allowing a non-dissociative hydrogen adsorption. The H{sub 2} molecule is oriented almost perpendicular to the outermost C−Pt bond, interacting also with the graphene surface through σ-H and π-C states. This stabilization of the Kubas-type complex could play a very important role for hydrogen storage in Pt-decorated carbon adsorbents with vacancies.

  4. A van der Waals DFT study of PtH2 systems absorbed on pristine and defective graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Corral, Ignacio; Piriz, Sebastián; Faccio, Ricardo; Juan, Alfredo; Avena, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed DFT calculations including van der Waals interactions. • Kubas-type Pt-H2 complex is stable on defective graphene. • Carbon vacancy decreases the reactivity of the metal decoration. • The interaction between σ-H and π-C states favors the Kubas-type complex. - Abstract: We used a density functional that incorporates van der Waals interactions to study hydrogen adsorption onto Pt atoms attached to carbon-vacancies on graphene layers, considering molecular and dissociated hydrogen-platinum coordination structures. PtH 2 complexes adsorbed on several sites of pristine graphene were also studied for comparison. Our results indicate that both a Kubas-type dihydrogen complex and a classic hydride without H−H bond are the preferential PtH 2 systems on the vacancy site of graphene. In contrast, the Kubas complex is unstable onto pristine graphene and the hydride is obtained at all adsorption sites. Our simulations suggest that the C-vacancy decreases the reactivity of the metal decoration, allowing a non-dissociative hydrogen adsorption. The H 2 molecule is oriented almost perpendicular to the outermost C−Pt bond, interacting also with the graphene surface through σ-H and π-C states. This stabilization of the Kubas-type complex could play a very important role for hydrogen storage in Pt-decorated carbon adsorbents with vacancies.

  5. Cytokine Overproduction, T-Cell Activation, and Defective T-Regulatory Functions Promote Nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN occurs in more than one-third of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Its pathogenesis is mostly attributable to the glomerular deposition of immune complexes and overproduction of T helper- (Th- 1 cytokines. In this context, the high glomerular expression of IL-12 and IL-18 exerts a major pathogenetic role. These cytokines are locally produced by both macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs which attract other inflammatory cells leading to maintenance of the kidney inflammation. However, other populations including T-cells and B-cells are integral for the development and worsening of renal damage. T-cells include many pathogenetic subsets, and the activation of Th-17 in keeping with defective T-regulatory (Treg cell function regards as further event contributing to the glomerular damage. These populations also activate B-cells to produce nephritogenic auto-antibodies. Thus, LN includes a complex pathogenetic mechanism that involves different players and the evaluation of their activity may provide an effective tool for monitoring the onset of the disease.

  6. Can mothers rely on the Brazilian health system for their deliveries? An assessment of use of the public system and out-of-pocket expenditure in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldi Andréa D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a country where comprehensive free health care is provided via a public health system (SUS, an unexpected high frequency of catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure has been described. We studied how deliveries were financed among mothers of a birth cohort and whether they were an important source of household out-of-pocket expenditure. Methods All deliveries occurring in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. All mothers were interviewed just after birth and three months later. Comprehensive data on the pregnancy, delivery, birth conditions and newborn health were collected, along with detailed information on expenses related to the delivery. Results The majority of the deliveries (81% were financed by the public health system, a proportion that increased to more than 95% among the 40% poorest mothers. Less than 1% of these mothers reported some out-of-pocket expenditure. Even among those mothers covered by a private health plan, nearly 50% of births were financed by the SUS. Among the 20% richest, a third of the deliveries were paid by the SUS, 50% by private health plans and 17% by direct payment. Conclusion The public health system offered services in quantity and quality enough to attract even beneficiaries of private health plans and spared mothers from the poorest strata of the population of practically any expense.

  7. Modeling the dynamic behavior of railway track taking into account the occurrence of defects in the system wheel-rail

    OpenAIRE

    Loktev Alexey; Sychev Vyacheslav; Gluzberg Boris; Gridasova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wheel defects on the development of rail defects up to a state where rail prompt replacement becomes necessary taking into account different models of the dynamic contact between a wheel and a rail. In particular, the quasistatic Hertz model, the linear elastic model and the elastoplastic Aleksandrov-Kadomtsev model. Based on the model of the wheel-rail contact the maximum stresses are determined which take place in the rail in the presence of wheel de...

  8. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Wilcox

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addressing a broad range of questions in perinatal epidemiology. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway has been a pioneer in answering such questions.

  9. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Wilcox

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addressing a broad range of questions in perinatal epidemiology. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway has been a pioneer in answering such questions

  10. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  11. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    Full Text Available The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS. In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines.In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification.Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  12. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way.

  13. Defining defect specifications to optimize photomask production and requalification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiekowsky, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Reducing defect repairs and accelerating defect analysis is becoming more important as the total cost of defect repairs on advanced masks increases. Photomask defect specs based on printability, as measured on AIMS microscopes has been used for years, but the fundamental defect spec is still the defect size, as measured on the photomask, requiring the repair of many unprintable defects. ADAS, the Automated Defect Analysis System from AVI is now available in most advanced mask shops. It makes the use of pure printability specs, or "Optimal Defect Specs" practical. This software uses advanced algorithms to eliminate false defects caused by approximations in the inspection algorithm, classify each defect, simulate each defect and disposition each defect based on its printability and location. This paper defines "optimal defect specs", explains why they are now practical and economic, gives a method of determining them and provides accuracy data.

  14. Quantum computing with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J R; Koehl, W F; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2010-05-11

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV(-1)) center stands out for its robustness--its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV(-1) center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors.

  15. Congenital Heart Defects and Receipt of Special Education Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Autry, Andrew; Razzaghi, Hilda; Boyle, Coleen A; Mahle, William T; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of receipt of special education services among children with congenital heart defects (CHDs) compared with children without birth defects. Children born from 1982 to 2004 in metropolitan Atlanta with CHDs (n = 3744) were identified from a population-based birth defect surveillance program; children without birth defects (n = 860 715) were identified from birth certificates. Cohorts were linked to special education files for the 1992-2012 school years to identify special education services. Children with noncardiac defects or genetic syndromes were excluded; children with CHDs were classified by presence or absence of critical CHDs (ie, CHDs requiring intervention by age one year). We evaluated the prevalence of receipt of special education services and prevalence rate ratios using children without birth defects as a reference. Compared with children without birth defects, children with CHDs were 50% more likely to receive special education services overall (adjusted prevalence rate ratio [aPRR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-1.7). Specifically, they had higher prevalence of several special education categories including: intellectual disability (aPRR = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.8-5.1), sensory impairment (aPRR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.8-5.0), other health impairment (aPRR = 2.8; 95% CI: 2.2-3.5), significant developmental delay (aPRR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.8), and specific learning disability (aPRR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). For most special education services, the excess prevalence did not vary by presence of critical CHDs. Children with CHDs received special education services more often than children without birth defects. These findings highlight the need for special education services and the importance of developmental screening for all children with CHDs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. the z-transform applied to a birth-death process having varying birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    The analysis of a birth-death process using the z-transform was recently reported for processes hav- ing fixed transition probabilities ... model can be used to study practical queuing and birth-death systems where the arrival, birth, ser- vice and death rates may ..... John-Wiley & Sons, New York. Krogh, A., Brown, M. Mian, ...

  17. Atrioventricular septal defects among infants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolas; Andersen, Helle; Garne, Ester

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of chromosomal and non-chromosomal cases of atrioventricular septal defects in Europe. METHODS: Data were obtained from EUROCAT, a European network of population-based registries collecting data on congenital anomalies. Data from 13 registries for the period...... 2000-2008 were included. RESULTS: There was a total of 993 cases of atrioventricular septal defects, with a total prevalence of 5.3 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval 4.1 to 6.5). Of the total cases, 250 were isolated cardiac lesions, 583 were chromosomal cases, 79 had multiple anomalies, 58...... of pregnancy owing to foetal anomaly. Among the groups, additional associated cardiac anomalies were most frequent in heterotaxia cases (38%) and least frequent in chromosomal cases (8%). Coarctation of the aorta was the most common associated cardiac defect. The 1-week survival rate for live births was 94...

  18. Using geographical information systems to explore disparities in preterm birth rates among foreign-born and U.S.-born Black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Joan Rosen

    2011-01-01

    To examine spatial patterns of neighborhood contextual factors of stress with preterm birth (PTB) and nativity (foreign-born and U.S.-born) among Black mothers. Descriptive geographic-spatial research. Births to Philadelphia residents during 2003-2005 in the context of Philadelphia residential neighborhoods (N = 350) were studied. All data were aggregated to neighborhood levels (census tracts). Maps were created to assess geographic-spatial patterns. A geographic information system (GIS) database was created that imported geo-coded data on births, crime (assaults with guns and domestic abuse), poverty, race, and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). Clear visual patterns of "bad" neighborhoods emerged and were significantly associated with higher prevalence of PTB for foreign-born Black and U.S.-born Black mothers (p GIS visually clarified important spatial patterns of adverse living conditions and PTB prevalence. Nurses can use GIS to better understand living environments of mothers and their families and to target interventions in geographical areas with the greatest service needs. Further research on individual and contextual factors is warranted to address the observed health disparities among the heterogeneous groups of foreign-born Black mothers. Despite limitations of aggregate data, it is clear that where mothers live matters. This has important implications for nursing practice and policy. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. Using Geographical Information Systems to Explore Disparities in Preterm Birth Rates Among Foreign-born and U.S.-born Black Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Joan Rosen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine spatial patterns of neighborhood contextual factors of stress with preterm birth (PTB) and nativity (foreign-born and U.S.-born) among Black mothers. Design Descriptive geographic-spatial research. Setting & Participants Births to Philadelphia residents during 2003–2005 in the context of Philadelphia residential neighborhoods (N = 350) were studied. Methods All data were aggregated to neighborhood levels (census tracts). Maps were created to assess geographic-spatial patterns. A geographic information system (GIS) database was created that imported geo-coded data on births, crime (assaults with guns and domestic abuse), poverty, race, and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). Results Clear visual patterns of “bad” neighborhoods emerged and were significantly associated with higher prevalence of PTB for foreign-born Black and U.S.-born Black mothers (p GIS visually clarified important spatial patterns of adverse living conditions and PTB prevalence. Nurses can use GIS to better understand living environments of mothers and their families and to target interventions in geographical areas with the greatest service needs. Further research on individual and contextual factors is warranted to address the observed health disparities among the heterogeneous groups of foreign-born Black mothers. Despite limitations of aggregate data, it is clear that where mothers live matters. This has important implications for nursing practice and policy. PMID:22273411

  20. Spectrum of prenatally detected central nervous system malformations: Neural tube defects continue to be the leading foetal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddesh, Anjurani; Gupta, Geetika; Sharan, Ram; Agarwal, Meenal; Phadke, Shubha R

    2017-04-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of malformations is an important method of prevention and control of congenital anomalies with poor prognosis. Central nervous system (CNS) malformations amongst these are the most common. The information about the prevalence and spectrum of prenatally detected malformations is crucial for genetic counselling and policymaking for population-based preventive programmes. The objective of this study was to study the spectrum of prenatally detected CNS malformations and their association with chromosomal abnormalities and autopsy findings. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in north India from January 2007 to December 2013. The details of cases with prenatally detected CNS malformations were collected and were related with the foetal chromosomal analysis and autopsy findings. Amongst 6044 prenatal ultrasonographic examinations performed; 768 (12.7%) had structural malformations and 243 (31.6%) had CNS malformations. Neural tube defects (NTDs) accounted for 52.3 per cent of CNS malformations and 16.5 per cent of all malformations. The other major groups of prenatally detected CNS malformations were ventriculomegaly and midline anomalies. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 8.2 per cent of the 73 cases studied. Foetal autopsy findings were available for 48 foetuses. Foetal autopsy identified additional findings in eight foetuses and the aetiological diagnosis changed in two of them (4.2%). Amongst prenatally detected malformations, CNS malformations were common. NTD, which largely is a preventable anomaly, continued to be the most common group. Moreover, 60 per cent of malformations were diagnosed after 20 weeks, posing legal issues. Chromosomal analysis and foetal autopsy are essential for genetic counselling based on aetiological diagnosis.

  1. Exploring the microbiota of the red-brown defect in smear-ripened cheese by 454-pyrosequencing and its prevention using different cleaning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Carafa, Ilaria; Tuohy, Kieran; Cervantes, Gonzalo; Vernetti, Luca; Barmaz, Andrea; Larcher, Roberto; Franciosi, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Red-brown pigmentation can occasionally form in smeared-ripened cheese such as Fontina during the ripening process. This reaction is due to over-development of the typical microbiota present on the rind. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between red-brown pigmentation and the traditional utilization of wooden shelves during cheese ripening. The first part of the paper focuses on the characterisation of yeast and bacterial microbiota: plate counts and 454-pyrosequencing were performed in spoiled (n = 6) and non-spoiled cheeses (n = 6) and on the wooden shelves used during ripening. The second part shows different systems tested for cleaning the wooden shelves and avoiding the development of the red-brown defect in cheese: washing with hot water and ozone treatment. Actinobacteria, dominated on the wooden shelves, suggesting to be responsible for the red-brown pigmentation; they were also found in traces in the defected cheese samples. Galactomyces and Debaryomyces were the main species characterizing the yeast population, with Debaryomyces being the most dominant species on the shelves used during ripening of the red-brown defective cheese. Hot water treatment reduced the microbial contamination of shelves, whereas only the ozone treatment ensured complete elimination of both yeast and bacteria, resulting in the cheese rind not having the red-brown defect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and application of a rapid rehabilitation system for reconstruction of maxillofacial soft-tissue defects related to war and traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi-Zhu; Feng, Zhi-Hong; Gao, Rui; Dong, Yan; Bi, Yun-Peng; Wu, Guo-Feng; Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The application of a maxillofacial prosthesis is an alternative to surgery in functional-aesthetic facial reconstruction. Computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing has opened up a new approach to the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. An intelligentized rapid simulative design and manufacturing system for prostheses was developed to facilitate the prosthesis fabrication procedure. The rapid simulation design and rapid fabrication system for maxillofacial prostheses consists of three components: digital impression, intelligentized prosthesis design, and rapid manufacturing. The patients' maxillofacial digital impressions were taken with a structured-light 3D scanner; then, the 3D model of the prostheses and their negative molds could be designed with specific software; lastly, with resin molds fabricated by the rapid prototyping machine, the prostheses could be produced directly and quickly. Fifteen patients with maxillofacial defects received prosthesis rehabilitation provided by the established system. The total clinical time used for each patient was only 4 hours over 2 appointments on average. The contours of the prostheses coordinated properly with the appearance of the patients, and the uniform-thickness border sealed well to adjacent tissues. All of the patients were satisfied with their prostheses. The rapid simulative rehabilitation system of maxillofacial defects is approaching completion. It could provide an advanced technological solution for the Army in cases of maxillofacial defect rehabilitation.

  3. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  4. Ocular Defects in Photosensitive Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with photosensitive epilepsy are susceptible to seizures due to photoparoxysmal response (PPR. This response adversely precipitates factors that modify the functional status of the visual system. Such factors may or may not be evident superficially, but may lead to ocular defects due to trauma, hormonal imbalance, abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP, or any other reflex-inducing stimuli. The extent to which photosensitive epileptic patients suffer from PPR-related ocular defects has not been documented fully. In this investigation, ocular defects in patients with photosensitive epilepsy are studied using visual-evoked response (VER. A total of 212 photosensitive epileptic patients were studied to ascertain the magnitude and distribution of ocular defects using the changes in EEG and visual-evoked potential (VEP; 51% of the patients were female, the age range was 1–46 years. The major ocular defects and complications found were visual field defects, optic nerve abnormalities, nystagmus, cataracts, amblyopia, and migraine. These findings were analyzed according to age and sex. The relationship between the ocular abnormalities and the interpretations of the changes in the characteristics of the VEP indicated that optic-related atrophies, visual defects, optic neuritis, chiasmal compression, nystagmus, migraine headache, cataracts, and amblyopia were prevalent in photosensitive epileptic patients at varying degrees. The results showed that although ocular defects in photosensitive epilepsy may not be obvious differentially, VEP can be used in their diagnosis, contrary to earlier studies reporting that VEP is not of much value in epilepsy diagnosis.

  5. Modeling the dynamic behavior of railway track taking into account the occurrence of defects in the system wheel-rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of wheel defects on the development of rail defects up to a state where rail prompt replacement becomes necessary taking into account different models of the dynamic contact between a wheel and a rail. In particular, the quasistatic Hertz model, the linear elastic model and the elastoplastic Aleksandrov-Kadomtsev model. Based on the model of the wheel-rail contact the maximum stresses are determined which take place in the rail in the presence of wheel defects (e.g. flat spot, weld-on deposit, etc.. In this paper, the solution of the inverse problem is presented, i.e., investigation of the influence of the strength of a wheel impact upon rails on wheel defects as well as evaluation of the stresses emerging in rails. During the motion of a railway vehicle, the wheel pair position in relation to rails changes significantly, which causes various combinations of wheel-rail contact areas. Even provided the constant axial load, the normal stresses will substantially change due to the differences in the radii of curvature of contact surfaces of these areas, as well as movement velocities of railway vehicles.

  6. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  7. Catholics vs. Protestants - Birth and Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July......Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July...

  8. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Danish Medical Birth Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    on all births in Denmark and comprises primarily of data from the Danish National Patient Registry supplemented with forms on home deliveries and stillbirths. It contains information on maternal age provided by the Civil Registration System. Information on pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking......The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used...

  10. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from taking birth control pills include: Blood clots Heart attack High blood pressure Stroke Birth control pills without estrogen are much less likely to cause these problems. The risk is higher for women ...

  11. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  12. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ...

  13. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...

  14. Prenatal exposure to environmental factors and congenital limb defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter G; Clark, Karen L; Tuan, Rocky S

    2016-09-01

    Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact. This is limited by the insufficiencies of currently available models. Specifically, in vivo approaches using guideline animal models have inherently deficient predictive power due to genomic and anatomic differences that complicate mechanistic comparisons. On the other hand, in vitro two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, while accessible for cellular and molecular experimentation, do not reflect the three-dimensional (3D) morphogenetic events in vivo nor systemic influences. More robust and accessible models based on human cells that accurately replicate specific processes of embryonic limb development are needed to enhance limb teratogenesis prediction and to permit mechanistic analysis of the adverse outcome pathways. Recent advances in elucidating mechanisms of normal development will aid in the development of process-specific 3D cell cultures within specialized bioreactors to support multicellular microtissues or organoid constructs that will lead to increased understanding of cell functions, cell-to-cell signaling, pathway networks, and mechanisms of toxicity. The promise is prompting researchers to look to such 3D microphysiological systems to help sort out complex and often subtle interactions relevant to developmental malformations that would not be evident by standard 2D cell culture testing. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:243-273, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Potential Link between the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P System and Defective Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytic Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Barnawi

    Full Text Available We previously reported that alveolar macrophages from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are defective in their ability to phagocytose apoptotic cells, with a similar defect in response to cigarette smoke. The exact mechanisms for this defect are unknown. Sphingolipids including ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P are involved in diverse cellular processes and we hypothesised that a comprehensive analysis of this system in alveolar macrophages in COPD may help to delineate the reasons for defective phagocytic function.We compared mRNA expression of sphingosine kinases (SPHK1/2, S1P receptors (S1PR1-5 and S1P-degrading enzymes (SGPP1, SGPP2, SGPL1 in bronchoalveolar lavage-derived alveolar macrophages from 10 healthy controls, 7 healthy smokers and 20 COPD patients (10 current- and 10 ex-smokers using Real-Time PCR. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Functional associations were assessed between sphingosine signalling system components and alveolar macrophage phagocytic ability in COPD. To elucidate functional effects of increased S1PR5 on macrophage phagocytic ability, we performed the phagocytosis assay in the presence of varying concentrations of suramin, an antagonist of S1PR3 and S1PR5. The effects of cigarette smoking on the S1P system were investigated using a THP-1 macrophage cell line model.We found significant increases in SPHK1/2 (3.4- and 2.1-fold increases respectively, S1PR2 and 5 (4.3- and 14.6-fold increases respectively, and SGPL1 (4.5-fold increase in COPD vs. controls. S1PR5 and SGPL1 expression was unaffected by smoking status, suggesting a COPD "disease effect" rather than smoke effect per se. Significant associations were noted between S1PR5 and both lung function and phagocytosis. Cigarette smoke extract significantly increased mRNA expression of SPHK1, SPHK2, S1PR2 and S1PR5 by THP-1 macrophages, confirming the results in patient

  16. Potential Link between the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) System and Defective Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytic Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Jameel; Tran, Hai; Jersmann, Hubertus; Pitson, Stuart; Roscioli, Eugene; Hodge, Greg; Meech, Robyn; Haberberger, Rainer; Hodge, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that alveolar macrophages from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defective in their ability to phagocytose apoptotic cells, with a similar defect in response to cigarette smoke. The exact mechanisms for this defect are unknown. Sphingolipids including ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are involved in diverse cellular processes and we hypothesised that a comprehensive analysis of this system in alveolar macrophages in COPD may help to delineate the reasons for defective phagocytic function. We compared mRNA expression of sphingosine kinases (SPHK1/2), S1P receptors (S1PR1-5) and S1P-degrading enzymes (SGPP1, SGPP2, SGPL1) in bronchoalveolar lavage-derived alveolar macrophages from 10 healthy controls, 7 healthy smokers and 20 COPD patients (10 current- and 10 ex-smokers) using Real-Time PCR. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Functional associations were assessed between sphingosine signalling system components and alveolar macrophage phagocytic ability in COPD. To elucidate functional effects of increased S1PR5 on macrophage phagocytic ability, we performed the phagocytosis assay in the presence of varying concentrations of suramin, an antagonist of S1PR3 and S1PR5. The effects of cigarette smoking on the S1P system were investigated using a THP-1 macrophage cell line model. We found significant increases in SPHK1/2 (3.4- and 2.1-fold increases respectively), S1PR2 and 5 (4.3- and 14.6-fold increases respectively), and SGPL1 (4.5-fold increase) in COPD vs. controls. S1PR5 and SGPL1 expression was unaffected by smoking status, suggesting a COPD "disease effect" rather than smoke effect per se. Significant associations were noted between S1PR5 and both lung function and phagocytosis. Cigarette smoke extract significantly increased mRNA expression of SPHK1, SPHK2, S1PR2 and S1PR5 by THP-1 macrophages, confirming the results in patient-derived macrophages

  17. Defect-meditated efficient catalytic activity toward p-nitrophenol reduction: A case study of nitrogen doped calcium niobate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yiguo; Huang, Shushu; Wang, Tingting; Peng, Liman; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A series of nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 was successfully prepared via ion-exchange method, which was found to be an efficient and green noble-metal-free catalyst toward catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. - Highlights: • Nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 was found to be an efficient and green noble-metal-free catalyst toward catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. • Defective nitrogen and oxygen species were found to play synergetic roles in the reduction of p-nitrophenol. • Nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 showed photo-synergistic promotion effects toward p-nitrophenol reduction under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: This work reported on the synthesis of a series of nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 with tunable nitrogen content that were found to be efficient and green noble-metal-free catalysts toward catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. XPS and ESR results indicated that the introduction of nitrogen in Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 gave rise to a large number of defective nitrogen and oxygen species. Defective nitrogen and oxygen species were found to play synergetic roles in the reduction of p-nitrophenol. The underlying mechanism is completely different from those reported for metallic nanoparticles. Moreover, the more negative conduction band edge potential enabled nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 to show photo-synergistic effects that could accelerate the reduction rate toward p-nitrophenol under UV light irradiation. This work may provide a strategy for tuning the catalytic performance by modulating the chemical composition, electronic structure as well as surface defect chemistry

  18. Defects in Quantum Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardas, Bartłomiej; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H; Zwolak, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The shift of interest from general purpose quantum computers to adiabatic quantum computing or quantum annealing calls for a broadly applicable and easy to implement test to assess how quantum or adiabatic is a specific hardware. Here we propose such a test based on an exactly solvable many body system-the quantum Ising chain in transverse field-and implement it on the D-Wave machine. An ideal adiabatic quench of the quantum Ising chain should lead to an ordered broken symmetry ground state with all spins aligned in the same direction. An actual quench can be imperfect due to decoherence, noise, flaws in the implemented Hamiltonian, or simply too fast to be adiabatic. Imperfections result in topological defects: Spins change orientation, kinks punctuating ordered sections of the chain. The number of such defects quantifies the extent by which the quantum computer misses the ground state, and is, therefore, imperfect.

  19. Sistema de informações sobre nascidos vivos: um estudo de revisão Brazilian live birth information system: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Santana Paiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre o uso do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC na pesquisa em saúde. As bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO foram pesquisadas no período de 1994 a 2005, utilizando-se a combinação dos seguintes descritores: "SINASC", "live birth", "Brazil". Foram identificados 157 resumos dentro do período de referência, dos quais 44 foram selecionados e classificados segundo critérios específicos. O número de artigos publicados por ano cresceu ao longo do período estudado. A maioria dos estudos foi desenvolvida na região Sudeste e empregou o município como a unidade geográfica da análise. Uma gama variada de temas foi avaliada, incluindo descrições do perfil de nascidos vivos, avaliações de serviços e programas de saúde e fatores de risco para desfechos infantis. Concluindo, embora o SINASC represente uma fonte de dados importante para a pesquisa sobre a saúde materno-infantil, a cobertura do sistema e a confiabilidade dos seus dados precisam ser melhor avaliadas.The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the use of the Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos SINASC in health research. MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases were searched from 1994 to 2005 using the following combination of descriptors: "SINASC", "live birth", "Brazil". We identified 157 abstracts within the reference period, among which 44 were selected and classified according to specific criteria. The number of articles published per year increased during the period studied. The majority of the studies was carried out in the Southeast region and used the municipality as the geographic unity of analysis. A varied range of subjects were assessed including descriptions of live births profiles, health service and programs evaluations and risk factors for infant outcomes. In conclusion, although the SINASC represents an important data

  20. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  1. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's in this article? What Is ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of ...

  2. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a ...

  3. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  4. Deranged Bioenergetics and Defective Redox Capacity in T Lymphocytes and Neutrophils Are Related to Cellular Dysfunction and Increased Oxidative Stress in Patients with Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Jen Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary excretion of N-benzoyl-glycyl-Nε-(hexanonyllysine, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was higher in 26 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE than in 11 non-SLE patients with connective tissue diseases and in 14 healthy volunteers. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress in active SLE might be attributable to deranged bioenergetics, defective reduction-oxidation (redox capacity, or other factors. We demonstrated that, compared to normal cells, T lymphocytes (T and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN of active SLE showed defective expression of facilitative glucose transporters GLUT-3 and GLUT-6, which led to increased intracellular basal lactate and decreased ATP production. In addition, the redox capacity, including intracellular GSH levels and the enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT, was decreased in SLE-T. Compared to normal cells, SLE-PMN showed decreased intracellular GSH levels, and GGT enzyme activity was found in SLE-PMN and enhanced expression of CD53, a coprecipitating molecule for GGT. We conclude that deranged cellular bioenergetics and defective redox capacity in T and PMN are responsible for cellular immune dysfunction and are related to increased oxidative stress in active SLE patients.

  5. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  6. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...

  7. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  8. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both......Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...

  9. An Approach to measuring Integrated Care within a Maternity Care System: Experiences from the Maternity Care Network Study and the Dutch Birth Centre Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, Pim P.; Hitzert, Marit; Hermus, Marieke A.A.; Franx, Arie; de Vries, Raymond G.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Integrated care is considered to be a means to reduce costs, improve the quality of care and generate better patient outcomes. At present, little is known about integrated care in maternity care systems. We developed questionnaires to examine integrated care in two different settings, using the taxonomy of the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of these questionnaires. Methods: We used data collected between 2013 and 2015 from two studies: the Maternity Care Network Study (634 respondents) and the Dutch Birth Centre Study (56 respondents). We assessed the feasibility, discriminative validity, and reliability of the questionnaires. Results: Both questionnaires showed good feasibility (overall missing rate 0.70). Between-subgroups post-hoc comparisons showed statistically significant differences on integration profiles between regional networks (on all items, dimensions of integration and total integration score) and birth centres (on 50% of the items and dimensions of integration). Discussion: Both questionnaires are feasible and can discriminate between sites with different integration profiles in The Netherlands. They offer an opportunity to better understand integrated care as one step in understanding the complexity of the concept. PMID:28970747

  10. Osterix-Cre transgene causes craniofacial bone development defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The Cre/loxP system has been widely used to generate tissue-specific gene knockout mice. Inducible (Tet-off) Osx-GFP::Cre (Osx-Cre) mouse line that targets osteoblasts is widely used in the bone research field. In this study, we investigated the effect of Osx-Cre on craniofacial bone development. We found that newborn Osx-Cre mice showed severe hypomineralization in parietal, frontal, and nasal bones as well as the coronal sutural area when compared to control mice. As the mice matured the intramembranous bone hypomineralization phenotype became less severe. The major hypomineralization defect in parietal, frontal, and nasal bones had mostly disappeared by postnatal day 21, but the defect in sutural areas persisted. Importantly, Doxycycline treatment eliminated cranial bone defects at birth which indicates that Cre expression may be responsible for the phenotype. In addition, we showed that the primary calvarial osteoblasts isolated from neonatal Osx-Cre mice had comparable differentiation ability compared to their littermate controls. This study reinforces the idea that Cre positive litter mates are indispensable controls in studies using conditional gene deletion. PMID:25550101

  11. Progressive Structural Defects in Canine Centronuclear Myopathy Indicate a Role for HACD1 in Maintaining Skeletal Muscle Membrane Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Gemma L; Blot, Stéphane; Venner, Kerrie; Sewry, Caroline; Laporte, Jocelyn; Blondelle, Jordan; Barthélémy, Inès; Maurer, Marie; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Pilot-Storck, Fanny; Tiret, Laurent; Piercy, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in HACD1/PTPLA cause recessive congenital myopathies in humans and dogs. Hydroxyacyl-coA dehydratases are required for elongation of very long chain fatty acids, and HACD1 has a role in early myogenesis, but the functions of this striated muscle-specific enzyme in more differentiated skeletal muscle remain unknown. Canine HACD1 deficiency is histopathologically classified as a centronuclear myopathy (CNM). We investigated the hypothesis that muscle from HACD1-deficient dogs has membrane abnormalities in common with CNMs with different genetic causes. We found progressive changes in tubuloreticular and sarcolemmal membranes and mislocalized triads and mitochondria in skeletal muscle from animals deficient in HACD1. Furthermore, comparable membranous abnormalities in cultured HACD1-deficient myotubes provide additional evidence that these defects are a primary consequence of altered HACD1 expression. Our novel findings, including T-tubule dilatation and disorganization, associated with defects in this additional CNM-associated gene provide a definitive pathophysiologic link with these disorders, confirm that dogs deficient in HACD1 are relevant models, and strengthen the evidence for a unifying pathogenesis in CNMs via defective membrane trafficking and excitation-contraction coupling in muscle. These results build on previous work by determining further functional roles of HACD1 in muscle and provide new insight into the pathology and pathogenetic mechanisms of HACD1 CNM. Consequently, alterations in membrane properties associated with HACD1 mutations should be investigated in humans with related phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Mouse and Zebrafish Models to Understand the Etiology of Developmental Defects in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAWAUCHI, SHIMAKO; SANTOS, ROSAYSELA; MUTO, AKIHIKO; LOPEZ-BURKS, MARTHA E.; SCHILLING, THOMAS F.; LANDER, ARTHUR D.; CALOF, ANNE L.

    2016-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem birth defects disorder that affects every tissue and organ system in the body. Understanding the factors that contribute to the origins, prevalence, and severity of these developmental defects provides the most direct approach for developing screens and potential treatments for individuals with CdLS. Since the majority of cases of CdLS are caused by haploinsufficiency for NIPBL (Nipped-B-like, which encodes a cohesin-associated protein), we have developed mouse and zebrafish models of CdLS by using molecular genetic tools to create Nipbl-deficient mice and zebrafish (Nipbl+/− mice, zebrafish nipbl morphants). Studies of these vertebrate animal models have yielded novel insights into the developmental etiology and genes/gene pathways that contribute to CdLS-associated birth defects, particularly defects of the gut, heart, craniofacial structures, nervous system, and limbs. Studies of these mouse and zebrafish CdLS models have helped clarify how deficiency for NIPBL, a protein that associates with cohesin and other transcriptional regulators in the nucleus, affects processes important to the emergence of the structural and physiological birth defects observed in CdLS: NIPBL exerts chromosome position-specific effects on gene expression; it influences long-range interactions between different regulatory elements of genes; and it regulates combinatorial and synergistic actions of genes in developing tissues. Our current understanding is that CdLS should be considered as not only a cohesinopathy, but also a “transcriptomopathy,” that is, a disease whose underlying etiology is the global dysregulation of gene expression throughout the organism. PMID:27120001

  13. Outcomes of independent midwifery attended births in birth centres and home births: a retrospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yaeko; Eto, Hiromi; Iida, Mariko

    2013-08-01

    blood loss over 500mL (RR1.28; 95%CI 1.07 to 1.53) and over 1000mL (RR1.75; 95%CI 1.04 to 2.82) compared to women birthing at home. our results for birth outcomes with independent midwives at birth centres and home births in Japan indicated a high degree of safety and evidence-based practice. This study had some limitations because of its incomplete data and low response rate. However, this is one of the few studies that reported outcomes of Japanese independent midwives and the safety of their practice. A birth registry system would provide us with more accurate and complete information of all childbirths with which to evaluate the safety of independent Japanese midwives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence at birth of congenital malformations in communities near the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, L.E.; Hessol, N.A.; Gilbert, E.S.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of congenital malformations among births in Benton and Franklin counties, in southeastern Washington State, from 1968 through 1980. The Hanford Site is in this area and serves as a major employer. In addition, various agriculturally and chemically related activities are in the area. Hospital and vital records were used to identify 454 malformation cases among 23,319 births; this yielded a malformation rate of 19.6 per 1000 births, a rate similar to those reported in other studies. The rates of specific malformations ascertained during the first year of life were compared with combined rates from the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho from the Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Among defects that would be expected to be comparably ascertained, a statistically significant elevated rate of neural tube defects was observed (1.72 per 1000 births vs. 0.99 per 1000). Rates of cleft lip were significantly lower in Benton and Franklin counties than in the Birth Defects Monitoring Program (0.59 per 1,000 vs. 1.17 per 1000). For congenital heart defects, pyloric stenosis, and Down syndrome, which are often not diagnosed in the newborn period, Birth Defects Monitoring Program data did not offer appropriate comparisons. The rates of these defects did not appear to be elevated in relation to rates found in other relevant populations. When rates of neural tube defects were compared with those in populations other than the Birth Defects Monitoring Program, the Benton and Franklin county rates were still considered to be elevated. The increased bicounty rate cannot be explained by employment of the parents at Hanford or by the impact of plant emissions on the local population

  15. Defect detection based on extreme edge of defective region histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhir Wakaf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic thresholding has been used by many applications in image processing and pattern recognition systems. Specific attention was given during inspection for quality control purposes in various industries like steel processing and textile manufacturing. Automatic thresholding problem has been addressed well by the commonly used Otsu method, which provides suitable results for thresholding images based on a histogram of bimodal distribution. However, the Otsu method fails when the histogram is unimodal or close to unimodal. Defects have different shapes and sizes, ranging from very small to large. The gray-level distributions of the image histogram can vary between unimodal and multimodal. Furthermore, Otsu-revised methods, like the valley-emphasis method and the background histogram mode extents, which overcome the drawbacks of the Otsu method, require preprocessing steps and fail to use the general threshold for multimodal defects. This study proposes a new automatic thresholding algorithm based on the acquisition of the defective region histogram and the selection of its extreme edge as the threshold value to segment all defective objects in the foreground from the image background. To evaluate the proposed defect-detection method, common standard images for experimentation were used. Experimental results of the proposed method show that the proposed method outperforms the current methods in terms of defect detection.

  16. Fluconazole-Associated Birth Defects: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen M. Firth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The August 2013 publication of a large historical cohort study in the New England Journal of Medicine has reignited interest in the potential teratogenic effects of fluconazole when used in pregnant females. Fluconazole is an effective and commonly-utilized antifungal medication. Thus, maternal and fetal exposure to fluconazole is expected in the general population, and pharmacists are expected to counsel patients regarding any risks to their prescribed treatment. Methods: A literature review of all published literature indexed to PubMed (January 1966 to October 2013 and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (January 1975 to October 2013 including fluconazole and teratogenic effects and published in the English language was conducted. Results: Fourteen publications were included for analysis including case reports (n=7, cross-sectional research (n=2, and historical cohort studies (n=5. Conclusion: There appears to be little to no fetal risk resulting from a single dose or short duration antifungal therapy with fluconazole. However, prolonged high-dose fluconazole therapy has increased potential to confer teratogenic effects. In those cases, the risks of such therapy should be weighed against potential benefits.   Type: Student Project

  17. FastStats: Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childbearing Deaths Deaths and Mortality Leading Causes of Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Health of ...

  18. Bedside detection of low systemic flow in the very low birth weight infant on day 1 of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between the clinical and biochemical parameters of perfusion and superior vena cava (SVC) flow in a prospective observational cohort study of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Newborns with congenital heart disease were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Capillary refill time (forehead, sternum and toe), mean blood pressure, urine output and serum lactate concentration were also measured simultaneously. Thirty-eight VLBW infants were examined. Eight patients (21%) had SVC flow less than 40 ml\\/kg\\/min. There was a poor correlation between the capillary refill time (in all sites), mean blood pressure, urine output and SVC flow. The correlation coefficient for the serum lactate concentration was r = -0.28, p = 0.15. The median serum lactate concentration was 3.5 (range 2.8-8.5) vs. 2.7 (range 1.2-6.9) mmol\\/l (p = 0.01) in low flow versus normal flow states. A serum lactate concentration of >2.8 was 100% sensitive and 60% specific for detecting a low flow state. Combining a capillary refill time of >4 s with a serum lactate concentration of >4 mmol\\/l had a specificity of 97% for detecting a low SVC flow state. Serum lactate concentrations are higher in low SVC flow states. A capillary refill time of >4 s combined with serum lactate concentrations >4 mmol\\/l increased the specificity and positive and negative predictive values of detecting a low SVC flow state.

  19. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a community-based delivery system and its effect on parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Bygbjerg, Ib; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to assess the impact of a community-based delivery system of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) on access, parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight as primary outcome measures. METHODS.......0001). At both health units and the community-based approaches, IPT increased mean hemoglobin by 6.7% (panemia from 5.7% to 3.1% (p.... This intervention was acceptable to 89.6% of the women at the community-based approaches intending to use IPT in the future, while 48.1% of them had recommended it to other women. CONCLUSIONS: The community-based approaches increased access and adherence to IPT with an effect on anemia, severe anemia, parasitemia...

  20. Effects of folic acid fortification on the prevalence of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sâmya Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Souza, Ariani Impieri de; Figueiroa, José Natal

    2009-08-01

    To analyze the effect of folic acid-fortified foods on the prevalence of neural tube defects in live newborns. Longitudinal study with newborns from the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. Data analyzed were obtained from the Sistema Nacional de Informações de Nascidos Vivos (National Information System on Live Births). Neural tube defects were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10): anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida. Prevalences from the periods before (2000-2004) and after (2005-2006) the mandatory fortification period were compared. Time trend of three-month prevalences of neural tube defects were analyzed using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope estimator. Tendency towards reduction in the occurrence of outcome (Mann-Kendall test; p= 0.270; Sen's Slope estimator =-0.008) was not identified in the period studied. The difference between prevalences of neural tube defects in the periods before and after food fortification with folic acid was not statistically significant, according to maternal characteristics. Even though reduction in neural tube defects after the period of mandatory food fortification with folic acid was not observed, results found do not enable its benefit to prevent malformations to be ruled out. Studies assessing longer periods and considering the level of consumption of fortified products by women of fertile age are necessary.

  1. Maternal alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and the risk for an offspring with an isolated congenital heart defect and in particular a ventricular septal defect or an atrial septal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Grønbaek, Morten

    2011-01-01

    (VSD) or of an atrial septal defect (ASD). METHODS: Participants were 80,346 pregnant women who were enrolled into the Danish National Birth Cohort in 1996-2002 and gave birth to a live-born singleton without any chromosome anomalies. Twice during pregnancy these women were asked about their intake...

  2. Epidemiology of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stability of a positron lifetime measurement system, and investigation the types and concentrations of defects induced by10 MeV electron irradiation on n- and p-types Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tayebfard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy method with valuation of non-destructive investigation of material, provides information about electron density, defect concentration, type of defects and atoms around the defects. The stability of the system was tested with a source. The time resolution of the whole system has been derived about 365 ps at FWHM. Then n- and p-type silicon samples were irradiated with a 10 MeV electron beam with dosage of 3, 12, and 30 kGy. Three components were fitted to the lifetime spectra using the PAScual program. The first component is related to the positron annihilation in the positron source which was obtained 186 ps. The second component is related to the positron annihilation lifetime in the sample bulk which was obtained 218 ps. The last lifetime component which is related to the positron annihilation in defect was small and sample dependent

  4. Estimating the Probability of Human Error by Incorporating Component Failure Data from User-Induced Defects in the Development of Complex Electrical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewicz, Peter J; Blessner, Paul; Olson, Bill; Blackburn, Timothy

    2017-04-05

    This article proposes a methodology for incorporating electrical component failure data into the human error assessment and reduction technique (HEART) for estimating human error probabilities (HEPs). The existing HEART method contains factors known as error-producing conditions (EPCs) that adjust a generic HEP to a more specific situation being assessed. The selection and proportioning of these EPCs are at the discretion of an assessor, and are therefore subject to the assessor's experience and potential bias. This dependence on expert opinion is prevalent in similar HEP assessment techniques used in numerous industrial areas. The proposed method incorporates factors based on observed trends in electrical component failures to produce a revised HEP that can trigger risk mitigation actions more effectively based on the presence of component categories or other hazardous conditions that have a history of failure due to human error. The data used for the additional factors are a result of an analysis of failures of electronic components experienced during system integration and testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The analysis includes the determination of root failure mechanisms and trend analysis. The major causes of these defects were attributed to electrostatic damage, electrical overstress, mechanical overstress, or thermal overstress. These factors representing user-induced defects are quantified and incorporated into specific hardware factors based on the system's electrical parts list. This proposed methodology is demonstrated with an example comparing the original HEART method and the proposed modified technique. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Outcomes of gastrointestinal defect closure with an over-the-scope clip system in a multicenter experience: An analysis of a successful suction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Chiyo, Taiga; Yamada, Takayoshi; Fujiwara, Masao; Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Murota, Masayuki; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Oryu, Makoto; AboEllail, Mohamed; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2017-03-07

    To demonstrate the clinical outcomes of a multicenter experience and to suggest guidelines for choosing a suction method. This retrospective study at 5 medical centers involved 58 consecutive patients undergoing over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) placement. The overall rates of technical success (TSR), clinical success (CSR), complications, and procedure time were analyzed as major outcomes. Subsequently, 56 patients, excluding two cases that used the Anchor device, were divided into two groups: 14 cases of simple suction (SS-group) and 42 cases using the Twin Grasper (TG-group). Secondary evaluation was performed to clarify the predictors of OTSC success. The TSR, CSR, complication rate, and median procedure time were 89.7%, 84.5%, 1.8%, and 8 (range 1-36) min, respectively, demonstrating good outcomes. However, significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the mean procedure time (5.9 min vs 14.1 min). The CSR of the SS- and TG-groups among cases with a maximum defect size ≤ 10 mm and immediate or acute refractory bleeding was 100%, which suggests that SS is a better method than TG in terms of time efficacy. The CSR in the SS-group (78.6%), despite the technical success of the SS method (TSR, 100%), tended to decrease due to delayed leakage compared to that in the TG-group (TSR, CSR; 88.1%), indicating that TG may be desirable for leaks and fistulae with defects of the entire layer. OTSC system is a safe and effective therapeutic option for gastrointestinal defects. Individualized selection of the suction method based on particular clinical conditions may contribute to the improvement of OTSC success.

  6. Birth Characteristics and Childhood Leukemia Risk: Correlations With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, Mehmet T

    2015-07-01

    Birth characteristics such as birth order, birth weight, birth defects, and Down syndrome showed some of the first risk associations with childhood leukemia. Examinations of correlations between birth characteristics and leukemia risk markers have been limited to birth weight-related genetic polymorphisms. We integrated information on nongenetic and genetic markers by evaluating the relationship of birth characteristics, genetic markers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, and ALL risk together. The multiethnic study consisted of cases with childhood ALL (n=161) and healthy controls (n=261). Birth characteristic data were collected through questionnaires, and genotyping was achieved by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed risk associations for birth weight over 4000 g (odds ratios [OR]=1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.19), birth length (OR=1.18 per inch; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), and with gestational age (OR=1.10 per week; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). Only the HFE tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9366637 showed an inverse correlation with a birth characteristic, gestational age, with a gene-dosage effect (P=0.005), and in interaction with a transferrin receptor rs3817672 genotype (Pinteraction=0.05). This correlation translated into a strong association for rs9366637 with preterm birth (OR=5.0; 95% CI, 1.19-20.9). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of prenatal events in the development of childhood ALL. The inverse correlation of rs9366637 with gestational age has implications on the design of HFE association studies in birth weight and childhood conditions using full-term newborns as controls.

  7. Defect of the Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanning Nina; Pelton, Ron W; Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, John David

    2017-08-01

    Eyelid defects disrupt the complex natural form and function of the eyelids and present a surgical challenge. Detailed knowledge of eyelid anatomy is essential in evaluating a defect and composing a reconstructive plan. Numerous reconstructive techniques have been described, including primary closure, grafting, and a variety of local flaps. This article describes an updated reconstructive ladder for eyelid defects that can be used in various permutations to solve most eyelid defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Defects of colour vision: A review of congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Hasrod

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Colour vision deficiencies (CVDs can be categorised as being congenital or acquired. Some CVDs are already present at birth, as inherited conditions that are the result of changes at the photo-pigment level and are non-pathological, incurable and do not change over time. Examples are red-green defects which are inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. Acquired CVD develops secondary to ocular and systemic conditions or as a side effect of certain medications or sometimes toxic effects of chemicals, and trauma and ageing can also be important in some CVDs.

  9. Defects of colour vision: A review of congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Hasrod

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colour vision deficiencies (CVDs can be categorised as being congenital or acquired. Some CVDs are already present at birth, as inherited conditions that are the result of changes at the photo-pigment level and are non-pathological, incurable and do not change over time. Examples are red-green defects which are inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. Acquired CVD develops secondary to ocular and systemic conditions or as a side effect of certain medications or sometimes toxic effects of chemicals, and trauma and ageing can also be important in some CVDs.

  10. Budget impact analysis of the percutaneous septal occluder for treatment of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Kátia Marie Simões e; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Costa, Márcia Gisele Santos da; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Santos, Marisa da Silva; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Correia, Marcelo Goulart

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a budget impact analysis on the adoption of percutaneous occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Costs were collected using micro-costing technique from medical records for each treatment technique (conventional surgery versus percutaneous septal occluder) at a public federal hospital specialized in high-complexity cardiology. The analysis showed that expenditures associated with percutaneous occlusion were lower than with conventional surgery, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the cost reduction in several scenarios, showing a significant budget impact with a 30% adoption rate for the percutaneous occluder (savings of approximately 1.5 million dollars per year). The study indicates that the adoption of the percutaneous septal occluder would mean cost savings of approximately 3.5 million dollars for the Brazilian public health system.

  11. Cardiac Resynchronization for Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries with Systemic Right Ventricle Failure after Tricuspid Valve Replacement and Ventricle Septal Defect Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Fujii, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man developed systemic right ventricular (RV heart failure after ventricular septal defect (VSD closure and tricuspid valve replacement for corrected transposition of the great arteries with VSD and Ebstein anomaly. He subsequently experienced RV failure with wide QRS and atrial fibrillation (AF. Because corrective surgery for this condition seemed over risky, we decided to perform cardiac resynchronization therapy with implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (CRT-D. After CRT-D device implantation, the patient showed improved performance status in terms of New York Heart Association functional class, B-type brain natriuretic peptide levels, RV ejection fraction and cardiac electrical rhythm. CRT-D implantation is a useful approach for systemic RV failure with wide QRS duration showing right bundle branch block and AF.

  12. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    effect on mothers' age at first birth (p < 0.001), the number of children born within the five years of the survey (p<0.001), and the total number of ... approach that compares reported numbers of births for settlers and non-settlers in ... 1Department of Geography, Sonoma State University, USA. 2. Department of Epidemiology ...

  13. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women can choose from many different types of birth control methods. These include, in order of most effective to least effective at preventing pregnancy: Female and male sterilization (female tubal ligation or occlusion, male vasectomy) — Birth control that prevents pregnancy for the rest of ...

  14. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 ... Labor and Birth (FAQ087) Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy (FAQ170) Patient Education ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  15. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  16. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  17. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... determine the effect of the year and season, age of the lamb, weight of the lamb, birth type and sex on the birth weight ... lambs, while sheep in the middle age (4 to 5 years) gave birth to lambs with the heaviest body weight. However, the ..... extensive lamb production systems in New Zealand. Livest. Prod.

  18. [Congenital defects and exposure to pesticides in São Francisco Valley].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvio Romero Gonçalves E; Martins, José Luiz; Seixas, Simone; Silva, Daniela Conceição Gomes da; Lemos, Sidney Pereira Pinto; Lemos, Patrícia Veruska Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate associations between parental exposure to pesticides and births with congenital defects in São Francisco Valley, as well as the demographic profile and the defects found. in this case-control study, each case (newborns with congenital defects) had two controls (healthy newborns). The subjects were born in the city of Petrolina, in São Francisco Valley, in 2009. The sample consisted of 42 cases and 84 controls. Data were gathered by a structured questionnaire adapted from Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), with the addition of questions related to exposure to pesticides, analysis of the medical records and contact with the hospital's pediatrician. The χ2 test was performed with a significance level of 5% to identify the variables with the greatest differences between case and control groups. Odds Ratio (OR) for the sample was calculated, as well as the OR obtained by logistic regression analysis, and finally, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. there was a greater exposure to pesticides during pregnancy in infants with congenital defects compared to healthy subjects. Increased risk was observed when at least one parent was exposed to pesticides (adjusted OR = 1.3; 95%CI = 0.4 - 3.9). The sociodemographic variables associated with congenital defects were: low school level, low weight, prematurity, young parents, chronic diseases, and physical factors. Multiple malformations and defects of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems were more frequently found. the present study suggests an association between exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of congenital defects, although the data were not significant.

  19. Reduction in diabetes-induced craniofacial defects by maternal immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubec, Terry C; Prater, M Renee; Toops, Kimberly A; Holladay, Steven D

    2006-02-01

    Maternal diabetes can induce a number of developmental abnormalities in laboratory animals and humans, including facial deformities and defects in neural tube closure. The incidence of birth defects in newborns of diabetic women is approximately 3-5 times higher than among non-diabetics. In mice, non-specific activation of the maternal immune system can reduce fetal abnormalities caused by diverse etiologies, including diabetes induced neural tube defects. This study was conducted to determine whether non-specific maternal immune stimulation could reduce diabetes-induced craniofacial defects as well. Maternal immune function was stimulated before streptozocin (STZ) treatment by maternal footpad injection with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), maternal intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), or maternal i.p. injection with interferon-gamma (IFNgamma). Streptozocin (200 mg/kg i.p.) was used to induce hyperglycemia (26-35 mmol blood glucose) in female ICR mice before breeding. Fetuses from 12-18 litters per treatment group, were collected at Day 17 of gestation. Craniofacial defects were observed in fetuses from all hyperglycemic groups. The incidence of defects was significantly decreased in fetuses from dams immune stimulated with IFNgamma or GM-CSF. The most common defects were reduced maxillary and mandibular lengths. Both were prevented by maternal stimulation with GM-CSF. Maternal immune stimulation reduced the incidence of diabetic craniofacial embryopathy. The mechanisms for these protective effects are unknown but may involve maternal or fetal production of cytokines or growth factors that protect the fetus from the dysregulatory effects of hyperglycemia.

  20. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.