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Sample records for birth defects surveillance

  1. Fluoxetine and infantile hypertrophic pylorus stenosis : a signal from a birth defects drug exposure surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We report an association found in a surveillance study which systematically evaluated combinations of specific birth defects and drugs used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Method The database of a population-based birth defects registry (birth years 1997-2007) was systematically screene

  2. Geocoding capacity of birth defects surveillance programs: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network Geocoding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; O'Leary, Leslie A; Rickard, Russel S; Mason, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    A Web-based survey focusing on geocoding of birth defects data was developed and administrated to gain an understanding of the capacity of state birth defects programs to geocode maternal residence and to identify barriers to geocoding birth defects data. The survey consisted of 21 questions related to geocoding of maternal residence, type of software used, barriers to geocoding, and data linkage. In August 2007, an e-mail with a Web link to the survey was sent to all state birth defects program contacts in the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requesting they complete the online survey. By October 2007, 39 (74%) out of 53 birth defects program contacts completed the survey. Although nearly all birth defects programs collect maternal residential data, many are not currently geocoding that data. Results indicated that 97% of the programs that completed the survey reported they collected data on maternal residence, 53% of which reported that the birth defects surveillance data were geocoded to the street address level using maternal residential address at delivery. Twenty six percent of the programs that do not currently geocode the data identified "Software and address reference file are not available" as the most significant barrier to geocoding; another 16% chose "Lack of funding" as the most significant barrier to geocoding. Since geocoding is an important component of spatial analyses used to detect potential clusters of birth defects, leveraging resources to overcome the barriers that prevent programs from geocoding is important.

  3. Birth Defects Surveillance in the United States: Challenges and Implications of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburia-Mwalili, Adel; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Major birth defects are an important public health issue because they are the leading cause of infant mortality. The most common birth defects are congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, and Down syndrome. Birth defects surveillance guides policy development and provides data for prevalence estimates, epidemiologic research, planning, and prevention. Several factors influence birth defects surveillance in the United States of America (USA). These include case ascertainment methods, pregnancy outcomes, and nomenclature used for coding birth defects. In 2015, the nomenclature used by most birth defects surveillance programs in USA will change from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM. This change will have implications on birth defects surveillance, prevalence estimates, and tracking birth defects trends.

  4. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Epidemiology of Birth Defects Based on a Birth Defect Surveillance System from 2005 to 2014 in Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Xie

    Full Text Available To describe the epidemiology of birth defects (BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan Province, China, between 2005 and 2014.The BD surveillance data of perinatal infants (for stillbirth, dead fetus or live birth between 28 weeks of gestation and 7 days after birth were collected from 52 registered hospitals of Hunan between 2005 and 2014. The prevalence rates of BDs with 95% confidence interval (CI and crude odds ratio (ORs were calculated to examine the associations of infant gender, maternal age, and region (urban vs rural with BDs.From 2005 to 2014, there were a total of 925413 perinatal infants of which 17753 had BDs, with the average prevalence of 191.84 per 10000 PIs (perinatal infants, showing a significant uptrend. The risks of BDs are higher in urban areas versus rural areas (OR = 1.20, in male infants versus female infants (OR = 1.19, and in mothers above age 35 versus those below age 35 (OR = 1.24. The main five types of BDs are Congenital heart defects (CHD, Other malformation of external ear (OMEE, Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of kidney (CMK, and Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTE. From 2005 to 2014, the prevalence rates (per 10000 PIs of CHD and CMK increased significantly from 22.56 to 74 (OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 2.65-4.11 and from 7.61 to 14.62 (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.30-2.84, respectively; the prevalence rates of congenital hydrocephalus and neural tube defects (NTDs decreased significantly from 11.8 to 5.29 (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.31-0.65 and from 7.87 to 1.74 (OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.38, respectively.The prevalence rates of specific BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan have changed in the last decade. Urban pregnant women, male perinatal infants, and mothers above age 35 present different prevalence rates of BDs. Wider use of new diagnosis technology, improving the ability of monitoring, strengthening the publicity and education are important to reduce the prevalence of BDs.

  6. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P neural tube defects from the pre-fortification period to the post-fortification period. Folic acid fortification via several basic food sources has shown to be a successful public health intervention for Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs.

  7. Acardia : Epidemiologic Findings and Literature Review From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Carey, John C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Halliday, Jane; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Luna Munoz, Leonora; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2011-01-01

    Acardia is a severe, complex malformation of monozygotic twinning, but beyond clinical case series, very few epidemiologic data are available. The goals of this study were to assess the epidemiologic characteristics of acardia from birth defect registries in the International Clearinghouse for Birth

  8. Development of web-based geocoding applications for the population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System in New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Le, Linh H; Wang, Xiaohang; Tao, Zhen; Druschel, Charlotte D; Cross, Philip K; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely used in mapping health data and analyzing the geographic distribution of disease. Mapping and spatially analyzing data normally begins with geocoding, a process of assigning geographic coordinates to an address so that it can be displayed and analyzed on a map. The objectives of this project were to develop Web-based geocoding applications for the New York State birth defects surveillance system to geocode, both automatically and interactively, the birth defect cases of the Congenital Malformations Registry (CMR) and evaluate the geocoding results. Geocoding software, in conjunction with a Java-based development tool (J Server), was used to develop the Web-based applications on the New York State Department of Health's Health Commerce System. The Web-based geocoding applications have been developed and implemented for the New York State birth defects surveillance system. These menu-driven applications empower users to conduct geocoding activities using only a PC and a Web browser without the installation of any GIS software. These powerful tools provide automatic, real-time, street-level geocoding of the routinely collected birth defects records in the CMR. Up to 92% of the CMR records have been geocoded with addresses exactly matched to the reference addresses on house number, street name, and city or zip code.

  9. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

  10. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  11. Cyclopia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, Iêda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopia is characterized by the presence of a single eye, with varying degrees of doubling of the intrinsic ocular structures, located in the middle of the face. It is the severest facial expression of the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with cyclopia. Data originated in 20 Clearinghouse (ICBDSR) affiliated birth defect surveillance systems, reported according to a single pre-established protocol. A total of 257 infants with cyclopia were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 100,000 births (95%CI: 0.89–1.14), with only one program being out of range. Across sites, there was no correlation between cyclopia prevalence and number of births (r = 0.08; P=0.75) or proportion of elective termination of pregnancy (r= −0.01; P=0.97). The higher prevalence of cyclopia among older mothers (older than 34) was not statistically significant. The majority of cases were liveborn (122/200; 61%) and females predominated (male/total: 42%). A substantial proportion of cyclopias (31%) were caused by chromosomal anomalies, mainly trisomy 13. Another 31% of the cases of cyclopias were associated with defects not typically related to HPE, with more hydrocephalus, heterotaxia defects, neural tube defects, and preaxial reduction defects than the chromosomal group, suggesting the presence of ciliopathies or other unrecognized syndromes. Cyclopia is a very rare defect without much variability in prevalence by geographic location. The heterogeneous etiology with a high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities, and female predominance in HPE, were confirmed, but no effect of increased maternal age or association with twinning was observed. PMID:22006661

  12. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

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    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  13. Birth Defects (For Parents)

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    ... this virus during pregnancy, her child may have low birth weight, intellectual disability (mental retardation) or learning disabilities, ... and central nervous system problems. A child with late congenital syphilis may have abnormalities of the ... Diagnosing Birth Defects Many birth defects are diagnosed even before ...

  14. Sirenomelia : An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orioli, Ieda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system m

  15. Cloacal Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Siffel, Csaba; Carey, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex). Histo

  16. Phocomelia: a worldwide descriptive epidemiologic study in a large series of cases from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D; Canfield, Mark A; Castilla, Eduardo E; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2011-11-15

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes.

  17. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  18. Surveillance of birth defects: Brazil and the US Vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas: Brasil e Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Varela Luquetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of birth defects in the society have substantially increased over the last decades in countries where the reduction of infant mortality by other causes has occurred. Birth defects surveillance represents an important source of information for planning X health policies and resource allocation. In this article, we discuss the potential utilizations, methodology options, limitations, and policy issues related to birth defects surveillance. Also, the birth defects surveillance programs from US and Brazil are described and compared as an illustration of the development of surveillance systems in two countries with clearly dissimilar health systems and resource allocation for birth defects programs. Finally, we propose measures for the improvement of the existing systems in both countries focusing at the utilization of preexisting resources.O impacto das anomalias congênitas na sociedade vem aumentando substancialmente nas últimas décadas nos países onde ocorreu a diminuição da mortalidade infantil por outras causas. A vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas representa uma importante fonte de informação para o planejamento de políticas de saúde e alocação de recursos. Neste artigo, os potenciais usos, opções de metodologia, limitações e questões de políticas de saúde relacionadas à vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas são abordados. Além disso, os programas dos Estados Unidos e Brasil são descritos e comparados para ilustrar sistemas em dois países com sistemas de saúde e alocação de recursos para as anomalias congênitas claramente diferentes. Finalmente, apresentamos propostas de medidas para melhorar os sistemas existentes em ambos os países, focalizando na utilização de recursos pré-existentes.

  19. Sirenomelia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORIOLI, IÊDA M.; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; ARTEAGA-VAZQUEZ, JAZMIN; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BOTTO, LORENZO D.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; CORREA, ADOLFO; CSAKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LÓPEZ-CAMELO, JORGE S.; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.

    2015-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and were reported according to a single pre-established protocol. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally. A total of 249 cases with sirenomelia were identified among 25,290,172 births, for a prevalence of 0.98 per 100,000, with higher prevalence in the Mexican registry. An increase of sirenomelia prevalence with maternal age less than 20 years was statistically significant. The proportion of twinning was 9%, higher than the 1% expected. Sex was ambiguous in 47% of cases, and no different from expectation in the rest. The proportion of cases born alive, premature, and weighting less than 2,500 g were 47%, 71.2%, and 88.2%, respectively. Half of the cases with sirenomelia also presented with genital, large bowel, and urinary defects. About 10–15% of the cases had lower spinal column defects, single or anomalous umbilical artery, upper limb, cardiac, and central nervous system defects. There was a greater than expected association of sirenomelia with other very rare defects such as bladder exstrophy, cyclopia/holoprosencephaly, and acardia-acephalus. The application of the new biological network analysis approach, including molecular results, to these associated very rare diseases is suggested for future studies. PMID:22002878

  20. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

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    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  1. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  2. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and the risk of certain birth defects. (Published October 22, 2014) World Down Syndrome Day Read one mother’s reflection on the birth ...

  3. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Besser, Lilah M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20–4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27–14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17–1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13–2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects. PMID:18674752

  4. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Defects Atrial Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great ... Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Gastroschisis Heart Defects Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy ...

  5. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  6. How Valid Are the Rates of Down Syndrome Internationally? Findings from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Cocchi, Guido; Anneren, Goran; Bower, Carol; Halliday, Jane; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canessa Tapia, Maria Aurora; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dastgiri, Saeed; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Gatt, Miriam; Hirahara, Fumiki; Landau, Danielle; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; McDonnell, Robert; Mathew, Triphti M.; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Poetzsch, Simone; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Sipek, Antonin; Szabova, Elena; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Zhuchenko, Ludmila; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Rates of Down syndrome (DS) show considerable international variation, but a systematic assessment of this variation is lacking. The goal of this study was to develop and test a method to assess the validity of DS rates in surveillance programs, as an indicator of quality of ascertainment. The propo

  7. Conjoined Twins : A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Luna-Munoz, Leonora; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Dutra, Maria da Graca; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Metneki, Julia; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Rissman, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin

    2011-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was

  8. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  9. Surveillance of birth defect in Xiangshan peninsula in Zhejiang province, 2005-2009%2005-2009年浙江省象山半岛地区出生缺陷监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To further understand the incidence of birth defects in Xiangshan and facilitate the implementation of birth defect intervention project. Methods The analysis was conducted on the surveillance data off birth defect detected during pregnancy and 7 days after birth from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009 in Xiangshan. Results Totally 24 863 infants were born during this period, the incidence of birth defect was 147. 61/lakh; 170 dead fetuses were detected, 65. 88% of which were caused by fetus defect. The fetus defect detected before and after 28 weeks of gestation accounted for 11. 99% and 88. 01% respectively. The first 5 birth defects were congenital deformity in circulatory system, congenital deformity in musculoskeletal system, congenital deformity of eye, ear, face and neck, congenital deformity in nervous system as well as cleft lip and cleft palate. Conclusion The overall incidence of birth defect increased in Xiangshan during this period. The incidence of fetus defect in dead fetuses was significantly higher than birth defect in live fetuses. The proportion of fetus defect detected before 28 gestation weeks increased by years. It is essential to conduct tertiary prevention of birth defect.%目的 进一步了解象山县出生缺陷发生情况,以利于实施出生缺陷干预工程.方法 监测2005年1月1日至2009年12月31日所有产妇分娩的胎儿在孕期和产后7 d内发现的出生缺陷的相关情况,统一上报,并进行调查、分析.结果 2005-2009年共出生24 863名胎儿,出生缺陷发生率为147.61/万;发生死胎170例,其中缺陷儿死胎占65.88%;孕28周后发现的出生缺陷占88.01%,孕28周前发现的占11.99%;按系统分类排在前5位的分别为循环系统先天性畸形,肌肉骨骼系统先天性畸形和变形,眼、耳、面和颈部先天性畸形,神经系统先天性畸形,唇裂和腭裂.结论 5年出生缺陷发生率总体呈逐年上升趋势,死胎出生缺陷发生率

  10. Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects: Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ol Português Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Zika and Microcephaly Microcephaly is a birth defect in ... pregnancy or has stopped growing after birth. Congenital Zika Syndrome Congenital Zika syndrome is a pattern of ...

  11. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  12. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A H; Shapira, S K; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; LIN, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation and birth defects in a case–control study of cases comprising over 60 different types of birth defects (n=9998) and non-malformed controls (n=4066) with dates of delivery between 1997 and 2004. Me...

  13. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association betwe

  14. Factors associated with birth defects in the region of Corpus Christi, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance Branch of the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) has documented a high prevalence of certain birth defects in the Corpus Christi, TX region. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations...

  15. 四川省双流县2010年~2014年围产儿出生缺陷监测分析%Analysis of birth defects surveillance data of perinatal babies from 2010 to 2014 in Shuangliu county, Sichuan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珠屏; 王洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To understand the condition and causes of birth defects in Shuangliu county,thus provide the scientific basis for improving population quality and reducing birth defects.Methods:The birth defects surveillance data of perinatal babies from 2010 to 2014 in 3 hospitals on a county scale were arranged and analyzed.Results:From 2010 to 2014,The total incidence of birth defects was 9.71‰.The main birth defects types were,in order,congenital heart disease,polydactylism,microtia (including anotia),harelip,syndactylia,all the 5 types birth defects paid 53.23% of all.Among birth defects children,there had a higher ratio in male compared with female,also a higher ratio in town compared with rural area.The data also showed that the maternal ages which were less than 20 or be equal or greater than 35 had a higher ratio of birth defects.The birth defects were the leading cause of perinatal deaths.Conclusion:In order to reduce birth defects and improve population quality,we should carry out the work of birth defects surveillance and comprehensive interventionson a big scale,actively develop the "three-step-prevention" mode of birth defects.%目的 了解四川省双流县围产儿出生缺陷情况及影响因素,为提高人口素质、降低出生缺陷率提供科学依据.方法对2010年~2014年全县3家出生缺陷监测医院分娩的围产儿出生缺陷监测相关资料进行回顾性分析.结果双流县2010年~ 2014年围产儿出生缺陷发生率为9.71‰,是导致围产儿死亡的首要原因;主要出生缺陷依次为先天性心脏病、多指、小耳(包括无耳)、唇裂和并指,占全部缺陷类型的53.23%.结论 应大力开展国产儿出生缺陷监测与综合干预工作,积极开展三级预防工作,以减少出生缺陷的发生,提高人口素质.

  16. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some health problems for the baby, such as low birth weight. It’s never too late to quit smoking. Learn more about smoking during pregnancy » Avoid marijuana and other “street drugs”. A ... a baby who is born preterm, of low birth weight, or has other health problems, such as ...

  17. Effect analysis of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan%中山地区重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施的实施对降低唐氏综合征出生率的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 江陵; 吴剑波; 陈昂; 陈咏莲; 李莉敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analysize the effect of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan, 2010 -2011. Methods; Prenatal screening of Down's syndrome has been free in residents since January 1, 2010. The Surveillance and Intervention were carried out at the same time. Data of the surveillance were analyzed, 2008 -2011 , comparing the difference of the incidences. Results; After the surveillance and intervention, the rate of prenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome increased significantly. The rate of live births with Down's syndrome decreased in 2010 -2011 (1. 63 -0. 64/ten thousand) compared with 2008 and 2009 (3. 5-3. 78/ten thousand). Conclusion; The Surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on were effective on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan.%目的 分析2010年-2011年中山地区对重大出生缺陷采取的监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面的实际效果.方法 2010年1月1日始中山市对户籍人口实施免费产前筛查唐氏综合征,并进行监控和干预措施,通过2008年-2011年中山市出生缺陷监测网监测唐氏综合征儿数据,比较唐氏综合征出生率的差异.结果 实施重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施后,唐氏综合征的产前诊断率显著提高,唐氏综合征出生率2010年-2011年(1.63-0.64/万)较2008年-2009年(3.5-3.78/万)有明显下降(P =0.001).结论 2010年-2011年中山市对重大出生缺陷采取监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面起到很好的效果.

  18. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  19. Bladder Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siffel, Csaba; Correa, Adolfo; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We us

  20. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... places to get information include: books written for parents of children with birth defects national organizations such as the March of Dimes, the National Information Center for Children and Youth With Disabilities, and those ... groups or other parents Keep a file with a running list of ...

  1. Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162464.html Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC Study ... born with devastating birth defects linked to the Zika virus is no longer confined to Brazil, a ...

  2. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main types of prenatal tests for birth defects. Amniocentesis 1 Amniocentesis (pronounced am-nee-oh-sen-TEE-sis ) is ... Some birth defects that can be detected with amniocentesis are Down syndrome and certain types of muscular ...

  3. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth Defe

  4. Spatiotemporal Property Analysis of Birth Defects in Wuxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI-LEI WU; GONG CHEN; XIN-MING SONG; CHENG-FU LI; LEI ZHANG; LAN LIU; XIAO-YING ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the temporal trends and spatial patterns of birth defects occurring in Wuxi, a developed region of China. Methods Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the temporal trends of birth defect prevalence based on the birth defect rates over the past 16 years. Birth defect cases with detailed personal and family information were geo-coded and the relative risk in each village was calculated. General G statistic was used to test the spatial property with different scales. Results Wavelet analysis showed an increasing temporal trend of birth defects in this region. Clustering analysis revealed that changes continued in the spatial patterns with different scales. Conclusion Wuxi is confronted with severe challenges to reduce birth defect prevalence. The risk factors are stable and show no change with spatial scale but an increasing temporal trend. Interventions should be focused on villages with a higher prevalence of birth defects.

  5. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  6. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whether the use of folic acid alone or folic acid-containing multivitamins is better. The second one is connected with the dilemma of whether high dose of folic acid (e.g. 5 mg might be better than a daily multivitamin with 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid. Comparison of the pooled data of two Hungarian trials using a multivitamin containing 0.8 mg folic acid and the data of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities using high dose of folic acid seemed to be appropriate to answer these questions. Multivitamins containing 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid were more effective for the reduction of neural-tube defects than high dose of folic acid. Both multivitamins and folic acid can prevent some part of congenital cardiovascular malformations. Only multivitamins were able to reduce the prevalence at birth of obstructive defects of urinary tract, limb deficiencies and congenital pyloric stenosis. However, folic acid was effective in preventing some part of rectal/anal stenosis/atresia, and high dose of folic acid had effect in preventing some orofacial clefts. The findings are consistent that periconceptional multivitamin and folic acid supplementation reduce the overall occurrence of congenital abnormalities in addition to the demonstrated effect on neural-tube defects.

  8. Maternal intake of vitamin E and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Kyung A.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Traven, Flavia K.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Correa, Adolfo; Boyle, Coleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In a recent study, high maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). To explore this association further, we investigated the association between total daily vitamin E intake and selected birth defects. Methods We analyzed data from 4,525 controls and 8,665 cases from the 1997–2005 National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We categorized estimated periconceptional energy-adjusted total daily vitamin E intake from diet and supplements into quartiles (referent, lowest quartile). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin E intake and selected birth defects were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors. Results We observed a statistically significant association with the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.35) and all CHDs combined. Among CHD sub-types, we observed associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, and its sub-type, coarctation of the aorta and the third quartile of vitamin E intake. Among defects other than CHDs, we observed associations between anorectal atresia and the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.72) and hypospadias and the fourth quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.09 – 1.87). Conclusions Selected quartiles of energy-adjusted estimated total daily vitamin E intake were associated with selected birth defects. However, because these few associations did not exhibit exposure-response patterns consistent with increasing risk associated with increasing intake of vitamin E, further studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. PMID:24740457

  9. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-17

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  10. Systems Biology and Birth Defects Prevention: Blockade of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Prevents Arsenic-Induced Birth Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Ahir, Bhavesh K.; Sanders, Alison P.; Julia E. Rager; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The biological mechanisms by which environmental metals are associated with birth defects are largely unknown. Systems biology–based approaches may help to identify key pathways that mediate metal-induced birth defects as well as potential targets for prevention. Objectives: First, we applied a novel computational approach to identify a prioritized biological pathway that associates metals with birth defects. Second, in a laboratory setting, we sought to determine whether inhibiti...

  11. National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Defects Atrial Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great ... Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Gastroschisis Heart Defects Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy ...

  12. Analysis on birth defect surveillance in south Xicheng District, Beijing%北京市西城南区围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽霞; 王淼

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the birth defect of south Xicheng District, Beijing from 2008 to 2010, and observe the feature of the birth defect incidence. Methods Statistics and analysis of birth defect infants from 6 hospitals of south Xicheng district in Beijing were performed, 293 perinatal infants and 88 infants (induction of labour in second trimester) were found. Results The incidence of birth defect of south Xicheng district in Beijing from 2008 to 2010 was 14.51‰. There were 20190 perinatal infants, and 132 of them were dead. The mortality was 6.54‰. 25 of them were infants with birth defects. The percentage was 18. 98%. The incidence of birth defect in these 293 cases, from high to low, in turn were: congenital heart disease (3.37‰) , polysyndactyly (2.82‰) , deformity of external ear (1.04‰), syndactyly (0. 74‰) , anorectal atresia (0.45‰) , cleft lip(0.35‰) , microtia(0.35‰). Conclusion As the incidence rate of congenital heart disease and other defects were quite high, intensify health care in perinatal period should be promoted, and the level of antenatal diagnosis should be enhanced.%目的 分析北京市西城南区2008-2010年出生缺陷监测结果,了解本地区出生缺陷发生情况.方法 对2008-2010年北京市西城南区6家助产机构产科孕满28周至出生后7d的出生缺陷儿293例,以及因出生缺陷进行中期引产的胎儿88例进行出生缺陷结果分析.结果 2008-2010年北京市西城南区围产儿出生缺陷发生率为14.51‰;20190名围产儿中共132例围产儿死亡,死亡率为6.54‰,其中出生缺陷25例,占围产儿死亡的18.98%;293例出生缺陷发生率由高到低依次为先天性心脏病(3.37‰)、多指(趾)(2.82‰)、外耳其他畸形(1.04‰)、并指(0.74‰)、直肠肛门闭锁或狭窄(0.45‰)、唇裂(0.35‰)、小耳(0.35‰).结论 进一步提高产前诊断水平,增强围孕保健措施.

  13. A Prescription for the Prevention of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Harold C.

    1984-01-01

    Factors influencing birth defects include maternal age (teenagers and women over 32 are at risk), genetics, drug use, diet habits, and environmental hazards. The physical, social, and economic costs of birth defects are extreme. Prevention must involve efforts to change some of these factors. (Author/CS)

  14. Seasonality in birth defects, agricultural production and urban location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Rees, Daniel I; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    This paper tests whether the strength of the "spring spike" in birth defects is related to agricultural production and urban location using Texas Birth Defects Registry data for the period 1996-2007. We find evidence of a spike in birth defects among children conceived in the spring and summer, but it is more pronounced in urban non-agricultural counties than in other types of counties. Furthermore, the spike lasts longer in urban non-agricultural counties as compared to other types of counties.

  15. Congenital malformations in Ecuadorian children: urgent need to create a National Registry of Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio González-Andrade

    2010-04-01

    females 30.40.Conclusion: This report documents the prevalence estimates for birth defects reported in the hospital discharge data. These estimates are important to 1 plan for health-care and education needs of the Ecuadorian population, 2 identify increased occurrences of birth defects in specific geographic regions, 3 serve as a reference point for assessment of provincial surveillance systems, 4 evaluate national public health interventions, 5 compare Ecuador prevalence estimates with those of other countries, and 6 help determine the appropriate allocation of resources for basic and public health research. There is an urgent need to establish a National Registry of Birth Defects involving different sources of information such as prenatal medical records, birth records and medical records during the first year of life at an early stage, and surveys on cytogenetic prenatal diagnostic surveys and cytogenetics of therapeutic abortions.Keywords: Ecuador, genetics, birth defects surveillance, database, prevalence, epidemiology, congenital malformations

  16. RESIDENTIAL RADON AND BIRTH DEFECTS: A POPULATION-BASED ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter H; Lee, MinJae; Lupo, Philip J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cortez, Ruben K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Associations have been reported between maternal radiation exposure and birth defects. No such studies were found on radon. Our objective was to determine if there is an association between living in areas with higher radon levels and birth defects. METHODS The Texas Birth Defects Registry provided data on all birth defects from 1999–2009 from the entire state. Mean radon levels by geologic region came from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey. The association between radon and birth defects was estimated using multilevel mixed effect Poisson regression. RESULTS Birth defects overall were not associated with residential radon levels. Of the 100 other birth defect groups with at least 500 cases, 14 were significantly elevated in areas with high mean radon level in crude analyses, and 9 after adjustment for confounders. Cleft lip with/without cleft palate had an adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of 1.16 per 1 picoCurie/liter (pCi/l) increase in exposure to region mean radon, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.26. Cystic hygroma / lymphangioma had an aPR of 1.22 per 1 pCi/l increase, 95% CI 1.02, 1.46. Other associations were suggested but not as consistent: three skeletal defects, Down syndrome, other specified anomalies of the brain, and other specified anomalies of the bladder and urethra. CONCLUSIONS In the first study of residential radon and birth defects, we found associations with cleft lip w/wo cleft palate and cystic hygroma / lymphangioma. Other associations were suggested. The ecological nature of this study and multiple comparisons suggest that our results be interpreted with caution. PMID:25846606

  17. New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162970.html New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects ... HealthDay News) -- In a recommendation that reaffirms previous guidelines, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force said that ...

  18. Birth Defects from Zika More Far-Reaching Than Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162538.html Birth Defects From Zika More Far-Reaching Than Thought Studies found greater ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika's ability to damage the infant brain may be ...

  19. Baseline Prevalence of Birth Defects Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection - Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, Janet D; Mai, Cara T; Petersen, Emily E; Liberman, Rebecca F; Forestieri, Nina E; Stevens, Alissa C; Delaney, Augustina; Dawson, April L; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Dunn, Julie E; Higgins, Cathleen A; Meyer, Robert E; Williams, Tonya; Polen, Kara N D; Newsome, Kim; Reynolds, Megan; Isenburg, Jennifer; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney-Delman, Dana M; Moore, Cynthia A; Boyle, Coleen A; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-03-03

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations(†) (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15-September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.

  20. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi′an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  1. ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES IDENTIFIED BY THE POPULATION-BASED BIRTH DEFECTS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS IN MIANZHU AND EMEI OF SICHUAN PROVINCE%四川省绵竹县和峨眉山市出生缺陷人群监测的不良妊娠结局发生情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟祎; 代礼; 朱军; 梁娟; 王艳萍; 毛萌; 刘敬涛; 代蜀平; 李英

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解四川省绵竹县和峨眉山市出生缺陷及其他不良妊娠结局的发生情况.[方法]2006年10月~2009年9月期间,采用以人群为基础的出生缺陷监测方法收集数据,调查监测区域内所有孕满28周的新生儿并随访至生后42 d.分析出生缺陷、围产儿死亡、婴儿死亡、低出生体重的发生情况以及出生缺陷患儿的监测期转归.[结果]绵竹县、峨眉山市的出生缺陷发生率分别为120.43/万和104.85/万.绵竹县出生缺陷患儿中死胎死产比例和监测期内死亡比例为15.38%和4.40%;峨眉山市的这两个比例为3.49%和13.95%.绵竹县出生人口中的死胎死产率、围产儿死亡率、监测期婴儿死亡率、低出生体重率分别为4.37‰、5.82‰、1.99‰和20.78‰;峨眉山市分别为1.95‰,5.85%,16.00‰和30.60‰.[结论]出生缺陷等不良妊娠结局在绵竹县和峨眉山市的分布不同,提示针对性的妇幼保健干预应注意影响因素的差异;研究结果也表明现有人群监测系统在评估出生人口素质方面起着重要作用.%[Objective] To investigate the occurrence of birth defects and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in Mianzhu county and Emei city. [Methods] During October 2007 to September 2009, population-based birth defects surveillance was adopted to collect data in Mianzhu county and Emei city, Sichuan, China. All births (aged 28 gestation weeks or more) born to mothers who lived in monitored areas were recruited, and followed up within 42 days by health professionals according to u-niform guide. The major birth defects, perinatal deaths, infant mortalities and low birth weights among these two populations were analyzed. The outcome of the newborns with birth defects was also assessed. [Results] The prevalence of gross birth defects in Mianzhu and Emei was 120.43/10 000 and 104.85/10 000, respectively. The stillbirth, infant death within 42 days accounted for 15.38%, 4.40 % of birth defect cases in

  2. Birth order and neural tube defects: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R

    2004-01-15

    There is evidence that late birth order is associated with some complex disorders. For neural tube defects (NTDs) there is no consensus as to whether first or increased birth order is associated or not. A meta-analysis of published data on NTDs was carried out to ascertain whether there is an increased risk for children first born or of high birth order to have NTDs. All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and NTDs cases by birth order (1, 2, 3, and 4 or more) were included in the analysis. Effect sizes calculations were performed. Children with higher birth order are more likely to have spina bifida but not anencephaly. This same effect was also seen for all NTDs combined, which probably reflects the association with spina bifida. These results suggest the compilation of anencephaly and spina bifida data can be the explanation for the controversies seen in the literature.

  3. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, large number of unplanned pregnancies, poor coverage of antenatal care, poor maternal nutritional status, high consanguineous marriages rate, and high carrier rate for hemoglobinopathies. India being the second most populous country with a large number infant born annually with birth defects should focus its attention on strategies for control of birth defects. Many population based strategies such as iodization, double fortification of salt, flour fortification with multivitamins, folic acid supplementation, periconceptional care, carrier screening and prenatal screening are some of proven strategies for control of birth defects. Strategies such as iodization of salt in spite of being initiated for a long time in the past do have a very little impact on its consumption (only 50% were using iodized salt. Community genetic services for control of birth defects can be easily flourished and integrated with primary health care in India because of its well established infrastructure and personnel in the field of maternal and child health care. As there is wide variation for infant mortality rate (IMR in different states in India, so there is a need of deferential approach to implement community genetic services in states those had already achieved national goal of IMR. On the other hand, states those have not achieved the national goal on IMR priority should be given to management of other causes of infant mortality.

  4. The Association Between Reported Venlafaxine Use in Early Pregnancy and Birth Defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Kara ND; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the use of venlafaxine (Effexor®), an antidepressant used to treat major depression and anxiety disorders in adults, during pregnancy. Our objective was to determine whether use of venlafaxine during pregnancy is associated with specific birth defects. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a population-based, case-control study in the United States. Our analysis included mothers with pregnancies affected by one of 30 selected birth defects (cases) and babies without birth defects (controls) with estimated dates of delivery between 1997–2007. Exposure was any reported use of venlafaxine from one month preconception through the third month of pregnancy. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% Fisher’s Exact confidence intervals (CIs) for 24 birth defect groups for which at least 400 case mothers were interviewed. Our adjusted analyses controlled for maternal age and race-ethnicity. Results Among the 27,045 NBDPS participants who met inclusion criteria, 0.17% (14/8,002) of control mothers and 0.40% (77/19,043) of case mothers reported any use of venlafaxine from one month preconception through the third month of pregnancy. Statistically significant associations were found for anencephaly, atrial septal defect (ASD) secundum or ASD not otherwise specified, coarctation of the aorta, cleft palate, and gastroschisis. Conclusions Our data suggest associations between periconceptional use of venlafaxine and some birth defects. However, sample sizes were small, confidence intervals were wide, and additional studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:23281074

  5. Evaluating alcohol related birth defects in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuler, Kristrina A.; Schroeder, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are yet undocumented among past communities, although alcohol is the leading cause of non-heritable birth defects in the US today. We evaluate potential ARBD at Newton Plantation, Barbados (ca. 1660-1820), where earlier studies suggest frequent, community......-wide consumption of lead-tainted rum by enslaved Africans. Skeletons excavated in 1997-1998 (n= 45) were examined for congenital anomalies, using clinical/experimental descriptions to differentially diagnose possible ARBD. Enamel lead data served as a proxy for developmental exposure to tainted rum in a subsample...

  6. Laterality Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998–2007): Birth Prevalence and Descriptive Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela E.; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L.; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D.; Botto, Lorenzo D.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval 1.0–1.2). Prevalence did not differ significantly across sites, over time, or by inclusion of pregnancy termination. Laterality defects were more common among preterm cases compared to term cases, and in children born to mothers who were non-white or younger than 20 years compared to white mothers or those age 25–29 years. The distribution of associated cardiac and extracardiac defects, excluding the expected heterotaxy anomalies, varied by type of laterality defect. Cases with heterotaxy were significantly more likely than those with SIT to have double outlet right ventricle, atrioventricular canal defects, pulmonary stenosis, non-tetralogy of Fallot pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, totally and partially anomalous pulmonary venous return; also more likely to have orofacial clefts, esophageal atresia, bowel atresias, and omphalocele, though not reaching statistical significance. Relatively more common among cases with SIT were Dandy-Walker malformation, anotia/microtia, and limb deficiency. The similarity in the demographic characteristics of heterotaxy and SIT supports the hypothesis that they are part of a continuum of abnormal left-right axis patterning. These findings on laterality defects may help guide clinical care, future research, and prevention strategies. PMID:25099286

  7. Antihistamines and Birth Defects: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Rai, Ramona P.; Anderson, Jaynia A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 10-15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. Areas covered This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post-hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. Expert opinion The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: (1) selection of appropriate study population; (2) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and (3) ascertainment of birth defects outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well-studied (e.g. loratadine); others, especially H2- receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defects risk could be made. PMID:25307228

  8. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  9. Genetic basis of susceptibility to teratogen induced birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Palacios, Ana M; Chapa, Claudia J; Zhu, Huiping; George, Timothy M; Finnell, Richard H

    2011-08-15

    Birth defects remain the leading cause of infant death in US. The field of teratology has been focused on the causes and underlying mechanisms of birth defects for decades, yet our understanding of these critical issues remain unacceptably vague. Conclusions from years of animal and human studies made it clear that the vast majority of birth defects have multifactorial origins, with contributions from environmental and genetic factors. The environment comprises not only of the physical, biological, and chemical external environment surrounding the pregnant woman, but it also includes the internal environment of the woman's body that interact with the developing embryo in a complex fashion. The importance of maternal and embryonic genetic factors consisting of countless genetic variants/mutations that exist within every individual contribute to birth defect susceptibility is only now being more fully appreciated. This great complexity of the genome and its diversity within individuals and populations seems to be the principal reason why the same teratogenic exposure can induce severe malformation in one embryo, while fail to do so to other exposed embryos. As the interaction between genetic and environmental factors has long been recognized as the first "Principle of Teratology" by Wilson and Warkany [1965. Teratology: Principles and techniques. Chicago: University of Chicago Press], it is only recently that the appropriate investigative tools have been developed with which to fully investigate this fundamental principle. The introduction of high throughput technologies like whole genome sequencing or genome-wide association studies are promising to deliver an enormous amount of new data that will shed light on the genomic factors that contribute susceptibility to environmental teratogens. In this review, we attempt to summarize the epidemiological and experimental literature concerning birth defects whose phenotypic expression can be clearly related to the

  10. 北京61272例新生儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis of the birth defects among 61 272 live born infants in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛; 刘晓红; 王粉燕; 赵心亮; 张羲; 张运平

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the birth defect condition in Haidian district of Beijing city, 61 272 live-born infants who were delivered in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital from 2003 to the March of 2009 are analyzed. Methods: Data was collected from the hospital' s medical records and from the birth defect surveillance. Results: Among the newborns studied, 1 076 were found having birth defect (17.56‰). The most common birth defects are congenital heart defect, followed by dysmorphosis of external ear, polydactyly, hypospadia, cleft lip and palate. In addition, three birth defects that are not included in the birth defect surveillance list were enorchia, renal agenesis and giant hemangioma. The birth defect rates of preterm and small for gestational age infants are significantly higher than it of the term infants. The birth defect patterns for these two types of abnormal infants are distinct. Conclusion: We have determined the pattern of birth defects in Beijing, which may help in policy-making regarding the prevention and intervention of birth defects.

  11. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range,glycemic threshold and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rinat Gabbay-Benziv; E Albert Reece; Fang Wang, Peixin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age(18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3million American women have diabetes mellitus, andit has been estimated that this number will doubleby 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is asignificant public health problem that increases therisk for structural birth defects affecting both maternaland neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most commontypes of human structural birth defects associated withPGD are congenital heart defects and central nervoussystem defects. However, diabetes can induce birthdefects in any other fetal organ. In general, the rateof birth defects increases linearly with the degree ofmaternal hyperglycemia, which is the major factor thatmediates teratogenicity of PGD. Stringent prenatal careand glycemic control are effective means to reducebirth defects in PGD pregnancies, but cannot reducethe incidence of birth defects to the rate of that is seenin the nondiabetic population. Studies in animal modelshave revealed that PGD induces oxidative stress,which activates cellular stress signalling leading todysregulation of gene expression and excess apoptosisin the target organs, including the neural tube andembryonic heart. Activation of the apoptosis signalregulatingkinase 1 (ASK1)-forkhead transcription factor3a (FoxO3a)-caspase 8 pathway causes apoptosis in thedeveloping neural tube leading to neural tube defects(NTDs). ASK1 activates the c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2), which leads to activation of the unfoldedprotein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.Deletion of the ASK1 gene, the JNK1 gene, or the JNK2gene, or inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acidabrogates diabetes-induced apoptosis and reduces theformation of NTDs. Antioxidants, such as thioredoxin,which inhibits the ASK1-FoxO3a-caspase 8 pathway orER stress inhibitors, may prevent PGD-induced birthdefects. Gabbay-Benziv R et al . Birth defects in pregestational diabetes

  12. Methodological approaches to evaluate teratogenic risk using birth defect registries: advantages and disadvantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Poletta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different approaches have been used in case-control studies to estimate maternal exposure to medications and the risk of birth defects. However, the performance of these approaches and how they affect the odds ratio (OR estimates have not been evaluated using birth-defect surveillance programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope and limitations of three case-control approaches to assess the teratogenic risk of birth defects in mothers exposed to antiepileptic medications, insulin, or acetaminophen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 110,814 non-malformed newborns and 58,514 live newborns with birth defects registered by the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC between 1967 and 2008. Four controls were randomly selected for each case in the same hospital and period, and three different control groups were used: non-malformed newborns (HEALTHY, malformed newborns (SICK, and a subgroup of SICK, only-exposed cases (OECA. Associations were evaluated using OR and Pearson's chi-square (P<0.01. There were no concordance correlations between the HEALTHY and OECA designs, and the average OR differences ranged from 3.0 to 11.5 for the three evaluated medicines. The overestimations observed for HEALTHY design were increased as higher OR values were given, with a high and statistically significant correlation between the difference and the mean. On the contrary, the concordance correlations obtained between the SICK and OECA designs were quite good, with no significant differences in the average risks. CONCLUSIONS: The HEALTHY design estimates the true population OR, but shows a high rate of false-positive results presumably caused by differential misclassification bias. This bias decreases with the increase of the proportion of exposed controls. SICK and OECA odds ratios cannot be considered a direct estimate of the true population OR except under certain conditions. However, the SICK and OECA

  13. Methodological Approaches to Evaluate Teratogenic Risk Using Birth Defect Registries: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletta, Fernando A.; López Camelo, Jorge S.; Gili, Juan A.; Leoncini, Emmanuele; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Different approaches have been used in case-control studies to estimate maternal exposure to medications and the risk of birth defects. However, the performance of these approaches and how they affect the odds ratio (OR) estimates have not been evaluated using birth-defect surveillance programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope and limitations of three case-control approaches to assess the teratogenic risk of birth defects in mothers exposed to antiepileptic medications, insulin, or acetaminophen. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 110,814 non-malformed newborns and 58,514 live newborns with birth defects registered by the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC) between 1967 and 2008. Four controls were randomly selected for each case in the same hospital and period, and three different control groups were used: non-malformed newborns (HEALTHY), malformed newborns (SICK), and a subgroup of SICK, only-exposed cases (OECA). Associations were evaluated using OR and Pearson's chi-square (P<0.01). There were no concordance correlations between the HEALTHY and OECA designs, and the average OR differences ranged from 3.0 to 11.5 for the three evaluated medicines. The overestimations observed for HEALTHY design were increased as higher OR values were given, with a high and statistically significant correlation between the difference and the mean. On the contrary, the concordance correlations obtained between the SICK and OECA designs were quite good, with no significant differences in the average risks. Conclusions The HEALTHY design estimates the true population OR, but shows a high rate of false-positive results presumably caused by differential misclassification bias. This bias decreases with the increase of the proportion of exposed controls. SICK and OECA odds ratios cannot be considered a direct estimate of the true population OR except under certain conditions. However, the SICK and OECA designs could

  14. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  15. Neural tube defect surveillance and folic acid intervention--Texas-Mexico border, 1993-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-14

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common and serious malformations that originate early in pregnancy. In the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies each year are affected by the two most common NTDs (spina bifida and anencephaly). In 1992, the Texas Department of Health (TDH), with support from a CDC cooperative agreement, implemented the Texas Neural Tube Defect Project (TNTDP), a program of NTD surveillance and risk-reduction activities in the 14 counties that border Mexico. The project was initiated in response to an anencephaly cluster identified during 1990-1991 in Brownsville (Cameron County), Texas (1). Whether the high anencephaly rate (19.7 per 10,000 live births) was unique to Cameron County or was characteristic of the entire border was unknown. This report summarizes NTD surveillance rates for the 14 Texas-Mexico border counties for 1993-1998 and presents preliminary results of TNTDP efforts to prevent the recurrence of NTDs by providing folic acid to high-risk women. Findings indicate that the baseline rate along the border is high (13.4 per 10,000 live births) and largely reflects the rate among Hispanics (13.8). Although a longer period is needed to obtain definitive results, folic acid appears to be effective for reducing the risk for NTD recurrence in Hispanics.

  16. Traffic jam in the primitive streak: the role of defective mesoderm migration in birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herion, Nils J; Salbaum, J Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    Gastrulation is the process in which the three germ layers are formed that contribute to the formation of all major tissues in the developing embryo. We here review mouse genetic models in which defective gastrulation leads to mesoderm insufficiencies in the embryo. Depending on severity of the abnormalities, the outcomes range from incompatible with embryonic survival to structural birth defects, such as heart defects, spina bifida, or caudal dysgenesis. The combined evidence from the mutant models supports the notion that these congenital anomalies can originate from perturbations of mesoderm specification, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and mesodermal cell migration. Knowledge about the molecular pathways involved may help to improve strategies for the prevention of major structural birth defects.

  17. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  18. Birth defects and genetic disorders among Arab Americans--Michigan, 1992-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Copeland, Glenn; Olney, Richard S

    2010-06-01

    Birth defects and genetic disorders are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in many countries. Population-based data on birth defects among Arab-American children have not been documented previously. Michigan has the second largest Arab-American community in the United States after California. Using data from the Michigan Birth Defects Registry (MBDR), which includes information on parents' country of birth and ancestry, birth prevalences were estimated in offspring of Michigan women of Arab ancestry for 21 major categories of birth defects and 12 congenital endocrine, metabolic, and hereditary disorders. Compared with other non-Hispanic white children in Michigan, Arab-American children had similar or lower birth prevalences of the selected types of structural birth defects, with higher rates of certain hereditary blood disorders and three categories of metabolic disorders. These estimates are important for planning preconception and antenatal health care, genetic counseling, and clinical care for Arab Americans.

  19. Application Research of "3+1" Mode for Birth Defects Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LIU; Cheng-liang XIONG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects and quality control measures based on the population,and to obtain the related information data for birth defects.Methods With the community population as the basis,adopting the unified monitoring scheme dominant by the leadership and administration of government,with districts(counties)as the monitoring sites,the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects was based on a complete monitoring team with the combination of villages/residents'committees,townships(towns),counties(districts)and the municipality.Demonstration research was carried out in the pilot districts/counties in Chongqing City.Results Birth defects population monitoring system based on population and family planning management and service network was established,and during 2005 and 2006,application research was carried out for the monitoring methods among birth deflects population in the pilot districts(counties),obtaining the relevant information in regional birth defects,with a monitoring coverage of over 99%.Conclusion Fully utilizing the birth management functions of Population and Family Planning System and the advantages of service networks,long term,dynamic birth defects monitoring system based on community population was established,with the integration of birth defects monitoring and regular reproductive health services,obtaining overall birth defects occurrence information in details,providing scientific basis for the government to formulate scientific,practical,economic and effective birth defects intervention policy,so as to improve the quality of the population.

  20. Epidemic Intelligence. Langmuir and the Birth of Disease Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle Fearnley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the SARS and influenza epidemics of the past decade, one public health solution has become a refrain: surveillance systems for detection of disease outbreaks. This paper is an effort to understand how disease surveillance for outbreak detection gained such paramount rationality in contemporary public health. The epidemiologist Alexander Langmuir is well known as the creator of modern disease surveillance. But less well known is how he imagined disease surveillance as one part of what he called “epidemic intelligence.” Langmuir developed the practice of disease surveillance during an unprecedented moment in which the threat of biological warfare brought civil defense experts and epidemiologists together around a common problem. In this paper, I describe how Langmuir navigated this world, experimenting with new techniques and rationales of epidemic control. Ultimately, I argue, Langmuir′s experiments resulted in a set of techniques and infrastructures – a system of epidemic intelligence – that transformed the epidemic as an object of human art.

  1. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bager Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of folic acid use in pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. We studied 243 women with pregnancies complicated by some forms of birth defect(s. These patients were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies. The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7 percent. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome, and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with the folic acid use. Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy.

  2. Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher if Baby Covered by Medicaid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163268.html Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher If Baby Covered ... defects cause about one in every five infant deaths in the United States. Now, new research finds ...

  3. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina

    2006-06-01

    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  4. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.

  5. Folic acid and primary prevention of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Carbone, Pietro; Granata, Orietta; Baldi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) are an important public health problem, due to their overall incidence, occurring in 2-3% of live births in European Union. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among major NTDs, due to their severity and relatively high incidence; in the meanwhile NTDs are also the most effectively preventable BDs to date. In particular, an adequate folic acid (FA) intake reduces both the occurrence and the recurrence of NTDs; FA is the synthetic form of folates, naturally occurring vitamins in a number of foods, especially vegetables. The daily intake of 0.4 mg of FA should be recommended to all women of childbearing age who plan to become pregnant. The Italian Network for Primary Prevention of BDs through FA Promotion has achieved a significant improvement in FA awareness and use in the periconceptional period. Nevertheless, primary prevention of BDs needs to make further progress; the Italian National Centre for Rare Diseases participates in european sureveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT) Joint Action as coordinator of activities on the effectiveness of BDs prevention. Mandatory food fortification with FA has not been introduced in any European country. The health benefits of FA in reducing the risk of NTDs are undisputed; however mechanistic and animal studies suggest a relationship between high FA intakes and increased cancer promotion, while human studies are still inconsistent and inconclusive. A Working Group organized by the European Food Safety Authority pointed out significant uncertainties about fortification safety and the need for more studies; currently, FA intake from fortified foods and supplements should not exceed 1 mg/day in adults. In conclusion, based on up-to-date scientific evidence, the Italian Network strategy pivots on periconceptional supplementation integrated with promotion of healthy eating habits, support to health education, enhancing the role of women in managing life choices about their health and pregnancy and increasing

  6. Zika virus and birth defects: an obstetric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochukwu C. Okeke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that is relatively unknown, unstudied and under-diagnosed, but has potentials to spread to new geographical areas that favour survival of Aedes mosquitoes. It is associated with an alarming rise in babies with microcephaly that require much care and support with a lot of financial assistance. This is a review article on Zika virus and birth defects; a worrisome issue in today's obstetric and medical practices. Since Zika's discovery in Uganda, the virus was known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia with no or mild symptoms. It has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade with accelerated geographic spread of the virus in the last nine years. The risk of Zika virus to the fetus is poorly understood, difficult to quantify and problematic. The causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly was initially speculative, strongly suspected and scientifically unproven. However, on 13th April, 2016, it was concluded that Zika virus is the cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC authors reviewed and weighed evidences using established scientific criteria to conclude after a careful review of the report published in the New England Journal of Medicine. There is no prophylaxis, treatment or vaccine to protect against Zika virus infection. However, preventive personal measures are highly recommended to avoid mosquito bites. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2488-2496

  7. Cancer risk in children and adolescents with birth defects: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D Botto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa. A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state's births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7 in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research.

  8. U.S. Health Care Costs from Birth Defects Total Almost $23 Billion a Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163141.html U.S. Health Care Costs From Birth Defects Total Almost $ ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- About three of every 100 U.S. newborns have a serious birth defect, and health ...

  9. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    OpenAIRE

    Song Xinming; Pang Lihua; Chen Gong; Meng Bin; Wang Jinfeng; Wu Jilei; Zhang Keli; Zhang Ting; Zheng Xiaoying

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS)". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD) occurr...

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of selected birth defects, areas of Lombardy, Italy, 1999

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    Frassoldi Emanuela

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects are a leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality in Italy, however little is known of the etiology of most defects. Improvements in diagnosis have revealed increasing numbers of clinically insignificant defects, while improvements in treatment have increased the survival of those with more serious and complex defects. For etiological studies, prevention, and management, it is important to have population-based monitoring which provides reliable data on the prevalence at birth of such defects. Methods We recently initiated population-based birth defect monitoring in the Provinces of Mantova, Sondrio and Varese of the Region of Lombardy, northern Italy, and report data for the first year of operation (1999. The registry uses all-electronic source files (hospital discharge files, death certificates, regional health files, and pathology reports and a proven case-generation methodology, which is described. The data were checked manually by consulting clinical records in hospitals. Completeness was checked against birth certificates by capture-recapture. Data on cases were coded according to the four-digit malformation codes of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9. We present data only on selected defects. Results We found 246 selected birth defects in 12,008 live births in 1999, 148 among boys and 98 among girls. Congenital heart defects (particularly septal defects were the most common (90.8/10,000, followed by defects of the genitourinary tract (34.1/10, 000 (particularly hypospadias in boys, digestive system (23.3/10,000 and central nervous system (14.9/10,000, orofacial clefts (10.8/10,000 and Down syndrome (8.3/10,000. Completeness was satisfactory: analysis of birth certificates resulted in the addition of two birth defect cases to the registry. Conclusion This is the first population-based analysis on selected major birth defects in the Region. The high birth prevalences for

  11. Data input module for Birth Defects Systems Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Kenneth B; Singh, Amar V; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2005-01-01

    The need for a computational bioinformatics infrastructure to manage the vast digital information from functional genomics and proteomics motivated us to develop Birth Defects Systems Manager (BDSM) as an open resource to facilitate analysis and discovery in developmental biology and developmental toxicity. This report describes the design, development and implementation of the data loading module of BDSM, referred to as LoadBDSM. It includes a shared data directory resource that can be granted various levels of security for different research groups or investigators to manage experimental datasets individually or in groups. LoadBDSM allows the upload of data and experiment details using controlled semantics for developmental exposure (toxicant, dosing scenario, intervention), biological sample (species, tissue, stage) and disease outcome (time, risk, phenotype). It adheres to existing controlled vocabulary plus rules of inference (ontologies) for experiment, data and metadata annotations. LoadBDSM extends the capabilities of BDSM to support the emergence of "embryo-formatics" defined here as the data, information and knowledge from genomic sciences applied to, or derived from, an embryological context. This includes, but is not limited to, delineating pathways and biological regulatory networks for specific chemicals or classes of developmental toxicants, developing novel biomarkers indicative of exposure and/or predictive of adverse effects, and integrating modern computing and information technology with data from molecular biology.

  12. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an, Sichuan 625014 (China); Zhang Keli, E-mail: keli@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. {yields} An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. {yields} Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  13. Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry: Birth Defects Among Infants Born to US Military Families: 2001 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-30

    large intestinal atresia/stenosis 751.2 Anophthalmia/microphthalmia 743.0, 743.1 Pyloric stenosis 750.5 Congenital cataract 743.30-743.34...occurred in US military families worldwide. Data on birth defects were gathered using nationally standardized definitions for major congenital ...745.4 Congenital hip dislocation 754.30, .31, .35 Atrial septal defect 745.5 Reduction deformity, upper limbs 755.20-755.29 Endocardial cushion

  14. Maternal Exposure to Methotrexate and Birth Defects: a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, April L.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita; Arena, J. Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate is an anti-folate medication that is associated with increased risk of multiple birth defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States, we examined mothers exposed to methotrexate. The study population included mothers of live-born infants without major birth defects (controls) and mothers of fetuses or infants with a major birth defect (cases), with expected dates of delivery between October 1997 and December 2009. Mothers of cases and controls were asked detailed questions concerning pregnancy history, demographic information, and exposures in a telephone interview. Approximately 0.06% (n=16/27,623) of case and 0.04% (n=4/10,113) of control mothers reported exposure to methotrexate between three months prior to conception through the end of pregnancy. Of the 16 case infants, 11 (68.8%) had a congenital heart defect (CHD). The observed CHDs included atrial septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, valvar pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. One case infant had microtia in addition to a VSD and another had VACTER association. Exposed cases without a CHD had one of the following birth defects: cleft palate, hypospadias, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or craniosynostosis. Based on a limited number of methotrexate-exposed mothers, our findings support recent case reports suggesting an association between early pregnancy exposure to methotrexate and CHDs. Because of the rarity of maternal periconceptional exposure to methotrexate, long-term, population-based case-control studies are needed to confirm these findings and better evaluate the association between methotrexate and birth defects. PMID:24898111

  15. Maternal exposure to methotrexate and birth defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, April L; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita; Arena, J Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Methotrexate is an anti-folate medication that is associated with increased risk of multiple birth defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States, we examined mothers exposed to methotrexate. The study population included mothers of live-born infants without major birth defects (controls) and mothers of fetuses or infants with a major birth defect (cases), with expected dates of delivery between October 1997 and December 2009. Mothers of cases and controls were asked detailed questions concerning pregnancy history, demographic information, and exposures in a telephone interview. Approximately 0.06% (n = 16/27,623) of case and 0.04% (n = 4/10,113) of control mothers reported exposure to methotrexate between 3 months prior to conception through the end of pregnancy. Of the 16 case infants, 11 (68.8%) had a congenital heart defect (CHD). The observed CHDs included atrial septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, valvar pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. One case infant had microtia in addition to a VSD and another had VACTER association. Exposed cases without a CHD had one of the following birth defects: cleft palate, hypospadias, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or craniosynostosis. Based on a limited number of methotrexate-exposed mothers, our findings support recent case reports suggesting an association between early pregnancy exposure to methotrexate and CHDs. Because of the rarity of maternal periconceptional exposure to methotrexate, long-term, population-based case-control studies are needed to confirm these findings and better evaluate the association between methotrexate and birth defects.

  16. Control selection and participation in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Anderka, Marlene; Caton, Alissa R; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Hockett Sherlock, Stacey M; Meyer, Robert E; Ramadhani, Tunu; Robbins, James M; Shaw, Gary M; Mathews, T J; Royle, Marjorie; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the representativeness of controls in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects in 10 centers across the United States, researchers compared 1997-2003 birth certificate data linked to selected controls (n = 6,681) and control participants (n = 4,395) with those from their base populations (n = 2,468,697). Researchers analyzed differences in population characteristics (e.g., percentage of births at > or =2,500 g) for each group. Compared with their base populations, control participants did not differ in distributions of maternal or paternal age, previous livebirths, maternal smoking, or diabetes, but they did differ in other maternal (i.e., race/ethnicity, education, entry into prenatal care) and infant (i.e., birth weight, gestational age, and plurality) characteristics. Differences in distributions of maternal, but not infant, characteristics were associated with participation by selected controls. Absolute differences in infant characteristics for the base population versus control participants were controls from hospitals compared with centers that selected controls from electronic birth certificates. These findings suggest that control participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study generally are representative of their base populations. Hospital-based control selection may slightly underascertain infants affected by certain adverse birth outcomes.

  17. Cases of Zika-Linked Birth Defects Dropped in Brazil in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164346.html Cases of Zika-Linked Birth Defects Dropped in Brazil in 2016 ... despite the continued spread of the mosquito-borne Zika virus. Researchers predicted 1,133 cases of microcephaly ...

  18. Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC Finding highlights importance of preventing infection ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women infected with the Zika virus are 20 times more likely to have ...

  19. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xinming

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD occurrences worldwide to identify the scale of environmental risk factors for birth defects using exploratory spatial data analysis methods. Methods By birth defect registers based on hospital records and investigation in villages, the number of birth defects cases within a four-year period was acquired and classified by organ system. The neural-tube birth defect ratio was calculated according to the number of births planned for each village in the study area, as the family planning policy is strictly adhered to in China. The Bayesian modeling method was used to estimate the ratio in order to remove the dependence of variance caused by different populations in each village. A recently developed statistical spatial method for detecting hotspots, Getis's 7, was used to detect the high-risk regions for neural-tube birth defects in the study area. Results After the Bayesian modeling method was used to calculate the ratio of neural-tube birth defects occurrences, Getis's statistics method was used in different distance scales. Two typical clustering phenomena were present in the study area. One was related to socioeconomic activities, and the other was related to soil type distributions. Conclusion The fact that there were two typical hotspot clustering phenomena provides evidence that the risk for neural-tube birth defect exists on two different scales (a socioeconomic scale at 6.84 km and a soil type scale at 22.8 km for the area studied. Although our study has limited

  20. Maternal Food Insecurity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Certain Birth Defects1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Yang, Wei; Herring, Amy; Abrams, Barbara; Shaw, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Food insecurity represents a lack of access to enough food to meet basic needs. We hypothesized that food insecurity may increase birth defect risks, because it is an indicator of increased stress or compromised nutrition, which are both implicated in birth defect etiologies. This study used population-based case-control data. Included in the analysis were 1,189 case mothers and 695 control mothers who were interviewed by telephone. We calculated a food insecurity score as the number of affir...

  1. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiza Cesar Nhoncanse

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants, cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047. A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001 and cesarean delivery (p=0.004 was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs.

  2. Birth defects registries in the genomics era: challenges and opportunities for developing countries.

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    Thong, Meow-Keong

    2014-01-01

    Birth defects or congenital anomalies are one of the major causes of disability in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. Increasingly, there is a shift to genetic testing and genomics study of birth defects. However, the translation from bench findings to bedside medicine has been muted. There is a need to address this imbalance where congenital anomalies remained the top etiology for neonatal mortality in developing countries. To build capacity in low resource countries, there is a need for accurate collection and ascertainment of birth defects in developing countries. The systematic collection and analysis of data on major birth defects using birth defects registries (BDRs) are an integral part of all clinical genetic services. Healthcare planners in developing countries must be aware of the advantages and limitations of BDRs. Despite the advent of the genomics era, BDRs are essential to the planning and developing care and prevention services at local and national levels, particularly in low resource or developing countries.

  3. Using bayesian models to assess the effects of under-reporting of cannabis use on the association with birth defects, national birth defects prevention study, 1997-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Devine, O.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on associations between periconceptional cannabis exposure and birth defects have mainly relied on self-reported exposure. Therefore, the results may be biased due to under-reporting of the exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential effects of this form of expo

  4. Mothers of Kids with Severe Birth Defects May Have Shorter Lives: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and history of pregnancy complications. Cohen noted that premature death risk was higher among women whose children were born with multiple defects, as opposed to one birth defect. "Of course, we can never make a definitive cause-and-effect determination with a single study," cautioned ...

  5. Maternal hypertensive disorders, antihypertensive medication use, and the risk of birth defects: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Bennekom, C.M. Van; Louik, C.; Werler, M.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Mitchell, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study previously identified associations between specific maternal hypertensive disorders and/or prenatal exposure to antihypertensive medication and birth defects. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Slone Birth Defects Study, 1998-2010. POPULATION: A total of 5568 cases with birth d

  6. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

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    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  7. The Association of Maternal Lifestyle with Birth Defects in Shaanxi Province, Northwest China.

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    Leilei Pei

    Full Text Available The main objective was to investigate the burden of birth defects among alive infants and explore the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on the burden of birth defects in Northwest China.A stratified multi-stage sampling method was used to study infants born during 2010-2013 (and their mothers in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire, and medical records from the local hospitals were used to determine the final diagnosis of birth defects. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the association between maternal lifestyles during pregnancy and the burden of birth defects, while adjusting for potential confounders.We sampled 29098 infants, of whom 629 (i.e. 216.17 per 10000 were observed to have congenital defects. Cardiovascular system defects (77.32 per 10000 were found to be the most common. Mothers who had ever consumed alcohol during pregnancy were found to have infants with a higher prevalence of some categories of birth defects, including nervous system (Prevalence Rate Ratio, PRR:14.67, 95% CI: 1.94, 110.92, cardiovascular system (PRR:3.22, 95% CI: 1.02, 10.16 and oral clefts (PRR:9.02, 95% CI: 2.08, 39.10 in contrast to infants of mothers without any alcohol consumption. Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy lead to the increased burden of malformations of eye, ear, face and neck (PRR:1.95, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.33, cardiovascular system (PRR:1.70, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.31 and respiratory system (PRR:9.94, 95% CI: 2.37, 41.76 in their newborns. Further, tea or coffee consumption during pregnancy was positively correlated with the burden of specific birth defects, such as cardiovascular system (PRR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.33, 4.46 and genital organs (PRR:14.72, 95% CI: 1.87, 116.11 among infants.The prevalence of birth defects was high in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. The unhealthy lifestyles of mothers during pregnancy may increase the prevalence of

  8. Observed Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects From a Surveillance Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Correa, Adolfo; Li, Song; Feng, Xinheng; Gindler, Jacqueline; Lin, Hui; Webb, Catherine; Li, Wei; Trines, Jean; Berry, Robert J.; Yeung, Lorraine; Luo, Ying; Jiang, Meifang; Chen, Hua; Sun, Xiamei; Li, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of major and minor congenital heart defects among fetuses and neonates using sonography in a general population of 4 areas surrounding Shanghai, China. Methods Pregnant women were recruited between April 2004 and December 2005 in Jiaxing City, Suzhou City, Changshu County, and Haining County. All participants could have 3 sonographic examinations performed by specially trained physicians regardless of medical indication: a fetal sonographic screen and fetal echocardiography between 20 and 28 weeks’ gestation and neonatal echocardiography. Diagnoses of congenital heart defects were made on the basis of review of all available scans by an international group of experts in pediatric cardiology. Prevalence rates were calculated per 1000 births. Results Among 4006 scanned fetuses and neonates, there were 75 congenital heart defects, including 12 major defects. The observed prevalence for all congenital heart defects was 18.7 (95% confidence interval, 14.8–23.5) per 1000 births, and the prevalence for major defects was 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.6–5.2) per 1000 births. The most common defects were ventricular septal defects (n = 47 [62.7%]), atrial septal defects (n = 14 [18.7%]), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 4 [5.3%]), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (n = 3 [4.0%]). Conclusions The prevalence of all congenital heart defects in the 4 areas of China studied was higher than that reported in other countries, with ventricular septal defects being the most frequent defects. Our data likely reflect a better estimate of the total prevalence of congenital heart defects in China than reported previously. PMID:21705732

  9. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

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    Alok Sachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  10. The Relationship between Drug-and Chemical-exposure and Birth Defects during Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈启芳; 张忠恕; 方可娟; 丁亦诺; 顾江; 王仁礼; 杨跃英; 李海放; 蒋秀蓉; 薛寿征

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study was conductedin 36 hospitals of the urban and suburban areas of Shanghai about the relationships between birth defects and drug use and chemieal exposures during pregnancy in the period of July 1987-December 1990. The case group was composed of 1.609 subjects, and the control group 3,218 cases. On statistical analysis, it was found that a correlation existed between birth defects and the intake of APC and diazepam, and the exposure to pesticides, organic soh, ents, benzene, synthetic resin and physical factors (noises) on the part of the mother, and the exposure to harmful chemicals and physical factors and the smoking of 20 or more cigarettes a day on the part of the father. It is also found that the familial hereditary history of the parents and muhigravidio,, malnutrition, common colds, hepatitis and diarrhea during pregnancy may also be related to the birth defects.

  11. Monitoring and analysis of perinatal birth defect%围产儿出生缺陷的监测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海丽; 陈源鸿; 王丽平; 蔡娟; 温新创

    2012-01-01

    Objective Analysis of epidemiology and influencing factors of perinatal birth defects from 2002 to 2010. Method The defect rate of perinatal birth and influencing factors were analyzed based on the birth defect surveillance data and the birth information from Nanshan Hospital, Guangdong Medical College. Results The birth defect rate was 15.88‰ over the period of nine years,and it was significantly increased since 2007.The death rate of defect birth accounted for 24.88% of the total perinatal death. The top birth defects were congenital heart disease, multi-fingered and jointed fingered, total cleft lip and palate, fetal edema syndrome, and neural tube malformations, accounted for 52.55% of total birth defects. The birth defect was related to residence origin of the parents, gender and number of the neonates, season of the birth, as well as pregnant times, delivery times, age and education levels of the pregnant women. Conclusion The control of birth defect is critical.Further investigations on the etiology of birth defect are needed to provide effective prevention and control strategies.Extensive health education and guidance on marriage and pregnancy, prenatal and post natal cares,and physical examination on neonates are the effective ways to reduce the rate of birth defects and increase the quality of population.%目的 分析2002-2010年围产儿出生缺陷流行病学特征及影响因素.方法 以2002-2010年广东医学院附属南山医院分娩信息及出生缺陷的监测资料为基础,对缺陷率及影响因素进行分析.结果 9年间出生缺陷率为15.88%,2007年后缺陷率明显增高;缺陷儿死亡占围产儿死亡的24.88%;前五位出生缺陷依次为先天性心脏病、多指+并指、总唇腭裂、胎儿水肿综合征、神经管畸形,共占畸形总数的52.55%;出生缺陷发生与户籍、性别、季节、胎数及产妇年龄、文化程度、孕次、产次有关.结论 出生缺陷防控形势严峻,应深入

  12. [Interconnection between assisted reproductive technologies, pregnancy complications and risk of birth defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar', V V

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to investigate the relationship between pregnancy complications, infertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The study was conducted on 1331 couples with complicated reproductive history. It is found that miscarriage and other complications of pregnancy depend rather on the etiopathogenesis of infertility than on the technique of ART. The highest frequency of complications of pregnancy was diagnosed in women with endocrine disorders. In case of congenital malformations in the fetus the frequency of birth defects was 3.6% after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 1.8% in case of spontaneous pregnancy. It was found an increased risk of birth defects in singleton boys conceived by IVF.

  13. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhoncanse, Geiza César; Germano, Carla Maria R.; de Avó, Lucimar Retto da S.; Melo, Débora Gusmão

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants), cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant pApgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs. PMID:24676186

  14. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004–2010

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    Ooki S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syuichi OokiDepartment of Health Science, Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART.Methods: Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference, 35–39, and 40+ years.Results: Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed.Conclusion: Maternal age is

  15. The impact of thalidomide use in birth defects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales Luiz Vianna, Fernanda; Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Although the thalidomide tragedy occurred more than 50 years ago, the medication is still being used worldwide for different reasons, and several aspects regarding its teratogenicity remain unsolved. Despite the strict regulation implemented, new cases of thalidomide embryopathy (TE) are still being registered in Brazil. Furthermore, the molecular processes that lead to malformations when the embryo is exposed to thalidomide have not yet been fully identified. In this article, we perform a critical analysis of thalidomide's history in Brazil, highlighting aspects of the occurrence of TE over the decades. Finally, we present the main perspectives and challenges for ongoing surveillance and prevention of TE in Brazil. The effective control of dispensing thalidomide, especially in areas where leprosy is endemic, is one of the most important and challenging points. Furthermore, the emergence of thalidomide analogues is fast approaching, and their availability would pose additional concerns. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms and targets of thalidomide in both experimental and human models is essential for generating new insights into teratogenic mechanisms, so that safer thalidomide analogues can be developed.

  16. H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161034.html H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect ... Swedish researchers report that the vaccine against the H1N1 "swine flu" strain of influenza doesn't seem ...

  17. COMPARISON OF GEOCODING METHODS USED IN CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Accurate geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded maternal residence a...

  18. Preventing birth defects: The value of the NBDPS case-control approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolk, Helen

    2015-08-01

    Birth Defect Registries provide a basis for epidemiological research into risk factors, thus facilitating a growing understanding of what causes congenital anomalies and how one might target preventive public health actions and reduce inequalities. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) has used 10 U.S. registries as a basis for a large case-control study. This commentary reviews its methodology and selected areas of output. The strengths of NBDPS lie in the quality of diagnostic coding and classification of birth defects and its size. The sources of bias in NBDPS data relate particularly to retrospective exposure ascertainment entailing a long period of recall, incomplete ascertainment of terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly, and unknown bias in case selection. NBDPS results have shown the protective effect of healthy dietary patterns, but have not been as informative as expected in relation to furthering understanding of the protective effect of folic acid. NBDPS medication studies are making important contributions to addressing the gap in existing evidence systematically across a wide range of birth defects, but are challenged by the quality of information on exposure, dose and underlying disease condition, and the interpretation of results of multiple testing. Studies of environmental contaminants in collaboration with experts in exposure assessment have linked addresses to residential exposure measures, using the advantages of information on residential history and confounders, but are challenged by the need to consider exposure mixtures. NBDPS could increase its public health impact by placing more emphasis on socioeconomic inequalities.

  19. Pharmacogenetics of drug-induced birth defects : the role of polymorphisms of placental transporter proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daud, Aizati N. A.; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Bakker, Marian K.; Wang, Hao; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Plosch, Torsten; Wilffert, Bob

    2014-01-01

    One of the ongoing issues in perinatal medicine is the risk of birth defects associated with maternal drug use. The teratogenic effect of a drug depends, apart from other factors, on the exposition of the fetus to the drug. Transporter proteins are known to be involved in the pharmacokinetics of dru

  20. Correlation Between Birth Defects and Dietary Nutrition Status in a High Incidence Area of China1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO-YUAN ZHANG; QING-SHAN ZHANG; JIN ZHAO; YU-FU QIN; XIU-FENG YANG; GONG CHEN; JU-FEN LIU; XIN-MING SONG; XIAO-YING ZHENG; TING ZHANG; LIANG-MING LIN; FANG WANG; RUO-LEI XIN; XUE GU; YU-NA HE; DONG-MEI YU; PEI-ZHEN LI

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between birth defects and dietary nutrient intake in a high risk area of China.Methods A dietary survey was performed and serum folic acid was measured in women whose pregnancy was affected by neural tube defects(NTDs)or unaffected by any birth defects(BDs)in Zhongyang and Jiaokou Counties in Shanxi Province of China.Results The local average censureption of foods including dark green vegetables,fluits,fat and meat,and nutrient intake(e.g.energy,protein,retinol,riboflavin,vitamin E,and selenium)were lower than the national average level.In women of childbearing age,these regions,the intake of nutrients was much lower than the recommended nutrient intake(9%-77%)The case-centrel dietary nutrition smdv of women whose pregnancy was affected bv BDs(including MTDs and congenital heart defects)demonstrated that,in early pregnancy,adequate nutrition(I.e.eating meat,fresh vegetables,fruit more than once a week)was a protective factor,while eating germinated potatoes was a risk factor.The geometrical mean(p5-p95)of serum folic acid in women with NTD birth defects was 9.6 nmol/L(3.6,23.03),which was significantly lower than that in normal women(14.03 nmol/L). Conclusion Wemen of childbearing age in the two counties of Shanxi Province,Chim,have a marked insufficient intake of some nutrients,especially folic acid,zinc,vitamins A and B12.This nutrient deficiency may be an important risk factor for the high prevalence of birth defects in these regions.Therefore,adequate dietary nutrition in early pregnancy can prevent BDs.

  1. Reduction of birth prevalence rates of neural tube defects after folic acid fortification in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Camelo, Jorge S; Orioli, Iêda M; da Graça Dutra, Maria; Nazer-Herrera, Julio; Rivera, Nelson; Ojeda, María Elena; Canessa, Aurora; Wettig, Elisabeth; Fontannaz, Ana María; Mellado, Cecília; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2005-06-01

    To verify whether the decreasing neural tube defects birth prevalence rates in Chile are due to folic acid fortification or to pre-existing decreasing trends, we performed a population survey using a network of Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC, Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) maternity hospitals in Chile, between the years 1982 and 2002. Within each maternity hospital, birth prevalence rates of spina bifida and anencephaly were calculated from two pre-fortification periods (1982-1989 and 1990-2000), and from one fortified period (2001-2002). There was no historical trend for spina bifida birth prevalence rates before folic acid fortification, and there was a 51% (minimum 27%, maximum 66%) decrease in the birth prevalence rates of this anomaly in the fortified period. The relative risks of spina bifida were homogeneous among hospitals in the two period comparisons. There was no historical trend for the birth prevalence of anencephaly comparing the two pre-fortified periods, but the relative risks were heterogeneous among hospitals in this comparison. There was a 42% (minimum 10%, maximum 63%) decrease in the birth prevalence rate of anencephaly in the fortified period as compared with the immediately pre-fortified period, with homogeneous relative risks among hospitals. Within the methodological constraints of this study we conclude that the birth prevalence rates for both spina bifida and anencephaly decreased as a result of folic acid fortification, without interference of decreasing secular trends.

  2. Ambient air pollution and risk of birth defects in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Beate; Yu, Fei; Fruin, Scott; Chapa, Guadalupe; Shaw, Gary M; Harris, John A

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of air pollution on the occurrence of birth defects ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program in neonates and fetuses delivered in southern California in 1987-1993. By using measurements from ambient monitoring stations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, they calculated average monthly exposure estimates for each pregnancy. Conventional, polytomous, and hierarchical logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for subgroups of cardiac and orofacial defects. Odds ratios for cardiac ventricular septal defects increased in a dose-response fashion with increasing second-month CO exposure (odds ratio (OR)(2nd quartile) CO = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.48; OR(3rd quartile) CO = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.19, 3.67; OR(4th quartile) CO = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.44, 6.05). Similarly, risks for aortic artery and valve defects, pulmonary artery and valve anomalies, and conotruncal defects increased with second-month ozone exposure. The study was inconclusive for other air pollutants. The authors' results are supported by the specificity of the timing of the effect and some evidence from animal data; however, this is the first known study to link ambient air pollution during a vulnerable window of development to human malformations. Confirmation by further studies is needed.

  3. Association between prenatal exposure to antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: an analysis of the French perinatal cohort study (ANRS CO1/CO11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Sibiude

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV drug used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388 were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%-4.7%, according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%. Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.8, p = 0

  4. Epidemiology of external birth defects in neonates in South western Nigeria

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    Bakare T.I.B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the prevalence of birth defects in Nigeria, particularly in our setting. This study determined the epidemiology of external congenital anomalies in Southwest Nigerian children. Patients and Methods: This was a stratified, randomized study of neonates presenting with external birth defects in Ife-Ijesha in Southwestern Nigeria, from August 2003 to July 2004. The neonates were screened for obvious congenital malformations by thorough physical examination. Results: A total of 624 neonates were screened, 43 (6.9% of whom had external birth defects (prevalence: 3.7 ± 0.8% SD. There was a slight male preponderance (M: F= 1.4: 0.9. The overall prevalence rates of external congenital and major anomalies in Ife-Ijesa are 6.9 and 3.7% respectively. A higher prevalence for major malformations, 6.3%, was also found within the minority ethnic groups in these communities compared to the native majority. Musculoskeletal abnormalities are the most common anomaly, followed by those of abnormal external genitalia and head defects. Conclusion: Major malformations are more common amongst the minority settlers in this study, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were the most prevalent.

  5. Research Progress of Factors Related to Birth Defect%出生缺陷相关因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅盛平; 张红

    2011-01-01

    It is a basic national policy to control the size of the population and improve its quality in China,but birth defect is an important factor that affects the population quality.This paper summarizes the occurrence,classification,etiology,pathogenesis of birth defects and explores birth defect surveillance,intervention and prevention work so as to lay the foundation for improving population quality and protecting people’s health.%控制人口数量,提高人口素质是我国的一项基本国策,而出生缺陷则是严重影响人口素质的一个重要因素。文章综述出生缺陷的发生、分类、发病因素、发病机制,探讨我国出生缺陷的监测、干预和预防工作的开展,为提高人口素质,保护人群健康打下基础。

  6. Construction of HMI Network System for Individualized Maternity Intervention Service against Birth Defects in Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-huai HU

    2007-01-01

    The paper expounds the community maternity service system against birth defects,from the viewpoint of individualized service in family planning. We have utilized modern information technology to develop health management information (HMI) network with individualized maternity, and to establish the community service system for intervention of birth defects. The service system applied the concept of modern health management information to implementing informational management for screening,treatment, following up, outcome monitoring, so as to provide a base for promotion of health, diagnosis, treatment as well as scientific research, with the prenatal screening of Down's syndrome as a model. The introduction to informational network during the processes of service has been carried out with regards to its composition, function and application, while introducing the effects of computerized case record individualized in prevention, management and research of Down's syndrome.

  7. Pharmacogenetics of drug-induced birth defects: the role of polymorphisms of placental transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Aizati N A; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Bakker, Marian K; Wang, Hao; de Walle, Hermien E K; Plösch, Torsten; Wilffert, Bob

    2014-05-01

    One of the ongoing issues in perinatal medicine is the risk of birth defects associated with maternal drug use. The teratogenic effect of a drug depends, apart from other factors, on the exposition of the fetus to the drug. Transporter proteins are known to be involved in the pharmacokinetics of drugs and have an effect on drug level and fetal drug exposure. This condition may subsequently alter the risk of teratogenicity, which occurs in a dose-dependent manner. This review focuses on the clinically important polymorphisms of transporter proteins and their effects on the mRNA and protein expression in placental tissue. We also propose a novel approach on how the different genotypes of the polymorphism can be translated into phenotypes to facilitate genetic association studies. The last section looks into the recent studies exploring the association between P-glycoprotein polymorphisms and the risk of fetal birth defects associated with medication use during pregnancy.

  8. A Study of Handling Cytotoxic Drugs and Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Female Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleh Shirangi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05–4.15. Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03 and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00–3.48 and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18–5.42. This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs.

  9. 出生缺陷监测现状、疾病谱变化趋势与监测方法探讨%Birth defect monitoring status, disease spectrum change trend and methods of monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杏敏; 吴红宇; 胡南

    2011-01-01

    目的 以扬州市2005年-2010年的出生缺陷监测结果为基础,阐述我国出生缺陷监测现状,为进一步探讨我国出生缺陷监测方法、干预措施等提供有效的的数据支持,从而提高出生缺陷监测研究水平.方法 总结扬州市2005年-2010年出生缺陷诊断分类及其变化趋势,探讨出生缺陷监测方法和统计口径.结果 先天性心脏病、小于28w治疗性引产数、出生缺陷诊断无法归类而列为“其它”三者呈上升趋势.结论 只有全面了解出生缺陷监测现状,准确统计出生缺陷发生率及其分类,才能有针对性地制订干预措施,更加有效地预防和减少出生缺陷.%Objective: Taking Yangzhou 2005 - 2010 years of birth defects monitoring results as the basis, elaborated our country of birth defects monitoring status and provided effective data support for the further study of Chinese birth defects monitoring methods, as well as improving birth defects surveillance study level. Methods: To sum up 2005 - 2010 years of birth defects diagnosis classification and changing trend of birth defects of Yangzhou city. Explore monitoring method and -statistical standards. Results: Congenital heart diseases, the number of less than 28 weeks abortion treatment, birth defects diagnosis as "others" which could not be explicitly classified show ascendant trend. Conclusion; Only a comprehensive understanding of birth defects monitoring status, the accurate statistics of the incidence of birth defects and its classification, can be targeted to develop interventions that more effectively prevent and reduce the incidence of birth defects.

  10. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Topics Cerebral Palsy Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Down Syndrome All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds NIH workshop identifies complex health problems among ...

  11. Birth Defects in Gaza: Prevalence, Types, Familiarity and Correlation with Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raneem Al Shawwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of registration at birth, and of incidence of major structural birth defects (BD obtained in Gaza at Al Shifa Hospital, where 28% of total births in Gaza Strip occur. Doctors registered 4,027 deliveries, with a protocol comprehensive of clinical, demographic, kin and environmental questions. Prevalence of BD is 14/1,000, without association with intermarriage or gender of the child. Prevalence of late miscarriages and still births are respectively 23.3/1,000 and 7.4/1,000, and of premature births 19.6/1,000. Couples with a BD child have about 10 times higher frequency of recurrence of a BD in their progeny than those with normal children, but none of their 694 siblings and only 10/1,000 of their 1,423 progeny had BD, similar to the frequency in general population. These data suggest occurrence of novel genetic and epigenetic events in determination of BD. Children with BD were born with higher frequency (p < 0 001 in families where one or both parents were under “white phosphorus” attack, that in the general population. Bombing of the family home and removal of the rubble were also frequently reported by couples with BD occurrence. These data suggests a causative/favoring role of acute exposure of parents to the weapons-associated contaminants, and/or of their chronic exposure from their persistence in the environment on the embryonic development of their children.

  12. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus–associated birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of birth defects in relation to diabetes mellitus and the lack of use of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. STUDY DESIGN The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2004) is a multicenter, population-based case-control study of birth defects (14,721 cases and 5437 control infants). Cases were categorized into 18 types of heart defects and 26 noncardiac birth defects. We estimated odds ratios for independent and joint effects of preexisting diabetes mellitus and a lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. RESULTS The pattern of odds ratios suggested an increased risk of defects that are associated with diabetes mellitus in the absence vs the presence of the periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. CONCLUSION The lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid may be associated with an excess risk for birth defects due to diabetes mellitus. PMID:22284962

  13. Analysis of the Monitoring Results of Birth Defect in Hospitals Between 2001 and 2010 in Changsha%长沙市2001~2010年医院出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖月娥; 朱琳; 周红女; 周燕飞; 李杏秀; 王卫东; 徐扬; 林蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze the monitoring results of birth defect in hospital between 2001 and 2010 in Changsha in order to provide the basis for formulating the policy to reduce the birth defect rate of hospitals by health administrative department .[Methods] The statistical data from 13 birth defect monitoring hospitals of Changsha were analyzed .All the 13 hospital were accorded with birth defect definition and diagnostic standard in Chinese birth defect monitoring program and Chinese birth defect monitoring manual .All birth defect children were examined and registered by the trained physicians .The classification and statistical analysis were taken .[Results] In the past 10 years ,there were 173527 perinatal children born in 13 birth defect surveillance hospitals . Among them ,3856 children were birth defects .The total incidence rate was 222 .16/10000 .The incidence rate of birth defect during 10 years was increased obviously .The top 5 birth defects were congenital heart disease ,outer ear and other malformations ,cleft lip complicated with cleft palate ,multi-finger(toe) and congenital hydroceph-alus .Except the constituent ratio of congenital heart disease was increased ,the constituent ratio of 4 other birth defects had the declining trend .[Conclusion] The strategical change of the prevention mode of birth defect should be implemented so as to reduce the birth defect .%[目的]通过分析长沙市2001~2010年医院出生缺陷监测结果数据,为上级医疗行政部门制定降低医院出生缺陷率的政策提供依据。[方法]参照长沙市13所出生缺陷监测医院的统计数据。13所医院均按照《中国出生缺陷监测方案》及《中国出生缺陷监测手册》中有关出生缺陷的定义特征和诊断标准,经专职医生临床体检和相关检查确诊并分类统计。[结果]10年中13所出生缺陷监测医院总出生围生儿为173527例,出生缺陷3856例,总发生率为222.16/万,10年间出生缺

  14. Use of low birth weight as selecting criterion for the routine surveillance of congenital anomalies of infectious origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Bermúdez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surveillance of congenital anomalies receives importance in the world-wide context of eradicating the congenital rubella syndrome. Objective: To identify the congenital anomalies and to consider the low birth weight  a criterion to test IgM for the complex TORCH. Methodology: Surveillance of the congenital specific and non specific anomalies of the congenital rubella syndrome(CRS and low birth weight in ten hospitals. It was considered as case, everything new born with some congenital anomaly or low weight for the gestational age. Serum tests for rubella, toxoplasmosis, citomegalovirus, herpes and parvovirus were practiced. For the negative cases cariotype was performed. Results: A total of 840 cases were selected, 669 by low weight for the gestational age, 52 by anomalies not related to CRS, 52; by anomalies that could be related to the CRS, 105. The most frequent anomalies were congenital heart diseases,  5.1%; hepatosplenomegalies, 3.9%; and microcephalies, 1.2%. There were confirmatory IgM titles for rubella in 0.5% of cases; toxoplasmosis 1.4%; citomegalovirus 1.5%; parvovirus 1.2%; herpes 0.5%; and positive test for congenital syphilis, 3.7%. In total there were 8.8% positive results for any congenital infectious disease. The relative risk for low birth weight having IgM positive rubella was RR = 2.83 (IC: 1.26:6.36-0.95. Discussion and conclusions: The surveillance for CRS, through the monitoring of febrile in the first year and by the presence of some specific congenital anomalies, could be improved in sensitivity by means of the routine monitoring of congenital anomalies, with the inclusion of low birth weight, like a selecting criterion to study the infectious agents.

  15. Association between maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents and congenital heart defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, SM; Desrosiers, TA; Lawson, CC; Lupo, PJ; Riehle-Colarusso, T; Stewart, PA; van Wijngaarden, E; Waters, MA; Correa, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring and estimated maternal occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents, aromatic solvents, and Stoddard solvent during the period from one month before conception through the first trimester. Methods The study population included mothers of infants with simple, isolated CHDs and mothers of control infants who delivered from 1997 through 2002 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Two methods to assess occupational solvent exposure were employed: an expert consensus-based approach and a literature-based approach. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between solvent classes and CHDs. Results 2,951 control mothers and 2,047 CHD case mothers were included. Using the consensus-based approach, associations were observed for exposure to any solvent and any chlorinated solvent with perimembranous ventricular septal defects (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6 and OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.8 respectively). Using the literature-based approach, associations were observed for: any solvent exposure with aortic stenosis (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.1); and Stoddard solvent exposure with d-transposition of the great arteries (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.0 to 4.2), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3), and pulmonary valve stenosis (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). Conclusions We found evidence of associations between occupational exposure to solvents and several types of CHDs. These results should be interpreted in light of the potential for misclassification of exposure. PMID:22811060

  16. Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Preet Allagh

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India. Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement.The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9. The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5. Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn.The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.

  17. 宁波市北仑区2007~2010年出生缺陷调查分析%Investigation and analysis of birth defection from 2007 to 2010 in Beilun district Ningbo city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波; 王健民; 吴庆国; 王娇珍; 乐福文; 吴怀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide basic statistics for prevention and intervention of birth defection in this area, through understanding basic condition of the happening of children birth defection and constitution of diseases. Methods Information on birth defection registration during 4 years in whole district was reviewed, and birth defection diseases were classified and relevant data were calculated and analyzed. Results A total of 9665 perinatals in the district were monitored, including 509 birth defection children; the rate of birth defection was 5. 27% from 2007 to 2010. Birth defection in the top three diseases were: congenital heart diseases, limb deformities, eye and ear deformities. Conclusion The situation of birth defection in Beilun district isnt optimistic, and the popularization of eugenic knowledge, surveillance and intervention of birth defection must be strengthened, which is one of the most important measures to take to improve population quality.%目的 分析宁波市北仑区儿童出生缺陷的发生及其病种构成的基本情况,为本地区出生缺陷预防干预提供基本数据.方法 回顾研究该区14家医院4年所有出生缺陷登记的资料,对出生缺陷病种进行归类,将相关数据进行统计整理.结果 2007年至2010年的4年间,该区共监测9 665例围生儿,其中有出生缺陷509例,出生缺陷率5.27%.出生缺陷居前三位的病种依次为:先天性心脏病,四肢畸形和眼耳畸形.结论 北仑区人口出生缺陷情况不容乐观,必须加强优生优育知识的普及,加强对出生缺陷的监测和干预,这是提高人口素质的重要环节之一.

  18. 上海市奉贤区2008-2010年出生缺陷监测%Monitoring analysis on birth defects in Fengxian District of Shanghai from 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 王娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence , distribution and trend of birth defects in Fengxian District of Shanghai . [ Methods] The population-based surveillance data of birth defects from 28 gestational weeks to 42 days postpartum was retrospectively analyzed . [ Results] A total of 15 744 perineonates were monitored , in which 277 cases of birth defects were detected .From 2008 to 2010 , the rate of birth defect was 138.94 per 10 000,162.28 per 10 000 and 230.66 per 10 000, respectively, which indicated a rising trend of incidence .The main types of birth defects in turn were congenital heart disease , deformity of external ear , umbilical hernia , synpolydactyly , syndactyly , chilopalatognathus , hemangioma , hydrocephalus , and neural tube defect . [ Conclusion] The rise of birth defects in recent years should be taken seriously . The surveillance and the comprehensive prevention on birth defects should be strengthened .%[目的]了解上海市奉贤区出生缺陷发生情况、分布特征及变化趋势。[方法]采用回顾性分析2008—2010年奉贤区出生缺陷人群监测资料(孕28周至产后42 d)。[结果]监测围产儿总数15744例,缺陷数277例,出生缺陷率分别为138.94/万,162.28/万,230.66/万,3年发生率有上升趋势。主要缺陷种类顺位依次为先天性心脏病、外耳畸形、脐疝、多指(趾)、并指(趾)、唇腭裂、血管瘤、先天性脑积水、神经管缺陷。[结论]近年来出生缺陷率上升需得到重视,应继续加强监测工作,加强出生缺陷综合防控。

  19. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  20. Prevalence and pattern of birth defects in a tertiary health facility in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Mkpe; Oloyede, Olufemi A; Bassey, Goddy; Kejeh, Benjamin M; Otaigbe, Barbara E; Opara, Peace I; Eneh, Austa U; Akani, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the prevalence and pattern of congenital abnormalities that are peculiar to the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. It involved data from the labor ward and neonatal birth registers of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital on the total number of births and the babies that were delivered with major birth defects between August 2011 and December 2014. We also conducted a statistical comparison of the prevalence of congenital abnormalities in the Niger Delta with that in other regions of Nigeria and the developed world of Europe. Results Out of the 7,670 deliveries that occurred, 159 maternities had babies with major birth defects giving a prevalence of 20.73 cases per 1,000 live births. This figure is far more than that which was obtained in other regions of Nigeria −4.15:cases per 1,000 live births in the South East (P51:1,000 in the North East (P<0.001). Eighty-five (53.46%) of the defects occurred in 1,681 unbooked patients, while 74 (46.54%) happened in 5,989 booked maternities (P<0.001). The predominant abnormalities were those of the central nervous system at 27.0%, gastrointestinal system 11.95%, cardiovascular system 10.69%, anterior abdominal wall 8.18%, skeleton 6.29%, and chromosomal abnormalities at 5.66%. Conclusion The prevalence of major birth defects at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital was 20.73 cases per 1,000 live births and it was more in the unbooked than the booked maternities. All body systems were affected with those of the central nervous system predominating at 27.0% of the total diagnosed defects.

  1. Assessment of student pharmacists' knowledge concerning folic acid and prevention of birth defects demonstrates a need for further education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sean M

    2002-03-01

    Adequate periconceptional consumption of folic acid can prevent neural tube birth defects, and all women capable of becoming pregnant are recommended to consume 400 microg/d. Most women, however, are unaware of this recommendation and do not consume adequate amounts of folic acid. It is important, therefore, that healthcare professionals, such as pharmacists, be capable of educating women regarding folic acid. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge regarding prevention of birth defects by folic acid among student (future) pharmacists in the final year of a professional degree program. Over a 3-y period (1998-2000), students (n = 98) enrolled in a PharmD program completed a survey consisting of five multiple-choice questions concerning folic acid and birth defects. Almost all students (93.9%) correctly identified folic acid as preventing birth defects. Of these students, many also knew that supplementation should begin before pregnancy (73.9%). Fewer, however, were able to correctly identify either the recommended level of intake (55.4%) or good sources of folic acid (57.6-65.2%). These results show that although student (future) pharmacists are aware of folic acid's ability to prevent birth defects, many lack the specific knowledge needed to effectively counsel women in future clinical practice.

  2. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  3. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  4. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J.; Brender, Jean D.; Romitti, Paul A.; Kantamneni, Jiji R.; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A.; Vuong, Ann M.; Langlois, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997–2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers’ overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS. PMID:25473985

  5. The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2 assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3 provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects. METHODS: We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ≥ 28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59, exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30, maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33, drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95, maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57, and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53. Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary

  6. Diabetes and obesity-related genes and the risk of neural tube defects in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Waller, D Kim; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-12-15

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999-2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy.

  7. A GCH1 haplotype and risk of neural tube defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Chapa, Claudia; Nousome, Darryl; Duhon, Cody; Canfield, Mark A; Shaw, Gary M; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-11-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) is an essential cofactor and an important cellular antioxidant. BH(4) deficiency has been associated with diseases whose etiologies stem from excessive oxidative stress. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of de novo BH(4) synthesis. A 3-SNP haplotype in GCH1 (rs8007267, rs3783641, and rs10483639) is known to modulate GCH1 gene expression levels and has been suggested as a major determinant of plasma BH(4) bioavailability. As plasma BH(4) bioavailability has been suggested as a mechanism of neural tube defect (NTD) teratogenesis, we evaluated the association between this GCH1 haplotype and the risk of NTDs. Samples were obtained from 760 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). The three SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan® SNP assays. An extension of the log-linear model was used to assess the association between NTDs and both offspring and maternal haplotypes. Offspring carrying two copies of haplotype C-T-C had a significantly increased NTD risk (risk ratio [RR]=3.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-11.50), after adjusting for the effect of the maternal haplotype. Additionally, mothers carrying two copies of haplotype C-T-C had a significantly increased risk of having an NTD-affected offspring (RR=3.46, 95% CI: 1.05-11.00), after adjusting for the effect of the offspring haplotype. These results suggest offspring and maternal variation in the GCH1 gene and altered BH(4) biosynthesis may contribute to NTD risk.

  8. Diabetes and Obesity-Related Genes and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J.; Canfield, Mark A.; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A. J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Shaw, Gary M.; Waller, D. Kim; Olshan, Andrew F.; Finnell, Richard H.; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999–2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. PMID:23132673

  9. Genomic Imbalances in Neonates With Birth Defects: High Detection Rates by Using Chromosomal Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Yan; Phung, Mai T.; Shaw, Chad A.; Pham, Kim; Neil, Sarah E.; Patel, Ankita; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lee Kang, Sung-Hae; Lalani, Seema; Chinault, A. Craig; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau W.; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our aim was to determine the frequency of genomic imbalances in neonates with birth defects by using targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, also known as chromosomal microarray analysis. METHODS Between March 2006 and September 2007, 638 neonates with various birth defects were referred for chromosomal microarray analysis. Three consecutive chromosomal microarray analysis versions were used: bacterial artificial chromosome-based versions V5 and V6 and bacterial artificial chromosome emulated oligonucleotide-based version V6 Oligo. Each version had targeted but increasingly extensive genomic coverage and interrogated >150 disease loci with enhanced coverage in genomic rearrangement-prone pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions. RESULTS Overall, 109 (17.1%) patients were identified with clinically significant abnormalities with detection rates of 13.7%, 16.6%, and 19.9% on V5, V6, and V6 Oligo, respectively. The majority of these abnormalities would not be defined by using karyotype analysis. The clinically significant detection rates by use of chromosomal microarray analysis for various clinical indications were 66.7% for “possible chromosomal abnormality” ± “others” (other clinical indications), 33.3% for ambiguous genitalia ± others, 27.1% for dysmorphic features + multiple congenital anomalies ± others, 24.6% for dysmorphic features ± others, 21.8% for congenital heart disease ± others, 17.9% for multiple congenital anomalies ± others, and 9.5% for the patients referred for others that were different from the groups defined. In all, 16 (2.5%) patients had chromosomal aneuploidies, and 81 (12.7%) patients had segmental aneusomies including common microdeletion or microduplication syndromes and other genomic disorders. Chromosomal mosaicism was found in 12 (1.9%) neonates. CONCLUSIONS Chromosomal microarray analysis is a valuable clinical diagnostic tool that allows precise and rapid identification of genomic imbalances

  10. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M;

    2015-01-01

    : This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins......BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS...

  11. Chemicals which cause birth defects--teratogens: a special concern of research chemists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, V.K.

    1983-12-15

    Women who are research chemists suffer an unusually high risk of being exposed to teratogenic chemicals (chemicals which cause birth defects) for the principal reason that they spend a good share of their lives in the laboratory in contact with wide variety of chemicals including new chemicals which may be unsuspected teratogens. Women research chemists therefore need to be able (a) to recognize known teratogens and (b) to predict teratogenicity of a compound that has not been tested. This article discusses these two points with an emphasis on the following topics: how to obtain information on teratogenicity of chemicals; how to interpret teratogenicity data from the literature; and how to make an educated guess about the teratogenicity of chemical compounds.

  12. 深圳市298031例围产儿出生缺陷监测流行病学特征%Epidemiological characteristic of birth defect of 298031 perinatal in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁蓉; 颜春荣; 龚林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the cause and risk factors of birth defect and to reduce birth defect through institute health care and disease prevents measures. Methods: The birth defect was measured in all perinatal, including live birth, stillbirth, induced abortion and neonatal death, in all Shenzhen hospital from 2008 to 2009 according to Shenzhen uniform surveillance scheme. Results: Among 289 031 births, the incidence of birth defect was 16. 52‰ (4 924/298 031), live deformity was 13. 84‰ (4 125/298 031) . The incidence of birth defect was 69.42‰ (3 418/4 924) in floating population . The incidence of birth defect was 20. 34‰ in lower knowledge level puerpera and 20.41%p in puerpera age > 35 group, which was much higher than other age groups, the difference was significant (P < 0.025) . The rate of birth defect in mature puerperal was 71.45% (3518/4924) . The incidence of birth defect in congenital heart disease and body check was 9.95‰ (2 967/298 031), which took 60.25% (2 967/4 924) in all kind of defect Defect birth liability took 83. 77% (4 125/4 924 ) . Conclusion: The rate of un - unitary body check is higher. The prenatal detection should be strengthen. It is key for prevent birth defect to popularization pregnant hearth care knowledge, develop hearth care service, elect right age to pregnancy.%目的:研究深圳市出生缺陷的发生状况及相关危险因素,为减少出生缺陷制定预防保健措施提供依据.方法:按深圳市统一的监测方案,对2008~ 2009年深圳市所有医院孕20周-产后7天分娩的围产儿(包括活产、死胎、死产、引产及产后7天内死亡)进行出生缺陷监测.结果:289 031例围产儿中出生缺陷发生率为16.52%(4 924/298 031),活产畸形率为13.84‰ (4 125/298 031),缺陷发生在流动人口中的比例为69.42%(3 418/4 924).产母文化程度低、年龄>35岁组发病率分别为20.34‰、20.41‰,高于其他年龄组,经检验P<0.025,差异有统计学意义.

  13. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS: COMPARISON OF GEOCODED AND NON-GEOCODED POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded residence at delivery will be used ...

  14. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  15. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  16. Combined effect of prenatal solvent exposure and GSTT1 or GSTM1 polymorphisms in the risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlantézec, Ronan; Chevrier, Cécile; Coiffec, Isabelle; Celebi, Catherine; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to solvents during pregnancy has long been suspected to increase the risk of congenital malformations. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes essential for the detoxification of various chemicals. Our objective here was to assess whether GST polymorphisms might modify the association between maternal solvent exposure and the risk of birth defects. A prospective cohort included 3421 pregnant women in Brittany, France (2002-2006). Occupational exposure to solvents was assessed from a job-exposure matrix. Congenital malformations were diagnosed among livebirths, stillbirths, and medical pregnancy terminations. Using a nested case-control design, 32 babies with major birth defects were compared to 348 normal births for babies' cord blood genotypes (at GSTT1 and GSTM1) and maternal occupational solvent exposure. Logistic models were used to adjust for potential confounders. The risk of major defects increased significantly in women with solvent exposure (20% of controls and 34% of cases). Frequencies of the null genotype of both the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes were similar among controls and cases. There was a significantly increased risk of birth defects in GSTM1 not-null cord-blood genotype in pregnancies exposed to solvents (odds ratio [OR], 1.0 for not-null, not-exposed; OR, 4.0 for not-null, exposed; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-11.2; OR, 1.6 for null, not-exposed; 95% CI, 0.6-3.9; OR, 1.0 for null, exposed; 95% CI, 0.2-4.7; p = 0.05). This nested case-control study suggests that the child's GSTM1 genotype modifies the risk of major birth defects among offspring of solvent-exposed women. Replication and additional investigations are necessary to confirm and elucidate these findings.

  17. 2001-2010年住院出生缺陷476例临床分析%Clinical analysis of birth defects in 476 cases of hospitalized children from 2001 to 2010.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝轲; 任榕娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compile the prevalence and factors of birth defects on hospitalized children of Pediatrics in our hospital from 2001 to 2010 and provide some examples for reducing birth defects. Methods Data of birth defects of all hospitalized children from January 1, 2001 to December 31,2010 were reviewed. Types of birth defects and prenatal exposure to risk factors were retrospectively analyzed. Results The prevalence rate of birth defects on hospitalized children over the past 10 years was 16.41 per 1000.The risk factors influencing the incidence of birth defects were the age of parturient under 20 and over 35 , preterm birth (birth less than 37 weeks after conception) ,sick in early pregnancy .taking medicine in early pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, current family history of congenital defect, but the prevalence rates were no significance between urban and suburb and between male and female.Congenital heart diseases were the most common types of birth defects. Conclusion The surveillance and intervention program of birth defects and tertiary preventions shall be performed to decrease preference of birth defects on perinatal fetuses.%目的 统计住院患儿出生缺陷的发生情况及影响因素,为有效预防出生缺陷提供借鉴.方法 收集2001-01-01-2010-12-31南京军区福州总医院儿科住院患儿29015例中发生出生缺陷的病例资料,对患儿出生缺陷构成状况、孕妇多种相关暴露因素进行回顾性分析.结果 10年间南京军区福州总医院儿科住院患儿出生缺陷发生率为16.41‰(476/29015).近4年(2007-2010年)与前6年(2001-2006年)出生缺陷发生率相比(25.24‰对8.83‰),呈明显增高且呈逐年增加趋势,差异有统计学意义(x2=26.30,P<0.05).产妇年龄<20岁和> 35岁、早产(胎龄<37周)、孕早期患病、孕早期用药、有自然流产史、有家族史为出生缺陷发生的危险因素,而城乡、不同性别间出生缺陷发生

  18. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  19. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  20. 闽东地区出生缺陷发展趋势及影响因素研究%Trends and affecting factors of birth defects in Mindong district, Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小远; 宋玮婷; 李华; 张凤珍; 林涛; 陈锋萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate 10 years trends of birth defects and explore potential affecting factors for the control of the diseases in future. Methods The 2001-2010 surveillance data of birth defects were collected from all hospitals in Ningde, Fujian. A special designed database was developed for the data collection. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software. Results Birth defect rate increased from 0. 55% to 1. 1% in 10 years (2001-2010). However, birth defects greater than 28 weeks pregnancy decreased in the same period of time. The most occurred birth defects were congenital heart diseases, cleft lip with and without cleft palate. Ear deformity increased gradually, while congenital hy-drocephalus decreased. In general, birth defects occurred more frequently in male babies than in female babies. Birth defects were associated with the age of mothers. High rates of birth defects were seen in the age groups of mothers between 20 and 25 years as well as over 35 years. Down syndrome and congenital heart diseases increased with the age of mothers. Conclusion Birth defect prevention and medical care in early pregnancy, prenatal screening and diagnosis are essential to decrease birth defects.%目的 为掌握闽东地区的出生缺陷发生的消长情况及影响出生缺陷的可疑因素,为制定干预措施提供依据,进行本研究.方法 按监测方案要求收集2001-2010年宁德市出生缺陷医院监测资料,按要求质量控制,统一统计标准录入SPSS软件建立数据库,进行统计分析.结果 2001-2010年宁德市总出生缺陷发生率呈现上升趋势,≥28周重大出生缺陷发生率呈现下降趋势;主要出生缺陷顺位变化:先天性心脏病升至第一位,总唇裂降至二、三位,外耳其他畸形排序渐升;总唇裂、小耳、先心、马蹄内翻足增高趋势,而先天性脑积水呈下降趋势;男性高于女性;孕母各年龄组之间差异显著,以20~岁组和35~岁组发生率为高;随年

  1. Inequalities in maternity care and newborn outcomes: one-year surveillance of births in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Neena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregate urban health statistics mask inequalities. We described maternity care in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai, and examined differences in care and outcomes between more and less deprived groups. Methods We collected information through a birth surveillance system covering a population of over 280 000 in 48 vulnerable slum localities. Resident women identified births in their own localities and mothers and families were interviewed at 6 weeks after delivery. We analysed data on 5687 births over one year to September 2006. Socioeconomic status was classified using quartiles of standardized asset scores. Results Women in higher socioeconomic quartile groups were less likely to have married and conceived in their teens (Odds ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.69–0.79, and 0.82, 0.78–0.87, respectively. There was a socioeconomic gradient away from public sector maternity care with increasing socioeconomic status (0.75, 0.70–0.79 for antenatal care and 0.66, 0.61–0.71 for institutional delivery. Women in the least poor group were five times less likely to deliver at home (0.17, 0.10–0.27 as women in the poorest group and about four times less likely to deliver in the public sector (0.27, 0.21–0.35. Rising socioeconomic status was associated with a lower prevalence of low birth weight (0.91, 0.85–0.97. Stillbirth rates did not vary, but neonatal mortality rates fell non-significantly as socioeconomic status increased (0.88, 0.71–1.08. Conclusion Analyses of this type have usually been applied across the population spectrum from richest to poorest, and we were struck by the regularly stepped picture of inequalities within the urban poor, a group that might inadvertently be considered relatively homogeneous. The poorest slum residents are more dependent upon public sector health care, but the regular progression towards the private sector raises questions about its quality and regulation. It also

  2. Low birth weight and zygosity status is associated with defective muscle glycogen and glycogen synthase regulation in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik;

    2007-01-01

    AND METHODS: We measured the activities of glycogen synthase (GS), GS kinase (GSK)3 alpha, GS phosphorylation, and glycogen levels in muscle biopsies obtained from 184 young and elderly twins before and after a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. RESULTS: Elderly monozygotic twins had significantly lower...... fractional GS activity amidst higher glycogen and GS protein levels compared with dizygotic twins. In addition, we demonstrated strong nongenetic associations between birth weight and defect muscle glycogen metabolism in elderly--but not in younger--twins. Thus, for every 100 g increase in birth weight...... within pairs, GS fractional activity, GS protein level, and glycogen content was increased by 4.2, 8.7, and 4.5%, respectively, in elderly twins. Similarly, for every 100 g increase in birth weight, GSK3 alpha activity and GS phosphorylation at the sites 2, 2+2a, and 3a+3b were decreased by 3.1, 9.0, 10...

  3. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  4. Research Progress of Factors Related to Birth Defect and Interventional Measures%出生缺陷相关因素的研究进展及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝轲

    2011-01-01

    Birth defect prevails worldwide as a heavy burden to the state, society and the family, and affects the quality of population and development of social civilization.It is a basic national policy to control and improve the quality of the population, whereas birth defect is an important factor which affects the quality of the population.In this paper,hereditary factors,environmental factors,drug factors,psychological factors of birth defect are described.The surveillance,tertiary prevention,government intervention,establishment of early warning systems and other research progress of interventional measures of birth defect are discussed,in aiming to improve the quality of the population and protect the population health.%出生缺陷在全世界占有相当高的比例,给国家、社会和家庭带来了沉重负担,影响到人口素质及社会文明的发展.控制人口数量,提高人口素质是我国的一项基本国策,而出生缺陷则是严重影响人口素质的一个重要因素.现从遗传因素、环境因素、药物因素、心理因素等方面阐述出生缺陷的相关因素,并从出生缺陷监测、三级预防、政府政策干预以及建立出生缺陷预警系统等方面探讨出生缺陷干预措施的研究进展,为提高人口素质,保护人群健康提供基础.

  5. Severe birth defects in children perinatal exposed to HIV from a “real-world” setting: Infectious Diseases National Institute, Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Tudor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The shift in epidemic trends in recent years in Romania shows new problems in regard of HIV vertical transmission, firstly in intravenous drug user's mothers co-infected with hepatitis viruses and with social problems, and secondly the children of young mothers with an old HIV infection and long antiretroviral therapy history. Materials and Methods: We studied all HIV perinatal exposed children routinely followed up in the Paediatric Department of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, since January 1st 2006 till December 31st 2012. The analyses consisted of describing the birth defects and association with certain risk factors: gender, mother's age at birth and exposure to antiretrovirals in the first trimester of pregnancy. Results: We analyzed 244 children born to HIV-infected mothers. The incidence of HIV infection was 16.39%. The rate of birth defects was 39.34% (96/244 cases. The most frequent findings were cardiac malformations (47/96, followed by musculoskeletal defects (24/96, neurologic defects (20/96, urogenital malformations (13/96, digestive tract defects (3/93, metabolic disorders (2/96 and genetic disorders (2/96. We found nine cases of severe congenital anomalies: complex heart defect, total congenital aganglionic megacolon, anal imperforation, Dandy-Walker syndrome, gangliosidosis, Niemann-Pick syndrome, Down syndrome, true hermaphroditism and cleft palate. Two children died during first year of life due to severe malformations. 9% of cases had associated malformations. The gender rate was in favour of males in group with birth defects (58/38 and with no birth defects (82/66. The median age at birth in mothers was 22 years, similar in both groups. The highest mean age at birth was in offspring's mothers with neurologic congenital defects 25, 15 years old, but is not statistically significant (p=0.1. In the studied period the highest number of birth defects were found in 2012, 37 children, compared with less

  6. Computational systems analysis of developmental toxicity: design, development and implementation of a Birth Defects Systems Manager (BDSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amar V; Knudsen, Kenneth B; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2005-01-01

    Birth defects and developmental disabilities remain an important public health issue worldwide. With the availability of genomic sequences from a growing number of human and model organisms and the rapid expansion of the public repositories holding large-scale gene expression datasets, a computational systems analysis of developmental toxicology can incorporate this vast digital information toward the realization of predictive models for complex disease. Here we describe the initial design, development and implementation of a Birth Defects Systems Manager (BDSM). The project was motivated by the need for a computational-bioinformatics infrastructure to manage vast digital information from functional genomics and for a new knowledge environment specifically engineered for the analysis of developmental processes and toxicities. Proof-of-concept tested BDSM using meta-analysis of gene expression data collected from different laboratories, technology platforms, and study models. The composite dataset incorporated 232 microarray comparisons of RNA samples by single or dual microarray platforms, cDNA or oligonucleotide based probes, and human or mouse sequence information. Preliminary results identified system-level features in the embryonic transcriptome as it reacted to various developmental-teratological stimuli. BDSM is open access through the worldwide web (http://systemsanalysis.louisville.edu/) and can be integrated with other bioinformatics tools and resources to advance the pace of discovery in birth defects research.

  7. The Brazilian Zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugola, Fernanda R; Fernandes, Isabella R; Russo, Fabiele B; Freitas, Beatriz C; Dias, João L M; Guimarães, Katia P; Benazzato, Cecília; Almeida, Nathalia; Pignatari, Graciela C; Romero, Sarah; Polonio, Carolina M; Cunha, Isabela; Freitas, Carla L; Brandão, Wesley N; Rossato, Cristiano; Andrade, David G; Faria, Daniele de P; Garcez, Alexandre T; Buchpigel, Carlos A; Braconi, Carla T; Mendes, Erica; Sall, Amadou A; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Muotri, Alysson R; Beltrão-Braga, Patricia C B

    2016-05-11

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was first described in 1947 in Uganda following blood analyses of sentinel Rhesus monkeys. Until the twentieth century, the African and Asian lineages of the virus did not cause meaningful infections in humans. However, in 2007, vectored by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, ZIKV caused the first noteworthy epidemic on the Yap Island in Micronesia. Patients experienced fever, skin rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. From 2013 to 2015, the Asian lineage of the virus caused further massive outbreaks in New Caledonia and French Polynesia. In 2013, ZIKV reached Brazil, later spreading to other countries in South and Central America. In Brazil, the virus has been linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly and other severe neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Despite clinical evidence, direct experimental proof showing that the Brazilian ZIKV (ZIKV(BR)) strain causes birth defects remains absent. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV(BR) infects fetuses, causing intrauterine growth restriction, including signs of microcephaly, in mice. Moreover, the virus infects human cortical progenitor cells, leading to an increase in cell death. We also report that the infection of human brain organoids results in a reduction of proliferative zones and disrupted cortical layers. These results indicate that ZIKV(BR) crosses the placenta and causes microcephaly by targeting cortical progenitor cells, inducing cell death by apoptosis and autophagy, and impairing neurodevelopment. Our data reinforce the growing body of evidence linking the ZIKV(BR) outbreak to the alarming number of cases of congenital brain malformations. Our model can be used to determine the efficiency of therapeutic approaches to counteracting the harmful impact of ZIKV(BR) in human neurodevelopment.

  8. Monitoring and analysis on birth defects in shanghai in 2009%2009年上海市出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧婷; 蔡任之; 杨青; 宋桂香

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence of birth defects and explore the related risk factors of birth defects in shanghai in 2009.Methods: The monitoring data of birth defects in hospitals of Shanghai in 2009 were collected, the intrauterine development of neonates with birth defects were understood, logistic regression analysis was used to analyze and explore the related risk factors of birth defects.Results: The incidence of birth defects in Shanghai in 2009 was 12.41‰, which was higher than those in former years; the incidence of congenital heart disease was the highest among various birth defects, the intrauterine development of neonates without birth defects was better than that of neonates with birth defects.Conclusion: In recent years, the incidence of birth defects increases, the phenomenon needs more attention, propaganda and education should be enhanced, and prenatal screening and prevention of birth defects should be strengthened too.%目的:分析上海市2009年新生儿出生缺陷的发生情况,探讨出生缺陷发生的相关危险因素.方法:收集2009年上海市接产医院出生监测数据,了解出生缺陷新生儿宫内发育情况,运用Logistic回归分析探索出生缺陷的相关危险因素.结果:上海市2009年出生缺陷的发生率为12.41‰,比历年有所升高,全市首位出生缺陷为先天性心脏病,无出牛缺陷新生儿宫内发育要优于有出生缺陷的新生儿.结论:近年来出生缺陷发生率的上升需要得到重视,应加强宣教,做好出生缺陷的产前筛查与预防.

  9. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas: Clinical Surveillance and Malignant Progression, Multifocality and Implications of a Field-Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Elaine Remotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs are a heterogeneous group of mucin producing cystic tumors that involve the main pancreatic duct and/or branch ducts and may be associated with invasive carcinoma. Predicting the risk of malignant transformation of an IPMN lesion can be challenging. The Sendai criteria, based in large part on radiographic imaging features, help guide surgical intervention based on the stratification of cysts into high and low risk lesions for malignancy. Invasive carcinoma may develop in the index IPMN lesion or in a separate site within the pancreas, supporting the concept of a field defect in IPMN tumorigenesis. This stresses the importance of evaluation of the entire pancreas upon diagnosis of IPMN and continued surveillance of the residual pancreas following resection. Herein, the authors summarize the data presented at the 2012 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium regarding prevalence and site of invasive carcinoma detected in patients undergoing surveillance for IPMN (Abstract #152.

  10. Research Progress on Environment Factors Leading to Birth Defects%导致出生缺陷的环境因素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晶

    2012-01-01

    Birth defects is the structural or functional abnormalities already existed before birth (which can be found in a lifetime years before or after birth) ,and its causes including genetic, environmental and both of joint action. Environmental factors have become threats to humanity even in the reproduction of the species. Nowadays .birth defects has become one of the hot topics. This review focuses on recent environmental factors on the impact of birth defects,and focus on the ultrasound and psychological factors associated with birth defects.%出生缺陷(birth defects)是指出生前已经存在(在出生前或出生后数年内可以发现)的结构或功能异常,其产生原因包括遗传、环境以及两者的共同作用.环境问题已经变成威胁人类生存甚至繁衍的一个重要问题.出生缺陷也已成为当今世界关注的热点课题之一.综述近年有关环境因素对出生缺陷影响的研究,并重点探讨超声波及心理因素与出生缺陷的相关性.

  11. Diverse ability of maternal immune stimulation to reduce birth defects in mice exposed to teratogens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubec, T C; Prater, M R; Mallela, M K; Gogal, R M; Guo, T L; Holladay, S D

    2012-06-01

    Stimulating the maternal immune system before or during pregnancy can dramatically improve morphologic outcome in mice that have been exposed to teratogens. For example, maternal immune stimulation in mice reduced craniofacial and palate defects, heart defects, digit and limb defects, tail malformations and neural tube defects caused by diverse teratogens that included chemical agents, hyperthermia, X-rays and diabetes mellitus. Several different procedures of immune stimulation were effective and included footpad injection with Freund's Complete Adjuvant, intraperitoneal (IP) injection with inert particles or attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, intrauterine injection with allogenic or xenogenic lymphocytes, or intravascular, intrauterine or IP injection with immunomodulatory cytokines. Limited information is available regarding mechanisms by which such immune stimulation reduces fetal dysmorphogenesis; however, cytokines of maternal origin have been suggested as effector molecules that act on the placenta or fetus to improve development. These collective data raise novel questions about the possibility of unrecognized maternal immune system regulatory activity in normal fetal development. This manuscript reviews the literature showing maternal immune protection against morphologic birth defects. Potential operating mechanisms are discussed, and the possibility is considered that a suppressed maternal immune system may negatively impact fetal development.

  12. Zika Babies May Look Normal At Birth, Display Brain Defects Later: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162159.html Zika Babies May Look Normal at Birth, Display Brain ... 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to the Zika virus in the womb can look normal at ...

  13. Prevalence of birth defects in the Tongzhou District of Beijing between 2006 and 2012%2006 ~ 2012年北京市通州区出生缺陷患病率的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁静茹; 金蕾; 肖利华; 靳蕾

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解北京市通州区2006~2012年出生缺陷患病率的变化趋势和流行特征,为出生缺陷预防提供参考依据。方法依据2006~2012年北京市通州区出生缺陷监测系统资料,对出生缺陷的患病率及变化趋势等进行统计学分析,同时计算出生缺陷产前检出比例。结果7年间共监测到活产儿92340例,出生缺陷儿1165例,患病率为12.62‰,呈上升趋势(χ2=6.77,P<0.01)。户籍人口的出生缺陷患病率(11.55‰)低于流动人口(13.27‰),前者无趋势性变化,后者呈上升趋势(χ2=25.02,P<0.01)。出生缺陷患病率前5位分别是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、唇腭裂、神经管缺陷、外耳畸形。先天性心脏病和“其他”类别的出生缺陷患病率呈上升趋势,而神经管缺陷患病率呈下降趋势。先天性心脏病产前检出比例逐年上升(χ2=14.80, P<0.01)。结论2006~2012年北京通州区出生缺陷患病率呈上升趋势,主要与流动人口出生缺陷率上升,监测出生缺陷类型不断扩展以及先天性心脏病诊断水平提高有关。%Objective To study the dynamic prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of birth defects distribution in the Tongzhou District of Beijing between 2006 and 2012. Methods Data collected from the birth defects surveillance system in the Tongzhou District of Beijing between 2006 and 2012 were used. The prevalence and trends of birth defects were analyzed, also the proportion of birth defects in prenatal diagnosis was calculated. Results Between 2006 and 2012, 1 165 cases of birth defects were identiifed among 92 340 births, with a prevalence of 12.62‰. The prevalence of birth defects showed an increased trend during the seven years (χ2=6.77, P<0.01). The prevalence in the lfowing population (13.27‰) was higher than that in the permanent residents (11.55‰), and the former showed an upward trend during the seven years (χ2

  14. The Nexus of Prematurity, Birth Defects, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Role for Plac1-Regulated Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Michael E.; Fuentes, Juan; Kong, Xiaoyuan; Jackman, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of birth defects and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among infants born prematurely suggesting they share common biological determinants. The identification of key regulatory pathways contributing to this nexus is essential to ongoing efforts to develop effective intervention strategies. Plac1 is a paternally imprinted and X-linked gene that conforms to this paradigm. Examination of a mutant mouse model has confirmed that Plac1 is essential for normal placental development and function. Moreover, it is expressed throughout the developing embryo indicating that it also has broad relevance to embryogenesis. Most notably, its absence in the developing embryo is associated with abnormal brain development and an increased risk of lethal, postnatal hydrocephalus identifying it as a novel, X-linked determinant of brain development. The essential and non-redundant roles of Plac1 in placental and neurological development represent a novel regulatory paradigm for embryonic growth and pregnancy maintenance. Regulatory pathways influenced, in part, by Plac1 are likely to contribute to the observed nexus of IUGR, prematurity, and birth defects. PMID:24600606

  15. Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal: 2012 follow-up survey and use of skilled birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu P. Choulagai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point. Design: We used a structured questionnaire to survey 3,505 households in the JD-HDSS, Bhaktapur, Nepal. To investigate the use of SBAs, we interviewed 434 women who had delivered a baby within the prior 2 years. We compared demographic and health indicators at baseline and follow-up and assessed the association of SBA services with background variables. Results: Due to rising in-migration, the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS increased (13,669 and 2,712 in 2010 vs. 16,918 and 3,505 in 2012. Self-reported morbidity decreased (11.1% vs. 7.1%, respectively, whereas accidents and injuries increased (2.9% vs. 6.5% of overall morbidity, respectively. At follow-up, the proportion of institutional delivery (93.1% exceeded the national average (36%. Women who accessed antenatal care and used transport (e.g. bus, taxi, motorcycle to reach a health facility were more likely to access institutional delivery. Conclusions: High in-migration increased the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban area where most health indicators exceed the national average. Major morbidity conditions (respiratory diseases, fever, gastrointestinal problems, and bone and joint problems remain unchanged. Further investigation of reasons for increased proportion of accidents and injuries are recommended for their timely prevention. More than 90% of our respondents received adequate antenatal care and used institutional delivery, but only 13

  16. Characteristics of rural birth defects and intervention strategies%农村出生缺陷特征及干预对策临床研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 杨妹; 陈娟文; 吴秋婵; 林怡

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨我市农村出生缺陷的临床特征,为临床制订干预措施提供科学依据。方法:对我市农村出生缺陷的发生率和特征进行临床分析,与城市出生缺陷进行比较。结果:我市农村出生缺陷发生率为73.51/万,城乡出生缺陷发生率有显著差异,农村出生缺陷发生率比城市高近一倍,(P均<0.005),农村出生缺陷前三位依次为消化系统畸形、四肢畸形和神经系统畸形,分别占出生缺陷的28.39%、24.15%和11.86%。结论:我市农村出生缺陷发生率还处于较高水平,而且神经系统出生缺陷比较突出,主要原因是农村育龄妇女对口服叶酸预防出生缺陷等措施不理解、不接受,思想认识还未真正提高;基层围产保健水平低。我市农村人口占80%以上,因此,在制定出生缺陷干预对策时,应将重点放在影响人力资源与人民生活质量的病种和农村上。%Goal To investigate the clinical characteristics of birth defects in our city, and to provide scientific basis for clinical intervention. Methods the incidence and characteristics of birth defects in rural areas were analyzed, and compared with the urban birth defects. Finally The city rural birth defect rate 73.51/, urban and rural birth defect rate has the remarkable difference, rural incidence of birth defects rate nearly one times higher than that of urban, respectively (P<0.005). The rural birth defects in the former three followed by digestive system malformations, limb deformities and nervous system malformation, respectively, accounting for birth defects of 28.39%and 24.15%and 11.86%. Discussion our city rural birth defects incidence is still at a higher level and nervous system of birth defects is more outstanding, main reason is rural women of childbearing age oral folic acid to prevent birth defects and other measures do not understand, do not accept and ideas have not really improve;primary Wai care

  17. Birth outcomes of cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities and pregnancy complications in their mothers depending on the number of component defects. Population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E; Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2008-09-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities (MCA) represent the most severe category of structural birth defects, (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CA]). Unfortunately, most MCA are not recognized and/or identified as MCA syndromes or MCA associations in the clinical practice. The term unclassified MCA (UMCA) is used for this category of MCA. We decided to evaluate the component CA of UMCA cases. The population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (1980-1996) was evaluated. 'False' MCA, such as complex CA, polytopic field defects and sequences were excluded from the category of MCA. In addition, MCA syndromes caused by chromosomal aberrations and major mutant genes with preconceptional origin were excluded from the dataset of the Surveillance. MCA syndromes caused by teratogens and MCA associations with well-defined component CA were also excluded in the study. Thus, only UMCA cases (i) without the recognition of previously delineated MCA syndromes (ii) and/or without the identification of new MCA syndromes or (iii) caused by random combination of CA were included in the study. We compared data from 1349 cases with UMCA, 2405 matched population controls without any CA, and 21 494 malformed controls with isolated CA. There was a higher rate of stillbirth and a moderate male excess in UMCA cases, a somewhat shorter gestational age at delivery and an obvious reduction in birthweight. The intrauterine fetal growth retardation and rate of low-birthweight newborns showed an association with the number of component CA in UMCA cases. A similar association was not found with gestational age and the rate of preterm birth. UMCA represent one of the most severe categories of CA. The degree of intrauterine fetal growth retardation depends on number of component CA in UMCA cases.

  18. Advances in prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis for birth defect%出生缺陷产前筛查及产前诊断研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清明; 周瑾

    2011-01-01

    出生缺陷已成为世界婴儿死亡、儿童和成人残疾的主要原因之一,是目前全世界关注的一个重大公共卫生问题.出生缺陷由遗传因素、环境致畸因素或两者共同作用所致.我国是出生缺陷高发国家,通过早期诊断、早期干预可以避免至少70%出生缺陷.出生缺陷干预是一个系统工程,产前筛查和产前诊断是胎儿出生缺陷干预的有效手段,是出生缺陷干预二级预防中的重要组成部分.%Birth defects has been one of main causes of infant mortality, children and adult disability, and are becoming main public heath problem worldwide. Birth defects are associated with environmental factors, genetic factors or interactions of the genetic factors and environmental factors. It is high rates of birth defects in China, at least 70% of the birth defects can be avoided of early diagnosis is determined and early interventions are performed. Intervention of birth defects is a system process, prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis are effective interventions, and they are the key components of the secondary prevention in birth defects control.

  19. What Every Chemist Should Know About Teratogens--Chemicals that Cause Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyler, Roger E.; Meyers, Vera Kolb

    1982-01-01

    Teratogens are agents which act during pregnancy producing physical/functional defects in the embryo, fetus, or offspring. Discusses teratogenic hazards in the workplace and academic environment, classes of teratogenic compounds, precautions for interpreting Teratogen List from Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), and how…

  20. Multivitamins, Folic Acid and Birth Defects: Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviors of Hispanic Women in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background: Consumption of folic acid prior to conception can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) issued a recommendation that all women of childbearing age capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 [mu]g of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for a NTD-affected…

  1. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  2. Analysis on the the monitoring results of birth defect in Zhanjiang%湛江市出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎文清; 杨妹; 陈娟文; 叶婉华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the status and epidemiologic characteristics of birth defect in Zhanjiang, seek a more effective intervention countermeasure to reduce birth defect.Methods: According to the nation birth defect monitoring network and registration reporting requirement of monitoring plan in Zhanjiang, the monitoring data of birth defect eases in 2009 were analyzed retrospectively, then the resuits were analyzed by statistical method.Results: In 2009, 335 infants with birth defect were born in Zhanjiang, the incidence of birth defeet was 65.45/ten thousand, which was lower than that of the entire province, achieved the goal of child development plan in Guangdong province (90/ten thousand) But after cancelling compulsion pre -marital physical examination in 2003, the incidence of birth defect increased year by year, compared with the incidence of birth defect in 2003, the incidence of birth defect in 2006 increased by nearly 1/2 (P <0.01 ), after "two summaries" intermediate stage appraisal in 2006, the incidence of birth defect decreased.Conclusion: Although the incidence of birth defect in Zhanjiang is lower than the average levels in the nation and the entire province, but the prevention and control work is still stern.The government and the entire society should move together and complete the third - level prevention earnestly, which may be the basic measures to reduce the occurrence of birth defect.%目的:探讨湛江市出生缺陷现状和流行病学特征,寻找降低出生缺陷更有效的干预对策.方法:根据全国出生缺陷监测网及湛江市监测方案的登记报告要求,对2009年出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析,结果采用统计学方法进行显著性检验.结果:2009年湛江市出生缺陷儿335例,出生缺陷发生率为65.45/万,较全省出生缺陷发生率低,达到广东省儿童发展规划的目标(90/万).但2003年湛江市取消强制婚检后,出生缺陷发生率逐年上升,2006

  3. Analysis of Selected Maternal Exposures and Non-Syndromic Atrioventricular Septal Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonali S.; Burns, Trudy L.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Lin, Angela E.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the descriptive epidemiology of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs), a group of serious congenital heart defects (CHDs), has been recently reported, non-genetic risk factors have not been consistently identified. Using data (1997–2005) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, an ongoing multisite population-based case–control study, the association between selected non-genetic factors and non-syndromic AVSDs was examined. Data on periconceptional exposures to such factors were collected by telephone interview from 187 mothers of AVSD case infants and 6,703 mothers of unaffected infants. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from logistic regression models. Mothers who reported cigarette smoking during the periconceptional period were more likely to have infants with AVSDs compared with non-smokers, independent of maternal age, periconceptional alcohol consumption, infant gestational age, family history of CHDs, and study site (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.4). The association was strongest in mothers who smoked more than 25 cigarettes/day. In addition, mothers with periconceptional passive smoke exposure were more likely to have infants with AVSDs than unexposed mothers, independent of maternal age, active periconceptional smoking, infant gestational age, and family history of CHDs (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.0). No associations were observed between AVSDs and maternal history of a urinary tract infection or pelvic inflammatory disease, maternal use of a wide variety of medications, maternal occupational exposure, parental drug use, or maternal alcohol consumption. If the results of this preliminary study can be replicated, minimizing maternal active and passive smoke exposure may decrease the incidence of AVSDs. PMID:22903798

  4. Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally Premature Birth in a Cohort of Couples with Documented Parental Exposure to Military Attacks: Observational Study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Manduca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents to weapons containing metal contaminants, during attacks in 2009. We detect, in significantly higher amounts than in normal babies, different specific teratogen or toxicant elements, known weapons’ components, characteristic for each of birth defect or premature babies. This is the first attempt to our knowledge to directly link a phenotype at birth with the in utero presence of specific teratogen and/or toxicant metals in a cohort with known episodes of acute exposure of parents to environmental contamination by these same metals, in this case delivered by weaponry The babies were conceived 20–25 months after the major known parental exposure; the specific link of newborn phenotypes to war-remnant metal contaminants, suggests that mothers’ contamination persists in time, and that the exposure may have a long term effect.

  5. 10年围产儿出生缺陷调查研究%Investigation and analysis of perinatal birth defects during 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管淑彩; 李敏; 刘青

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨出生缺陷的状况及其影响因素,为降低出生缺陷干预措施的制定提供依据.方法 回顾性监测分析我院2001年1月至2010年12月10年间分娩的围产儿出生缺陷状况.结果 10年监测17 365例围产儿,其中出生缺陷儿205例,平均出生缺陷发生率为11.81‰,总体出生缺陷的年度发生率间无显著性差异(χ2=4.303,P=0.890>0.05),但2006年至2010年与2001年至2005年相比,神经管畸形的构成比明显下降(17.09%vs29.55%,χ2=4.474,P=0.034 0.05 ). But compared with the period of 2001-2005, the constituent ratio of neural tube defect at the period of 2006-2010 decreased significantly ( 17.09% vs 29. 55% ,χ2 = 4. 474,P = 0.034 <0.05,OR =0. 492 ). The first 5 types of birth defect were neural tube defect, polysyndactyly, cheilopalatognathus, urinary tract defect and congenital cardiopathy in turn, and the incidence rates of them were 2. 66 , 2.49 , 1. 22 , 1. 10 and 0. 98 , respectively. The sum of incidence of the first three types occupied 52. 69% of overall birth defect rate. The age of puerperants (x = 14. 946,P =0.000 <0. 05,OR = 1.712 ) and the gender of perinatal infants (χ2 = 6.488 ,P = 0. 011 <0. 05, OR = 1.440 ) were closely related with birth defect. There were 52. 20% of birth defect diagnosed before birth, and B-ultrasound was the main method for diagnosing ( 57. 07% ). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defect in the area needs to be cut down, especially the types of neural tube defects, polysyndactyly and cheilopalatognathus. Low-dose of folic acid has significant effect in preventing neural tube defects.

  6. The Heart-Placenta Axis in the First Month of Pregnancy: Induction and Prevention of Cardiovascular Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti K. Linask

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapolating from animal studies to human pregnancy, our studies showed that folate (FA deficiency as well as one-time exposure to environmental factors in the first two to three weeks of human gestation can result in severe congenital heart defects (CHDs. Considering that approximately 49% of pregnancies are unplanned, this period of pregnancy can be considered high-risk for cardiac, as well as for neural, birth defects, as the woman usually is not aware of her pregnancy and may not yet be taking precautionary actions to protect the developing embryo. Using avian and mouse vertebrate models, we demonstrated that FA supplementation prevents CHD induced by alcohol, lithium, or elevation of the metabolite homocysteine, a marker for FA deficiency. All three factors affected the important Wnt signaling pathway by suppressing Wnt-mediated gene expression in the heart fields, resulting in a delay of cardiomyocyte migration, cardiomyogenesis, and CHD. Optimal protection of cardiogenesis was observed to occur with FA supplementation provided upon morning after conception and at higher doses than the presently available in prenatal vitamin supplementation. Our studies demonstrate pathways and cell processes that are involved with protection of one-carbon metabolism during heart development.

  7. Final results from the Betaseron (interferon β-1b) Pregnancy Registry: a prospective observational study of birth defects and pregnancy-related adverse events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P K; Sinclair, S M; Scheuerle, A E; Thorp, J M; Albano, J D; Rametta, M J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Women with multiple sclerosis are often diagnosed and treated during their reproductive years. Limited data are available on the safety of treatment during pregnancy. The Betaseron Pregnancy Registry prospectively monitored women exposed to interferon β-1b (IFNβ-1b) during pregnancy to estimate the rates of birth defects, spontaneous abortions (SABs) and other negative outcomes in this population. Design From 2006 to 2011, this observational registry enrolled women exposed prior to conception or during pregnancy (but prior to or without abnormalities on prenatal screening). Follow-up continued from enrolment through the 4-month paediatric visit. Setting Patients in the USA who met these criteria were enrolled in the registry. Results The registry enrolled 99 pregnant women; 3 were lost to follow-up. The earliest exposure to IFNβ-1b occurred during the first trimester for 95 pregnancies and in the third trimester for 1 pregnancy. There were 99 birth outcomes (3 twins), including 86 (86.9%) live births, 11 (11.1%) SABs and 2 (2%) stillbirths. Birth defects were reported in five (5.1%) cases. Rates of birth defects and SAB were not significantly different from population comparators. No developmental concerns were identified at the 4-month paediatric visit. Conclusions The small sample size limits the ability to draw definitive conclusions; however, there was no pattern to suggest increased negative outcomes with IFNβ-1b. Clinical trials registration number NCT00317564. PMID:24821713

  8. RELIANCE ON GEOCODED MATERNAL RESIDENCE: IMPACT ON A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing population-based case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded res...

  9. Birth Defects Among Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Protocols 219 and 219C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogly, Susan B.; Abzug, Mark J.; Watts, D. Heather; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Williams, Paige L.; Oleske, James; Conway, Daniel; Sperling, Rhoda S.; Spiegel, Hans; Van Dyke, Russell B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Some studies have detected associations between in utero antiretroviral therapy (ARV) exposure and birth defects but evidence is inconclusive. Methods: A total of 2202 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219 and 219 C p

  10. 梧州地区1529例出生缺陷儿监测分析%A monitoring analysis in 1529 birth-defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施国栋; 陈永予

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To comprehend birth-defect condition and disposition in wuzhou city; to provid evidence and strategy that obviate and interfere birth-defect; Methods: we collect data of birth-defect of wuzhou city in 2001 ~2006 year. Result: we find 1529 birth-defect in six year. average birth-defect rate is 17.41‰; birth-defect: Schridde syndrome (3. 17‰) , cheilognathus and cleft palat (1.61‰), eqninovarus (1.51‰), hyperdactylia (1.46‰), limb shortening (1.31‰), ankylodactylia (1.21‰), congenital hydrocephalus (1.01‰), cbeilognathus (0.91‰), anencephaly (0. 55%0), hypospadia (0.40‰). Conclusions: birth-defect rate of wuzhou city is decrease year by year in 2001 ~ 2006 year; it is emphasis that health information, medical examination of before marriage,, antepartum Screen, antenatal diagnosis were pervasion.%目的 了解梧州市出生缺陷发生情况及分布特征,为出生缺陷的预防和干预提供依据和对策.方法 收集梧州市2001~2006年出生缺陷资料,对资料进行分析.结果 6年间共发现出生缺陷儿1529例,平均出生缺陷率为17.41‰,2006年前10位出生缺陷为:胎儿水肿综合征(3.17‰),唇裂合并腭裂(1.61‰),马蹄内翻足(1.51‰),多指(1.46‰),肢体短缩(1.31‰),并指(1.21‰),先天性脑积水(1.01‰),唇裂(0.91%O),无脑畸形(0.55‰),尿道下裂(0.40‰).结论 梧州市2001~2006年出生缺陷发生率呈逐年下降趋势,因此应继续加强卫生知识宣教和婚前医学检查、产前筛查及产前诊断,以预防和减少出生缺陷的发生.

  11. 基因组学在预防出生缺陷中的应用%Application of Genomic Technologies in the Prevention of Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建军; 方锴; 杨焕明

    2013-01-01

    China is a country suffering from high rate, 5.6%, of birth defects. Birth defects as one of the most commom causes of infant death, has risen to the second cause of infant death in 2011 from the fourth in 2000. In 2011, 19.1%infant deaths were from birth defects. Genetic factor is one of the most important factors of birth defects. With the rapid development of genomics research and genetic testing platform, the genetic testing has been more widely used in the prevention of birth defects. In this paper, we discuss the application of genomic technologies, as well as its importance, in the prevention of birth defects as for the three levels′ system of birth defects prevention.%中国是出生缺陷的高发国,出生缺陷总发生率约为5.6%,出生缺陷在全国婴儿死因中的构成比顺位由2000年的第4位上升至2011年的第2位,达到19.1%。遗传因素是出生缺陷发生的一个重要原因,随着基因组学的研究进展以及基因检测平台的高速发展,使得基因检测在常见的染色体异常、新生儿代谢性疾病及单基因病等出生缺陷预防中的应用越来越广泛。以出生缺陷的三级预防体系为基础,探讨基因组学在其体系中的应用对完善中国出生缺陷的预防工作是非常重要的。

  12. 306例出生缺陷患儿追踪结局分析%Analysis of the outcome of 306 children born with birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 彭振耀; 刘凯波; 潘迎

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解活产出生缺陷患儿的结局.方法 对306例2007年7月~2008年9月分娩且家长均居住在北京市海淀区的306例活产出生缺陷患儿,分娩6~8个月时通过电话调查方式询问出生缺陷惠儿家长.结果 306例出生缺陷种类主要为先天性心脏病、多指/趾、除小耳和无耳的外耳畸形、睾丸未降、尿道下裂,占调查总数的75.16%o出生缺陷患儿分娩后6~8个月时的追踪结局主要包括:死亡15例(占4.90%),到医院复诊过至少1次的208例(占67.97%),未到医院复查的76例(占27.13%),家长拒绝承认孩子有出生缺陷的7例(占2.29%).结论 先天性心脏病仍然是影响婴儿死亡和健康的最主要的出生缺陷;应提高出生缺陷的筛查、诊断水平,明确出生缺陷诊断标准;加强医生与出生缺陷患儿家长的沟通.%Objective: To describe the outcome of children born with birth defects. Methods: Between July 2007 and September 2008, 306 live bom cases of birth defects were diagnosed and registered by the Beijing Birth Defects Monitoring network-a hospital based birth defects registry system. Their parents were called to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 6 - 8 months. Results: The major birth defects types were congenital heart defects, polydactyly, congenital malformations of ear excluding absence of ear, undescended testicle, hypospadias, the total proportions of all was 75. 16%. The proportions of all live born infants with birth defects , died at the end of the 6-8 months, having been to the hospital once at least, not having been to the hospital, not acknowledging the fact of infants' birth defects were 4. 90% , 67. 97% , 27. 13% , and 2. 29% respectively. Conclusions; Congenital heart disease make an important contribution to infant mortality and health. The level of screening and diagnosis of birth defects should be improved. The relationship of physician and parents of children bom with birth defects should

  13. Analysis of perinatal birth defects monitoring results in Gansu province from 2001 to 2008%甘肃省2001年~2008年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁秀琴; 郭瑛泉; 张玲; 廖丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the trend of birth defects incidence, species and changes in Gansu province, in order to provide evidence for preventive measure.Methods: According to Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Program and Maternal and child health surveillance program in Gansu Province, to monitor perinatal birth in 43 hospitals in Gansu province from 2001 to 2008.Results:( 1 ) In 8 years, the birth defects average incidence is 11.043 per thousand, its trend began go up in 2004, but there is no statistical difference between every years.(2) And the birth defects average incidence no statistical difference between boys and girls ( P >0.05 ); The pregnant motheres age distribution characterized with "two side high and middle low", the lowest incidence (5.9 -9.7 per thousand ) is at 25 - 29 years age group, higher in country than in city ( P < 0.05 ).( 3 ) In 8 years, most common birth defects were neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus, cleftlip, talipes equinovarus, limb shorten, polydactyly and congenital heart disease.Neural tube defects and congenital hydrocephalus were always in first there birth defects in Gansu province.Conclusion: Neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus, cleftlip are high incidence in all birth defects, which are result of genetic or environmental factors, or interaction of both.Prevention is preior to therapy.Aiming at high detection rate of birth defects, to establish effective administrative intervention and medical care meature.%目的 探讨甘肃省出生缺陷的发生率、种类及变化趋势,为预防措施的制定提供依据.方法 按<中国出生缺陷监测方案>及<甘肃省妇幼卫生监测方案>,对甘肃省2001年~2008年间在43家监测医院住院分娩的围产儿进行监测.结果 (1)8年间的出生缺陷发生率平均为110.43/万,2004年起有明显上升趋势,各年份间出生缺陷发生率无显著的统计学差异.(2)胎儿性别间出生缺陷发生率

  14. 如皋市出生缺陷病因与死亡原因分析%Analysis of the causes of birth defects and death in Rugao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕; 顾建明; 陆平; 黄文美; 李鸿斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the causes of birth defects and death at present .Methods The data of birth defects from 2007 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed and periodically compared .Results The incidence rate of birth defects was 6.04‰from 2007 to 2012, and the average annual decline rate was 0.21‰.The top ten causes of birth defects were cleft lip and cleft palate , polydactyly and syndactyly , congenital malformations of cardiac septa , talipes equinovarus , congenital stenosis and atresia of the colon , congenital absence atresia and stricture of (external) auditory canal, microtia, congenital hydrocephalus, hypospadias, and bifid spine.They accounted for 79.14% of the total number of birth defects , and the surface defects of musculoskeletal system and digestive system were the majority .The top ten causes of death of birth defects were congenital malformations of cardiac septa , cleft lip and cleft palate , other congenital malformations of heart, congenital hydrocephalus , congenital stenosis and atresia of the colon , other shortage deformities of brain , congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital hydronephrosis , gastroschisis, and spina bifida.They accounted for 76.58% of death cases of birth defects and 20.38%of birth defects.Among them diseases of circulatory system and nervous system were the majority .The perinatal mortality rate of birth defects was 1.45‰,and the infant mortality rate of birth defects was 0.74‰.Folic acid supplementary items could not reduce the incidence of neural tube malformation in Rugao obviously (χ2 =0.21,P>0.05).The incidence of birth defects in boys was higher than girls(χ2 =6.12,P<0.05), and that of maternal age ≥30 was higher(χ2 =6.87,P<0.05).Conclusion Increased incidence of birth defects has been corrected , and comprehensive intervention measures play a role .It is suggested that the monitor of birth defects in nervous system and circulatory system should be promoted to explore the relationship between the

  15. Analysis on monitoring results of 554 cases with birth defects%554例出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩练

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To understand the prevalence, change trend and related factors of birth defects in liuyang city, provide a basis for making intervening measures. Methods; According to the requirements of brochure of birth defect monitoring of Chinese, the fetuses and infants whose mothers lived in 37 villages, towns and streets (including natives or those who had lived in Liuyang city for more than one year) were monitored from October first, 2006, the monitoring time was from 28 gestational weeks to 42 days after birth. Results; The incidence of birth defects was 108.70 per ten thousand, the incidence of birth defects in rural areas was 114. 28 per ten thousand, which was significantly higher than that in urban areas (64. 58 per ten thousand) (X2 = 11. 68, P < 0.01) . The mortality of perinatal infants was 7.93%0, the mortality of perinatal infants with birth defects was 3. 55%0, accounting for 44. 80% , birth defect was a main cause of perinatal death. The top five birth defects were accessory auricle, polydactyly, congenital heart disease, cleft lip with or without cleft palate and talipes equinovarus. Conclusion: Health education should be carried out widely among the population of childbearing age, supplement of folic acid should be popularized, health care before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy should be enhanced, the factors inducing birth defects should be avoided, consultation about prepotency, prenatal examination and prenatal diagnosis should be conducted, all the a-bove - mentioned measures are effective to reduce the occurrence of birth defects.%目的:了解浏阳市出生缺陷的发生状况、变化趋势及相关因素,为制定干预措施提供依据。方法:按照《中国人群出生缺陷监测手册》要求,从2006年10月1日起对居住在浏阳市37个乡、镇、街道产妇(包括本地户口及非本地户口在浏阳市居住1年以上的产妇)的胎婴儿进行人群监测,监测期限为孕满28周~产后42天

  16. Prevalence Study of Birth Defects in the City of Panzhihua%攀枝花市出生缺陷的现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永莲; 张方芳; 唐俊; 罗汝琼; 伍文霞; 张光艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop the prevention of birth defects and improve the quality of births from the prehension of the incidence, distribution characteristics, influencing factors and causes of birth defect, and institute implementation. Methods: Babies born between October 1st 2008 and September 30th 2011 were recorded according to the city monitoring program of birth defect. Results: There are totally 30 111 perinatal babies are observed and diagnosed. 381 babies with over twenty-eight weeks old were found birth defect. The rate of birth defect was 12.65 per thousand. To make a comparison between male and female, the difference have significant. Male incidence was statistical higher than female incidence (x2=ll.49,P〈0.01). There was no differences on birth defects mothers in all age groups. The main birth defect were cleft lips, ear deformity and multi finger toe in Panzhihua. Conclusion: The rate of birth defect decreased in near three years in Panzhihua. The keys of reduction lied in completely intervention measures on birth defects, three Prevention measures and enhanced health care during pregnancy.%目的:掌握攀枝花市出生缺陷发生率,了解出生缺陷分布特征、影响因素、发生原因等,制定预防出生缺陷实施方案,提高出生人口素质。方法:按照“攀枝花市出生缺陷监测方案”的要求,在攀枝花市所有出生缺陷监测单位对2008年10月1日至2011年9月30日出生的围产儿进行监测。结果:共监测30111例围产儿,胎龄28周以上出生缺陷381例,出生缺陷发生率为126.5/万;男性出生缺陷发生率高于女性,差异具有统计学意义(x2=11.49,P〈0.01);出生缺陷儿母亲各年龄组间差异无统计学意义。攀枝花市出生缺陷主要为总唇裂、多指(趾)、外耳畸形等。结论:攀枝花市三年来出生缺陷发生率呈下降趋势;全面实施出生缺陷干预措施,认真落实“三级预防”措施、

  17. Study on Birth Defect Intervention and Standardization Mode%出生缺陷干预及规范化模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁文强; 幸惠云

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study and explore the intervention of birth defects on the effect of themarried couples, in order to reduce the birth rate of birth defects, improve the comprehensive quality of the birth population reference.Method: 12 000 married couples in our region from June 2011 to May 2014 were selected as the research objects, and they were given birth defect intervention on its three. The first level intervention was to prevent the birth of children with birth defects, secondary interventions was to reduce the incidence of birth defects, three intervention was to treat children of birth defects. Interventions focus was on primary intervention to prevent birth defects in children born.District,town,village three level of division of labor,cooperation, for marriedcouples of childbearing age premarital examination,free eugenics propaganda and education,pre pregnancy virus and genetic disease detection, pre pregnancy and early pregnancytaking free pregnancy B ultrasound examination,Fu Shi Fu,regular follow-up.Result:Premarital education to carry out rate,pre-marital medical examination rate,pregnancy B-examination and regular follow-up of the number of persons in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013,2012 and 2011(P<0.05).Early pregnancy rates of four viruses tested positive for the virus (rubella virus,herpes virus, Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus), a genetic disease before pregnancy rate (thalassemia,G6PD deficiency) in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013, 2012 and 2011(P<0.05).And the number of women in early pregnancy taking Forceval was significantly higher than that of 2013,2012 and 2011.The birth defect rate in 2014 was significantly lower than that in 2013,2012,2011(P<0.05), the intensity was positively correlated with the level of intervention.Conclusion:For married women of childbearing age of birth defect intervention, especially the level of intervention, to the birth of children with birth defects play a preventive role

  18. 出生缺陷儿母亲心理健康状况调查研究%An investigation on psychological status of maternal of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄广文; 杜其云; 刘智昱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the psychological status of mother of birth defects so as to explore effective intervention strategy. Methods 595 maternal of birth defects and 1 249 maternal of no birth defects were included in the case-control study. General data questionnaire and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were filled out by mother with or without birth defects. Results Scores of Somatization, Obsessive Symptom, Personal relations, Depression, Anxiety, Hostility, Terror, Paranoid ideal, Psychoticism of SCL-90 factors of mother of birth defects were significantly higher than that of mother without birth defects (both P0.05), scores of Terror factor among different age of mother of birth defects was significantly different (P0.05). Conclusions The psychological status of mother of birth defects are at low-level, we should pay more attention to interview with mother of birth defects.%目的 探讨出生缺陷儿母亲心理健康状况,为制定干预措施提供依据.方法 采用一般情况调查问卷及症状自评量表(SCL-90)对595例出生缺陷儿母亲及1 249例出生正常儿母亲进行调查评定.结果 SCL-90的9个因子中,出生缺陷儿母亲躯体化、强迫症状、人际关系、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、偏执、精神病性因子分均明显高于出生正常儿母亲(均有P<0.01).出生缺陷儿母亲不同受教育程度之间SCL-90因子分比较差异均有统计学意义(均有P<0.05);不同职业之间SCL-90因子分比较,差异无统计学意义(均有P>0.05);不同年龄段之间SCL-90恐怖因子分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).城镇与农村出生缺陷儿母亲SCL-90因子分比较,差异无统计学意义(均有P>0.05).结论 出生缺陷儿母亲心理健康水平低,应加强出生缺陷儿母亲心理干预.

  19. Rational Reflections about Euthanasia of Newborn with Birth Defect%对缺陷新生儿安乐死问题的理性思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is semi-open and hidden euthanasia of newborn with birth defects. Due to great family burden, social tolerance and the incomplete relevant legislation of birth defect, this phenomenon has existed for a long time. In order to avoid abuse, disordered and protect the interests of non-serious defects newborn, this article suggests that it should develop regulations as an important component of the birth defect intervention legislation.%分析目前我国存在着的半公开的、隐蔽的缺陷新生儿安乐死行为,因家庭负担、社会宽容态度和相关法律不完善致使该现象长期存在.当务之急是制定缺陷新生儿处置法规并将其作为整个出生缺陷干预立法的重要组成部分,以此来避免缺陷新生儿安乐死行为的滥用和无序,保障成千上万非严重缺陷新生儿的生命权益.

  20. A rapid evolution mechanism may contribute to changes in sex ratio, multiple birth incidence, frequency of auto-immune disease and frequency of birth defects in Clomid conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K

    1990-01-01

    Under conditions favourable to the horizontal transmission of genetic material, a clomiphene isomer is hypothesized to encourage an alternate ovulatory route, with consequence for the sex ratio, multiple birth incidence, incidence of auto-immune disease, and frequency of malformations.

  1. Detection results of birth defects in 5,281 perinatal infants%5281例围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕玲; 黄惠萍; 卢伟棉

    2013-01-01

    目的 降低出生缺陷率,提高人口素质.方法 对2008年10月1日至2010年9月30日于本院分娩的5281例围产儿出生缺陷情况及其相关危险因素进行统计、分析,为开展出生缺陷的预防和干预提供依据.结果 3年来围产儿出生缺陷率平均为16.10‰,呈逐年上升趋势.先天性心脏病以及四肢骨骼肌肉系统缺陷为最常见的出生缺陷,分列1、2位.孕母年龄对围产儿出生缺陷有重要影响,>35岁组出生缺陷率明显高于其他各年龄组.出生缺陷的性别、产母居住地城乡差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 加强孕前、孕早期预防以及产前诊断,可减少出生缺陷的发生;需进一步加强胎儿心血管系统、四肢等超声产前检查;高龄孕妇孕中期应常规行产前诊断.%Objective To reduce the rate of birth defects and improve the quality of population.Methods Birth defects and its related risk factors were statistically analyzed in 5,281 perinatal infants who had been born in our hospital during the period of October 1,2008 to September 30,2010 so as to provide support for the prevention and intervention of birth defects.Results The rate of birth defects was 16.10 per thousand in the recent three years,with an increasing trend year by year.Congenital heart disease and defects of extremities musculoskeletal system were the most common birth defects,ranking the first and second place.Maternal age had an important impact on birth defects.Pregnant women aged >35 had a significantly higher rate of birth defects than those with different ages.No significant differences in sexes and both urban and rural areas were found.Conclusions Intensified prevention before pregnancy and in early pregnancy and strengthened prenatal diagnosis can reduce the incidence of birth defects.Prenatal ultrasonic examination for fetal cardiovascular system and limbs needs to be further strengthened.The women of advanced maternal age should receive routine

  2. 2008-2010年围产期出生缺陷分析%2008-2010 years perinatal birth defect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景丽丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective: in order to know the QingShanOu incidence of birth defects, this paper discusses the related factors birth defects happen for formulating and take measures to provide the basis. Methods: according to the national birth defects monitoring scheme, at the request of (2008-2010) on October 1, 2007-October 31, 2010 QingShanOu 5 home delivery hospital inpatient delivery at full and thoughtful within 7 days after perinatal infants dead for monitoring. Results: three years were monitoring perinatal infants dead 11 850 cases, birth defects in 104 cases, de- fect rate of 8.8%, which was born in 2008 to 3.6 per 2009, defects in 10.1%~, in 2010 to 13.2 per thousand. Birth defects increasing year by year, the top five birth defects is as follows: (1) the outer ear malformation; (2) by and means; Cleft palate (3); (4) foot deformity; (5) head facial deformity. Mother from air pollution in the area close to significantly higher than the far from air pollution area, mother of low degree of culture birth defects son is obviously higher than that of the culture degree is high. The occurrence of the birth defects and gender no phase relationship. Conclusion: to widely develop health education, general knowledge level of eugenic and superior nurture, strengthen the examination before marriage, prenatal care and prenatal diagnosis work.%目的:了解青山区出生缺陷发生率,探讨出生缺陷发生的相关因素,为制定和采取预防干预措施提供依据。方法:按照全国出生缺陷监测方案的要求,对(2008-2010年)2007年10月1日-2010年10月31日青山区5家分娩医院住院分娩的孕满28周到产后7天内围产儿进行监测。结果:3年共监测围产儿11850例,出生缺陷儿104例,缺陷发生率为8.8%,其中2008年出生缺陷率为3.6%。、2009年为10.1%。、2010年为13.2%。。出生缺陷呈逐年上升趋势,前5位出生缺陷依次为:①外耳畸

  3. 武汉市出生缺陷相关因素分析%Analysis on the related factors of birth defect in Wuhan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 杨蓉; 刘明珠; 刘艳; 胡荣华; 杜玉开

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To understand the current situation of birth defect in Wuhan city from 2008 to 2010, explore the related effect factors of birth defect, provide a basis for further study. Methods; The data of birth defect were collected from 11 obstetrical institutions in Wuhan, 933 infants with birth defect were selected as case group, 933 lying - in women who gave birth to normal neonates from 2008 to 2010 were selected from Wuhan MCH information system as control group, the related data were obtained according to report cards of birth defect and MCH information system, then statistical analysis was performed. Results; The incidence of birth defect in Wuhan city from 2008 to 2010 was 17.77% , the incidence of birth defect in remote urban area was significantly higher than that in central urban area ( P <0.01); the incidence of birth defect among the lying - in women less than 25 years, equal to and more than 35 years were significantly higher than that among the lying - in women aged 25 ~35 years old (P <0.01) ; 11 factors, such as gravida, fetal gender, being ill during the first trimester of pregnancy, were used as independent variables for logistic regression analysis, the result showed that permanent address during pregnancy, being ill during the first trimester of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion history were included into the modeL Living in remote urban area, viral infection and hyperemesis gravidarum during the first trimester of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion history ( more than two times) increased the risk of birth defect. Conclusion; Primary prevention of birth defect should be paid more attention to, large - scale case - control study based on population should be carried out, and the epidemiological factors of birth defect should be understood, in order to a-dopt corresponding interventional measures and reduce the occurrence of birth defect.%目的:了解2008~2010年武汉市出生缺陷发生的情况,弄清对出生缺陷发生有影响的相关

  4. Epidemiologic characteristics of birth defects in Shaanxi province in 2010%陕西省2010年出生缺陷流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小琴; 李盘; 周晓娟; 杨杨

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解陕西省目前的出生缺陷发生水平及流行特征,为进一步探讨影响该省出生缺陷发生的危险因素提供科学依据. [方法]按照中国出生缺陷监测方案,对2010年度陕西省25家监测医院出生的孕28周至生后7d所有围产儿进行出生缺陷监测,采用Excel 2003软件进行数据录入,SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析. [结果]2010年陕西省医院监测的出生缺陷发生率为124.1/万,前五位出生缺陷依次为:先天性心脏病(16.4/万)、总唇裂(13.3/万)、神经管缺陷(13.1/万)、多指(趾)(11.3/万)、脑积水(5.1/万).农村的出生缺陷发生率高于城镇(x2=8.58,P<0.01).出生缺陷发生率无性别分布差异.母亲年龄≥35岁的缺陷发生率最高(170.5/万).双胎及以上的围产儿缺陷发生率明显高于单胎儿. [结论]陕西省2010年出生缺陷发生率低于全国同期水平,该省出生缺陷的分布具有明显的城乡、母亲年龄及胎数差异.政府部门应重视神经管缺陷在农村地区的一级预防工作,并针对高龄及多胎妊娠产妇采取有效预防措施.%[Objective] To investigate the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of birth defects in Shaanxi province, and then to provide scientific evidences for exploring risk factors further. (Methods] According to "The Birth Defects Monitoring Program of China", all perinatal infants aged from 28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth in 25 monitoring hospitals in Shaanxi province in 2010 were monitored for birth defects, the data were entered by Excel 2003 and analyzed by SPSS 13. 0 software. [Results] The incidence of birth defects in Shaanxi province in 2010 was 124. 1/104 .The top five main birth defects were congenital heart diseases, total cleft lip, neural tube defects, polydactyly,congenital hydrocephalus, respectively,The incidence of birth defects in rural areas was significantly higher than that in urban areas (xz = 8. 58, P< 0. 01). There were no

  5. Monitoring analysis of birth defects from 2009 to 2010 in Guangzhou%广州市2009至2010年出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹兴文; 王平; 杨丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨广州市2009至2010年出生缺陷发生率、发生类型、转归及影响因素.方法 收集并分析广州市全部148家医院在2009至2010年期间分娩儿出生缺陷监测资料.结果 共监测352 084例围产儿,发生出生缺陷5 724例,出生缺陷发生率162.6/万,前五位缺陷类型依次是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、总唇腭裂、马蹄内翻足和外耳其他畸形.男性围产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于女性(177.74/万 vs 144.66/万,P<0.05),早产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于足月儿(756.40/万 vs 122.19/万,P<0.05),孕母年龄越大,发生出生缺陷的风险越高(P<0.05).严重出生缺陷的治疗性引产率超过60%.结论 广州市出生缺陷发生率偏高,应重视对男婴、早产儿的先天畸形检查,加强对高龄孕妇的管理.提高产前确诊率和致死性畸形的治疗性引产率.%Objective To explore the incidence, type, outcomes and influencing factors of birth defects in Guangzhou from 2009 to 2010. Methods The data of birth defects during this period from all of 148 hospitals in Guangzhou was collected and analyzed. Results Among 352 084 perinatal infants monitored, 5724 cases were detected with birth defects with incidence of 162. 6 per ten thousand. The first five birth defects were congenital heart disease, polydactylia, total cheiloschisis/palatoschisis, congenital talipes equino varus and deformity of external ear in order. The incidence of birth defects in boys was higher than that in girls (177. 74/ten thousand vs 144. 66/ten thousand, P < 0. 05 ), and it was higher in premature infants than term infants ( 756. 40/ten thousand vs 122. 19/ten thousand, P < 0. 05 ). The older the pregnant women were, the greater the risk of birth defects was. The rate of therapeutic termination of severe birth defects was more than 60%. Conclusion The incidence of birth defects is slightly high in Guangzhou. Attention should be paid to malformation examination on male infants and

  6. Frecuencia y tendencia temporal de los defectos congénitos en Asturias: La necesidad de la vigilancia clinicoepidemiológica Prevalence and secular trend of congenital defects in Asturias, Spain: The need for clinical-epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mosquera Tenreiro

    2009-08-01

    fifth years of life in Asturias. These anomalies generate substantial morbidity. The aim of the present study was to describe the population-based frequency of congenital defects in Asturias and their forms of presentation. Methods: Data from the population-based Registry of Congenital Defects of Asturias for 1990-2004 were analyzed. The data related to live births, stillbirths and induced abortions after prenatal diagnosis and are presented as birth prevalence and total prevalence (including induced abortions. Results: The total number of births was 103,452 and there were 3,035 cases of congenital defects, representing a total prevalence of 2.9 cases per 100 births and a birth prevalence of 2.5%. These figures showed a tendency to increase throughout the study period. A total of 2,516 (82.9% cases were live births, 46 (1.5% were stillbirths and 473 (15.6% were induced abortions. Prenatal diagnosis increased throughout the period. Sixtythree percent of total cases showed an isolated defect, 17% a recognized syndrome and the remaining 20% had multiple malformations without a syndromic pattern. The most frequent and severe defects registered were neural tube defects (12.2 per 10,000 births, chromosomal abnormalities (34.4 per 10,000, and cardiac defects (75.2 per 10,000. Conclusions: The 15-year experience of the Registry of Congenital Defects of Asturias reveals the utility of this type of database to evaluate prenatal screening programs, plan the resources needed in affected pregnant women and infants, and perform epidemiological surveillance of congenital defects in relation to environmental risks, drug exposure and assisted reproduction techniques.

  7. Cyclopia : An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orioli, Ieda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclopia is characterized by the presence of a single eye, with varying degrees of doubling of the intrinsic ocular structures, located in the middle of the face. It is the severest facial expression of the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformatio

  8. Craniofacial Birth Defects: The Role of Neural Crest Cells in the Etiology and Pathogenesis of Treacher Collins Syndrome and the Potential for Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Of all the babies born with birth defects, approximately one-third display anomalies of the head and face [Gorlin et al., 1990] including cleft lip, cleft palate, small or absent facial and skull bones and improperly formed nose, eyes, ears, and teeth. Craniofacial disorders are a primary cause of infant mortality and have serious lifetime functional, esthetic, and social consequences that are devastating to both children and parents alike. Comprehensive surgery, dental care, psychological co...

  9. Study on the Secondary Prevention Strategy for Birth Defects%出生缺陷二级预防策略的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋桂荣; 肖绪武; 孙瑾; 刘启贵

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and compare the economic effectiveness of three strategies of the sec-ondary prevention for birth defects in order to provide the basis for the prevention decision on congenital disa-bilities .Methods:A decision tree model was used to make a decision analysis on the cost-effectiveness of the three strategies .Results :The birth defects detection rates of three strategies were 82 .82% ,98 .2% ,94 . 50% respectively .The cost of one birth defect detected of the third strategy was lowest .Conclusions :In-creasing an ultrasound screening for high-risk pregnant women is an economical and effective strategy to pre-vent birth defects .%目的:评价、比较出生缺陷的3种二级预防策略的经济学效果,为有效预防先天性残疾提供决策依据。方法:采用决策树模型,对3种策略的成本-效果进行比较。结果:3种策略的出生缺陷检出率分别为82.82%、98.2%、94.50%,策略3成本/效果比最低。结论:高危孕妇增加超声筛查是一种既经济又有效的预防策略。

  10. Birth defects in Shandong, China, 2007-2010%山东省2007-2010年人群出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凤荣; 张蓬; 范媛媛; 陈志欣; 郝宝珍

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解山东省人群出生缺陷发生情况,为今后监测工作的管理重点和制定出生缺陷预防措施提供依据.方法 对2007——2010年山东省人群出生缺陷监测的数据进行率及顺位等分析.应用Visual FoxPro 6.0建立数据库,采用SPSS 15.0软件进行数据分析.结果 2007——2010年人群出生缺陷发生率分别为107.44/万、82.86/万、141.29/万和124.64/万,年度间人群出生缺陷发生率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);人群出生缺陷发生率顺位从高到低依次为先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、总唇裂、脑积水、神经管缺陷、肢体短缩等.结论 山东省人群出生缺陷发生率在逐年上升,男性高于女性;出生缺陷先天性心脏病居首位,有逐年上升趋势.%Objective To analyze the occurrence of birth defects based on clinical outcomes of new born babies in Shandong province and provide scientific basis for early diagnosis and intervention. Methods The records of birth defects were collected for the year of 2007-2010. Visual FoxPro6. 0 was applied to set up a database and SPSS15. 0 was used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence rates of birth defects were 107. 44, 82. 86, 141. 29 and 124. 64 per ten thousand newborns for the year of 2007-2010, repectively. The highest prevalence rate of birth defect was congenital heart disease (41. 06/10 000), followed by polydactyly (11. 41/10 0000), total cleftlip (11. 26/10 000), hydro-cephalus (8. 41/10 000) , neural tube defects (6. 84/10 000), limb reduction (3. 99/10 000) , and etc. There was higher frequency of birth defects in male babies (125. 68/10 000) than in female babies (98. 63/10 000). Conclusion Congenital heart disease is the most important birth defect. Maternal exam should include birth defect screening.

  11. 64例出生缺陷儿监测情况分析%Analysis of the outcome of 64 children born with birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王香丽; 贾旭艳; 杨文方; 豆静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze various related factors of birth defects so as to provide evidence for early prevention and reduce the rate of birth defects by monitoring the information of birth defect infants delivered or delivered with induction in our hospital during five years from 2006 to 2010. Methods The data of birth defect infants delivered in the hospital during these five years was retrospectively analyzed. Results There were 8215 cases of induction delivery and childbirth, 64 cases of which were birth defect infants. The average rate of birth defects was 7. 8‰. The top five types in the 64 cases were spina bifida ( 15. 6% ), hydrocephalus ( 14. 0% ), cleft lip ( 10.9% ), abnormal fingers and toes ( 9. 4% ) and cleft lip with cleft palate ( 7. 8% ) in turn. Analysis results indicated that the time when pregnancy started was related to birth defects. When pregnancy started in January, June or May, the rate of birth defects was higher than that in other months (x2 =5. 107, P < 0. 05 ), and the birth defects accounted up 48. 4% of all. Among the defect infants, males were more than females. The infants whose mothers lived in countryside and had poor education had higher birth defect rate. Conclusion Enhancing education on prepotency especially to married women in poor areas, picking pregnancy time, administering folic acid reasonably before pregnancy, establishing and perfecting primary prevention system, strengthening training for type-B ultrasonic physicians and clinicians, or improving prenatal monitoring and diagnosing technology is beneficial to prophylaxis of birth defects.%目的 通过监测西安交通大学医学院第一附属医院2006~2010年住院引产及分娩的出生缺陷婴儿情况,分析引起出生缺陷的各类相关因素,为早期预防并进一步降低出生缺陷率提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2006~2010年西安交通大学医学院第一附属医院的出生缺陷儿病例.结果 5年内共引产及分娩8 215

  12. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quad screen tests the levels of 4 proteins AFP (alpha-fetoprotein), hCG, estriol, and inhibin-A. Generally, ... of the proteins for which an amniocentesis tests. AFP AFP stands for alpha-fetoprotein, a protein the ...

  13. Preventing Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    NERVIDUCT malformation caught the attention of the Chinese government in 1983 when professor Yan Renying, now director of the China Maternal and Infant Health Care Center, conducted an epidemiological survey of new-borns in Shunyi County, Beijing, and discovered that one-third of infant mortality in the area was caused by

  14. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help relax muscle spasms, including: Diazepam (Valium®), baclofen (Lioresal®), dantrolene (Dantrium®) and tizanidine (Zanaflex®). Your child takes these by mouth. Baclofen, a medicine that your child gets through a ...

  15. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Environmental Protection Agency Urge Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to Consider Aerial Spraying as Part of Integrated Mosquito Control to Reduce Zika-Associated Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA News Release: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Environmental Protection Agency Urge Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to Consider Aerial Spraying as Part of Integrated Mosquito Control to Reduce Zika-Associated Birth Defects

  16. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: panorama atual Birth defects and health strategies in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O impacto dos defeitos congênitos no Brasil vem aumentando progressivamente, tendo passado da quinta para a segunda causa dos óbitos em menores de um ano entre 1980 e 2000, apontando para a necessidade de estratégias específicas na política de saúde. Foram localizadas, no Brasil, direcionadas aos defeitos congênitos, ações governamentais e não-governamentais. Estas envolvem serviços de informação sobre agentes teratogênicos na gravidez e sobre doenças metabólicas geneticamente determinadas, monitorização de defeitos congênitos, programa de triagem neonatal e tratamento de algumas doenças genéticas, imunização contra rubéola, além da fortificação de farinhas com ácido fólico como ação preventiva de certos defeitos congênitos. Apesar da importância de tais iniciativas, é pouco provável que seja possível atender à questão dos defeitos congênitos de forma integrada. Para a efetivação de um sistema de atenção voltado aos defeitos congênitos, deverá ser formulada política específica, de âmbito nacional, com a participação ativa do Ministério da Saúde, utilizando, como espinha dorsal, os serviços de genética existentes. Só assim, será possível a estruturação de uma rede regionalizada, hierarquizada e funcional voltada à atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil.Birth defects have increased progressively in Brazil, shifting from the fifth to the second cause of infant mortality from 1980 to 2000, thus highlighting the need for specific health policy strategies. Some governmental and nongovernmental actions related to birth defects in Brazil include information services on teratogenic agents and inborn errors of metabolism, monitoring of birth defects, neonatal screening and treatment of some genetic diseases, and rubella immunization. In addition, flour fortification with folic acid for prevention of certain birth defects has begun recently. Despite the importance of such initiatives, it is

  17. 新疆多民族地区出生缺陷分析%Analysis of birth defects in Xinjiang multi-ethnic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱若筠; 刘红; 钟南; 王瑞; 邹红云; 何江; 余伍忠

    2011-01-01

    背景:新疆是一个多民族聚居的省区,地理位置不同,经济条件、气候环境等差异较大.目的:了解新疆不同民族出生缺陷发生发展趋势、病种及民族和地区差异.方法:根据新疆特殊的民族、地理条件及经济状况,按随机分层整群抽样方法,确定13个县(市)作为监测点,使用填报和.出生缺陷的诊断采用ICD10诊断标准.对2005-01/2008-12 4年间出生缺陷发生率进行统计,并分析出生缺陷的病种及其在各民族、地区的分布情况.结果与结论:新疆地区出生缺陷的平均发生率为97.43/万,4年间出生缺陷发生率表现为2006年较上一年度显著降低后,随之又逐年上升.出生缺陷发生率农村高于城市,男性多于女性,天山以南地区高于天山以北、以东及乌鲁木齐地区.在新疆的主要民族中,出生缺陷发生率以锡伯族和维吾尔族最高,满族和哈萨克族次之,汉族最低.4年间满族、蒙古族、回族出生缺陷发生率逐年下降,维吾尔族、汉族和哈萨克族有较小波动;但锡伯族却经历了一次大起大落的变化.出生缺陷病种前5位依次为神经管畸形、总唇裂、无脑畸形、先天性脑积水、唇裂合并腭裂.从分析结果可以看出新疆地区出生缺陷的发生存在民族和地理差异.%BACKGROUND: Xinjiang is a multi-ethnic region with significant differences in local geographical position, economic development and climatic environment. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence and development tendency of birth defects, disease categories and disparity among different ethnic groups and regions in Xinjiang.METHODS: A stratified cluster random sampling observation was performed in 13 counties (cities) according to the status of ethnical distribution and local economics of Xinjiang. Quarter Report Sheet on Babies and The defect babies register card were filled as the scheme of Chinese birth defect monitoring, and ICD10 diagnostic code was adopted in

  18. Clinical Analysis in 265 Perinatals Birth Defects%265例出生缺陷儿的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红霞

    2012-01-01

      Objective To characterize the distribution patterns of birth defects in Huai-rou First Hospital 2006-2011. Methods Birth defects surveillance data in the period of January 2002 to December 2004 were analyzed. Results The overall prevalence rate of birth defects was 207.97/10,000 births. The first 5 common birth defects were hyperdactylism and ankylodactylia, accessory auricle,congenital heart disease,total cleft lip and palate,pigmented mole. chromosomal abnormalities,and neural tube defects. Conclusion To disease the prevalence rate of birth defects and elevate the disposition of the birth population, we should put the emphasis to preservation(the third-level prevention).%  目的 分析我院住院分娩围生儿的出生缺陷发生情况、变化趋势,为进一步预防出生缺陷的发生提供依据.方法 对2006至2011年在怀柔区第一医院住院分娩的围生儿出生缺陷监测资料进行分析.结果 6年共监测围生儿12742例,发现缺陷儿265例,平均出生缺陷发生率为207.97/万,前5位分别是多指(趾)及并指(趾)36例,副耳34例,先天性心脏病33例,唇裂合并腭裂23例,色素痣13例.结论 减少出生缺陷的工作重点在预防,应加强优生知识的宣传,提高产前检查质量及产前诊断技术,做好三级预防工作,以期降低围生儿出生缺陷的出生率,提高出生人口素质.

  19. 2010年常州市围产儿出生缺陷及城市功能区出生缺陷状况%Birth defects of perinatal infants in Changzhou city in 2010 and birth defects in different functional areas of the city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪金剑; 周华; 蒋健

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the birth defects in Changzhou city in 2010 and the birth defects in different functional areas of the city, explore the related factors of occurrence of birth defects in Changzhou city. Methods: The perinatal infants with birth defects who were bom in obstetric department of all the hospitals in Changzhou city in 2010 were collected, and the city was divided into central urban area, industrial area, and agricultural area according to the functions of the city, the birth defects of perinatal infants were compared among different functional areas. Results: There were 39 399 perinatal infants in 2010, the incidence of birth defects was 5.10‰, the incidence of birth defects and the top three birth defects were in accord with those from 2007 to 2009, the mean incidence of birth defects in Changzhou city was 5.10‰, and the incidences of birth defects in industrial area, central urban area, and agricultural area were 9.13‰, 4.60‰, and 3. 24‰, respectively, the incidence of birth defects in industrial area was significantly higher than the mean level in Changzhou city. Among the perinatal infants with birth defects, the indexes including floating population, gestational smoking or passive smoking, drinking during pregnancy, engaging in high risk works were higher than those of normal control group; the rate of medical examination before marriage and the regular examination rate during gestational period were lower than those in normal control group. Conclusion: Premarital check - up and pregestational health care should be enhanced, the management of reproductive health of the floating population should be improved, and the prenatal examination rate of birth defects should be strengthened, the measures above - mentioned can be conducted to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:了解常州市2010年出生缺陷发生情况以及城市功能区出生缺陷状况,探讨常州市出生缺陷发生的相关因素.方法:收集2010

  20. 奉贤区13266例围产儿出生缺陷分析%Analysis on 13 266 perinatal infants with birth defects in Fengxian district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾维红

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解奉贤区出生缺陷发生情况、分布特征、影响因素,为降低出生缺陷发生制定干预措施提供依据.方法:采用回顾性方法对2008年1月1日~2009年12月31日奉贤区13 266例监测围产儿进行分析.结果:①奉贤区两年间出生缺陷儿188例,出生缺陷率为14.17%;②出生缺陷前5位分别是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、总唇裂、血管瘤和神经管畸形;③出生缺陷发生在男女性别、户籍、出生时间方面差异无统计学意义,但与孕妇年龄有关(x2=7.517,P<0.05);④出生缺陷儿死亡与非出生缺陷儿死亡差异有统计学意义(x2=1 345.85,P<0.001);⑤产前诊断及治疗性终止妊娠可降低活产婴儿的出生缺陷发生率,并使出生缺陷顺位发生改变.结论:出生缺陷发生与孕妇年龄有关,与性别、受孕时间、户籍无关;出生缺陷儿死亡是围产儿死亡的主要原因;做好三级预防是降低出生缺陷发生,降低围产儿死亡率的重要措施.%Objective: To understand the occurrence, distribution characteristics and effect factors of birth defects in Fengxian distriet, provide a basis for making intervention measures to reduce the occurrence of birth defects. Methods: A retrospective method was adopted to analyze 13 266 perinatal infants in Fengxian district from January 1,2008 to December 31,2009. Results: From 2008 to 2009,188 perinatal infants with birth defects were born in Fengxian district, the incidence of birth defects was 14. 17‰; the first five birth defects were congenital heart disease, polydaetylism, total cleft lip, hemangioma and neural tube defect; there was no significant difference in incidences of birth defects between the perinatal infants with different genders, census registers and times of birth, but the incidences of birth defects were related to maternal age (x2 = 7. 517, P < 0. 05 ); there was significant difference in perinatal mortality between the perinatal infants with birth

  1. 出生缺陷影响因素的病例对照研究%Case-control study on influence factors of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修新红; 袁丽; 王晓明; 陈玉华; 万爱华; 傅平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence factors of birth defects. Methods The congenital malformational fetuses born from 13 week of gestation to 7 days after birth were selected as the study group between April 1st, 2009 and March 31st, 2010. The health born fetuses were set as control in the same period. Case-control and the three-level of monitor network of birth defects were used in the study in the participating 75 hospitals (Qingdao Women and Children's Medical Center, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College Qingdao University, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, etc.) . The study and control group's parents were interviewed by an uniformed questionnaire which was designed specially with influence factors of birth defects. Results (1) There are 466 congenital malformational fetuses in the total of 77 231 fetuses collected in 75 hospitals. The congenital malformational rate accounts for about 6. 034‰. The top six defect diseases were congenital heart disease (112 cases) , total harelip (cleft lip; cleft lip with palate; 85 cases) ,polydactyly (53 cases) , neural tube defects (38 cases) , congenital hydrocephalus (37 cases) and limb reduction defect (27 cases) in turn, which amounts to 353 cases (54.48% , 353/648). (2) Their mother education level in the birth-defect group (25. 6%) were significantly lower than that in control group (30. 0% , P < 0. 05). (3) The rate of passive smoking, drinking, raising pets of the parents in birth-defect group were significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0. 05). (4) The rate of exposure to harmful chemical and physical factors of mothers in birth defects group (13.9% and 20. 5% , respectively) was higher than that in control group (1.1% and 11.7% , respectively) , the difference between which were significant (P < 0. 01) . The rate of disease (34. 3%) , fever (13. 1%) , taking drugs (33. 8%) in pregnancy period in birth defect group were higher than that in control group (13. 5% , 1.5% and 9. 9% ,respectively) , the

  2. Prevention of birth defects in the pre-conception period: knowledge and practice of health care professionals (nurses and doctors in a city of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Romariz Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2 test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85. Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.

  3. Analysis of birth defects in Urumqi during 2011 to 2015%乌鲁木齐市2011年-2015年出生缺陷情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 丁娟

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究乌鲁木齐市2011年~ 2015年出生缺陷的资料,探讨乌鲁木齐市主要出生缺陷类型、影响因素及变化规律,并提出干预措施.方法 对乌鲁木齐市2011年~ 2015年的出生缺陷资料进行分析,观察乌鲁木齐市出生缺陷的变化趋势.结果 2011-2015年5年间,乌鲁木齐市发生出生缺陷儿1422例,出生缺陷总发生率66.67/万,出生缺陷前5位依次为总唇裂、多指(趾)、神经管畸形、先天性脑积水、先天性心脏病.不同年份的出生缺陷顺位有所不同.结论 部分对于干预措施敏感的致死和严重致残出生缺陷发生率逐步下降,我市出生缺陷现有综合防治策略取得了明显的成效;出生缺陷防控工作重点的变化.为降低国产儿出生缺陷发生率,做好婚前医学检查、加强孕产妇孕前、孕期保健,增强出生缺陷防范意识,产检进行产前筛查和孕中期彩超排畸筛查,是降低围产儿出生缺陷发生率的有效措施.%Objective:Study data of birth defects,in Urumqi from 2013 ~ 2015,Discussion major types of birth defects in Urumqi,affecting factors and changes in laws and proposed interventions.Methods:Analysis of birth defects in Urumqi during 2011 to 2015,observing the change trend of birth defects in Urumqi.Results:2011-2015,five years,1422 cases of birth defects in Urumqi,the incidence of birth defects in total 66.67 / m,the top five birth defects of cleft lip,multi-finger (toe),and neural tube defects,congenital hydrocephalus and congenital heart disease.Different years of birth defects in the sequence is different.Conclusion:Part to the intervention sensitive to death or severe disability gradually decreased incidence of birth defects,birth defects existing obvious achievements have been made in the integrated control strategy;The change of birth defect prevention and control work key.In order to reduce the incidence of perinatal birth defects,completes the pre-marital medical

  4. Craniofacial birth defects: The role of neural crest cells in the etiology and pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome and the potential for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Paul A

    2010-12-01

    Of all the babies born with birth defects, approximately one-third display anomalies of the head and face [Gorlin et al., 1990] including cleft lip, cleft palate, small or absent facial and skull bones and improperly formed nose, eyes, ears, and teeth. Craniofacial disorders are a primary cause of infant mortality and have serious lifetime functional, esthetic, and social consequences that are devastating to both children and parents alike. Comprehensive surgery, dental care, psychological counseling, and rehabilitation can help ameliorate-specific problems but at great cost over many years which dramatically affects national health care budgets. For example, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that the lifetime cost of treating the children born each year with cleft lip and/or cleft palate alone to be US$697 million. Treating craniofacial malformations, of which in excess of 700 distinct syndromes have been described, through comprehensive, well-coordinated and integrated strategies can provide satisfactory management of individual conditions, however, the results are often variable and rarely fully corrective. Therefore, better techniques for tissue repair and regeneration need to be developed and therapeutic avenues of prevention need to be explored in order to eliminate the devastating consequences of head and facial birth defects. To do this requires a thorough understanding of the normal events that control craniofacial development during embryogenesis. This review therefore focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the basic etiology and pathogenesis of a rare craniofacial disorder known as Treacher Collins syndrome and emerging prospects for prevention that may have broad application to congenital craniofacial birth defects.

  5. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: A prospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Huan; MA, DUAN; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. Material/Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20–45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the indepen...

  6. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  7. Avaliação das declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre defeitos congênitos Evaluation of the birth certificates as source of information on birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lívia Geremias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos congênitos (DC em uma coorte de nascidos vivos (NV vinculando-se os bancos de dados do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM e do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo para avaliar as declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre DC. A população de estudo é uma coorte de NV hospitalares do 1º semestre de 2006 de mães residentes e ocorridos no Município de São Paulo no período de 01/01/2006 a 30/06/2006, obtida por meio da vinculação dos bancos de dados das declarações de nascido vivo e óbitos neonatais provenientes da coorte. RESULTADOS: Os DC mais prevalentes segundo o SINASC foram: malformações congênitas (MC e deformidades do aparelho osteomuscular (44,7%, MC do sistema nervoso (10,0% e anomalias cromossômicas (8,6%. Após a vinculação, houve uma recuperação de 80,0% de indivíduos portadores de DC do aparelho circulatório, 73,3% de DC do aparelho respiratório e 62,5% de DC do aparelho digestivo. O SINASC fez 55,2% das notificações de DC e o SIM notificou 44,8%, mostrando-se importante para a recuperação de informações de DC. Segundo o SINASC, a taxa de prevalência de DC na coorte foi de 75,4%00 NV; com os dados vinculados com o SIM, essa taxa passou para 86,2%00 NV. CONCLUSÕES: A complementação de dados obtida pela vinculação SIM/SINASC fornece um perfil mais real da prevalência de DC do que aquele registrado pelo SINASC, que identifica os DC mais visíveis, enquanto o SIM identifica os mais letais, mostrando a importância do uso conjunto das duas fontes de dados.OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of birth defects in a live birth cohort, linking the live birth information system (SINASC and the mortality information system (SIM databases. METHODS: Descriptive study to assess linked databases of hospital live births (LB and neonatal deaths of resident mothers that occurred in the city of S

  8. The genetics of folate metabolism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome and associated congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eCoppedè

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost 15 years ago it was hypothesized that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in folate metabolism could lead to aberrant methylation of peri-centromeric regions of chromosome 21, favoring its abnormal segregation during maternal meiosis. Subsequently, more than 50 small case-control studies investigated whether or not maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes could be risk factors for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS, yielding conflicting and inconclusive results. However, recent meta-analyses of those studies suggest that at least three of those polymorphisms, namely MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G, and RFC1 80G>A, are likely to act as maternal risk factors for the birth of a child with trisomy 21, revealing also complex gene-nutrient interactions. A large-cohort study also revealed that lack of maternal folic acid supplementation at peri-conception resulted in increased risk for a DS birth due to errors occurred at maternal meiosis II in the aging oocyte, and it was shown that the methylation status of chromosome 21 peri-centromeric regions could favor recombination errors during meiosis leading to its malsegregation. In this regard, two recent case-control studies revealed association of maternal polymorphisms or haplotypes of the DNMT3B gene, coding for an enzyme required for the regulation of DNA methylation at centromeric and peri-centromeric regions of human chromosomes, with risk of having a birth with DS. Furthermore, congenital heart defects (CHD are found in almost a half of DS births, and increasing evidence points to a possible contribution of lack of folic acid supplementation at peri-conception, maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes, and resulting epigenetic modifications of several genes, at the basis of their occurrence. This review summarizes available case-control studies and literature meta-analyses in order to provide a critical and up to date overview of what we currently know in this

  9. 广西高发出生缺陷发生的影响因素分析%Influencing factors of high-incidence birth defects in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘湘红; 曾萼; 丘小霞; 刘伟; 陈玉柱

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨广西高发出生缺陷发生的影响因素,为制定出生缺陷的干预措施提供依据. 方法 采用成组病例对照的研究方法,对广西7个市3 175例出生缺陷围产儿(包括先天性心脏病、唇腭裂、先天性脑积水、神经管缺陷、尿道下裂等)和3 179例正常围产儿的父母进行问卷调查,并对可能影响高发出生缺陷发生的相关因素进行单因素及多因素logistic回归分析. 结果 多因素logistic回归分析结果显示:父亲年龄及吸烟程度、叶酸指数与高发出生缺陷相关(P<0.05). 高发出生缺陷发生的危险因素包括孕早期未接受过优生检测、母亲孕早期患病、母亲怀孕前患病、母亲孕早期用药、母亲怀孕前后接触过猫狗等宠物、母亲有特殊食品嗜好(P均<0.05). 结论 母亲孕早期未接受优生检测、孕前/早期患病、孕早期用药、怀孕前后有宠物接触史以及母亲有特殊食品嗜好是广西地区高发出生缺陷发生的危险因素,在广西可从孕前与孕期保健、生活环境因素等多方面进行出生缺陷干预.%Objective To explore the influencing factors of high-incidence birth defects in Guangxi so as to provide the basis for formulating the intervention measures of birth defects.Methods A group case-control study was conducted, in which a questionnaire survey was carried out among parents of 3 175 perinatal infant with birth defects(including congenital heart disease,cleft lip and cleft palate,congenital hydrocephalus,neural tube defects and hypospadias) and 3 179 normal perinatal infants from 7 cities in Guangxi. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the related influencing factors of high-incidence birth defects. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age,severity of smoking and folacin index of fathers correlated with high-incidence birth defects(P<0.05).The risk factors for the occurrence of high

  10. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming;

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two...

  11. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children--what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Rodrigues, C.H.; Verkerk, M.A.; Berg, P.P. van den; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  12. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children : what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.; Rodrigues, Catarina; Verkerk, M.A.; van den Berg, P.P.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  13. Analysis of risk factors of birth defects in Shaanxi Province%陕西省出生缺陷的相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杨; 曾令霞; 颜虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors influencing birth defects in Shaanxi Province and then provide scientific evidence for intervention strategies. Methods Stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted.Totally 124 towns were sampled from 12 counties of 9 cities in Shaanxi Province. Household survey was carried out among 13 273 women who were residents and had conceived from October 2007 to July 2009, and all of these women had 28 weeks' gestational age. We collected 7 531 complete questionnaires finished for the progestational and pregnant period. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the risk factors by using SPSS13.0software. Results The results of logistic regression showed that the risk factors for birth defects were by turns the birth defects history of patrilineal family (OR = 14. 283), poor mental state (OR = 10. 835), abnormal pregnancy and reproductive history (OR = 8. 264), mothers living in rural areas ( OR = 5. 067), the history of alcohol intake in pregnancy (OR = 4. 598), mother's age higher than 35 years (OR = 3. 696), exposure to agricultural chemicals during pregnancy (OR=3. 507), drinking strong tea during pregnancy (OR = 1. 993), taking folic acid during pregnancy (OR=0. 549) and higher family income per capita (OR = 0. 422), which were the protective factors of birth defects. Conclusion We should strengthen publicity in scientific knowledge of pre-natal and post-natal care,increase self-care consciousness of women of childbearing age, improve their living environment and change the unhealthy lifestyle. These strategies play a very important role in reducing the prevalence rate of birth defects in Shaanxi Province.%目的 探讨陕西省出生缺陷发生的影响因素,为采取有针对性的干预措施提供依据.方法 应用分层随机整群抽样方法,抽取陕西省9市12个区县共124个乡镇.对终止妊娠日期发生在2007年10月至2009年7月间且孕满28周的13273名妇女进行入户调查.要求

  14. 2007~2008年鄂州市围产儿出生缺陷情况调查%Investigation on perinatal birth defects in ezhou city from 2007 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾方红; 詹险峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解本地区围产儿出生缺陷的发生率、种类及构成,探讨出生缺陷影响因素和产前诊断的不足.方法 收集本院2007~2008分娩的产妇及围产儿资料,对之进行分析.结果 鄂州市2007~2008年围产儿出生缺陷发生率为8.26‰,出生缺陷类型主要有唇腭裂、多指、尿道下裂等.结论 加强孕前期一围孕期保健预防工作及围产期出生缺陷监测诊断工作,减少出生缺陷儿的发生.%Objective: To study the incidence and type of perinatal birth defect in Ezhou city and explore the related risk factors and the deficiency of prenatal diagnosis.Methods: Data of perinatal birth defects were from Ezhou central hospital from 2007 to 2008.Results: The incidence of birth defect in Ezhou city was 8.26‰.The common perinatal birth defects were listed as follows: cleft lip,fingers, and hypospadias, etc.Conclusion: Pregnancy prevention and prenatal diagnosis should be improved to reduce the incidence of birth defect.

  15. Analysis of monitoring results of birth defects in Jingning county in 2009 and 2010%景宁县2009-2010年出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze incidence of birth defects in Jingning county and relevant influential factors for the development and evaluation of preventive measures. Methods Birth defects monitoring data were obtained from 4 hospitals in 2009 and 2010 in Jingning county following guidelines of Birth defects monitoring program of Jingning county. The data were analyzed including the incidence of birth defects, defect type, occurrence of birth defects of mothers during pregnancy and all the cases were followed up. Results In two years, the total incidence rate of birth defects was 1.064%, in a total of 26 cases of birth defects, 23 were single defect and 3 were multiple defects. Defect types included five multiple fingers, congenital heart disease, cleft lip, cleft palate, encephalocele. Conclusions Birth defects show a trend of increase in this county. This is most likely due to improvement of technology in perinatal prenatal diagnosis and early postnatal diagnosis. Influential factors that may cause birth defects include maternal illness, unsafe medications during pregnancy and maternal genetic factor. These results indicate that it is necessary to enhance pre-pregnancy care, improve the quality of premarital medical examination, pay attention to genetic consulting and prenatal health care, especially in early pregnancy care. It is also necessary to carry out prenatal screening and improve knowledge on birth defects prevention so as to reduce the occurrence of birth defects.%目的 分析浙江省景宁县出生缺陷的发生状况和影响因素,为制定和评价预防措施提供依据.方法 对景宁县内4家医院依据《景宁县出生缺陷监测方案》要求上报的2009年和2010年出生缺陷监测数据进行汇总,分析出生缺陷的发生率、缺陷类型、发生出生缺陷儿母亲孕期情况,并跟踪随访.结果 共监测景宁县两年中2 443例围产儿,出生缺陷26例,总出生缺陷发生率为10.64‰,其中单发缺陷23

  16. Investigation and analysis of 0 ~14 years old children with birth defects in Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区0~14岁儿童出生缺陷调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明福; 李川海; 杨皓; 付新云; 李家菊; 崔蓉; 张丹妍; 李安奇; 李练兵

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand Three Gorges Reservoir Area 7 counties 0 ~ 14 years old children's birth defects present situation,type,incidence,urban and rural children's birth defect occurrence,occurring at different positions of the situation,collect birth defects/genetic disease information data to prevent birth defects and provide the scientific basis.Methods:According to ICD-10 coding diseases listed design questionnaire,stratified cluster random sampling was used to the scene to carry out investigations on the 0 ~ 14 years old children suffering from birth defects.Results:There were 7 977 meals available questionnaire,including 24 types of birth defect with 158 people,and the incidence of birth defects was 19.81‰.The first 4 types of the study were cleft lip (73 cases,incidence 9.152‰) ; limb deformities (17 cases,incidence 2.137 ‰) ; hydrocephalus (14 cases,incidence 1.755‰) ; cardiac malformations (12 cases including 5 cases of boys and 7 cases of girls,incidence 1.504‰).There were 95 boys with the incidence of birth defects 22.37‰,63 girls with the incidence of birth defects 16.89 ‰.The boy's incidence of birth defects was obviously higher than that of girl (chi-square =204.44,P <0.005).There were 42 children with birth defects in 2 198 urban children (27.55%) and 116 children with birth defects in 5 779 rural children (72.45%).The urban children's birth defect rate was 19.11‰ and the countryside was 20.07‰.There was no statistical difference (chi-square =0.076,P =0.782) between them.Location was the first facial defects 86 cases (54.43%),the second for nerve defect 20 cases (12.66%),the third for limbs defect 17 cases (10.76%),the fourth for heart defects 12 cases (7.59%),the fifth for urogenital defect 6 patients (3.80%),other defects 17 cases (10.76%).There was significant difference (chi-square =34.11,P <0.01) between the first birth defects and other parts.Conclusion:Birth defects' monitoring area,monitoring time

  17. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  18. 黄山市2006~2010年出生缺陷调查结果分析%The analysis of birth defects prevalence of Huangshan from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章世妹; 盛玮; 吉次秋; 胡红喜; 曾令芳; 冯建华; 汪丽霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological features of birth defects in Huangshan in order to determine the high - risk population and areas. Methods The birth defect condition was household surveyed among perinatal infants, including dead fetus stillbirths and therapeutic abortion ), and children aged 0 to 5 with their mothers underwent in - depth personal interviews and cluster sampling retrospective study on January f, 2006 to December 3f , 20f0 in 7 prefectures( counties ) covering f Of towns and 6 streets. The confirmation of the birth defects was based on clinical diagnosis. The categories were defined with National Birth Defect Monitoring Program. Results There were 981 birth defects diagnosed in 5 years. The incidence rate of birth defects was 158. 69 per 10000 infants. The incidence in male infants was 82. 82 per 10000 infants and 63. 57 per 10000 infants in female infants. The top birth defects were congenital heart disease, total cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, congenred hydrocephaly, urogenital abnormality and neural tube defects. Conclusion The current situation of birth defects among children aged 0 to 5 in Huangshan has been evaluated, which shows an upward trend year by year. The incidence is higher in country than that in city and higher in male infants than females, but the difference between them has no statistical significance. So the key point of the birth defect prevention should be put in country areas. The hygienic knowledge of pregnant woman should be enhanced, especially in the top 6 birth defects mentioned above. Additionally, we should explore the reason of the high incidence of birth defects in order to provide basis for further birth defect prevention.%目的 了解黄山市0~5岁儿童出生缺陷的发生率、种类及顺位,确定重点预防人群和区域.方法 采用个人访谈、整群回顾性调查的方法对黄山市三区四县101个乡镇和6个街道在2006年1月1日至2010年12月31日期间出生的围生

  19. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  20. Analysis of peripregnancy health care effects on birth defects%围孕期保健对出生缺陷的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘葵; 吕海荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析围孕期保健对围产儿出生缺陷的影响。方法:选取西安市第四医院2013年10月1日~2013年12月25日收治1716例产妇为研究对象,对其临床资料进行回顾分析。结果:围孕期叶酸的补充可以显著降低神经管畸形的发生风险,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);围孕期营养状况及孕妇的家庭收入等因素为减少出生缺陷发生的保护性因素,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);出生缺陷的危险因素分别为孕妇接触职业危险因素、孕期患慢性病、孕期感冒、孕早期出血流产症状、孕期接触宠物、孕前或孕期房屋新装修、被动吸烟、孕期服药及孕期精神紧张或过度焦虑,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:通过加强围孕期保健,减少和控制孕期危险因素,可以预防和减少出生缺陷,提高人口出生质量。%Objective:To analyze the confining effect of health care during pregnancy on perinatal birth defects.Methods:Xi'an City Fourth Hospital from October 1, 2013 to December 25, 2013 a total of 1716 cases of pregnant women as the research object, this was a retrospective a-nalysis of the clinical data.Results:Periconceptional folic acid supplementation could significantly reduce the risk of neural tube malformation, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);perioperative nutritional status and maternal family income and other factors as the protec-tive factor for reducing the incidence of birth defects, there was statistically significant difference (P <0.05);risk factors of birth defects were pregnant women contact occupation risk factors during pregnancy, chronic disease, pregnancy, abortion of early pregnancy bleeding symptoms of colds, pet contacting during pregnancy, before or during pregnancy, passive smoking, the new housing decoration medication during pregnancy and maternal stress or excessive anxiety, the difference was statistically

  1. Relationship between knowledge of birth defects and culture, economy%出生缺陷知识与文化和经济的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文英; 张玲; 张绍强

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解孕妇对预防出生缺陷的知识、态度、行为情况,为进一步完善婚前保健、孕前保健及围产期保健服务提出合理化建议,提高出生人口素质.方法:采用分层抽样和随机抽样的方法,抽取深圳市龙岗区三个街道的90例孕期妇女作为调查对象,利用自行设计的调查表,进行面对面问卷调查,了解孕期妇女出生缺陷的知信行(KAP)情况.结果:文化层次高的孕妇,夫妇双方婚前医学检查率明显高于文化水平低者,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.771 7,P<0.05);文化程度越高的孕妇对孕期保健、预防出生缺陷知识掌握得越多.对孕期“保持良好心情”的知晓率以月收入4000~7000元组最高(95.00%),月收入7 000元以上组的知晓率最低(61.54%);在孕期“注意少接触农药/油漆”及“注意少接触猫狗等”行为方面也有不同,家庭人均月收入越高的孕妇对上述行为的重视程度越高.结论:文化程度与家庭经济状况是孕期妇女掌握出生缺陷相关知识的影响因素.%Objective; To understand the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of pregnant women to prevention of birth defects , put forward reasonable suggestions for further perfecting premarital health care, prenatal health care, and perinatal heath care services, improve the quality of birth population. Methods: Stratified random sampling method was used to select 90 pregnant women from three streets of Longgang district as respondents, a self - designed questionnaire was adopted to survey the respondents face - to - face, KAP conditions of the pregnant women to birth defects were understood. Results: The rate of premarital examination in couples with the pregnant women having high educational level was statistically significantly higher than that in couples with the pregnant women having low educational level (x2 = 6. 771 7, P <0. 05) ; the higher the educational level of pregnant women was, the higher the

  2. Analysis of the Influencing Factors on 170 Cases of Birth Defects in a Hospital, Guizhou%贵州省某医院170例新生儿出生缺陷的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims of understanding the change of incidence of birth defects and its influencing factors, to provide the basis for birth defects prevention and intervention. Methods: Collected 170 cases of birth defects from the birth defects monitoring data in2003 - 2011 ,the chi-square test were used for analysis of the change of incidence of birth defects and its influencing factors. Results: The incidence of thebirth defects was 142.6 per million, the prenatal diagnosis rate is 17.65%, abnormal factors accounted for 41.12%; The first five rows of the birth defects are the Outer ear other deformities, multi-fingered, neural tube defects, clubfoot varus and limb shortening; Child born defective has a high incidence with mother below 20. Conclusion: Strengthening preconception care, prenatal care, prenatal screening and early pregnancy and pregnancy folic acid specification can be taken to prevent and reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:探讨新生儿出生缺陷的影响因素,为新生儿出生缺陷的预防和干预提供依据.方法:基于贵州省某医院2003 -2011年出生缺陷的监测数据,运用卡方检验分析170例新生儿出生缺陷的特征变化及其影响因素.结果:该院出生缺陷检出率为142.6/万,产前诊断率为17.65%,异常因素占41.12%;出生缺陷前5位分别为外耳其它畸形、多指、神经管缺陷、马蹄足内翻和肢体短缩;母亲年龄<20岁缺陷儿发生率较高.结论:加强孕前保健、孕期保健、产前筛查和孕前与孕早期叶酸规范服用,是当前预防和减少出生缺陷发生的主要工作.

  3. Trends in neural tube defect prevalence, folic acid fortification, and vitamin supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Richard S; Mulinare, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    In this review, the authors analyze international trends in rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) during the past three decades. Population-based data sources include the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program and other US birth defects surveillance programs in the National Birth Defects Prevention Network, the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems, and US and Canadian vital records. To analyze trends in vitamin consumption, we review data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and international surveys of multivitamin use. We discuss the role of factors associated with historic and continuing declines in NTD rates in most countries. These factors include the introduction and increased utilization of prenatal diagnosis, recommendations for multivitamin use in women of childbearing age, and population-wide increases in blood folate levels that have occurred since food fortification was mandated. We also discuss research needs for further NTD prevention. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.

  4. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  5. Prickle1 mutation causes planar cell polarity and directional cell migration defects associated with cardiac outflow tract anomalies and other structural birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Gibbs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP is controlled by a conserved pathway that regulates directional cell behavior. Here, we show that mutant mice harboring a newly described mutation termed Beetlejuice (Bj in Prickle1 (Pk1, a PCP component, exhibit developmental phenotypes involving cell polarity defects, including skeletal, cochlear and congenital cardiac anomalies. Bj mutants die neonatally with cardiac outflow tract (OFT malalignment. This is associated with OFT shortening due to loss of polarized cell orientation and failure of second heart field cell intercalation mediating OFT lengthening. OFT myocardialization was disrupted with cardiomyocytes failing to align with the direction of cell invasion into the outflow cushions. The expression of genes mediating Wnt signaling was altered. Also noted were shortened but widened bile ducts and disruption in canonical Wnt signaling. Using an in vitro wound closure assay, we showed Bj mutant fibroblasts cannot establish polarized cell morphology or engage in directional cell migration, and their actin cytoskeleton failed to align with the direction of wound closure. Unexpectedly, Pk1 mutants exhibited primary and motile cilia defects. Given Bj mutant phenotypes are reminiscent of ciliopathies, these findings suggest Pk1 may also regulate ciliogenesis. Together these findings show Pk1 plays an essential role in regulating cell polarity and directional cell migration during development.

  6. Prickle1 mutation causes planar cell polarity and directional cell migration defects associated with cardiac outflow tract anomalies and other structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Brian C; Damerla, Rama Rao; Vladar, Eszter K; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Wan, Yong; Liu, Xiaoqin; Cui, Cheng; Gabriel, George C; Zahid, Maliha; Yagi, Hisato; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L; Suyama, Kaye L; Axelrod, Jeffrey D; Lo, Cecilia W

    2016-02-16

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is controlled by a conserved pathway that regulates directional cell behavior. Here, we show that mutant mice harboring a newly described mutation termed Beetlejuice (Bj) in Prickle1 (Pk1), a PCP component, exhibit developmental phenotypes involving cell polarity defects, including skeletal, cochlear and congenital cardiac anomalies. Bj mutants die neonatally with cardiac outflow tract (OFT) malalignment. This is associated with OFT shortening due to loss of polarized cell orientation and failure of second heart field cell intercalation mediating OFT lengthening. OFT myocardialization was disrupted with cardiomyocytes failing to align with the direction of cell invasion into the outflow cushions. The expression of genes mediating Wnt signaling was altered. Also noted were shortened but widened bile ducts and disruption in canonical Wnt signaling. Using an in vitro wound closure assay, we showed Bj mutant fibroblasts cannot establish polarized cell morphology or engage in directional cell migration, and their actin cytoskeleton failed to align with the direction of wound closure. Unexpectedly, Pk1 mutants exhibited primary and motile cilia defects. Given Bj mutant phenotypes are reminiscent of ciliopathies, these findings suggest Pk1 may also regulate ciliogenesis. Together these findings show Pk1 plays an essential role in regulating cell polarity and directional cell migration during development.

  7. Congenital Heart Defects and Receipt of Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Autry, Andrew; Razzaghi, Hilda; Boyle, Coleen A.; Mahle, William T.; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We investigated the prevalence of receipt of special education services among children with congenital heart defects (CHDs) compared with children without birth defects. METHODS Children born from 1982 to 2004 in metropolitan Atlanta with CHDs (n = 3744) were identified from a population-based birth defect surveillance program; children without birth defects (n = 860 715) were identified from birth certificates. Cohorts were linked to special education files for the 1992–2012 school years to identify special education services. Children with noncardiac defects or genetic syndromes were excluded; children with CHDs were classified by presence or absence of critical CHDs (ie, CHDs requiring intervention by age one year). We evaluated the prevalence of receipt of special education services and prevalence rate ratios using children without birth defects as a reference. RESULTS Compared with children without birth defects, children with CHDs were 50% more likely to receive special education services overall (adjusted prevalence rate ratio [aPRR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–1.7). Specifically, they had higher prevalence of several special education categories including: intellectual disability (aPRR = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.8–5.1), sensory impairment (aPRR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.8–5.0), other health impairment (aPRR = 2.8; 95% CI: 2.2–3.5), significant developmental delay (aPRR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3–2.8), and specific learning disability (aPRR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.7). For most special education services, the excess prevalence did not vary by presence of critical CHDs. CONCLUSIONS Children with CHDs received special education services more often than children without birth defects. These findings highlight the need for special education services and the importance of developmental screening for all children with CHDs. PMID:26283775

  8. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T. (Medical Birth Registry of Norway, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-08-15

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed.

  9. Related factors of birth defects%保定地区出生缺陷相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余瑞欣; 侯雯莅; 王建

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To 80 261 cases of perinatal analysis of 889 cases of defective children, most of unknown causes, of which 183 cases had a number of reasons, through the analysis to understand the defects caused by a common cause of children. Methods; The case study method, one by one asked about the history. Results: A number of reasons, such as high fever, contact with a number of chemical raw materials, indiscriminate use of drugs during pregnancy, social factors are all caused by defects. Conclusion; The prevention of pregnancy cold, away from toxic substances, rational drug use and change the bad ideas in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of defects in children.%目的 通过80 261例围产儿分析,缺陷儿889例,大部分不明原因,其中183例有一些明确原因,通过对这些因素分析,了解引起缺陷儿的常见原因.方法 采用个案调查方法,逐一询问病史.结果 一些原因如高烧、接触一些化工原料、孕期乱用药物、社会因素等都是引起缺陷的原因.结论 预防孕期感冒、远离有毒物质、合理用药,改变不良观念从而有效预防缺陷儿的发生.

  10. Tobacco smoking and its consequences on reproductive health: the impact of a lifestyle choices including cigarette smoke exposure on fertility and birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Travis; Mazela, Jan; Merritt, Allen

    2013-01-01

    There are several life style choices which may impact fertility and thus national birth rate. Epidemiological cohort studies indicates that modification of life style habits, among them nicotine consumption can influence reproductive health. Influence of tobacco smoking on reproductive health has to be analyzed within the context of the influence of body mass index, caffeine and alcohol consumption, exercise, maternal and paternal age, and stress. Approximately 27% Polish women and 23% Americans smoke cigarettes during their reproductive years. Cohort studies directly showed the relationship between nicotine consumption and decrease in fertility among smoking women. Besides there is evidence that smoking leads to higher rate of congenital heart defects, limbs abnormalities, central nervous malformations among infants born to smoking mothers. Finally, the relationship between smoking and decreased fertility should be of great concern since Polish fertility rate has dropped from 1989 till 2007 year from 2,1 to 1,27 respectively. Programs focused on improvement in national birth rate should focus also on decrease smoking rates among women.

  11. Meta-analysis on major risk factors of birth defects in China%国内出生缺陷危险因素的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵婵娟; 杜晓玲; 李巧(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

      目的综合探讨国内出生缺陷发生的危险因素。方法利用 Meta 分析方法综合分析国内2000~2011年间发表的22篇关于出生缺陷发病危险因素的病例对照研究文献,累计病例5238例,对照10571例。结果多因素分析合并比值比(OR)及其95%可信区间(95%CI)分别为:先天畸形家族史3.81(2.48~5.86);孕期感冒发烧3.64(2.16~6.11);孕期病毒感染2.82(2.09~3.82);妊娠合并症3.3(2.59~4.21);孕早期用药4.79(3.14~7.31);孕期服用激素类药物5.39(3.20~9.08);孕期服用镇静止吐药5.22(3.45~7.92);孕期接触有害化学物质3.73(2.87~4.86)等。结论影响国内出生缺陷发生的主要危险因素为先天畸形家族史、孕期感冒发烧、孕期病毒感染、妊娠合并症、孕早期用药、孕期服用激素类药物等。%  Objective To explore the major risk factors of the incidence of birth defects in China. Methods The results of the risk factors of birth defects in 24 epidemiological studies from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed by meta-analysis method. The cumulative cases and controls were 5238 and 10571, respectively. Results The pooled odds ratio(OR) values and 95%CI of various-factor-analysis were as folows: family history of congenital defect was 3.81 (2.48 ~ 5.86); having a fever during pregnancy was 3.64(2.16 ~ 6.11);virus infection during pregnancy was 2.82(2.09 ~ 3.82); complications in pregnancy was 3.3(2.59 ~ 4.21); medicine use in early pregnancy was 4.79(3.14 ~ 7.31);hormone drugs use in early pregnancy was 5.39(3.20 ~ 9.08);sedative and antiemetic drugs use in early pregnancy was 5.22(3.45 ~ 7.92); exposure to damage chemicals in pregnancy was 3.73(2.87 ~ 4.86), et al. Conclusion The major factors influencing the incidence of birth defects in China were family history of congenital defect, had a fever during pregnancy, virus infection during pregnancy, complications in pregnancy

  12. Monitoring results of perinatal birth defects in ChangJi region from 2005 to 2013%2005至2013年昌吉州围产儿出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶; 陈永慧; 朱明福; 吐尔逊江·买买提明; 陈筱萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the monitoring results of perinatal birth defects and explore interventions, so as to reduce the incidence of birth defects. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on the birth defects monitoring data of 99 150 cases from 2005 to 2013 in Changji region to analyze the incidence of birth defects in different year. Results During 2005-2013, the total incidence of perinatal birth defects was 73. 92/10 000, and it reached peak in 2010. Rising trend was found in 2005-2010, while decline trend was found in 2011 to 2013. The top five birth defects diseases accounted for 67. 37% of all defect types, and they were total cleft lip, more finger (toe), neural tube defects, congenital heart disease and equinus varus in turn. The incidence of birth defects was significantly different regarding nation, urban and rural area, gender, and maternal age (χ2 value was 37. 61, 61. 33, 51. 37 and 59. 46, respectively, all P<0. 05). Conclusion In ChangJi region the incidence of perinatal birth defects is relatively high from 2005 to 2013, which indicates that it is necessary to define the emphasis of prevention and conduct studies on etiology and population distribution of birth defects with high incidence so as to provide evidence for reducing birth defects.%目的:分析围产儿出生缺陷的监测结果,探讨出生缺陷干预措施,降低出生缺陷发生率。方法回顾性分析2005至2013年昌吉州辖区内13家医院99150例围产儿的出生缺陷监测资料,分析不同年份及不同出生缺陷发生的情况。结果2005至2013年昌吉州围产儿出生缺陷总发生率为73.92/万,2010年呈现高峰,2005至2010年成上升趋势,2011至2013年逐年下降。前五位出生缺陷病种占全部缺陷类型的67.37%,依次为总唇裂、多指(趾)、神经管缺陷、先天性心脏病、马蹄足内翻。出生缺陷的发生在民族、城乡、男女性别、孕妇年龄间均存在统计学差异(χ2值分别为37.61、61.33、51

  13. Analysis of influencing factors leading to major birth defects in six counties of Shanxi province%山西省六县(市)主要出生缺陷影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 王芳芳; 郭兴萍; 安焕晓; 王钰; 白云

    2012-01-01

    To explore the influencing factors of major birth defects.The children of 0 -3 years and their mother from six different districts were surveyed from November 2009 to December 2009.The incidence rate was 134.27/10 000 (493/36 716)in 6 counties. And the first five birth defects were as follows:congenital heart disease,neural tube defects,cheilopalatognathus,polydactylia and hypophrenia.The risks and protective factors of the first 5 birth defects were different.Anamnesis of birth defects and defective children from relatives,multiple pregnancy & birth and intake of antipyretic analgesics during pregnancy were the common risk factor for the first 5 birth defects.The key points for the prevention of birth defects are to reinforce the pre-pregnancy guidance,the screening and evaluation of risk factors and disease prevention during pregnancy.%为了解山西省主要出生缺陷发生率及其影响因素,于2009年11至12月对山西省6个县(市)0~3岁婴幼儿及母亲进行横断面和回顾性调查.六县(市)出生缺陷发生率为134.27/万(493/36 716);前5位出生缺陷排序为先天性心脏病、神经管畸形、唇腭裂、多指(趾)并指(趾)、智力低下,每种出生缺陷的危险因素和保护因素各有不同,其中亲属缺陷儿史、既往缺陷儿史、孕产次多、孕期服解热镇痛药为其共同危险因素.开展孕前指导、危险因素筛查和评估,孕期预防疾病是预防出生缺陷的关键.

  14. 2000~2009年围产儿出生缺陷相关因素调查分析%SURVEY AND ANALYSIS ON THE RELEVANCE FACTORS OF BIRTH DEFECT OF PERINATAL INFANTS DURING 2000-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡萍; 张新华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To acknowledge dynamic change on birth defect occurrence, to provide bases for making decision on drawing up and taking preventive measures. [Methods] According to the monitoring projects of birth defect in China, carried out the monitoring work. [Results) Occurrence rate of birth defect was U.90%o.Tne leading birth defects were neural tube defects, multi-fingers (toes), cleft lip with cleft palate, external ear malformation, other congenital malformation. [Conclusion J It should reinforce health education further, raise awareness of environmental protection and health care, pay attention to the period of gestation and parturition health care, genetic health, premarital health care, continuously improve the level of prenatal diagnosis to prevent and control the birth defects of the population.%[目的]了解出生缺陷发生的动态变化,为制定和采取预防措施提高决策依据.[方法]按照全国出生缺陷监测中心指定的监测方案进行规范地监测.[结果]出生缺陷发生率为11.90‰;出生缺陷前5位依次为神经管畸形、多指(趾)、唇裂合并腭裂、外耳畸形、其他先天畸形.[结论]进一步加强健康教育,提高环保意识和保健意识,做好孕产期保健、优生保健、婚前保健,不断提高产前诊断水平,防止和控制缺陷人口的出生.

  15. Birth defects in Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital during 2006 -2010%2006年-2010年烟台毓璜顶医院围产儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲鑫; 刘志芬; 李蕾; 徐爱群; 柳红杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the situation, influencing factors, diagnosis of the birth defects in our hospital, so as to provide evidences for periconceptional care. Methods; 301 birth defects in a total of 22211 births were monitored from 2006 to 2010, the birth defect rate was 13. 55% (301/22211). The top 5 common birth defects were Cadiovascular disease, total cleft in lip and palate , synpolydactyly, anephrogenesis or Polycystic kidney and Genital malformation. There was significant difference in birth defect rate between puerperal at city and countryside (x2 = 24. 34, P < 0. 01). There was no significant difference in birth defect rate between puerperal at different age, with different educational status, or different gender of fetus, But, the birth defect rate were higher in the age below 25 and exceed 35 groups than the other group, and the birth defect rate decrease when the educational status of puerperal increase. 48. 17% (145/301 ) cases were confirmed in prenatal diagnosis, and the main method was Ultrasonic Diagnosis. Conclusions: The key to reduce the birth defect rate is the primary prevention. We should improve the quality of antenatal examination and prenatal diagnosis technology, reduce birth defects, and improve the population quality of newborn.%目的 探讨我院围产儿出生缺陷发生状况、影响因素及确诊手段,为探索开展围孕期保健提供依据.方法 对2006年- 2010年5年间在我院住院分娩出生围产儿的监测资料进行回顾性分析.结果 2006年- 2010年我院共出生22211例围产儿,出生缺陷共301例,出生缺陷发生率为13.55‰(301/22211).出生缺陷率位居前五位的分别为先天性心血管疾病、唇腭裂、多指与并指(趾)、单肾缺如及多囊肾、生殖器畸形.产妇城乡间出生缺陷发生率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=24.34,P<0.01).不同年龄、文化程度及胎儿性别比较,差异无统计学意义,但年龄<25岁及≥35岁的产妇其出生缺陷率

  16. Analysis of birth defect in Zhongshan city from 2008 to 2010%中山地区2008年-2010年出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 万波; 李莉敏; 胡朝霞; 彭学鸣; 曾冠

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解中山市出生缺陷的发生及分布情况,及时发现影响出生缺陷的可疑因素,协助指导制定相应的干预措施,做好今后出生缺陷监控工作提供科学依据.方法 对2008年-2010年中山市各医院分娩的孕满28周~产后7天内出生的所有围产儿(包括活产、死胎、死产)进行出生缺陷监测,并对其发生率、顺位及诊断依据进行分析.结果 三年内中山市出生缺陷发生率为260.05/万,排位前五位分别是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、马蹄内翻足、地中海贫血、总唇腭裂.中山市户籍人口和农村、流动人口的顺位和发生率有明显差异.结论 加强流动人口孕产妇的孕期保健管理,普及孕期产前筛查意识,提高出生缺陷产前筛查和产前诊断的准确性,早期发现,早期诊断,早期干预,预防性用药等可减少出生缺陷的发生%Objective: To understand the prevalence of birth defects in Zhongshan, to detect the suspicious factors of influencing birth defects, to divide to provide scientific basis for making countermeasures to prevent and control birth defects. Method; Connecting the all perinatal birth defects data, including fetal deaths, stillbirths, live births, which detected during the second pregnancy over 28 weeks to postnatal day 7, analyzing the incidence rate, the sequence and the basis diagnosis on of birth defects. Results: The incidence of birth defect is 260. 05 per ten thousand in recent three years. The first five birth defect were: congenital heart disease, combined or excessive fingers or toes ( polydactyly) , clubfoot, a- Mediterranean-anaemia, cleft lip and palate. The sequence and the incidence rate of birth defect were significant difference, between Registered population and floating population. Registered population and population in rural areas. Conclusion; In order to depress perinatal birth defect rate, we should pay more attention in not only to the work of education of the

  17. Analysis of health care status and demands of children of birth defects%出生缺陷患儿保健状况及保健需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 丁辉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To acknowledge the health care status and demands of children born with birth defects.[Methods]Between July 2007 and September 2008, 453 live born cases of birth defects were diagnosed and registered by the Beijing Birth Defects Monitoring network-a hospital based birth defects registry system.Their parents were called to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 6~8 months.[Results]The proportions of 315 live born infants with birth defects inhabited in Beijing, Expanded Program of Immunization, and physical examination were 94.00%,93.40% respectively.The proportions of having been to the hospital once at least, not having been to the hospital, not acknowledging the fact of infants' birth defects were 70.70%, 27.10%, and 2.20% respectively.[Conclusions]The medical services were not enough for the demands of children born with birth defects.To establish registry system of children born with birth defects, to accomplish the net of diagnosis, therapy and transport of children born with birth defect will provide more services to the children born with birth defects.%[目的]了解出生缺陷患儿保健状况及其家长对相关儿童保健的需求.[方法]对2007年7月-2008年9月分娩且家长均居住在北京市海淀区的453例活产出生缺陷患儿,分娩6~8个月时通过电话调查方式询问出生缺陷患儿家长.[结果]315例在北京市生活的儿童接受计划免疫接种率94.00%、体检率93.40%;70.70%"到医院复诊过至少1次",27.10%"未到医院复查",2.20%"家长否认孩子有出生缺陷".[结论]目前的医疗保健机构不能满足出生缺陷患儿医疗保健需求;建立有效的出生缺陷患儿信息登记系统对于患儿信息的长期随访至关重要;完善出生缺陷患儿诊断、治疗、转诊网络,为患儿提供更好的后续服务.

  18. 中国30个县(市)1993~2000年神经管畸形在出生人群中的患病率及变动趋势分析%Prevalence of neural tube defects at birth in 30 counties and cities of China, 1993-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶荣伟; 李松; 郑俊池; 洪世欣; 陈新; 王太梅; 任爱国; 王丽娜; 李竹

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To describe the prevalence rates of neural tube defects (NTD) and yearly trends (1993-2000) in China. Methods: All the data were obtained from the Birth Defects Surveillance System in thirty counties/cities of China. The calculation of NTD prevalence rates and time trend analyses were based on the data for live (L) and stillbirths (S) only, the denominator used was total births (L+S). Linear regression analysis of the prevalence rate over years has been used to measure time trends. Results: In the period of 1993-2000, there were 1 264 neural tube defects among 1 189 126 total births in 30 counties/cities in China. The overall neural tube defects rate was 10.63 per 10000 births, and rates were higher (18.99 per 10 000 births) in the year 1993, lower (6.05 per 10 000 births) in 1998. The prevalence rates of anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele were 4.71,4.39 and 1.53 per 10 000 births respectively. Of all index NTD cases, anencephaly and spina bifida were most frequent, making up 44.3% and 41.3%, and encephalocele represented 14.4%. The stillbirth proportion was 69.3% over all index NTD cases, 95.4% in anencephaly cases, 43.7% in spina bifida, and 62.6% in encephalocele cases. Linear trend analysis indicated a significant decline for NTD rate (F=11.818, β=-0.814,P=0.014). Analysis by specific defect showed significant declines for the rates of anencephaly (P=0.004) and spina bifida (P=0.026), but no significant annual variation of encephalocele (P=0.227). Results of comparing with data reported from other surveillance systems (1994-1999) showed that the highest NTD rate (9.41 per 10000 births) was seen in China, nearly7 times the lowest rate (1.44 per 10000 births) in England and Wales. Conclusion: The overall neural tube defects rate in 30 counties/cities of China presented a significant downward trend between 1993 and 2000, and China still had the higher neural tube defects prevalence. %目的:描述中国30个县(市)1993

  19. Assessing the Risk of Birth Defects Associated with Exposure to Fixed-Dose Combined Antituberculous Agents during Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Awodele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (≤0.05 low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (≤0.05 elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents

  20. Assessing the risk of birth defects associated with exposure to fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents during pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Patrick, E B; Oluwatoyin Agbaje, Esther; Oremosu, A A; Gbotolorun, S C

    2012-01-01

    Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg) orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day) orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (P ≤ 0.05) low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents significantly

  1. 2000~2010年围产儿出生缺陷监测与分析%Monitoring and analysis on birth defects of perinatal infants from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳兰; 孙丽洲; 田静

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the high risk factors of birth defects in the area by retrospectively analyzing growth and decline of birth defects in the hospital, timely find out suspicious malformation - inducing factors, and provide a basis for carrying out prevention, early diagnosis, and intervention of birth defects. Methods: According to the monitoring project of birth defect in China, the data of parturient women and perinatal infants born in the hospital from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: From 2000 to 2010, a total of 27 838 perinatal infants were monitored, 311 perinatal infants were found with birth defects, the incidence rate was 11. 17%c. The main types of birth defects were polydactyly, congenital heart disease, cleft lip, multi - malformation, digestive tract malformation, hypospa-dias, and hydrocephalus; the incidence rate of birth defects in boys was statistically significantly higher than that in girls; the risk of birth defects among perinatal infants born by parturient women ≥ 35 years old increased significantly, especially among perinatal infants born by parturient women < 20 years old. Conclusion: Enhancing prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis and raising prenatal detection rate of birth defects can reduce incidence rate of birth defects.%目的:通过回顾分析该院出生缺陷的消长情况,了解该地区出生缺陷的高危高发因素,及时发现可疑的致畸因素,为开展出生缺陷的预防、早期诊断和干预提供依据.方法:依照《中国出生缺陷监测方案》,对2000 ~ 2010年在该院分娩的产妇及其围产儿的资料进行统计分析.结果:11年间共监测围产儿27838例,缺陷儿311例,发生率为11.17‰;主要出生缺陷为指(趾)畸形、先天性心脏病、总唇裂、复合畸形、消化道畸形、尿道下裂、脑积水;男婴出生缺陷发生率较女婴显著增加;产母年龄≥35岁,尤其是产母年龄< 20岁时出生缺陷发生率的危险

  2. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children--what do experts in the field say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, Anke J M; Rodrigues, Catarina H C M L; Verkerk, Marian A; van den Berg, Paul P; Dekkers, Wim J M

    2010-08-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women and fetuses, and (3) research with neonates. Because of the overlap of these three areas in this project, we can expect to be confronted with new ethical challenges. To be able to respond adequately and timely to current and possible future ethical issues, a prospective and anticipatory ethical analysis is essential. To obtain a first survey of ethical issues that might arise during the different phases of the project, the Delphi method was used. The professionals directly involved in the EuroSTEC project were questioned about their views on possible ethical issues. The first round yielded 27 ethical issues, which the respondents were asked to prioritize in the second round. For the fundamental research phase, issues deemed most important were privacy and informed consent of the tissue donor. For the animal experimentation phase, three issues were mentioned (in order of decreasing priority): the suffering of animals, the use of animals as means to an end, and the limited adequacy of the animal models. Issues that were deemed most important during the clinical (trial) phase pertained to the problem of weighing risks and benefits for the fetus/child and the pregnant woman.

  3. Risk factors of birth defects in China:a Meta analysis%我国出生缺陷影响因素的M eta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万素馨; 罗亚玲; 周天津

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the main risk factors related to birth defects to provide the scientific basis for making the best prevention policy and implementing the effective interventions .Methods Totally 21 domestic research articles on the risk fac‐tors of birth defects were comprehensively analyzed by the meta analysis method ,including accumulated 6 112 patients and 15 741 control cases .The articles were screened preliminarily according to inclusion and exclusion standard ,and then the fixed and random effects model were selected according to the homogeneity test .The merged results were performed the chi‐square test .Results The main merged results OR values of single‐factor‐analysis were as follows:the family history of birth defects 36 .22 ,early pregnant in‐fectious disease 5 .62 ,early pregnancy exposure to chemicals 4 .19 ,paternal smoking 3 .89 ,contact sedatives during pregnancy 3 .19 , pregnancy complication 2 .94 ,high protein food during pregnancy 0 .37 ;the main merged results OR values of multiple‐factor‐analy‐sis were as follows :early pregnancy infectious disease 7 .65 ,poor prenatal mental state 5 .44 ,early pregnancy fever 4 .70 ,early preg‐nancy exposure to toxic chemical 3 .90 ,history of abortion 3 .59 ,supplement of multivitamin during pregnancy 0 .45 .Conclusion The main risk factors of birth defects in our country are family history of birth defects ,early pregnancy infectious disease ,early pregnancy exposure to chemicals ,paternal smoking and pregnancy complication;the protective factors are eating more high protein food during pregnancy ,supplement of multivitamin during pregnancy and taking folic acid during pregnancy .%目的:探讨影响我国出生缺陷发生的主要危险因素,为制定最佳预防控制决策、实行有效的干预措施提供科学依据。方法利用M eta分析方法综合分析国内关于出生缺陷发病危险因素的研究文献21篇,累计病例6112例,对照15741例。据纳

  4. 180例出生缺陷儿危险因素分析%Analysis of risk factors of birth defect in 180 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季静敏; 鲁巧珍; 何萍; 黄璧琨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the risk factors of birth defect ( BD ). Methods With case-control method 180 cases with birth defect and 180 normal newborns were selected through the medical history review. The differences in maternal age, maternal occupation, first check gestational age, medical history at early stage of pregnancy, antenatal examination times, drug use at pregnant period, pregnancy complications, history of abnormal pregnancy and delivery, family history of congenital defects, history of exposing to toxic and harmful substances, paternal age, paternal occupation and etc. Between them were analyzed. Results Univariate analysis revealed that five factors were different between case group and control group: the average age of mother ( t = 3. 255, P = 0. 001 ), the average age of father( t= 2.047, P = 0.041 ), maternal occupation(χ2= 11. 016, P =0. 026 ), history of abnormal pregnancy and delivery (χ2 =5. 767, P = 0.016), and family history of congenital defects (χ2 = 4. 405 , P = 0.044 ). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that maternal occupation ( education ) was protective factor. Conclusion BD is caused by complicated factors, including age of parents, maternal occupation, history of abnormal pregnancy and delivery and family history of congenital defects.%目的 分析引起出生缺陷儿的危险因素.方法 用病例对照的研究方法,比较分析180例出生缺陷儿(其中133例活产缺陷儿、47例引产缺陷儿)与180例出生正常儿的母亲年龄、母亲职业、初次孕检孕周、孕早期疾病史、产前检查次数、妊娠期用药、妊娠合并症并发症、异常孕产史、缺陷家族史、接触有毒有害物史、父亲年龄、父亲职业等因素的差异.结果 单因素分析显示以下5个因素在病例组和正常组之间存在显著性差异:母亲平均年龄(t=3.255,P=0.001)、父亲平均年龄(t=2.047,P=0.041)、母亲职业(χ2=11.016,P=0.026)、异常孕产史(χ2=5.767,P=0.016)

  5. 早产对脑性瘫痪儿童乳牙釉质发育的影响%The developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小波; 张笋; 吴卫红; 吴志文

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究早产因素对脑瘫儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的影响.方法 选择135名脑瘫患儿,与62名正常儿童对比,进行乳牙釉质发育缺陷状况的统计调查.同时比较脑瘫儿童中早产与乳牙釉质发育缺陷发生的关系.结果 脑瘫儿童组中早产儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的患病率明显高于足月组,有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 早产的脑瘫儿童更容易发生乳牙釉质发育缺陷.%Objective To investigate the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth. Methods One hundred and thirty-five children with cerebral palsy were examined for the clinical manifestation of the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition. The relationship between the defects and cerebral palsied children's birth conditions were assessed. Results The prevalence of enamel defects in cerebral palsied children born premarurely was significantly higher than that in those with full term birth. Conclusion Enamel defects in the primary dentition are more likely to happen in cerebral palsied children with premature birth than those with full term birth.

  6. 龙岗区2004~2009年出生缺陷监测资料分析%Analysis on monitoring data of birth defects in Longgang district from 2004 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍强; 张玲; 邹丹玲; 陈文英; 夏洪波

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解近几年深圳市龙岗区围产儿出生缺陷发生率及变化趋势,为降低出生缺陷发生率、提高出生人口素质提供依据.方法:对2004~2009年出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析.结果:2004~2009年龙岗区围产儿出生缺陷发生率为13.05‰,流动人口出生缺陷发生率高于常住人口;男性围产儿出生缺陷发生率为14.15‰,女性发生率为11.50‰,男性出生缺陷发生率比女性发生率高;常见出生缺陷类型为先天性心脏病、多指(趾)及总唇裂;出生缺陷中的死胎、死产导致死亡构成比呈下降趋势(x2=38.19,P <0.0001),新生儿存活构成比则呈上升趋势(x2=36.65,P<0.0001).结论:积极开展三级预防,采取综合干预措施,降低出生缺陷的发生率.%Objective: To understand the incidence and change trend of perinatal birth defects in Longgang district of Shenzhen cit-y in recent years, provide a basis for reducing the incidence of birth defects and improving the quality of birth population. Methods: The monitoring data of birth defects in Longgang district from 2004 to 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results; From 2004 to 2009, the incidence of birth defects in Longgang district was 13. 05%o, the prevalence of birth defects of floating population was higher than that of permanent resident population; the incidences of birth defects of male perinatal infants and female perinatal infants were 14. 15%o and 11. 50%e, respectively , the incidence of birth defects of male perinatal infants was higher than that of female perinatal infants; the common types of birth defects included congenital heart disease, polydactyly, cleft lip or/and cleft palate. The proportion of perinatal death induced by fetal death and stillbirth showed a decreasing trend (x2 =38. 19, P <0. 000 1 ) , the proportion of survival neonates showed a increasing trend (x2 = 36. 65, P <0. 000 1) . Conclusion; Carrying out tertiary prevention actively and adopting

  7. Investigation on birth defects of the newborn from 2006 to 2010 in Huangshan City, Anhui Province%2006~2010年安徽黄山市新生儿出生缺陷调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怡; 章世妹; 胡红喜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the birth defects of children aged 0—5 who were born during the 11th Five-Year Plan (from 2006 to 2010), and explore the risk factors of birth defects in the region. Methods The children aged 0~5 were screened in Huangshan City, and the children diagnosed with birth defects by screen or clinical examination were chosen as investigation objects, and the epidemiological factors were investigated and analyzed. Results A total of 61842 children were screened, and 981 of which were cases with birth defects, the incidence of birth defects was 158.63/ten thousand. The top 5 were congenital heart disease, limb malformations, total cleft lip and palate, cerebral atrophy and congenital hydrocephalus, respectively. The incidence of birth defects was significant different in maternal ages and birth regions. Conclusion The distribution characteristics of birth defects in this region indicates that the birth defects are closely related to the age of the pregnant women , the education conditions and the infection during pregnancy as well . The protection in the early pregnancy will play a significant role to prevent the birth defects.%目的 了解黄山市"十一五"期间(2006~2010 年)出生的0~5 岁新生儿出生缺陷的现况,探讨黄山地区人群出生缺陷的危险因素.方法 采用流行病学筛查方法,以黄山地区的0~5 岁儿童为筛查对象,对筛查出的具有明确诊断或经临床体检诊断出的出生缺陷儿作为调查对象,对人群出生缺陷流行因素进行调查分析.结果 共调查61842 人,筛查出生缺陷儿981 例,出生缺陷发生率为158.63/万.排在前5 位的是先天性心脏病、肢体畸形、总唇腭裂、脑萎缩和先天性脑积水.对比不同生育年龄产母、不同出生地区出生缺陷率,差异均有统计学意义.结论 本次结果 显示孕妇的年龄、文化程度、以及孕期感染等与新生儿出生缺陷有关.孕早期保护对于预防新生儿出生缺陷

  8. 0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey on 0-1 years old baby with birth defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪少义; 何洁壁; 陈少娜; 吴翔; 蔡幸生; 黄伟鹏; 王榕生; 洪艳苹; 倪少英; 卢晓航

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of birth defect in 0-1 years old baby in some regions of Jieyang, then to determine the focus groups for prevention. So that it can provide a foundation for birth defect prevention, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care. Methods Those babies, who were born in Jiedong County, Puning City and Rongcheng District from March 3, 2011 to May 2, 2012 were surveyed by general investigation. Birth defect based on clinical diagnosis, its entity and statistical standard referred to the regulations of International Centre on Birth Defects and Prematurity. Results 238 cases of birth defect babies were found out of 10 773 cases of monitored new babies. The top five diseases of baby birth defects were congenital heart disease, talipes equinovarus, polydactyly, cleft lip and palate and fetal-edematous-syndrome. Some babies had higher incidence of birth defects, such as baby boy, low birth weight baby, and those babies whose mother did not take folic acid, vitamin and trace elements during pregnancy and whose family members smoking and excessive drinking (P < 0.05). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects in 0-1 years old baby is 220.92 per ten thousand in some regions of Jieyang City. It is slightly higher than the national average, so it needs attention from each side. Strengthening propaganda and education, screening and preventing birth defects are matters of great urgency.%目的 了解揭阳部分地区0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的发病情况,确定预防的重点人群,为出生缺陷的预防和孕前、孕期保健提供依据.方法 采用普查的方式,对揭东县、普宁市、榕城区三地2011年3月3日~2012年5月2日出生的婴儿进行调查.出生缺陷以临床诊断为依据,病种及统计标准参照国际出生缺陷监测情报交换所的规定.结果 共监测10 773名婴儿,发现出生缺陷238例;婴儿出生缺陷排名前5位的疾病分别是先天性心脏病、马蹄内翻足、多指(趾)、唇(腭)裂

  9. Relationship of Birth Defects with Electromagnetic Radiation and Food Chain%出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏花莉; 夏红卫; 韦红卫; 黄卫民; 孔琳; 黄琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of birth defects with electromagnetic radiation and food chain.Methods One hundred and ninety-five mothers who had infants with birth defects were selected as study group ,and 195 mothers who had healthy infants were selected as control group .An investigation was conducted on the aspects of living environment ,the frequency of using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven or microwave oven , and diet habit during pregnant period .The levels of estrogen ,gestagen and testosterone in maternal blood were detected after delivery .Results The mothers in the study group living near the electric transformer ,TV tower or communication transmission tower were more than those in the control group (all P<0.05),the frequencies of mothers′eating artificial feeding fowl,livestock or fish during pregnant period of study group were higher those of control group (all P<0.05). The frequencies of mothers′using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven ,microwave oven or watching TV during pregnant period of study group were higher than those of control group (all P<0.05).Conclusion Electromagnetic radiation and eating artificial feeding fowl ,livestock and fish might have influence on birth defects .%目的:探讨出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链的关系。方法选择195例出生缺陷患儿母亲作为研究组,195例健康儿母亲为对照组,对两组孕期居住环境及使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉频率和饮食习惯等进行调查,并检测分娩时母血雌激素、孕酮、睾酮水平。结果研究组居住靠近变压器、电视塔、通讯转播塔比例高于对照组(P均<0.05),孕期食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼等的频率高于对照组(P均<0.05);研究组孕期使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉、观看电视的频率高于对照组( P均<0.05)。结论电磁辐射和食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼类

  10. Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects in Metropolitan Atlanta, 1998–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Mark D.; Strickland, Matthew J.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Mahle, William T.; Correa, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine an accurate estimate of the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) using current standard diagnostic modalities. Study design We obtained data on infants with CHD delivered during 1998–2005 identified by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, an active, population-based birth defects surveillance system. Physiologic shunts in infancy and shunts associated with prematurity were excluded. Selected infant and maternal characteristics of the cases were compared with those of the overall birth cohort. Results From 1998–2005 there were 398 140 births, of which 3240 infants had CHD, for an overall prevalence of 81.4/10 000 births. The most common CHD were muscular ventricular septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, and secundum atrial septal defect, with prevalence of 27.5, 10.6, and 10.3/10 000 births, respectively. The prevalence of tetralogy of Fallot, the most common cyanotic CHD, was twice that of transposition of the great arteries (4.7 vs. 2.3/10 000 births). Many common CHD were associated with older maternal age and multiple-gestation pregnancy; several were found to vary by sex. Conclusion This study, using a standardized cardiac nomenclature and classification, provides current prevalence estimates of the various CHD subtypes. These estimates can be used to assess variations in prevalence across populations, time or space. PMID:18657826

  11. 湖南省2009-2011年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis on Monitoring Results of Perinatal Birth Defects in Hunan from 2009 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱华; 杜其云

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析围产儿出生缺陷监测结果,探讨出生缺陷干预措施,降低出生缺陷发生率. 方法 对2009-2011年围产儿出生缺陷医院监测资料用SPSS软件进行统计分析. 结果 监测293 053例围产儿中,出生缺陷发生数5 766例,出生缺陷发生率为196.76/万,3年出生缺陷率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).前5位出生缺陷依次为:先天性心脏病、外耳其他畸形、多指(趾)、马蹄内翻足、唇裂合并腭裂.出生缺陷发生城市高于农村、孕母分娩无明显的季节分布、大于35岁组母亲出生缺陷发生率明显高于其他年龄组、男婴高于女婴. 结论 加强孕前、孕早期保健宣传,开展产前筛查、产前诊断和新生儿疾病筛查工作,避免和减少出生缺陷发生,提高出生人口素质.%Objective To analyze the monitoring results of perinatal birth defects and explore the interventions so as to reduce the incidence of birth defects. Methods SPSS software was used to analyze the monitoring data about birth defects among hospitals in Hunan from 2009 to 2011. Results A total of 293,053 perinatal infants were monitored. Birth defects occurred in 5,766 perinatal infants, and the incidence rate of birth defects was 196.76/10,000. There were statistically significant differences in the incidence rate of birth defects among the three years (P 35 years was significantly higher than those of other age groups. More male infants were involved than the female. Conclusions It is necessary to enhance health care propaganda before getting pregnant and during the early stages of pregnancy and popularize prenatal screening, prenatal diagnosis, and neonatal screening so as to avoid and reduce abnormal infants and improve the quality of births.

  12. Case-control study on influencing factors of perinatal birth defects%围产儿出生缺陷影响因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 张海鲲; 李忠良; 翟庆峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探寻围产儿出生缺陷的影响因素,为出生缺陷干预提供科学依据.方法 按照1:1配对的原则选取出生缺陷围产儿和健康围产儿各807例,用单因素与多因素Logistic回归分析筛选出生缺陷的主要影响因素.结果 婚前参加体检,经常食用鱼虾肉蛋类、牛奶豆类食物等为出生缺陷的保护性因素;父母近亲结婚、家庭附近有污染、孕育期用药、孕育期接触有害物质、有生育畸形儿史、母亲吸烟饮酒为出生缺陷的危险因素.结论 出生缺陷干预可从控制环境有害因素、加强孕期营养保健、指导孕期合理用药、减少吸烟饮酒等不良行为生活方式、提倡婚前体检等方面综合入手.%Objective; To explore the influencing factors of perinatal birth defect. Methods; According to the birth date and sex matching principle, selected 807 perinatal birth defects infants and 807 normal infants. The influencing factors of perinatal birth defect were filtered with the Logistic regression analysis. Results: Regular intake of fish, shrimp, meat, eggs, milk, and beans during pregnancy , participating in pre-marital medical examination were the protective factors of birth defects. Consanguineous marriage, environment pollution sources near residence, suffering from chronic diseases before or during pregnancy, maternal exposure to occupational risk factors before or during pregnancy, abnormal reproductive history, and the habit of drinking and smoking were the risk factors of birth defects. Conclusion; To reduce infant birth defect incidence and improve national body diathesis, we must protect from environment risk factors, enhance pregnant nutrition, quit smoking and drinking, and advocate the premarital examination.

  13. 孝感市2007~2011年围产儿出生缺陷流行病学调查%Study on perinatal birth defects from 2007 to 2011 in Xiaogan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱越; 陆敏; 杨树杰; 刘景丽; 付汉东; 彭红华; 李君; 罗红英; 余小艳

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To master the epidemiology of birth defect in Xiaogan City,analysis the dynamic trends and try to find out the main factors that may affect birth defects so as to develop effective preventive measures to improve the quality of newborn births.METHODS All the perinatal birth defects monitoring data of year 2007-2011 that in all the midwifery unit of Xiaogan were collected by child birth defects registration card and analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS Five-year birth defects incidence was 4.26‰ and the rates among the 5 years had no statistic difference (P> 0.05).The common birth defects in the top five were multi-finger polydactyly (0.61‰),external ear malformation (0.47‰),cleft lip with cleft palate (0.45‰),cleft lip (0.39‰) and congenital heart disease (0.32‰).Prenatal diagnosis rate was 21.08%,of which B-ultrasound diagnosis was 14.46%.Age of the maternal was a factor to birth defects that when the mother was older than 35 or younger than 20 the incidence of birth defects was obviously higher than other age group.Male birth defects rate were higher than females.The defects rate in countries was higher than that in towns.There was a positive relationship between the maternal education level or lower household income and rate of perinatal birth defects.CONCLUSION The main birth defects in Xiaogan of the last five years are the surface defects and the high risk factor of the birth defects are mother age,education level,economic level and place of residence.The rural areas are the focus to make prevention.So we should strengthen promotion of marriage and pregnancy health and improve prenatal diagnostic techniques so as to reduce the incidence of birth defects effectively.%目的 掌握孝感市围产儿出生缺陷的流行病学特征,分析主要出生缺陷的高危因素,制定有效的预防措施,提高出生人口的素质.方法 采用《出生缺陷儿登记卡》收集孝感市所有助产技术单位2007~2011年围产儿出生

  14. Analysis of birth defects monitoring data from 2009 to 2013 in Liuzhou City%柳州地区2009至2013年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 农铮; 邱萍; 覃海研; 关海滨; 刘成娟; 张玉; 林墨菊

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解柳州市出生缺陷发生的变化趋势及流行病学特征,为开展出生缺陷病因研究及制订出生缺陷综合干预措施提供参考依据。方法对2009~2013年柳州市范围内119家助产医院的围产儿出生缺陷监测资料进行统计分析。结果5年共监测围产儿239343例,发现出生缺陷儿4324例,出生缺陷总发生率为18.07‰,整体呈现上升趋势(χ2趋势=44.393,P<0.001)。出生缺陷发生率前5位顺位依次是先天性心脏病、多指/趾、外耳其他畸形、总唇裂、马蹄内翻足。缺陷发生率城镇(22.36‰)高于农村(14.94‰,(χ2=194.909,P<0.001);男性(20.34‰)高于女性(15.33‰)(χ2=84.584,P<0.001)。结论柳州市出生缺陷发生率处于较高水平,应有针对性的进一步加大出生缺陷的一、二级预防措施,加强优生优育宣传,提高孕前产前检查,以减少出生缺陷的发生与出生,提高人口素质。%Objective To analyze the variation and epidemiologic features of birth defects in Liuzhou City , so as to provide basis for analyzing etiology of birth defects and making interventional measures .Methods SPSS 13.0 software was used for statistical analysis of monitoring data of birth defects in 119 obstetric hospitals in Liuzhou city from 2009 to 2013.Results Totally 4 324 infants with birth defects were found among 239 343 perinatal infants, and the incidence was 18.07‰with an increasing trend ( χtrend2 =44.393, P<0.001).The top five in the sequence of birth defects was congenital heart disease , multiple fingers/toes, other outer ear deformities , total cleft lip and horseshoe varus foot.Incidence of birth defects in town (22.36‰) was higher than in countryside (14.94 ‰) (χ2 =194.909,P<0.001), and that of the male (20.34‰) was higher than the female (15.33‰) (χ2 =84.584,P<0.001).Conclusion The incidence of birth defects maintains

  15. 肇庆市2001-2010年围产儿出生缺陷监测资料分析%Data analysis of perinatal and infants with birth defects from 2001 to 2010 in Zhaoqing county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志玮; 刘楚芹; 梁云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the incidence of birth defects and its variation in four hospitals of Zhaoqing, and to investigate the risk factors that causing birth defects, in order to provide references for formulating intervention measures. Methods According to the requirements of "Monitoring planning of birth defects in hospitals of Guangdong province", four hospitals in Zhaoqing were chosen for this investigation, and statistical analysis methods were used to analyze the birth defects data from 2001 to 2010 in Zhaoqing. Results 63 476 perinatal and infants were observed from 2001 to 2010, and 1 043 infants were found to have birth defects, and the incidence was 162.9 per ten thousand. There was an upward trend in general, and the incidence in 2010 was significantly higher than that in 2001 (χ2=21.635,P<0.001). The top three types of birth defects were congenital heart disease, fetal edema syndrome, and polydactyly malformation. Incidence of birth defect was associated with the sex, maternal age, and fetus number. Conclusion Birth defects have a great impact on the quality of the population, and the third class preventive measure should be continually strengthened to reduce the birth defects.%目的 了解肇庆市4家监测医院出生缺陷儿的发生率及其变化情况,研究出生缺陷发生的相关因素,为制定出生缺陷干预措施提供依据.方法 按照《广东省出生缺陷医院监测方案》的要求,以市内4家医院作为监测医院,对肇庆市2001-2010年的出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析.结果 2001-2010年共监测围产儿63476名,其中出生缺陷儿1 034名,发生率为162.90/万,总体呈上升趋势,2010年的发生率比2001年高,差异有统计学意义(x2=21.635,P<0.001).前3位出生缺陷类型依次为先天性心脏病、胎儿水肿综合征、多指(趾)畸形.出生缺陷发生率与围产儿性别、孕母年龄、胎数有关.结论 出生缺陷严重影响出生人口的素质,应继续加强三

  16. 珠海市2011~2013年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis on Monitoring Data of Birth Defects in Zhuhai City from 2011 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝伟红; 戚小兵; 伍平; 黄斯娜; 于春荣; 郭胜男

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemic trends and distribution characteristics of birth defects in Zhuhai city from 2011 to 2013 ,and analyze the main relevant factors ,which could provide basic information for making prevention measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.Methods The data of perinatal birth defects from all monitoring institutions in Zhuhai city from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Results The incidence of birth defects was 16.23‰ in Zhuhai city from 2011 to 2013 with an increasing trend. The top five types of birth defects were heart disease ,polydactyly ,syndactylia ,talipes equinova‐rus ,and cleft lip with cleft palate. The prevalence rate of birth defects was significantly higher in urban and among boys(both P<0.01).The incidence of birth defects was relatively high for puerperas over 35 years(22.81‰)and those younger than 20 years old(17.21‰). The proportion of the live birth defects and the prenatal diagnosis was 83.88% and 18.76% ,respective‐ly.Clinical diagnosis and ultrasound were the main diagnostic methods.Conclusion A well‐planned monitor system ,tertiary prevention strategy and comprehensive interventional measures are sensible ways to lower the incidence of birth defects.%目的:了解珠海市2011~2013年围产儿出生缺陷的流行趋势及分布特点,并对出生缺陷的主要相关因素进行分析,为制订出生缺陷的预防措施提供依据。方法对珠海市2011~2013年所有监测机构的围产儿出生缺陷资料进行回顾性分析。结果珠海市2011~2013年间围产儿出生缺陷发生率为16.23‰,有逐年上升趋势( P<0.01);前5位出生缺陷类型依次为先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、并指(趾)、马蹄内翻足、唇裂合并腭裂;男性围产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于女性围产儿的发生率(P<0.01);城镇人口的出生缺陷发生率明显高于乡村(P<0.01)。产妇年龄大于35岁和小于20岁年龄组

  17. 重庆市涪陵区311例围生儿出生缺陷分析%Birth defects analysis of 311 perinatal infants at Fuling district in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明会; 薛莹; 李红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status and change tendency of birth defects in the region to provide ref-erence for formulating reasonable prevention measures against birth defect. Methods A total of 311 monitoring data of birth de-fect from the hospitals including Fuling Central Hospital ,Puling Women and Children Health Care Hospital and Puling People′s Hospital from October 1,2010 to September 30,2013 at Fuling district in Chongqing were analyzed retrospectively,understanding the occurrence of birth defect,defect rate change trend as well as the related factors and birth defects (defects gender,age,residence and education level of lying-in women,etc.). Results Birth defect rate from the three monitoring organs of this region was de-creased annually. The occurrence of birth defects in 2013,accoutning for 1.846%(120/6 501),was significantly lower than that 2.046%(88/4 301) in 2011,whose difference had statistically significance(P0.05). The incidence of birth defect of the women aged less than 20 years old or over 35 years old were both higher than that of the women aged 20-35 years old. The lying-in women graduated from junior middle school or below had a higher occurrence in birth defect,and the difference had statistical significance(P<0.05). The prenatal diagnosis of birth defects,with the diagnostic rate of 21.54%(63/311) only,gave priority of ultrasonic diagnosis and chromo-some examination . Conclusion Paying attention to the occurrence of relevant factors of birth defect and improving the prenatal diagnosis of birth defects rate may effectively reduce the incidence of birth defect.%目的:探讨重庆市涪陵区出生缺陷儿的现状和变化趋势,为制订适合当地出生缺陷防治措施提供参考。方法选取该地区涪陵中心医院、涪陵区妇幼保健院、涪陵区人民医院3家监测机构2010年10月1日至2013年9月30日分娩的311例出生缺陷儿监测资料进行回顾性分析,了解出生缺陷发生率的

  18. Mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento en menores de 5 años de edad en México de 1998 a 2006 Birth defects mortality in five-year-old minors of age, Mexico, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdés-Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar la mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento (DAN entre 1998 y 2006. Seleccionar los municipios con alta mortalidad en OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to birth defects from 1998-2006. To select municipalities with high mortality among children under 5 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The source of information was mortality records from vital statistics collected by SSA/INEGI. We used the 2005 Municipal Geostatistical Framework by INEGI and SIGEPI for the spatial analysis. The selection criteria were municipalities with 80% and over of deaths due to birth defects. RESULTS: Deaths diminished 8% during 1998-2006 and rates decreased 20%. A total of 42.57% - 48% of deaths are due to circulatory system defects and 13.69% - 19.39% are due to the nervous system; the former rose 4% and the latter fell 32%. Eighty percent or more occur in children under 5 years and the rate in this group fell 8.63%. A total of 1 025 (41.82% municipalities are priorities, 104 (10.14% are high and 102 (9.95% are very high priorities, where 66% of deaths occur among children under 5 years old. DISCUSSION: The interventions to decrease mortality due to birth defects should be directed towards one-year-old children (75% and towards 8.4% of the municipalities that are a very high priority, since they represent 66% of the deaths.

  19. A STUDY ON PREVAL E NCE OF BIRTH DEFECTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH RISK FACTORS IN FAKHRUDHIN ALI AH MED MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Congenital anomalies or Birth Defects are a global problem. It is the most common cause of disability in developed and developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the overall prevalence of clinically detectable congenital anomalies in newborns along with the different forms of congenital anomalies and associated risk factors if any over a period of one year. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: I t’s an observational analytical cross sectional type of study. Seven thousand seven hundred and ninety eight babies born during the period from 1 st Nov, 2013 to 31 st Oct, 2014 were analyzed. Details of cases were recorded after parent’s interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. RESULTS: In our study, we have found that out of the total no. of 7798 babies born during the said period, the total number of congenital anomalies found were 53 0.7%. Cleft lip and palate was the most common anomaly followed by clubfoot. System wise, congenital anomaly of the musculoskeletal system was the highest (45.3%. A male preponderance is seen with M:F = 4:3. Maximum number of anomalies was found in the 20 - 25 y rs of age group. Moreover, anomalies were found more in primi gravida. Various risk factors were associated in 9 numbers of cases out of 53. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of congenital anomaly was found to be 0.7% and therefore awareness about preventable risk f actors should be created and early prenatal diagnosis and management of anomalies is recommended.

  20. 叶酸补充在出生缺陷一级预防措施中的应用%Use of folic acid in the primary prevention of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓蓉

    2013-01-01

      to eliminate the cause of diseases, prevent the occurrence of birth defects and improve the quality of newborns.Approach:Giving 1480 cases of women at childbearing age from pre-pregnancy or early stage of pregnancy a small dose of folic acid tablets"Serianen", as well as educational materials about the prevention of birth defects and eugenic trainings from January 2008 to December 2010.Results: the follow-up surveys on the 1480 cases of women after childbirth show, that non of their newborns has got birth defects such as neural tube defect or congenital heart disease, which means the preventive measures are 100% effective.Conclusion: Folic acid can effectively prevent birth defects such as neural tube defect and congenital heart disease. At the same time, the key of prevention of birth defects lies in taking primary preventive measures.%  目的:探讨叶酸补充在出生缺陷一级预防措施中的应用价值,预防出生缺陷的发生,提高人口出生素质。方法:2008年1月至2010年12月,让我区1480例准备生育的育龄女性从孕前及怀孕早期开始服用小剂量的叶酸增补剂斯利安,并为她们发放预防出生缺陷的宣传资料,对其进行分期优生培训。在1480例女性产后1个月至1年对其进行追踪调查。结果:调查结果显示,本组1480例女性所产小儿无一例发生神经管畸形及先天性心脏病等出生缺陷,预防出生缺陷的有效率为100%。结论:补充叶酸能有效地预防神经管畸形及先天性心脏病等出生缺陷。预防出生缺陷的关键在于采取一级预防措施。

  1. Analysis of monitoring results of birth defects in Leshan city during 2006-2010%乐山市2006~2010年出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the trend and risk factors of birth defects of 2006 - 2010 Leshan City. METHODS According to the require of the Sichuan birth monitoring program, 23 healthcare organizations were monitored in Leshan City and the results were collected and reported. RESULTS Total incidence rate of birth defects was 9.8 1‰ and the rate of perinatal birth defect in last five years declined significantly. The rate of birth defects of parturient aged from 20 to 35 was significantly higher. There was no significant difference of birth defects between male and female babies. In Leshan City, multi-finger/toe, small ear/no ear, external ear deformities, cleft lip and cleft palate, cleft lip and urethra hypospadias were most common defects; The rate of prenatal diagnosis was 12.26%. The incidence of birth defects associated with inheritance and pre-pregnancy or prenatal monitoring. CONCLUSION Health education, prevention and monitoring of pregnant women should be strengthened in Leshan to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的 分析乐山市2006~2010年出生缺陷发生趋势及其高危因素,制定干预措施,降低出生缺陷发生率.方法 按照《四川省出生缺陷监测方案》要求,对乐山市23所医疗保健机构出生缺陷进行监测,由县妇幼保健院收集汇总上报.结果 出生缺陷总发生率9.81%,5年来围产儿出生缺陷发生率历经波峰后稳步下降,差异有统计学意义;孕产妇20岁及35岁年龄组,出生缺陷率明显增高;男性与女性出生缺陷发生率差异无统计学意义;乐山市出生缺陷前6位是多指/趾、小耳/无耳、外耳其他畸形、唇裂并腭裂、唇裂、尿道下裂;产前诊断率12.26%;出生缺陷发生与遗传及孕前产前监测有一定关联.结论 进一步加强育龄妇女及其家庭健康教育促进,增强“三级预防”体系功能,重视婚前孕前检查与产前筛查(诊断)工作,做到早预防、早诊断、早处置,以降低

  2. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  3. Analysis of birth defects supervision in obstetrical hospitals in Beijing Haidian District%北京市海淀区产科医院出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟赋真; 张雪峰; 周钰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of birth defects in hospitals in Haidian District during recent years so as to provide management clue for supervision in the future. Methods From October 1 of 2006 to September 30 of 2010, fetus and newborns between 13 gestational weeks and 7d after delivery were supervised for birth defects in hospitals of Haidian district, and the supervision results were analyzed in terms of rate and cis position. Results There were 3 776 defected cases including 2 861 cases in perinatal period ( the incidence rate of birth defects in perinatal period was 17. 98‰ ) and 906 cases induced to abortion in second trimester. In floating population the incidence rate of birth defects showed a rising trend in perinatal period during these years( x2 =52. 250, P = 0. 000 ). The first five highest rates of birth defects were congenital heart disease, deformity of external ear, multi finger ( toe ), merged finger ( toe ) and hypospadias in order. The trend of neural tube defects rate was stable and the incidence of cleft lip dropped obviously. But the incidence of Trisomy 21 rose gradually, and there was no significant difference (x2 =6. 906, P =0. 075 ). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects is 17. 98‰ in hospitals of Haidian district, and the trend of birth defects rate is rising during 2006-2010 year especially in floating population. The primary prevention of folic acid supplement should be strengthened.%目的 了解近年来北京市海淀区医院出生缺陷的发生情况,为今后监测工作的管理重点提供依据.方法 对2006年10月1日至2010年9月30日期间北京市海淀区产科医院孕13周~产后7天的胎儿及新生儿进行出生缺陷监测,并对监测结果进行率及顺位等分析.结果 ①监测到出生缺陷儿3 776例,其中围产期2 861例(围产期出生缺陷儿发生率为17.98‰),中孕引产906例;②2006至2010年,外地户籍围产期出生缺陷发生率呈逐年上升的趋势(χ2

  4. Advanced molecular and cytogenetic technologies in birth defect diagnosis and prevention%分子和细胞遗传学新技术在出生缺陷诊断及防治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marilyn M. LI

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become an important diagnostic tool as an adjunct to classical cytogenetics. FISH utilizes DNA probes comprised of specific nucleic acid sequences tagged with fluorescent molecules to identify the number and location of specific DNA sequences in human cells. These probes can be used to determine various numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations, in many cases, gene dosage and/or structure alterations. Chromosomal abnormalities are responsible for a considerable number of birth defects, and more than 50% of spontaneous abortions. These numbers have been significantly higher since the advent of FISH technology that allows the detection of submicroscopic chromosome alterations. The clinic application of FISH technology in postnatal, prenatal, and preimplantation diagnoses has been playing an important role in the diagnosis and prevention of birth defects. As new technologies evolve, more and more new FISH techniques - such as subtelomeric FISH, multicolor FISH (M-FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and microarray - are used in clinical diagnoses, the role of FISH technology in both research and clinical aspects of birth defects will surely continue to expand.

  5. 超声检查在出生缺陷预防中的应用%Ultrasonographic examination for prevention of fetal birth defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keong WONG

    2009-01-01

    During pregnancy, a unique and dramatic sequence of events occurs, defining the most remarkable transformation of a single cell into a recognizable human being. Uhrasonographic examination is play a important role for prevention of fetal birth defect. For some years, there have been dramatic advances in ultrasound technology, including improved spatial and contrast resolution, three-dimensionaland four-dimenstional imaging, harmonic imaging, new and improved ultrasound sanning probes, and improved digital review workstations, to name a few. Likewise, our knowledge of normal fetal anatomy and pathology, and the pathophysiology of disease have increased substantially. The internet has made communication among researcheres earier. There have been many collaborative studies and refinements of the guidelines for the performance of the obstetric ultrasound examination. But there are still some differences in the approach to the obstetric ultrasound examination from one group to the others. Some issues such as what constitutes a basic ultrasound examination, what structure should be perform and interpret the examination, how safe is ultrasound, how should it be recorded and documented, how should it be reported,and how accurate rate of diagnosis fetal congenital malformation. In conclusion is that, the appeal of the ultrasound examination is that it is a noninvasive, safe procedure that has a high degree of patient acceptance and can yield a wealth of information. It is always a delight to examine the obstetric patient and reassure her about her pregnancy, when appropriate. However, there are times when an abnormality is strongly suspected but it may be equivoal or may not fit into a specific category. Under these circumstances, the best pathway for the sonologist to is to do a follow-up examination and seek consultation. If time does not allow a follow-up examination, then the sonologist should communicate to the referring physician and the patient that a definiitve

  6. 出生缺陷影响因素的meta分析%A meta -analysis of risk factors of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺亚琴; 郑玉华; 王晓成; 梅志强

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore risk factors related to perinatal birth defects in order to provide evidence for birth defects prevention. Methods; Twelve papers were analyzed by a meta - analysis method. The cumulative cases and controls were 3 771 and 31 549, respectively. Results; The pooled odds ratio ( OR) values of single - factor - analysis were as follows; family genetic history (5.11), abnormal child - bearing history (2.94) , consanguineous marriage (7. 69) , the number of pregnancy (4. 67) , parity (1.77) , gestational age (0.71) , domestic contamination (2.22) , exposure to harmful substances (4. 37) , catching a cold during pregnancy (2.18) , fever during pregnancy (10.25), drug use (2.98) , pet contacting during pregnancy (3.12) , paternal smoking (2.32) and drinking(1. 90) , dietary intake of fresh vegetables(0. 59) and fruits ( 0.67). The pooled odds ratio ( OR) values of multiple - factor analysis were as follows: family genetic history (2.61), abnormal child - bearing history (2.87), drug use (5. 11), exposure to harmful substances (4.76), paternal smoking (1. 53 ). Conclusion; The risk factors of birth defects are family genetic history and abnormal child - bearing history, consanguineous marriage, the number of pregnancy, parity, and domestic contamination, exposure to harmful substances, catching a cold and fever during pregnancy, drug use, pet contacting during pregnancy, and paternal smoking and drinking. The protective factors are the gestational age and dietary intake of fresh vegetables and fruits.%目的:探讨出生缺陷发生的影响因素,为开展防治工作提供依据.方法:利用meta分析方法研究国内12篇关于出生缺陷发生影响因素的文献.累计病例3 771例,对照31 549例.结果:单因素分析中各因素及其合并比值比(OR)分别为:家族遗传史(5.11)、生育畸形史(2.94)、近亲结婚(7.69)、胎数(4.67)、产次(1.77)、胎龄(0.71)、家庭附近有污染(2.22)、孕期暴露于有害物质(4.37)

  7. 陕西省2006-2010年出生缺陷医院监测结果分析%Analvsis of monitoring results for birth defects in Shaanxi province from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盘; 周晓娟; 甘露; 杨杨

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of birth defects in Shaanxi province, then to provide scientific evidences for the key of future work. [Methods] All perinatal infants aged from 28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth in 25 monitoring hospitals in Shaanxi province from 2006 to 2010 were monitored for birth defects. The data were entered by Excel 2003 and analyzed by SPSS 13. 0 software. [Results] The incidence of birth defects in Shaanxi province from 2006 to 2010 was 117. 8 per 10 000. There was an annual ascending tendency in incidence of birth defects(x2 =16. 81 ,P<0. 01). The first five main birth defects were total cleft lip,neural tube defects,congenital heart diseases,polydactyly, congenital hydrocephalus, respectively. The incidence of congenital heart diseases showed a year by year ascending trend(x2 =8. 58,Pbirth defects in rural areas was significantly higher than that in urban area(x2 =70. 72,P<0. 01). Single defects took up 83. 5%. There were 52. 2% cases diagnosed by ultrasound and 45. 9% cases diagnosed by clinical. The Prenatal diagnosis rate was 48. 1%. The perinatal mortality rate was 8. 3%o and showed a year by year descending trend(x2 =6. 91 ,P<0. 01). During the five years,the mortality among defective perinatal infants was significantly higher than that among non-defective perinatal infants, and the incidence of birth defects among dead perinatal infants was also significantly higher than the incidence of other cause of death. [Conclusions] The incidence of birth defect in Shaanxi province from 2006 to 2010 is lower than the nationwide contemporary level. Much attention should be paid to reduce the incidence of birth defects in rural areas, carr,y out the preventive work of neural tube defect and improve the prenatal diagnosis ability of all monitoring hospitals.%[目的]了解陕西省出生缺陷的发生水平及分布特征,为今后工

  8. Analysis of the Relationship Between Pregnancy Checkups and Birth Defects Prevention%孕前优生健康检查与出生缺陷预防的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勇义

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of the relationship between pre pregnancy checkups and birth defects prevention and its effect on the prevention of birth defects. Methods 355 women who did pre pregnancy health examination in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2013 as the observation group, the other to participate in investigation of 380 cases of women who not for pre pregnancy health examination as control group. Establish files for two groups of pregnant women, recorded follow-up situation, pregnancy outcome, the incidence of birth defects registration, compared incidence of birth defects of two groups. Results In observation group, the incidence of birth defects was 0.3%(1 cases of cleft lip and palate), was significantly lower than control group of 1.9%(3 cases of cleft lip and palate , 2 cases of neural tube defects, 1 cases of congenital heart disease, 1 cases of finger/toe deformity), difference was statistically significance (P0.05). Conclusion Using eugenic health before pregnancy in the application of married female school-age pregnancy before can effectively control their disease, through the analysis of the risk factor intervention, evaluate to prevent birth defects in situation, the maximum reduce the incidence of birth defects in newborns.%目的:探析孕前优生健康检查与出生缺陷预防关系及其在预防出生缺陷方面的效果。方法整群选择2010年1月-2013年12月期间于该院进行孕前优生健康检查355名妇女作为观察组,另以参与调查研究且未行孕前优生健康检查380例妇女作为对照组。为两组孕妇建立档案,对随访情况进行记录,登记妊娠结局、出生缺陷发生率,比较两组出生缺陷发生率。结果观察组出生缺陷发生率为0.3%(1例唇腭裂),显著低于对照组1.9%(3例唇腭裂、2例神经管畸形、1例先天性心脏病、1例指/趾畸形),对比差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论孕前优生健康在已婚适龄女性孕产前的应

  9. 昌吉州2005至2010年486例出生缺陷分析%Analysis of birth defects of 486 cases in 2005-2010 in Changji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筱萍; 李冬梅; 马彦华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of birth defects and related factors in Changji so as to provide some basis for working out preventive measures for birth defects. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the data of 486 cases of birth defects collected from each hospital in Changji from 2005 to 2010. Results The incidence of birth defects increased year by year from 2005 to 2010, and it increased in 2010 ( 10. 67‰ ) by 5. 61% compared with that in 2005 ( 5. 06 ‰). The incidence of birth defects when pregnant women were over 35 years and over 40 years was 8. 28% ‰ and 10. 67‰ respectively. The sequence of birth defects was neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, congenital hydrocephalus, congenital heart disease and talipes equinovarus in order. Conclusion The advanced ages and rural areas are the focus of prevention work. Strengthening propaganda on prenatal and postnatal care, enhancing system management during pregnancy, taking low-dose folic acid tablets before pregnancy and at early pregnancy and improving prenatal diagnostic technique are the effective measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的 了解昌吉州出生缺陷发生情况及相关因素,为制订预防出生缺陷的措施提供依据.方法 收集昌吉州辖区内各家医院2005至2010年间出生的486例缺陷儿的资料,进行回顾性分析.结果 2005至2010年出生缺陷发生率呈逐年上升趋势,2005年(5.06‰)与2010年(10.67‰)相比上升了5.61‰;年龄大于35、40岁以上妊娠者缺陷发生率分别为8.28‰、10.67‰;出生缺陷的顺位依次为神经管畸形、唇腭裂、多指趾、先天性脑积水、先心病、马蹄内翻.结论 高龄孕妇、农村地区是出生缺陷工作预防的重点,加强优生优育宣传,加强孕期系统管理,在孕前、孕早期服用小剂量叶酸片,提高产前诊断技术,是降低出生缺陷发生率的有效措施.

  10. Retrospective Analysis of Perinatal Birth Defects in a City of Zhe Jiang Province during 2000-2010%浙江省兰溪市2000-2010年围产儿出生缺陷及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱兰英

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the Zhejiang city of birth defects and dynamics in the basic situation, seek to influence the city's main reason for birth defects and prevention strategies. Methods: Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Obstetrics city 2000-2010 Statistical analysis of birth defects. Results: 9458 cases of perinatal birth defects occurred in 216 patients, the total incidence of birth defects 28.86‰; birth defects. child mortality rate 3.62 ‰.The top five birth defects are cleft lip and palate, neural tube development defects. no brain child, congemtal heart disease, umbilical hemia; the incidence of birth defects is proportional to matemal age, 36 years old pregnant women are high risk factors ofbirth defects occur;The incidence of birth defects in rural areas than urban . Conclusions: Prenatal screening of pregnant women of childbearing age, pregnant women of childbearing age in rural areas and knowledge of universal care, prenatal and postnatal care ofwomen during pregnancy bearing age to create a favorable social and cultural environment of birth, in health policy and health insurance system to give moderate tiltreduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:分析浙江省兰溪市围产儿出生缺陷的基本情况及动态变化,探索影响该市围产儿出生缺陷的主要原因和预防策略.方法:对2000-2010年兰溪市妇幼保健院产科出生缺陷资料进行统计分析.结果:9458例围产儿中发生出生缺陷216例,总出生缺陷发生率28.86‰;出生缺陷儿死亡率3.62‰.出生缺陷前五位的是唇腭裂、神经管发育畸形、无脑儿、先天性心脏病、脐疝;出生缺陷发生率与孕产妇年龄成正比,36岁以上孕妇是发生出生缺陷的高危因素;农村出生缺陷的发生率高于城市.结论:加强育龄孕妇产前筛查、农村育龄妇女孕期护理和相关知识的普及,降低围产儿的出生缺陷发生率.

  11. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or without cleft palate Limb deficiency Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) Hypospadias Asian, Non-Hispanic Spina bifida without anencephaly ... Gastroschisis Omphalocele Black, Non-Hispanic Encephalocele Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) Aortic valve stenosis Cleft lip with or without ...

  12. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all alcohol while you are pregnant. How can recreational drug use affect my pregnancy? Use of illegal drugs ( ... herpes, syphilis, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]). Toxoplasmosis: ...

  13. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition and are done on cells obtained through amniocentesis , chorionic villus sampling , or, rarely, fetal blood sampling. ... and, in smaller amounts, in the mother’s blood. Amniocentesis: A procedure in which a needle is used ...

  14. Monitoring and analysis of the Population Birth Defects in Tianjin Downtown from 2008 to 2010%天津市区2008~2010年人群出生缺陷监测资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝娟

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the population birth defects prevalence and potential affecting factors in Tianjin downtown from 2008 to 2010. METHODS The data of fetus and infants in Tianjin city from 2008 to 2010 were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 1 062 cases with birth defect were collected from 65 990 births, with an overall prevalence rate of 160.93/104 births. The rates in male and female births were 172.34/104 births and 146.65/104 births, and there was significant difference between the two groups (r = 6.902, P< 0.01). Compared with 20-29 years old, the rate was 189.61/104 births in an age ≥30 years group, especially, the rate was 482.76/104 births in an age ≥40 years group (χ2 = 18.849, P < 0.001). There was significant difference in premature delivery and low birth weight babies (χ2 = 404.491, P< 0.001; χ2 = 381.164, P < 0.001). The rate was 3 505.98 per 10 000 births in fetal death and stillbirth, early neonatal death and death with in 7-42 days. The rate was 25.91 times of live-births (χ2 = 3 663.76, P< 0.01). Birth defect risk factors included male births, elderly puerperal, premature delivery babies and babies with low birth weight. CONCLUSION Annual prevalence rate of birth defect in Tianjin presented an increasing trend. The improvement ability in diagnosis and monitoring should be partly accounted for it. Birth defects were more likely to occur in elderly puerpera's babies, premature and low birth weight babies. The babies were mortality in high and poor prognosis.%目的 了解2008~2010年天津市区人群出生缺陷的发生情况及其影响因素.方法 对2008~2010年居住在天津市市内6区的产妇所分娩的胎婴儿资料进行分析.结果 共收集围产儿65 990例,出生缺陷儿1 062例,发生率为160.93/万.男、女性胎婴儿出生缺陷发生率分别为172.34/万和146.65/万,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.902,P<0.01);与20~29岁相比,产妇年龄在30岁以上,尤其是40岁以上时,胎婴

  15. Research on the influence factors of birth defect in Zhongshan City%中山市出生缺陷发生的相关影响因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊付兴; 王丹; 史妙丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查分析中山市出生缺陷的相关影响因素,为出生缺陷一级干预提供决策支持。方法选择2014年1月至2016年1月中山市105例出生缺陷儿作为缺陷组,同期选择105例无出生缺陷的新生儿作为对照组。对两组父母的“国家免费孕前优生健康检查项目”档案中疾病史、用药史、孕育史、家族史、饮食营养、生活习惯、环境毒害物接触、社会心理因素以及孕前的各种医学检验结果进行分析。结果两组父母文化程度、在孕产史、用药史、饮食营养、生活习惯、生活环境、疾病史、家族遗传病史等因素比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。家庭经济收入低、孕期营养状况差、早孕期自然流产、死胎死产、曾用避孕药、被动吸烟、接解放射线是出生缺陷的危险因素。结论新生儿出生缺陷的危险因素较多,临床医生需加强宣传,指导女性进行婚前、孕前检查,养成良好的生活习惯,从而减少新生儿出生缺陷的发生。%Objective To investigate and analyze the related influence factors of birth defect in Zhongshan City,Providing decision support for the first -level intervention.Methods 105 children with birth defect in Zhongshan City from January of 2014 to January of 2016 were selected as defect group,and 105 children without birth defect were selected as control group.The disease history,medication history,birth history,family history,diet,living habits,environmental poisonexposure,social psy-chological factors and pre -pregnancy medical testing results from "national free pre pregnancy health check"archives were ana-lyzed.Results The differences in the degree of education,history of gestation,history of pharmacy,diet nutrition,living hab-it,diseases history,history of family genetic disease and some other factors of parents between two goups were statistically signifi-cant (P <0.05).The low family income,bad nutriture at

  16. 产前超声诊断胎儿出生缺陷的临床分析%The Clinical Study on the Diagnosis of Fetal Birth Defect by Prenatal Ultrasound Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马澜竹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究产前超声诊断对胎儿出生缺陷的临床分析。方法选取2012年4月~2013年12月在我院就诊的627例孕妇进行产前的超声诊断,观察超声检查的图像。结果产前超声诊断的符合率为95.12%,漏诊率为4.9%,符合率较高,准确率高,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论产前的超声诊断能够准确检查出胎儿的出生缺陷问题,提高优生优育,为胎儿出生缺陷干预重要有效的方法。%Objective Clinical study on the diagnosis of fetal birth defect by prenatal ultrasound examination is to be investigated. Methods Chose 627 pregnant women who were received and treated in hospital from April 2012 to December 2013 and get them tested by prenatal ultrasound examination. And then make an observation on ultrasound image. Results The accuracy of prenatal ultrasound examination was up to 95.12%,and misdiagnosis probability was 4.9%; the prenatal diagnosis was of high accuracy and its outcome had statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Prenatal ultrasound examination is of high accuracy in diagnosis of fetal birth defect which is beneficial to improve sound birth and superior nurture; it is a quite effective way to prevent from fetal birth defect.

  17. Analysis on the status of birth defects of Derinatal infants between 2001 and 2010 inZhoushan IslandsZheiiana Province%舟山群岛2001年~2010年围产儿出生缺陷资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐君球

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解舟山群岛10年间围产儿出生缺陷发生情况及变化趋势,探寻和分析出生缺陷发生因素.方法 采用纵向比较方法对舟山群岛出生缺陷资料进行分析.结果 出生缺陷发生率14.43‰,本地和流动经检验无差异,出生缺陷前10位顺位以先天性心脏病、唇腭裂、副耳等为主.结论 建立健全出生缺陷三级预防机制,多措施降低出生缺陷发生率.%Objective: To understand the status and trend of birth defects and explore and analyze the occurred factors of birth defects among ten years in Zhoushan Islands of Zhejiang Province. Methods: Longitudinal comparison method was used to analyze the data of birth defects in Zhoushan Islands. Results: The incidence of birth defects was 14. 43%e, there was no significant difference in the incidence of birth defects between local and mobile; the first ten diseases of birth defects were congenital heart disease, cleft lip with palate and vice ear and so on. Conclusion: The relevant departments should establish the mechanism of tertiary prevention of birth defects and make various measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.

  18. Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry: Annual Report on Birth Defects Among Infants Born to U.S. Military Families, January 1, 2000 Through December 31, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    745.4 Ventricular septal defect 745.5 Atrial septal defect 745.6 Endocardial cushion defects 746.01-746.02 Pulmonary valve...left heart syndrome 747.0 Patent ductus arteriosus 747.1 Coarctation of aorta 747.3 Anomalies of pulmonary artery Resp Respiratory...Biliary atresia Male Male Reproductive 752.6 Hypospadias, epispadias Urinary Urinary 753.0 Renal agenesis /dysgenesis 753.2/753.6 Obstructive

  19. 开封市出生缺陷影响因素病例对照研究%Case-control study on influencing factors of perinatal birth defects in Kaifeng city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊; 潘新娟; 余增丽

    2013-01-01

    [目的] 探讨开封市围产儿出生缺陷的影响因素,为出生缺陷干预提供科学依据. [方法] 2006年10月-2011年10月开封市468例出生缺陷儿的产妇为病例组,同一医院随机抽取646例于同时期分娩正常新生儿的产妇为对照组,进行回顾性调查,用单因素与多因素Logistic回归分析筛选出生缺陷的主要影响因素. [结果] 研究因素中,有12个影响因素的发生率病例组与对照组的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),其中危险因素是7个,保护因素5个;对单因素分析中有统计学意义的变量进行多因素Logistic回归分析,其中,婚前体检(OR=0.65),经常食用鱼虾肉蛋类、牛奶豆类等优质蛋白类食物(OR=0.59)为出生缺陷的保护性因素;而母亲吸烟饮酒(OR=2.02)、母亲致畸因素接触史(OR=1.63)、孕育期用药(OR=4.23)、孕育期接触有害物质(OR=13.26)、居住地有污染源(OR=10.23)等5个因素为出生缺陷的危险因素. [结论] 母亲吸烟饮酒、母亲致畸因素接触史、孕育期用药、孕育期接触有害物质、居住地有污染源等因素为出生缺陷的主要危险因素.减少和控制孕期主要危险因素是预防出生缺陷的重要环节.%[Objective] To explore the influencing factors of perinatal birth defect,and provide scientific basis for intervention. [Methods] 468 perinatal birth defects infants were selected as case group,and 646 normal infants as control group. According to the birth date and sex matching principle,Logistic regression was used to analysis muti-factor. [Re-sults] Regular intake of fish,shrimp,meat,eggs,milk and beans during pregnancy(OR=0. 59) participating in pre-marital medical examination(OR = 0. 65) were the protective factors of birth defects. The habit of smoking and drinking(OR = 2. 02) , the history of mother exposure to teratogenic factors(OR= 1. 63) ,medication during pregnancy(OR = 4. 23) .exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy(OR = 13. 26

  20. Survey of knowledge, attitudes and practice of preventing birth defects in married reproduction women%已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪己东; 翁彦云; 徐沛金; 戴黎玫; 武英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of health education on preventing birth defects in community in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) for married women in reproductive age. Method A self-designed general information form and a questionnaire on KAP of married women′s preventing birth defects were used to investigate the KAP among 300 married nulliparous women. Result The average rate of cognitive knowledge of birth defects was 60.8%, the average rate of cognitive behaviors was 59.2%, and the average rate of cognitive attitude was 67.4%. Conclusion In order to reduce the rate of birth defects and improve the quality of births, we should implement three-level prevention education system, enrich the health education methods to enhance the knowledge, attitude and behavior of married women.%目的:了解已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为情况,为制订相关的护理对策提供依据。方法采用自行设计的一般资料调查表和预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为调查表对300名已婚育龄妇女进行调查。结果已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识平均认知率为60.8%,行为平均认知率为59.2%,态度平均认知率为67.4%。结论实施三级预防,采取多种形式的健康教育方法以提高已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为水平,从而降低出生缺陷率,提高出生人口的素质。

  1. Analysis of the trend in prevalence of birth defects in Guangxi from 2001 to 2010%2001-2010年广西壮族自治区围生儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾萼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of birth defects and its variation from 2001 to 2010 in Guangxi.Methods According to national birth defect monitoring program,all perinatal infants in the birth defects monitoring hospitals in Guangxi from 2001 to 2010 were investigated and statistically analyzed for prevalenee of birth defects( per ten thousand),incidence rates of major birth defects,category and correlating factors.Results In recent 10 years,540 449 perinatal infants were monitored.And 10 897 cases of birth defects were identified with a prevalence rate of 201.63 per ten thousand.The main deformities were fetal edema syndrome,polydactyly,congenital heart disease,cleft lip and external ear malformation.The prevalence of birth defects among boys in the period of 2001-2010was significantly higher than that among girls and that in rural areas was significantly higher than that in the urban areas,and the differences were significant ( x2 =43.71,4.04 respectively,both P < 0.05 ).The prevalence rate of birth defects in 35 ~ age group was the highest and it was significantly higher than that in the < 20 age group,~ 25 age group,25 age group and 30 ~ age group ( x2 =9.17,41.33,58.77,29.10 respectively,all P < 0.05 ).There was an ascending tendencyin prevalence rate of birth defects in the period of 2001 and 2005,and there was a descending tendency in the period of 2005 and 2010.Conclusion Strengthening tertiary prevention measures,and improving skills of the medical wokers for prenatal diagnosis were effective measures to reduce the prevalence of birth defects.%目的 分析广西壮族自治区2001-2010年围生儿出生缺陷特征及变化趋势.方法 按照国家出生缺陷监测方案,对2001-2010年广西壮族自治区围生儿出生缺陷监测医院的围生儿进行出生缺陷监测,统计分析出生缺陷的发生率、类别和相关因素.结果 10年共监测围生儿540 449例,其中出生缺陷儿10 897例,发生率为201.63/万.出

  2. 三峡库区1386例出生缺陷鉴定结果分析%Analysis on the results of birth defects identification in 1386 cases in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明福; 李川海; 杨皓; 付新云; 李家菊; 崔蓉; 李练兵

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide a scientific basis for pregestational eugenics, genetic counseling, prevention, and reducing the recurrent risk of birth defects by understanding and grasping the current situations of birth defects and genetics, types, pathogenesis, and areal distribution in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Methods: The research objects received physical examination on the spot, assistant examination was performed; birth defects of the cases were identified and diagnosed definitely. Results; A total of 5 462 cases were identified, 75 kinds of birth defects were diagnosed definitely in 1 386 cases, the incidence of birth defects was 25. 38%. Among the cases with birth defects, 378 cases were found with monogenic inheritable diseases (38 kinds) , accounting for 27. 27% ; 146 cases were found with autosomal dominant inheritable diseases (18 kinds) , accounting for 10." 53% ; 130 cases were found with autosomal recessive dominant inheritable diseases (14 kinds) , accounting for 9. 38% ; 44 cases were found with X-linked dominant inheritable diseases (3 kinds) , accounting for 3. 17% ; 58 cases were found with X — linked recessive inheritable diseases (3 kinds) , accounting for 4. 18%. A total of 20 kinds of poly-genic inheritable diseases were diagnosed in 856 cases, accounting for 61. 76% of the total incidence. A total of 87 cases were found with chromosomal inheritance diseases (4 kinds) , accounting for 6. 28% of the total incidence. A total of 65 cases with other birth defects were found, accounting for 4. 69% of the total incidence. Conclusion: Many types of diseases were involved into birth defects in Three Gorges Reservoir Area; in order to prevent birth defects and reduce the incidences of birth defects, pregestational eugenics and health education, genetic counseling should be carried out actively, pregestational examination, prenatal screening and diagnosis should be strengthened.%目的:通过了解和掌握重庆所属三峡库区区县的出生缺陷

  3. 0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的流行病学调查%Research on the epidemiology of birth defect for infants aged 0~1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德卫; 骆艳; 贺赞群; 刘树青

    2016-01-01

    目的::研究可对0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷产生影响的流行病学调查.方法:随机选取5394例我市2014.4-2015.4出生的婴儿,所有婴儿在进行研究调查时均为0~1岁,对婴儿一般资料进行收集,将有出生缺陷的婴儿设为 A组,将无出生缺陷的婴儿设为 B组,采用 Logistic回归分析探讨对婴儿出生缺陷的影响因素.结果:所有本文选取的5394例婴儿中,在出生后立即检查出出生缺陷的婴儿有117例,在随后的调查以及随访工作中发现出生缺陷的9例,共126例(A组),占比为2.34%,另B组无出生缺陷的婴儿为5268例(97.66%).A、B两组婴儿在性别、体重、孕母孕期服用叶酸、维生素、微量元素情况、家庭成员吸烟酗酒情况方面存在较大差异(P<0.05).将上诉有差异资料带入 Logistic回归方程中计算,结果发现,出生性别、体重、孕母孕期服用叶酸、维生素、微量元素情况、家庭成员吸烟酗酒情况均是婴儿出生缺陷的影响因素.结论孕妇孕期服用适量维生素、叶酸以及微量元素,对体重过低的新生儿进行焊钳检查,对孕妇进行孕期营养摄入的相关健康宣教,以上这些措施均可有效改善新生儿缺陷.%Objective:To conduct the epidemiology research of birth defect for infants aged 0~1.Method:5394 infants (aged 0~1)delivered from A-pril 2014 to April 2015 in our city were selected.The general data was collected.The infants with birth defect were selected as Group A;the infants without birth defect were selected as Group B.Through the Logistic regression equation,the influence factors of birth defects were analyzed.Result:For 5394 infants,there were 117 cases with birth defects;during the follow-up visits,there were 9 additional cases with birth defects.There were 126 cases with birth defects in total (Group A)(2.34%);Group B had 5268 cases without birth defects (97.66%).The infant’s gender and weight

  4. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard;

    2008-01-01

    Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome.......Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome....

  5. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  6. Risk factors for birth defects:A community-based child survey%社区儿童的出生缺陷影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 赵丽萍; 商颖; 蔡建华; 周维谨; 车焱

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解以社区为基础的出生缺陷发生水平和有关影响因素,为出生缺陷的预防和孕期保健提供依据.方法:采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法,从我国东、中、西部地区9个中等发达省份中各抽取1个国家人口计生委信息采集抽样县,每个县抽取2个乡镇,再从中各抽取2~4个居委(村),调查其中所有已婚育龄妇女≤9岁子女的出生缺陷发生及相关信息,通过单因素分析和多元logistic回归分析,探讨出生缺陷的影响因素.结果:调查对象共3958例,出生缺陷发生率为1.80%.单因素卡方检验发现母亲产龄、文化程度、流产史、孕期微量营养素补充、产检机构与出生缺陷发生有关(P <0.05).多元logistic回归分析显示,产龄16~20岁(OR=2.53,95 % CI:1.25~5.10)、有人工流产史(OR=3.32,95% CI:1.69~6.51)、吸烟(OR=3.34,95 % CI:1.04~10.75)、孕期未补充微量元素(OR=1.84,95%CI:1.07~3.16)、在乡镇及以下机构产前检查(OR=1.70,95% CI:1.06~2.74)的母亲生育出生缺陷儿的危险较高.结论:出生缺陷预防干预应重点关注既往有人工流产史、低龄、吸烟孕妇对象,重视基层产前检查机构服务能力建设,提供优质孕期监测与营养保健咨询服务.%Objective; To explore the prevalence and risk factors for birth defects ( BD) among children in 9 provinces of China. Methods; By using stratified, random cluster sampling methods, 17 townships and 36 rural villages and urban neighbourhood were sampled from 9 provinces of China. All married women aged between 20 - 49 years old were investigated and a questionnaire survey on birth defects of their children under 9 year - old was conducted. Chi - square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between BD and maternal risk factors. Results: There were 3 958 respondents, and the prevalence of BD was 1.80%. Results of chi - square tests indicated that maternal age

  7. 2003-2010年南宁市婚前保健与出生缺陷发生状况分析%Premarital Health Care and Birth Defects Situation in Nanning,2003-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 龚祖康; 覃颛; 李芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the pre - marital medical examination ( PME) and birth defects situation in Nanning, improve the quality of the newbom population, and provide the theoretical evidence for formulating birth defect preventive measure scientifically. Methods The PME and birth defects situation in Nanning from 2003 to 2010 was analyzed. Results The PME rate in 2002 was 70. 66%. From 2003 to 2010, totally 1 087 060 people registrated marriage, 167 931 people had accepted PME, the average rate of PME was 15.45% ;during 2004 - 2008 the PME rate maintains between 2% to 3. 37%. Free PME was conducted since June,2009, with the PME rate of 14. 73% , and by 2010, the PME rate reached 65. 70% . The detected prevalence rate was 15. 70% . There were totaUy 10 437 birth defects during 2003 - 2010, the incidence rate was 16. 24 ‰, in which fetal edema syndrome ( thalassemia children) ranked frist Birth defects rate in 2002 was 14.73‰, and in 2010 was 18. 72‰. Conclusion The PME rate in Nanning during 2003 - 2008 was low, which increased after implementation of free PME. PME has the positive sense to reduce the birth defects rate.%目的 分析南宁市婚前医学检查(婚检)与出生缺陷发生状况,提高出生人口素质,为科学制定出生缺陷预防措施提供理论依据.方法 对2003-2010年南宁市婚检与出生缺陷发生状况进行分析.结果 2002年婚检率为70.66%.2003-2010年南宁市结婚登记人数1087 060人,婚检人数167 931人,平均婚检率15.45%;2004-2008年婚检率持续在2%~3.37%,2009-06起实施免费婚检,婚检率14.73%,2010年婚检率达65.70%.检出患病率15.70%.2003-2010年出生缺陷儿共10 437人,发生率16.24 ‰,胎儿水肿综合症(地贫儿)排列出生缺陷第1位,2002年出生缺陷为14.73‰,2010年出生缺陷率18.72‰.结论 2003-2008年南宁市婚检率较低,免费婚检后高婚检率上升,婚检对降低出生缺陷有积极意义.

  8. 宜昌市城区2008~2010年医院出生缺陷补漏调查%Investigation on the mend Leakage on the birth defects in Yichang between 2008 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小葵

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the omissions and quality of report card on the birth defects in Yichang city between 2008 and 2010. METHODS We investigated the omissions and quality of report card on the birth defects in midwifery agency of Yichang city on the basis of the National monitoring project of health of mothers and children. RESULTS The leakage rate was 7.49%, and the mistaking rate was 1.26% in the tables and cards. The two rates decreased year by year. CONCLUSION The fundamental guarantee of improving the quality of monitoring in the birth defects was the strengthening of management and supervision , and the raising responsibility of medical staff.%目的 了解宜昌市城区2008~2010年医院出生缺陷漏报及报告卡质量情况.方法 根据《全国妇幼卫生监测方案》对出生缺陷监测质量的要求,对城区各助产机构出生缺陷漏报及报告卡质量情况进行调查.结果 2008~2010年宜昌市城区医院出生缺陷漏报率平均达7.49%;表、卡填写差错率平均达1.26%.漏报率和差错率都有逐年下降趋势.结论 加强管理,坚持督导,提高医务人员责任心,是提高出生缺陷监测质量的根本保证.

  9. Study of incidence and influencing factors of birth defect among perinatal infants in Tianhe District, Guangzhou%广州市天河区出生缺陷相关因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绚; 赵晓骁; 陈温容

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解广州市天河区以医院为基础的围产儿出生缺陷发生水平及相关危险因素,为出生缺陷的干预提供科学依据。方法:以2011年10月1日至2012年9月30日在广州市天河区16家医院分娩或引产的孕28周至产后7 d的围产期出生缺陷患儿作为病例组,以1∶1配对方式选择同期在同一家医院分娩的正常新生儿作为对照组,对家长进行问卷调查,采用多因素Logistic回归分析筛选出生缺陷的危险因素。结果:出生缺陷发生率18.47‰,前3位出生缺陷依次为先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、唇裂。多因素Logistic回归分析显示,孕期放射线接触史(OR=2.205,95%CI:1.178~3.481,P=0.011)、孕期吸烟(OR=1.899,95%CI:1.270~2.839,P=0.002)、母亲先天性疾病史( OR=2.124,95%CI:1.243~3.629,P=0.006)、孕出生缺陷儿史(OR=3.893,95%CI:2.319~6.535,P<0.001)是出生缺陷的危险因素;孕期经常摄入优质蛋白(OR=0.874,95%CI:0.768~0.994,P=0.040)是出生缺陷的保护因素。结论:减少和控制孕期主要危险因素是预防出生缺陷的重要环节。%Objective:To explore the incidence and risk factors for birth defect among hospital-based perinatal infants and to provide scientific basis for intervention of birth defects .Methods:Perinatal infants in 16 hospitals in Tianhe District from October 2011 to September 2012 were selected as case group and normal newborn selected from same period and same hospital as control group , birth defect risk factors were analysed by multivariate Logistic regression .Results:Incidence of birth defects was 18.47‰, the former three birth defects were congenital heart disease, multi-finger(toe), cleft lip.Logistic regression analysis showed that the history of radiation exposure during pregnancy (OR=2.205,95%CI:1.178~3.481,P=0.011), smoking during pregnancy (OR=1.899, 95%CI:1.270 ~2

  10. 武汉地区1137例独生子女病残儿出生缺陷病种分析%Analize the disease of birth defect in 1137 cases of the one-child in wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占丽娜

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过近l0年来武汉市独生子女病残儿鉴定出生缺陷情况分析,探讨减少出生缺陷疾病再发生的防治措施.方法 武汉市辖区中申请病残儿鉴定的独生子女,资料进行审查和分析,经现场体检及相关的辅助检查,专家对疾病作出鉴定结论并进行归类.结果 诊断为出生缺陷441例,占38.78%.其中遗传性疾病34种346例(78.45%),非遗传性疾病27种95例(21.06%),以神经系统为主.结论 出生缺陷涉及病种多,病因复杂,应根据不同原因引起的出生缺陷,寻找对应的防治措施.%Objective: To discuss the preventive treatment of reducing the birth defect by analizing the information of the disablement child of the one-child in the recent ten years. Methods: Analize and reviewed the information of the disablement child of the one-child , and classified them by the medical examination and the relevant supplementary examination. Results: There were 441 cases of birth defects in the 1137 cases of the one-child, which were accounts for 38. 78%. In those the hereditary diseases were 346 caess (78.45% ), which the diseases species were 34. And inhereditary diseases were 27, which mained in the nervous system. Conclusion: The diseases species is many as the causes is complicated in birth defects. Looking for the preventive and treat measures should according to different causes of birth defects,

  11. Analysis of the Monitoring Results of Perinatal Birth Defects and Related Risk Factors%围产儿出生缺陷及相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余灵辉; 李海燕; 曹登成

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the occurrence of birth defects in perinatal infants and to analyze the related risk factors .[Methods]From March 2011 to March 2015 ,110 cases of perinatal birth defect that occurred in our hos‐pital were selected as the observation group .According to 1:3 matching principle ,330 cases of normal newborn at the same time were regarded as the controls .Clinical data of birth defects were retrospectively analyzed ,and the possible factors associated with birth defects were evaluated by Logistic univariate and multivariate analysis .[Results]Com‐pared with the control group ,the proportion of high education ,high per capita income level ,and urban residence were lower in the observation group;the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0 .05 ) .Univariate analysis showed that smoking or alcohol drinking ,fever ,complications of pregnancy ,medication ,parity (counts of pregnancy and delivery) ,physical labor during pregnancy ,violence and chemical or X‐ray exposure ,adverse pregnancy history , and history of mental illness are risk factors for birth defects ,while pregnancy and premarital examinations ,good nu‐tritional condition ,and the use of folic acid are protective factors .Multivariate analysis also showed that the use of pregnancy and premarital tests were protective factors for birth defects ,while pregnancy complications ,exposure to chemicals or x‐ray ,and smoking or drinking alcohol were independent risk factors of birth defects and were statistical‐ly significant ( P <0 0.5) .[Conclusion]Birth defect is attributed to many factors .By means of advocating call for pre‐marital examination , pregnancy check‐up , reducing exposure to chemicals and other harmful substances in the periconceptional period and the occurrence of pregnancy complications ,the occurrence of birth defects can be reduced .%【目的】探讨围产儿出生缺陷的发生情况并分析与其相关的危险因素。【方法】选取2011

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis of a Congenital Postaxial Longitudinal Limb Defect: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleta, Joana; Melo, Maria Antonieta; Graça, Luís Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Although congenital longitudinal fibular deficiency is one of the most common long bone deficiencies, there are few published cases of its prenatal diagnosis. Case report. A right longitudinal deficiency of the fibula associated with tibial shortening, foot equinovalgus, and absence of the fourth and fifth foot rays diagnosed at 22 weeks gestation is described. Sequential ultrasonographic surveillance was performed without obstetric complications. The anomaly was confirmed after birth, and conservative orthopaedic management was decided. Conclusion. Though rarely seen, postaxial longitudinal limb defect may be detected by ultrasound. The correct approach can only be decided after birth, when the functional impact of the anomaly can be fully evaluated. PMID:20592750

  13. Case-control study on physiological related factors on birth defects%生理相关因素对出生缺陷影响的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王香丽; 雷方良; 屈鹏飞; 李姗姗; 党少农

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the physiological related factors of birth defects .Methods A hospital based 1:2 matched case-control study was conducted among 147 cases of birth defects diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi ’ an Jiaotong University during the period of April 2009 to December 2013.Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were carried out to analyze the general condition, history of fertility, abnormal symptoms and disease during pregnancy .Results Univariate analysis results showed that advanced maternal age, frequent pregnancy, frequent spontaneous abortion, severe morning sickness, sickness history before and during pregnancy were the risk factors of birth defects .Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that severe morning sickness ( OR=2.197,95%CI:1.634-2.954), sickness before pregnancy (OR=2.089,95%CI:1.037-4.206) and during pregnancy (OR=1.562,95%CI:1.021-2.390 ) were the risk factors of birth defects .Conclusion Prenatal and perinatal health education should be strengthened .Great importance should be attached to prevent severe morning sickness and to carry out education and thorough treatment .The couples before marriage and pregnancy should be advocated to have physical examinations .Pregnancy care instruction should be provided aiming at different physical conditions of pregnant women , so as to effectively reduce the occurrence of birth defects and improve the birth quality .%目的:探讨出生缺陷的生理相关危险因素。方法收集2009年4月至2013年12月在西安交通大学第一附属医院诊断为出生缺陷的患儿147例,以医院为基础的1:2匹配病例对照研究,对产妇的一般情况、既往生育史、孕期异常状况及患病情况等资料,使用单因素分析和多因素条件Logistic回归进行比较分析。结果经单因素分析显示,高龄产妇、怀孕次数多、自然流产次数多、早孕反应严重、孕前和孕期有疾病史均为出生缺

  14. Analysis of influencing factors of birth defect based on health education%基于健康教育的出生缺陷影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月芬; 李佳樾

    2012-01-01

    Teratogenic factors are closely related with living environment and human production and life, but are ignored easily. Therefore, the key link of reducing birth defect is to highlight public awareness effectively. This article indicated potential high-risk teratogenic factors in people' s life from the point of view of physics and chemistry so as to strengthen the concept of mass prevention and treatment and improve the effectiveness of preventing birth defects.%致畸因子与生存环境息息相关,其与人类生产生活密不可分,但却易被忽视.因此,降低出生缺陷至关重要的环节是有效地提高防范意识.该文从物理、化学等角度指出人们生活中潜在的高危致畸因素,强化群防群治理念,提高防范出生缺陷的效力.

  15. Five Facts about Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Five Facts about Congenital Heart Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Congenital heart defects are the most common types of birth defects. ...

  16. Identifying associations between maternal medication use and birth defects using a case-population approach : an exploratory study on signal detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Linda; Zetstra-van der Woude, Priscilla A.; Bos, H. Jens; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Bakker, Marian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of many drugs on the unborn child are unknown. In a case-population design, drug exposure of cases is compared with that of a source population; this kind of study can be useful for generating signals. Objective To see whether a comparison of drug use rates from the birth defe

  17. 中枢神经系统出生缺陷相关因素的调查%Investigation on the Correlation Factors of Birth Defects of Central Nervous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙熙德; 丁华新; 舒仁和

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the correlation factors of birth defects of central nervous system(CNS) in the area of Dongting Lake, and to provide the references for establishing intervention measures to prevent birth defects of CNS. [Methods] Among 89147 pregnant women who had been pregnant for at least 28 weeks and delivered after 7 days during the period from January 1997 to December 2006, mothers of 115 children patients who were confirmed to suffer from congenital malformation of CNS were collected as the case group. According to 1:2 matched, mothers of 230 normal newborns with the same condition were chosen as comparison group. Then, questionnaire investigation and match research were conducted. [Results] Family history of congenital malformation, father touching chemicals, fathers' drinking index, fever caused by cold, touching pesticide during pregnancy, smoking passively were main dangerous factors of birth defects of CNS, with OR value of 14.50, 10.10, 5.00, 4.53, 3.89 and 1.76, respectively. Education level, B-ultrasound in the middle of pregnancy and taking folic acid were protection factors, with βj value of -0.48, -2.36 and -2.51, respectively and OR value less than 1. The difference between scores of questionnaire of knowledge of birth defects obtained by patient case group and comparison group had statistical significance (P0.05). [Conclusion]Doing pre-marriage health education and pregnancy health care, and medically monitoring high risk population are keys to further reduce birth defects of CNS.%[目的]探讨中枢神经系统(CNS)出生缺陷的相关因素,为制定预防CNS出生缺陷干预措施提供参考依据.[方法]收集1997年1月至2006年12月期间孕满28周至产后7d的孕产妇89147例,其中确诊为CNS先天畸形患儿115例的母亲为病例组,按1:2配对,选取同等条件的230例正常新生儿的母亲为对照组,进行问卷调查、配对研究.[结果]先天畸形家族史、父接触化学物品、父饮酒指数、

  18. Rare birth defects associated with Morgagni hernia and segmental aplasia of uterine horn in bitch: Case reportDefeitos congênitos raros em cadela – relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Santana de Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects, deformities or abnormalities are terms used to describe developmental defects present at birth, most of which are rare in bitches. We report the case of a six-month old mongrel bitch corpse, which, when subjected to an anatomotopographic study revealed the presence of rare birth defects as Morgagni hernia and segmental aplasia of the right uterine horn with its attachment to the transverses muscle of abdominis. In association with HM, we observed the presence of dextrocardia and a defect of the abdominal wall supraumbilical characteristic of incompletely Pentalogy of Cantrell’s, syndrome so far described only in humans. In association with segmental aplasia of the uterine horn, we observed the ipsilateral presence of the renal hypoplasia and ureteral agenesis. The diagnosis of those abnormalities was based on anatomical findings and confirmed histologically. Despite the rarity and complexity of the abnormalities first described in bitches, the literature suggested that the prognosis may be favorable to the life of the animal. However, early diagnosis is essential to avoid the potential complications of those diseasesDefeitos congênitos, deformidades ou anormalidades são termos usados para descrever defeitos no desenvolvimento presentes ao nascimento. A maioria destes, como a aplasia segmentar uterina, é de ocorrência rara em cadelas. Relata-se o caso de um cadáver de cadela, sem raça definida, de seis meses de idade, que ao ser submetido ao estudo anatomotopográfico revelou a presença de aplasia segmentar uterina (ASU associada à hérnia de Morgagni (HM, agenesia ureteral (AU e hipoplasia renal direita (HR. Além destas anormalidades, foi observada a presença de dextrocardia e de um defeito da parede abdominal supraumbilical, que caracterizam a forma incompleta da pentalogia de Cantrell, só descrita em humanos. O diagnóstico destas anormalidades foi baseado nos achados anatômicos e confirmado histologicamente. A

  19. Detection of critical congenital heart defects: Review of contributions from prenatal and newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Richard S; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Sontag, Marci K

    2015-04-01

    In 2011, statewide newborn screening programs for critical congenital heart defects began in the United States, and subsequently screening has been implemented widely. In this review, we focus on data reports and collection efforts related to both prenatal diagnosis and newborn screening. Defect-specific, maternal, and geographic factors are associated with variations in prenatal detection, so newborn screening provides a population-wide safety net for early diagnosis. A new web-based repository is collecting information on newborn screening program policies, quality indicators related to screening programs, and specific case-level data on infants with these defects. Birth defects surveillance programs also collect data about critical congenital heart defects, particularly related to diagnostic timing, mortality, and services. Individuals from state programs, federal agencies, and national organizations will be interested in these data to further refine algorithms for screening in normal newborn nurseries, neonatal intensive care settings, and other special populations; and ultimately to evaluate the impact of screening on outcomes.

  20. Monitoring of birth defects in Xixiang County in the period of 2008-2012%西乡县2008至2012年出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠玲; 薛丽君

    2013-01-01

    目的了解西乡县出生缺陷的发生率、种类及动态变化情况,探索出生缺陷发生的相关因素,并采取针对性较强的干预措施,减少出生缺陷儿的发生。方法对西乡县22个镇卫生院2008至2012年上报的出生缺陷卡中孕28周到产后7天的围产儿资料进行回顾性分析。结果监测围产儿共15753例,出生缺陷儿92例,出生缺陷儿的发生率为5.84‰,5年出生缺陷发生率分别为4.56‰、6.63‰、6.93‰、5.03‰和5.87‰。男性与女性出生缺陷发生率、农村与城镇出生缺陷发生率比较均无显著性差异(χ2值分别为0.060和0.970,均P>0.05)。前5位出生缺陷依次为:唇腭裂、多指、先天性心脏病、神经管缺陷、先天性肛门闭锁。结论出生缺陷的干预应以预防为主,加强健康教育,普及优生优育知识,加强婚前、孕前、孕期保健指导,全面开展产前筛查、产前诊断、新生儿疾病筛查,做到早发现、早治疗、达到提高出生人口素质及生命质量的目的,是有效减少出生缺陷的根本途径。%Objective To understand the incidence , types and dynamic changes of birth defects in Xixiang County and explore the related factors, so as to take highly targeted interventions to reduce the incidence of birth defects .Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on the data of perinatal infants from 28 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after delivery reported by 22 county hospitals in Xixiang from 2008 to 2012.Results Of 15 753 monitored cases, 92 cases were reported with birth defects , and the incidence rate was 5.84‰.The incidence rate of these five years was 4.56‰, 6.63‰, 6.93‰, 5.03‰ and 5.87‰, respectively.There was no significant difference in the incidence of birth defects between male and female as well as urban and rural infants (χ2 value was 0.060 and 0.970, both P>0.05).The first five birth defects were cleft lip and palate

  1. Analysis of the report of perinatal birth defects monitoring in fengtai district of beijing from 2006 to 2010%北京市丰台区2006-2010年出生缺陷监测数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳; 张静; 房春玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: By understanding the incidence of perinatal birth defect in Fengtai district of Beijing, in order to explore the influencing factors and develop interventions to reduce the incidence of birth defect. Methods; The data of perinatal birth defects from 2006 to 2010 were gathered from monitoring hospitals in Fengtai district. Results: The incidence of birth defect in Fengtai district was 110.5/10000 and there was a upward trend during 5 years. The perinatal birth defects stood on the first 3 rank of incidence list followed by Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of auricle, Congenital heart defects. There were certain correlation among birth defects, the mother's residence geography, gestational age, birth weight, gestational age of birth. Conclusion: It is valuable to reduce the incidence by a well - planned birth defects monitoring and preventive health care program.%目的 分析丰台区出生缺陷的发生情况及相关因素,探索降低出生缺陷发生的干预措施.方法 对2006~2010年北京市丰台区出生缺陷监测资料进行统计分析.结果 2006~2010年出生缺陷总发生率为110.5/万,各年的出生缺陷发生率呈上升趋势;按照出生缺陷病种分类,位于前3位的为多指(趾)、外耳畸形、先天性心脏病;男婴与女婴出生缺陷发生率比较具有显著性差异;母亲户籍、分娩年龄、婴儿出生体重、孕周等是出生缺陷发生的影响因素.结论 做好出生缺陷监测工作,加强出生缺陷三级预防,是降低出生缺陷发生的必要措施.

  2. 成都市某区六年来新生儿出生缺陷分析%The Analysis of Birth Defects of Newborns During the Past Six Years in a District of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅; 周礼英; 吴怀勇; 张志华; 张倩; 李青林; 汪渝; 杜彪; 王园

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied puerperae from one district in Chengdu who registered, gave birth or had induced la-bor in our district during 2007 and 2013. For our sample,we investigated on subjects who had newborns with defects,or stillbirths. We summarized the factors on puerperae to have newborns with defects. We also summarized the examination methods and the de-velopment of newborn defects. We investigated newborns’ defects and the dynamic changes so that we can have a theoretical basis in preventing newborn defects. Methods We included puerperae from one district in Chengdu who registered,gave birth or had induced labor in our district during 2007 and 2013. All subjects were founded by using the registration information from pediatrics, obstetrics and health divisions. Puerperae with birth defects information were included. They were divided into two groups accord-ing to their due dates. We did retrospective survey on both groups,studied their medical records,and made records about puerperae who gave birth to defected newborns or had stillbirths. We used χ2test with collected data on both groups. Results During recent years,maternal health awareness might have increased. Puerperae in Group B were significantly better than puerperae in Group A in terms of premarital medical examinations,periodic medical examinations during pregnancy,and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Birth defects screening methods relied mainly on Down’s screening and fetal ultrasound examination. Birth defects were still mainly focused on eye,ear,face,or neck malformation,cryptorchidism,limbs,fingers or toes deformity. Conclusion During the past three years, chromosome abnormalities were found more frequently. It might suggest that there was a correlation with high-risk contacts.%目的:对成都市某区2007年至2013年在我区建卡、分娩或引产孕产妇,调查其中具有缺陷新生儿及死胎的产妇相关信息,总结近年来出生缺陷的产妇因素、检

  3. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States. Preterm birth rates decreased from 2007 to 2014, and CDC research shows ...

  4. 北京平谷区三年出生缺陷产前超声筛查分析%Prenatal Ultrasound Screening Analysis for the Birth Defects within 3 Years in Pinggu District in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大平

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ultrasonography in prenatal screening for birth defects diagnosis,understanding of the region the incidence of birth defects,in order to reduce the occurrence of congenital malformation.Methods In 2007,2008,my area,2009 (statistical time for every year from October 1st to next September 30th) delivery within seven days after the diagnosis of birth defects and ultrasound examination results were analyzed.Results In three years the region a total of 162 infants with birth defects,a total of 60 cases of prenatal ultrasound screening detected fetal malformation,and confirmed after birth ultrasound diagnosis correctly,ultrasound screening for the detection rate for 37 %.Missed diagnosis of malformations mainly for cardiac malformation in 45 cases,means (toe) abnormalities in 26 cases,lip,palate 8 cases.Conclusions Ultrasound examination can be detected in the vast majority of congenital fetal malformations,at present this area for gastroschisis,anencephaly and other obvious fetal malformation high detection rate,on minor malformations such as finger (toe) abnormalities in three years has never been detected,on fetal cardiac abnormalities by ultrasonography technology needs to be further improved.%目的 探讨超声产前筛查对出生缺陷的诊断价值,了解本地区出生缺陷的发生动态,为减少先天畸形的发生提供依据.方法 将平谷区2007-2009年(统计时间为每年10月1日至次年9月30日)分娩后7d内诊断的出生缺陷儿与超声检查结果,进行对比分析.结果 3年全区共分娩畸形儿162例,产前超声共筛查出60例畸形胎儿,且出生后证实超声诊断正确,超声筛查的检出率为37%.漏诊心脏畸形45例,指(趾)异常26例,唇、腭裂8例等.结论 超声检查可以检出绝大多数的胎儿先天畸形,目前平谷区对腹裂、无脑儿等明显的胎儿畸形检出率高,对微小畸形如指(趾)异常3年从未检出过,对胎儿心脏异常的超声检查技术有待进一步提高.

  5. Birth Defects in Infants Born in 1998-2004 to Men and Women Serving in the US Military During the 1990-1991 Gulf War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    exposure data and in-theater medical care were linked to birth data to investigate the potential for long-term teratogenicity of specific exposures...the National Personnel Records Center database. Furthermore, few data were available regarding other possible teratogens , such as depleted uranium...Arfsten et al., 2001), or known teratogens , such as smoking (Werler et al., 2005), alcohol consumption (Larkby and Day, 1997), and pesticide expo- sure

  6. The effect of health education on preventing birth defects in a community of Nanjing City%南京市社区预防出生缺陷健康教育的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许碧云; 胡娅莉; 崔晓宁; 姚敬; 洪红

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价南京市鼓楼区预防出生缺陷健康教育的效果,为以社区为基础的出生缺陷一级预防提供科学依据.方法 选择2008年3月~2009年7月在南京市鼓楼区建围产期保健小卡的孕妇作为调查对象并进行出生缺陷相关知识宣传教育,采用问卷调查早孕人群干预前后出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的变化,分析其影响因素.结果 干预后早孕人群对预防出生缺陷相关知识的总得分(34.43±3.10)高于干预前(29.56±4.77) (t=58.50,P<0.001).干预后21道题目回答正确率均高于干预前,其中仅1道题干预前后正确率的差异无统计学意义(P=0.458).年龄、文化程度、职业和家庭人均月收入对干预效果都有明显的影响(均有P<0.05).年龄大者比年龄小者,本科及以上文化程度比初中及以下者,医护人员比工人,家庭人均月收入1 001 ~元、2 001~元、3 001~元、4 001~元、≥5 001元比≤1 000元者对知识的掌握明显增多.结论 利用健康教育的模式对早孕人群进行干预,能提高其预防出生缺陷的能力.应对文化程度偏低、家庭收入较少的育龄妇女进行预防出生缺陷知识的普及.%Objective To evaluate the effect of health education on preventing birth defects in Gulou District of Nanjing City, in order to provide scientific evidence for the first-level prevention of the birth defect based on community. Methods Health education was conducted among the pregnant women who build card of perinatal health during March 2008 to July 2009 in Gulou District of Nanjing City. The questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of birth defect prevention among the early pregnant women. The results were analyzed to find the changes of knowledge , attitude and practice of birth defect prevention before- and after- intervention, and to find the influencing factors of intervention effect. Results There was significant promotion (i = 58. 50

  7. Estudo de prevalência de defeitos congênitos no Vale do Paraíba Paulista Prevalence study of birth defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilene Otaviano Pinto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de anomalias congênitas no Vale do Paraíba Paulista em 2002 e 2003. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados constantes na Declaração de Nascido Vivo (DNV, cujas informações estavam no portal da Secretaria da Saúde do Estado de São Paulo. As malformações foram descritas de acordo com o capítulo XVII do Código Internacional de Doenças (CID 10, referente a variáveis maternas e do recém-nascido. A variável desfecho (dependente foi a presença de anomalia congênita; as demais informações das mães e do recém-nascido constantes na DNV (variáveis independentes foram analisadas para estimar as associações entre elas e a variável desfecho. Utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info 6.04d para análise estatística e o teste do qui-quadrado, do qui-quadrado de tendência linear e o teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 41.838 dados com informações constantes nas DNVs, sendo identificados 618 (1,5% sem preenchimento do campo correspondente à anomalia congênita e 317 (0,76% nascidos com anomalia congênita. Houve associação positiva de anomalias congênitas com menor duração da gestação, maior número de filhos mortos, tipo de parto, baixo peso ao nascer e menor escore de Apgar. Os sistemas mais afetados foram o osteomuscular e o nervoso. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de malformações foi menor que a encontrada em outros estudos, possivelmente por sub-registro de informação.OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of birth defects in the Vale do Paraíba Paulista, São Paulo - Brazil, during the years of 2002 and 2003. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on Birth Certificates available in the São Paulo Health Secretary site. The abnormalities were described according to chapter XVII of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD 10 for variables related to mothers and infants born alive at birth. The dependent variable was the presence of abnormalities

  8. Playing the role of preventing and curing birth defects in the second grade general hospitals%发挥二级综合医院在防治出生缺陷中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张园园; 蔡慧兰; 吴晨

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对6个县市二级综合医院产前筛查等情况进行调查研究,探讨预防出生缺陷的新途径.方法 采取定性定量相结合的办法、访谈法、问卷调查法等.结果 二级综合医院开展遗传咨询、产前筛查、产前诊断、新生儿疾病筛查等方面工作做得不够,婚检和婚前保健工作存在薄弱环节.结论 我国出生缺陷总发生率呈上升趋势,加强二级综合医院妇产科建设,充分发挥其产前筛查、遗传咨询、产前诊断职能,有利于帮助解决出生缺陷这一突出的公共卫生问题.%Objective To investigate and study the conditions of prenatal screening and other items in the second grade general hospitals of six counties and cities, and to explore a new way to prevent birth defects. Methods A combination of qualitative and quantitative ways, interviews, questionnaires and other approaches were taken. Results Carrying out genetic counseling, prenatal screening & diagnosis, neonatal disease screening and other items were not good enough in the second grade general hospitals. Meanwhile, the antemarital physical examination and premarital health service had weaknesses. Conclusion The total incidence rate of birth defects in China increases in the ascendant trend. Therefore, it is vital to strengthen the construction of the department of obstetrics and gynecology in the second grade general hospitals, and the hospitals should fully display its functional role in prenatal screening, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis which can help resolve the prominent public health problem of birth defects.

  9. Experience of reasons and intervention measures of 7 cases of birth defects of multi finger(toe)%出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例原因分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呙明蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨出生缺陷多指(趾)儿的原因及干预措施。方法:2009年10月-2013年9月收治出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例,针对其发生率、孕周、胎儿性别、孕妇的年龄、文化程度、孕早期情况、出生缺陷、转归等7个方面进行统计及分析。结果:发生率:出生缺陷儿的发生率70.63‰,围产儿的死亡率32.60‰;多指(趾)儿发生率26.92%,围产儿存活率100%。孕周:37周1例,38周3例,39周2例,40周1例,7例均为足月产。胎儿性别:男4例,女3例,性别没有差异。孕妇年龄:26岁1例,27岁1例,28岁2例,29岁2例,30岁1例,孕妇年龄没有差别。文化程度:小学1例,初中3例,大专3例。孕早期情况:感冒1例,发热1例,无异常5例。畸形部位:多指5例,多趾1例,右足并趾1例。转归:活产7例,均为活产。结论;对7例出生缺陷儿的原因分析,加强对优生优育的宣教,避免不良生活习惯,避免孕早期病毒感染和孕期的保健,提高生存质量的重要措施。%Objective:To explore the reasons and intervention measures of birth defects of multi finger(toe).Methods:7 cases with birth defects of multi finger(toe) were selected from October 2009 to September 2013.We analyzed the incidence,gestational weeks,fetus gender,maternal age,culture degree,early pregnancy,birth defects and prognosis.Results:The incidence rate of birth defects in children was 70.63‰,and perinatal mortality was 32.60‰.Multi finger(toe) rate was 26.92%,and the perinatal survival rate was 100%.Gestational age:1 case was 37 weeks,3 cases were 38 weeks,2 cases were 39 weeks,1 case were 40 weeks,7 cases were all full-term birth.The sex of the fetus:4 cases were male,3 cases were female,there was no gender differences.Age of pregnant women:1 case was 26 years old,1 case was 27 years old,2 cases were 28 years old,2 cases were 29 years old,1 case was 30 years old,there was no difference in

  10. 2007-2014年潍坊市寒亭区围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis on monitoring results of perinatal birth defects in Hanting District of Weifang city from 2007 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 张毅; 郭文星; 王立洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the monitoring results of perinatal birth defects in Hanting District of Weifang city,put forward suggestions for prevention of birth defects in the region.Methods The monitoring data of perinatal birth defects from January 1 st,2007 to December 31st,2014 were researched,SPSS software was used for statistical analysis.Results From 2007 to 2014,there were 29 142 perinatal infants in the region,113 infants were diagnosed as birth defects,the average incidence rate of birth defects was 3.88‰.The top five types of birth defects were polydactylism,total cleft lip and palate,congenital heart disease,deformity,and hydrocephalus.Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects in Hanting District of Weifang city in recent years showed a decreasing trend,corresponding intervention measures should be taken according to the change of rank of birth defects.%目的 分析潍坊市寒亭区出生缺陷的监测结果,有针对性地对该地区出生缺陷的预防提出建议.方法 研究2007年1月1日-2014年12月31日所有妊娠从28周到产后7d的围产儿的出生缺陷监测资料,用SPSS软件对围产儿出生缺陷医院监测资料进行统计分析.结果 2007-2014年该地区共有围产儿29 142例,出生缺陷113例,出生缺陷的平均发生率为3.88‰,前5位出生缺陷类型依次为多指(趾),总唇腭裂,先天性心脏病,总畸形和脑积水.结论 潍坊市寒亭区近几年出生缺陷的发生率总体呈下降趋势,应针对出生缺陷顺位统计的变化采取有针对性的干预措施.

  11. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  12. Analysis on Effect of Thalassemia Interventions on Prevention of Birth Defects%地中海贫血干预措施预防出生缺陷的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远流; 刘百灵; 樊钰辰

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨地中海贫血干预措施预防出生缺陷的效果。方法对门诊所有产检孕妇及其丈夫27076例进行地中海贫血相关知识宣教,同时进行地中海贫血筛查,双方筛查阳性的夫妇均进行地中海贫血基因诊断,对高风险的孕妇进行产前诊断,确诊重型地中海贫血胎儿者建议终止妊娠。结果共筛查27076例,其中建卡孕妇筛查14877例,丈夫筛查12199例。地贫筛查双方均阳性的夫妇341对,其中高风险的孕妇148例进行产前诊断,确诊重型地中海贫血胎儿28例,均引产。结论孕期地中海贫血干预可以避免重度地中海贫血胎儿的出生,从而降低出生缺陷发生率。%Objective To investigate the effect of thalassemia interventions on the prevention of birth defects . Methods We performed the publicity and education of thalassemia-related knowledge in 27 076 cases ( including pregnant women and their husbands ) as well as a thalassemia screening in prenatal clinic .The couples whose thalassemia screening results showed positive were given a thalassemia gene diagnosis for both and prenatal diagnosis for high-risk pregnant women.The pregnant women with thalassemia major fetus were suggested to terminate pregnancy .Results A total of 27 076 cases were enrolled in the thalassemia screening ,including 14 877 pregnant women building the card and 12 199 husbands.The thalassemia screening results were positive for 341 couples.One hundred and forty-eight cases of high-risk pregnant women were given a prenatal diagnosis ,and 28 confirmed thalassemia major fetuses received induction of labor.Conclusion The thalassemia intervention during pregnancy can avoid the birth of thalassemia major fetuses , thereby it can reduce the incidence of birth defects .

  13. Living with a Congenital Heart Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the dentist also can help prevent IE. Birth Control and Pregnancy Women who have heart defects should ... with their doctors about the safest type of birth control for them. Many of these women can safely ...

  14. Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... lying in an abnormal position in the uterus before birth. Overall, the rate of birth injuries is much lower now than in previous decades because of improved ...

  15. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  16. 2009-2010年北京市西城区德胜社区出生缺陷监测情况%Monitoring and analysis on birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng district of Beijing 2009-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚喆萍; 薄新生; 纪晋文

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市西城区德胜社区出生缺陷发生特点,为干预措施提供科学依据.方法 对2009-2010年北京市西城区德胜社区的人群出生缺陷监测结果进行分析.结果 2009、2010年德胜社区出生缺陷发生率分别为25.91%、22.58%,出生缺陷发生顺位前3位的分别是先天性心脏病(52.50%)、外耳其他畸形(15.00%)、并指(趾)(10.00%),出生缺陷发生与孕周、孕妇年龄有关(P<0.05),出生缺陷的诊断手段主要为B超和临床.结论 要关注高龄孕妇围生期保健,做好孕产妇系统管理,规范产前检查和预防,降低出生缺陷发生率.%[Objective]To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng District of Beijing, provide the scientific basis for intervention measures. [Methods] The monitoring results of birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng District of Beijing during 2009-2010 were analyzed. [Results] The incidence rate of birth defects in Desheng community in 2009 and 2010 was 25. 91‰ and 22. 58‰ respectively. The top three birth defects were congenital heart disease (52.50% ), congenital external ear malformations (15.00% ) and syndactyly (10.00% ). The birth defects were related to gesta-tional age and maternal age (P <0. 05). The main diagnostic methods of birth defects were B-ultrasound and clinical diagnosis. [Conclusion] It is necessary to pay attention to perinatal health care among senile gravida, carry out the system management among pregnant women, and improve the prenatal examination and prevention, in order to reduce the incidence rate of birth defects.

  17. Prevalence of Birth Defects Among Infants of Gulf War Veterans in Arkansas, Arizona, California, Georgia, Hawaii, and Iowa, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    microtia 0 0 Common truncus 0 0 Transposition of great arteries 0 1 5.0 (0.3-32.3) Tetralogy of Fallot 0 4 19.9 (6.4-54.7) Ventricular septal defect 0...0.1-9.5) 9 5.0 (2.5-9.9) 0.3 (0.04-2.3) Congenital cataract 2 2.9 (0.5-11.7) 3 1.7 (0.4-5.3) 1.7 (0.3-10.4) Aniridia 0 0 "Anotia/ microtia 1 1.5 (0.1...cataract 0 0 Aniridia 0 0 Anotia/ microtia 0 1 5.1 (0.3-33.1) Common truncus 0 0 Transposition of great arteries 0 0 Tetralogy of Fallot 0 1 5.1 (0.3-33.1

  18. 孕前风险评估对出生缺陷的影响分析%Impact Analysis of Pre Pregnancy Risk Assessment on the Effect of Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国荣; 张红; 肖桂梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨实施育龄妇女孕前风险评估对降低出生缺陷的干预效果。方法选择在我院进行免费孕前筛查的650例育龄妇女为干预组,进行孕前风险评估;随机抽取650例在县人民医院住院分娩,且未进行孕前风险评估的产妇为对照组。比较两组观察对象优生知识知晓情况、孕期营养指导、叶酸服用及出生缺陷发生情况等。结果干预组对象优生知识知晓率、孕期营养指导率、叶酸服用率均明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。干预组围产儿出生缺陷的发生率为4.6‰(3/650),明显低于对照组的12.3‰(8/650),差异具有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论孕前风险评估可有效识别出育龄妇女自身存在的危险因素,通过采取有针对性的干预,有效降低了出生缺陷率。%Objective To investigate the effect of intervention on implementation of pre pregnant women risk assessment on the effect of thebirthdefects.Methods 650casesofreproductiveagewomenoffreescreeningbeforepregnancyinthehospitalwereselectedasthein-tervention group , and the pre pregnancy risk assessment on them was done .650 patients in county -level people′s hospital who did not carry out pre pregnancy risk assessment were randomly selected as the control group .The eugenic knowledge , nutrition guidance during pregnancy , folic acid and birth defects incidence between the two groups were compared .Results Through comparing with the control group , the eugenic knowledge rate , nutrition guidance during pregnancy rate , the rate of folic acid in the intervention group were significant-ly better than that of the control group , and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).The perinatal birth defects incidence rate of intervention group was 4.6‰(3/650), and it was significantly lower than that of the control group of 12.3‰(8/650), with significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion

  19. 江西省铅山地区出生缺陷监测结果分析及干预措施探讨%Analysis on birth defects monitoring result and discussion on its interventions in Yanshan county of Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余愔; 陈祖林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Birth defects situation in Yanshan County of Jiangxi Province were analyzed to provide the scientific basis for establishing interventions against birth defects. Methods: The monitoring database collected by Yanshan Medical and Health Service and Family Planning Service Station about 20 150 cases of perinatal fetus born from January 2004 to December 2009 in this area were analyzed by adopting epidemiological method based on population through three - stage network of women and children. Results: There were 20 150 cases of live births, 183 cases of perinatal fetus with birth defects and birth defects rate was 9. 08‰. The top sequent 5 birth defects are congenital; heart disease, congenital hydrocephalus, polydactylism, congenital deafness and cheilopalatognathus sequent. Conclusion: Birth defects rate can be reduced by strengthening pre - pregnancy monitoring and health education for maternal with prevention first to improve antenatal diagnosis technology and perform termination of pregnancy timely.%目的 分析江西省铅山县出生缺陷的发生情况,为本地区制定出生缺陷预防措施提供科学依据.方法 利用妇幼三级网络,采用以人群为基础的流行病学调查方法搜集出生缺陷资料,对2004年1月~2009年12月全县医疗保健单位和县计生服务站在该地区出生的围产儿共20 150例监测数据库资料进行分析.结果 活产儿20 150例,围产儿出生缺陷183例,出生缺陷发生率为9.08%.其前5顺位是先天性心脏病心(先心)、先天性脑积水、多指(趾)、先天性耳聋、唇腭裂.结论 加强孕前监测和孕产妇的孕前健康教育,预防为主,提高产前诊断技术,适时终止妊娠,可有效降低出生缺陷的发生率.

  20. DNA oxidation as a potential molecular mechanism mediating drug-induced birth defects: phenytoin and structurally related teratogens initiate the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in vitro and in vivo in murine maternal hepatic and embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Wells, P G

    1995-11-01

    A considerable number of teratogens, including the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin and structurally related drugs and environmental chemicals, may be bioactivated by peroxidases, such as prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) and lipoxygenases (LPOs), to a reactive free radical intermediate that initiates birth defects. However, the molecular targets of the reactive free radical intermediates mediating chemical teratogenesis, and hence the fundamental determinants of susceptibility, are poorly understood. In these studies, a teratogenic dose of phenytoin (65 mg/kg), when injected into pregnant CD-1 mice during organogenesis on gestational day 12, initiated the oxidation of DNA in maternal hepatic and embryonic nuclei, forming 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Significant maternal and embryonic DNA oxidation occurred at 6 and 3 h, respectively, suggesting relative embryonic deficiencies in free radical-related cytoprotective enzymes, although the rates appeared similar. Maximal DNA oxidation in both maternal and embryonic tissues occurred at 6 h, presumably reflecting the balance of DNA oxidation and repair, the latter of which appeared similar in both tissues. Inhibition of phenytoin-initiated embryonic DNA oxidation by the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (41.5 mg/kg), and by acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg/kg), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase component of PHS, was consistent with the previously reported reduction by these inhibitors of phenytoin-initiated murine birth defects. In vitro studies using a horseradish peroxidase (0.5 mg/ml)-H2O2 (5.45 micrograms/ml) bioactivating system for drug-initiated oxidation of 2'-deoxyguanosine (3.74 mM), indicated that the potency of xenobiotic-initiated formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine for the structurally related drugs and metabolites phenytoin, 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin, trimethadione, dimethadione, l-mephenytoin, l-nirvanol, d-nirvanol (80 microM each), or thalidomide (64 micro

  1. Correlation analysis of 1206 cases of birth defects in prenatal screening and diagnosis%1206例出生缺陷产前筛查及产前诊断的相关情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东海

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To know the prenatal screening and diagnosis for maternal and infant health care sector, to provide reference for establishing corresponding prevention countermeasures. METHODS Selected a total of 1 206 infants with birth defect during the years of 2008-2011 in our hospital, retrospectively analyzed the prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis results of birth defects, comparatively analyzed the ratio in different regions without prenatal screening. RESULTS The positive cases in antenatal screening accounted for 33.4% (403/1 206), positive in prenatal diagnosis accounted for 28.8% (347/ 1 206) , without prenatal screening accounted for 9.8% (118/1 206). Interim malformations induced accounted for 25.2% (304/1 206). The first 5 causes of prenatal diagnosis of defect were as follows: neural tube defects, congenital heart disease, cleft lip, chromosomal abnormalities and strephenopodia. The first 5 causes of defect was total 295 cases, proportion of 85.1%, which were as follows; 364 cases with congenital heart disease (53.1%) , ear deformity in 79 cases (11.5%) , cleft lip in 75 cases (10.9%), cryptorchidism in 62 cases (9.1%) , polydactyly in 49 patients (7.2%). The constituent ratio that without prenatal screening (1.4%) in towns was significant lower than in countries (15.4%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In order to reduce the incidence of birth defects, it should strengthen exploration on limbs and features of five sense organs in prenatal screening and diagnosis, can not only concern about the value of screening, and ignore the importance of antenatal diagnosis.%目的 为了解本地区产前筛查及产前诊断状况,给妇婴保健部门制定相应的预防对策提供参考.方法 选择2008 ~2011年期间某院分娩的出生缺陷儿,共计1206例,回顾分析出出生缺陷儿产前筛查与产前诊断结果,对照分析不同区域未进行产前筛查者构成比.结果 产前筛查阳性者占33.4% (403/1206),产前诊断阳性者占28.8

  2. Describing the Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects Worldwide: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Zaganjor

    Full Text Available Folate-sensitive neural tube defects (NTDs are an important, preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a need to describe the current global burden of NTDs and identify gaps in available NTD data.We conducted a systematic review and searched multiple databases for NTD prevalence estimates and abstracted data from peer-reviewed literature, birth defects surveillance registries, and reports published between January 1990 and July 2014 that had greater than 5,000 births and were not solely based on mortality data. We classified countries according to World Health Organization (WHO regions and World Bank income classifications. The initial search yielded 11,614 results; after systematic review we identified 160 full text manuscripts and reports that met the inclusion criteria. Data came from 75 countries. Coverage by WHO region varied in completeness (i.e., % of countries reporting as follows: African (17%, Eastern Mediterranean (57%, European (49%, Americas (43%, South-East Asian (36%, and Western Pacific (33%. The reported NTD prevalence ranges and medians for each region were: African (5.2-75.4; 11.7 per 10,000 births, Eastern Mediterranean (2.1-124.1; 21.9 per 10,000 births, European (1.3-35.9; 9.0 per 10,000 births, Americas (3.3-27.9; 11.5 per 10,000 births, South-East Asian (1.9-66.2; 15.8 per 10,000 births, and Western Pacific (0.3-199.4; 6.9 per 10,000 births. The presence of a registry or surveillance system for NTDs increased with country income level: low income (0%, lower-middle income (25%, upper-middle income (70%, and high income (91%.Many WHO member states (120/194 did not have any data on NTD prevalence. Where data are collected, prevalence estimates vary widely. These findings highlight the need for greater NTD surveillance efforts, especially in lower-income countries. NTDs are an important public health problem that can be prevented with folic acid supplementation and fortification of staple foods.

  3. The Importance of B Ultrasound Screening in the Prevention of Birth Defects%B超筛查在预防出生缺陷中的重要性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the use of B-summary prenatal screening to prevent birth defects and improve the quality of birth. Methods 24 cases of abnormal fetus were selected as the study object in January 2010 to January 2014 in our hospital. Statistics B Super diagnosis. Results This study examined 1 702 women who were pregnant, 24 cases of congenital fetal malformation occurs, the incidence of 1.41%. Congenital defects decreased incidence of fetal year. Including: eight cases of anencephaly children (0.47%), 6 cases of hydrocephalus (0.35%), 2 cases of spinal fracture (0.12%), 3 cases of cleft lip and palate (0.18%), 5 cases of myelomeningocele (0.29%). 24 cases of congenital malformations in the fetus, 22 cases (91.67%) by the B-ultrasound diagnosis, 2 cases (8.33%) due to the family planning service station street conditions, it could not be accurately judged by ultrasound, introduced to the district or city hospitals diagnosed. 24 cases of congenital malformation fetus gestational age of 15~30 weeks, 15~27 weeks second trimester of fetal malformation 19 cases,the incidence of 79.17%, the third trimester of fetal malformation 28~30 weeks 5 cases, the incidence of 20.83%, the second trimester a higher proportion of fetal malformation detected. Conclusion Trimester prenatal care helps detecting congenital fetal malformation, using B-screening and prevention of congenital defects in the fetus, non-invasive, simple and effective. In clinical conduct and promotion of the prenatal examination methods, professional training and capacity building of ultrasound doctors, help to improve the quality of births to minimize the rate of birth defects is delivered.%目的:研究总结出生前使用B超筛查预防出生缺陷,提高人口出生素质。方法本文采取回顾性分析法进行研究。抽取我站妇产科2010年1月~2014年1月产检筛查出的24例畸形胎儿为研究对象。统计B超确诊率。结果本次研究中共检测1702名产妇

  4. Systematic analysis of influencing factors of birth defects in China during 2001-2011%2001-2011年我国出生缺陷影响因素的系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉娟; 任培丽; 王来; 王蘅; 李春伟; 叶珊珊; 邢秀伟

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective]To investigate the influencing factors to birth defects in Chinese population during 2001-2011, and provide scientific evidence for birth defects prevention. [ Methods ] Meta-analysis was adopted to systematically evaluate 24 papers published during 2001 -2011 about the influencing factors of birth defects in China. [ Results] The pooled OR values and 95% Cl were as follows; prenatal common cold and fever 2. 00 ( 1. 46-2. 73 ) ; exposure to toxic chemical materials in pregnancy 2.02(1.51-2.71); pollution sources in apartment 1. 86(1. 26-2. 73) ; exposure to pesticides in pregnancy 1.80(1.08-2.99); taking antibiotic and other medicine in pregnancy 1. 65 (1. 37-1. 98) ; spontaneous abortion history 1. 64 (1. 13-2. 38) ; bearing malformation child history 1. 61 (1. 30-2. 01) ; paternal exposure to toxic chemical materials 1. 51 (1. 08-2. 11) ; infections of TORCH in pregnancy 1.44 (1. 10-1. 88 ); parity≥2, 1. 41 ( 1. 00-2. 01 ) ; negative life events stimulus in pregnancy 1.11(1.04-1.19). [ Conclusion] The factors influencing the incidence of birth defects are prenatal common cold and fever in pregnancy, exposure to toxic chemical materials in pregnancy, taking antibiotic and other medicine in pregnancy, negative life events stimulus in pregnancy, exposure to pesticides in pregnancy, paternal exposure to toxic chemical materials, spontaneous abortion history, bearing malformation child history, parity≥2, pollution sources in living place, infections of TORCH in pregnancy and so on.%目的 探讨我国2001-2011年间出生缺陷的影响因素,为下一步的预防提供科学依据.方法 利用Meta分析的方法系统评价2001-2011年间公开发表的有关我国出生缺陷影响因素的24篇文献.结果 出生缺陷影响因素的合并比值比(OR值)及95% CI分别为孕期感冒发热2.00(1.46 ~2.73),孕期接触有害化学物质2.02(1.51 ~2.71),居住地有污染源1.86(1.26 ~2.73),孕期接触农药史1.80(1.08 ~2.99),

  5. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...

  6. Ventricular Septal Defect (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upper filling chambers are the atria . In normal circulation, blood that returns from the body to the ... Causes a VSD? Ventricular septal defects occur during fetal heart development and are present at birth. During ...

  7. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Kinomura, A.; Nagai, Y.

    2017-02-01

    In the reactor pressure vessel surveillance data of a European-type pressurized water reactor (low-Cu steel), it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very high, and a large number of precipitates existed. In this study, defect structure evolution obtained from surveillance data was simulated by reaction kinetic analysis using 15 rate equations. The saturation of precipitation and the growth of loops were simulated, but it was not possible to explain the increase in DBTT on the basis of the defect structures. The sub-grain boundary segregation of solutes was discussed for the origin of the DBTT increase.

  8. 2004-2010年上海市卢湾区出生监测分析%Analysis of the birth surveillance in Luwan district of Shanghai in 2004 - 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一; 吴建华; 潘鸣镝; 袁家麟; 高淑娜

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To understand birth variety and tendency among residents in Luwan district of Shanghai and provide scientict proves for population development, after analysing the birth supervision system. [Methods] A describing analysis was done using the data from the birth monitoring system. The crude birth rate, total fertility rate, birth sexual ratio of mail to femail,caesarean birth rate and index for the month of birth were analyzed by SPSS. [Result] From 2004 to 2010,the crude birth rate of registered residents in Luwan district in Shanghai was up from 4. 00%o to 6. 26%o. The birth sexual ratio of male to female was from 98. 50 to 116. 48. The blooming procreate age groups of ladies were 25 ~34 years old. The average age of pregnant women was between 28 - 29 years old;From 2004 to 2010,more babies were birth in September to November than other months. The rate of caesarean birth was from 63. 35% to 70. 81%. [Conclusion] The Luwan district is at a peak birth period, and effective measures should be taken to promote maternal and neonatal health standards. More attention should be paid to the high rate of caesarean birth and the women who are pregnant later in life.%[目的]通过出生监测分析,了解上海市卢湾区人口的生育水平及发展趋势,为本地区的人口发展决策提供科学依据. [方法]利用上海市卢湾区疾病预防控制中心出生监测系统所获得的2004-2010年户籍活产婴儿的出生资料,利用SPSS统计软件计算其粗出生率、总生育率、总和生育率、出生性别比、剖宫产率、标化月份出生指数等相关出生指标进行分析. [结果]2004- 2010年上海市卢湾区粗出生率为4.00‰~6.26‰,出生人口男女性别比98.50~116.48;生育旺盛期出现在25~34岁年龄组妇女,孕产妇平均年龄在28~29岁之间;活产婴儿的出生体重随着孕周的增加而增长;六年间,9~11月为出生高峰;剖宫产率为63.35%~70.81%,处于较高水平. [

  9. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  10. Recent Decrease in the Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnood, Babak; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in Europe and to compare these trends with the recent decrease in the prevalence of CHDs in Canada (Quebec) that was attributed to the policy of mandatory folic acid fortification. STUDY DESIGN: We used data...... for the period 1990-2007 for 47 508 cases of CHD not associated with a chromosomal anomaly from 29 population-based European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies registries in 16 countries covering 7.3 million births. We estimated trends for all CHDs combined and separately for 3 severity groups using random...

  11. 宁夏育龄妇女出生缺陷知识和态度及行为的影响因素调查分析%Influencing Factors for Birth Defects-related Knowledge,Attitude and Behavior among Women of Reproductive Age in ;Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继宏; 胡卫东; 靳利梅; 刘兰; 赵燚; 吴海鹰

    2014-01-01

    Background The rate of birth defects increased recently in Ningxia. The knowledge,attitude and behav-ior of birth defects among women of reproductive age influence the birth defects. Objective To provide the basis for determining the key content and ways of reproductive health education by analysing the influencing factors for birth defects-related knowl-edge,attitude and behavior among women of reproductive age in Ningxia. Methods The survey was conducted between Decem-ber 2008 and January 2009 with stratified cluster random sampling method,focusing on the rate of birth defects of all babies born from January to December 2007 in 22 counties of 5 municipalities of Ningxia,selectively examining the scores on birth defects-related knowledge,attitude and behavior among women of reproductive age and analysing the influencing factors with multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 10 928 households were investigated,including 10 792 babies and 5 383 women of reproductive age. The rate of birth defects was 12. 87‰(n=139). The scores of knowledge,attitude and behavior were re-spectively(16. 0 ±6. 1),(11. 2 ±2. 1),(10. 7 ±2. 4). Score of knowledge was positively related to the scores of attitude(r=0. 194,P<0. 05)and behavior(r=0. 581,P<0. 05);the score of attitude was positively related to the score of behavior (r=0. 436,P<0. 05). The main influencing factors for birth defects-related knowledge were nationality,economic income and educational level(P<0. 05);the main influencing factors for birth defects-related attitude were nationality,economic in-come and educational level(P<0. 05);the main influencing factors for birth defects-related behavior were nationality,eco-nomic income,educational background and fertility circumstances(P<0. 05). Conclusion The birth defects-related knowl-edge and behavior of Hui nationality was worse than that of Han nationality in Ningxia. Economic income and educational level were the main influencing factors for birth

  12. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  13. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These range from how you hope to handle pain relief to fetal monitoring. Think about the environment in which you ... include in your birth plan are preferences about fetal monitoring, extra ... during labor. Pain management. This is important for most women and ...

  14. Early Pregnancy Eugenic Screening Intervention of Birth Defects%孕期优生筛查对出生缺陷干预效果的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文霓; 王丽娟; 张盈; 吴玉璘

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin. Combination of B-ultrasound, amniotic fluid detection means for screening and diagnosis of Jiangsu province in an area of target diseases Down's syndrome, neural tube defects. Methods This screening using time-resolved fluorescence method for the determination of PAPPA the pregnant women, serum, AFP,β-HCG level, combined with a variety of related factors, risk assessment. Results 1807 cases of second trimester pregnant women receiving prenatal screening were screened in pregnancy high-risk 21-trisomy 18-body, neural tube defects in 110 cases, the positive rate of 6.09%; and screening of high risk pregnant women the positive rate increased with increasing maternal age. 110 cases of screening-positive pregnant women, 84 cases of pregnant women receiving amniotic fluid chromosome, check out chromosomal abnormalities in two cases, 21 of them-three-body one cases;18-one cases of trisomy;B ultrasound trance administered defect in one case (one cases of spina bifida), hydrocephalus one case, two cases of congenital heart disease. Underwent induction of labor, labor induction rate of 100%. Conclusion Take the detection of maternal serum pregnancy-related protein, alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin level, combined with B ultrasound, amniotic fluid detection means screening for Down syndrome, neural tube defects, birth defects, to reduce its birth rate is important.%  目的 探讨检测孕妇血清中妊娠相关蛋白A(PAPPA)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)、绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)水平,结合B超检查、羊水检测等手段,对江苏省苏北某地区目标疾病唐氏综合征、神经管缺陷进行筛查

  15. 出生缺陷患儿对陪护人心理健康影响的调查研究%Investigation on the mental health of accompanying people of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立; 关晶

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解出生缺陷患儿对陪护人心理健康的影响.方法 采用生活质量综合评定量表( generic quality of life inventory-74,GQOLI-74)作为测量工具,对79名出生缺陷患儿的174名陪护人及87名正常儿童的181名陪护人的生活质量进行评价,同时结合症状自评量表(symptom check list-90,SCL-90),对其心理健康状况进行综合研究.结果 出生缺陷患儿陪护人在GQOLI-74量表的4个维度的评分均低于一般人群,差异均有统计学意义(均有P<0.05);在SCL-90量表的所有因子的得分均高于一般人群,且在躯体化、人际关系、抑郁、焦虑和精神病性5个因子的差异均有统计学意义(均有P<0.05);患儿祖(外祖)父母在SCL-90量表各因子得分普遍高于患儿父母,且在躯体化、人际关系、精神病性3个因子上的得分差异均有统计学意义(均有P<0.05).结论 出生缺陷患儿对其陪护人心理健康的影响是一个不容忽视的问题,应该引起足够的重视.%Objective To understand the birth defects' influence on the mantal health of the accompanying people. Methods 174 accompanying people of 79 patients and 181 accompanying people of 87 normal children were assessed with generic quality of life inventory-74 ( GQOLI-74 ) to detect the quality of life, symptom check list-90 ( SCL-90 ) was used to study the qualification to the mental health. Results The score of GQOLI-74 of accompanying people was obviously lower than those of the general population (all P<0. 05). The 5 factors * scores of SCL-90 of accompanying people in so-matization, interpersonal relationship, depression, anxiety and psychosis-like symptoms were higher than those of the normal group (all P<0. 05). The 3 factors' scores of SCL-90 of grandparents in somatization, interpersonal relationship and psychosis-like symptoms were higher than the parents ( all P<0.05 ). Conclusions The children with birth defects might bring the accompanying people serious

  16. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  17. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Research & Professionals Our research Research ...

  18. What Are the Types of Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Topics Cerebral Palsy Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Down Syndrome All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds NIH workshop identifies complex health problems among ...

  19. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  20. Study on prenatal screening of birth defect and fetal chromosomal abnormality%产前筛查先天性缺陷与胎儿染色体异常的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟可文; 陈朝轩; 潘景良; 张应华

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To explore the junction and value of serum markers during the second trimester of pregnancy in prenatal screening of birth defect and fetal chromosomal abnormality. Methods; The serum levels of alpha fetal protein ( AFT), β - human chorionic gonadotropin ( β - HCC) and unconjugated eslriol among 2 555 pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy (14-22 gestation-al weeks) were detected, then risk probability was calculated combining maternal age, gestational weeks, body weight, twin pregnancy or not, diabetes mellitus or not on software; the high risk pregnant women were defined by chromosomal examination. Results; Among 2 555 pregnant women, 210 pregnant women were found with high risk of Downs syndrome, accounting for 8. 2% ; 26 pregnant women were found with high risk of trisomy 18 syndrome, accounting for 1.0% ; 29 pregnant women were found with high risk of neural tube defect, accounting for 1. 1%. Among the high risk pregnant women, 207 pregnant women received chromosomal examination of amniotic fluid cells or chromosomal examination of fetal umbilical cord blood, 12 pregnant women were found with abnormal chromosomal karyotype, the abnormal rate was 5. 8%. Conclusion; Triple markers screening during the second trimester of pregnancy is an effective method to screen fetal congenital defects, which can be used as a conventional method for prenatal screening.%目的:探讨孕中期血清标志物在产前筛查先天性缺陷与胎儿染色体异常中的作用和价值.方法:对2 555例孕中期(14 ~22周)孕妇血清AFP、β- hCG、和uE3三项指标进行检测,并结合孕妇年龄、孕周、体重、是否双胎、有无糖尿病等,采用仪器配套软件计算风险概率,对高风险孕妇进行染色体检查确认.结果:2 555例孕妇中筛查出唐氏综合征高风险210例,占8.2%,18-三体高风险26例,占1.0%,NTD高风险29例,占1.1%,高风险孕妇中有207例自愿进行了羊水细胞染色体检查或胎

  1. 青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况现状及影响因素分析%Analysis of status and influence factors of women of childbearing age be-ing aware of birth defects knowledge in Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王民

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况现状及影响因素,以便有针对性地开展出生缺陷预防工作,降低出生缺陷发生率. 方法 随机抽取青龙满族自治县2014年1月~2015年7月符合生育政策、计划怀孕并参加免费孕前优生健康检查的1200名育龄妇女,使用自行设计的统一调查问卷,进行预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况自填式问卷调查. 结果 育龄妇女获取预防出生缺陷知识的途径形式单一,依次为书籍杂志、医院、网络等,预防出生缺陷知识的总知晓率仅为68%;影响育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况的因素为年龄、文化水平、职业、经济条件等.其中20~32岁年龄段的人群高于33~39岁;大专及以上文化程度的人群高于其他文化长度的人群; 有固定工作的人群高于无固定工作的人群; 经济收入较高的人群高于经济收入较低的人群(P<0.01). 结论 青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓率较低,应引起有关部门重视,应根据影响育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况的因素,认真开展多种渠道的健康教育宣传,提高育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识的知晓率,有效降低出生缺陷发生的风险.%Objective To know the status and influence factors of women of childbearing age being aware of birth de-fect knowledge in Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County to carry out targetedly the prevention work of birth defect and reduce the incidence rate of birth defect. Methods 1200 women of childbearing age who had met the requirement for pregnancy and were planning to have a baby and had participated in the free pre-pregnancy health examination for eu-genics from January 2014 to July 2015 were randomly selected.Self-designed and self-administrated unified question-naire was adopted to investigate the status of awareness of birth defect prevention knowledge. Results Women of child-bearing age got to

  2. The investigate and research on the common birth defect children to the economic burden of the family in the rural area of Jining City%济宁农村地区常见出生缺陷患儿致家庭经济负担的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晶; 高立

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解济宁农村地区常见出生缺陷患儿致家庭经济负担的情况.方法 对济宁农村地区4种常见出生缺陷共177名患儿的家庭进行调查,通过调查出生缺陷种类及治疗费用情况,结合生活质量综合问卷(GQOLI)调查,对农村地区出生缺陷患儿致家庭经济负担的情况进行综合评定.结果 177个家庭每年用于对患儿的各种医疗支出均超过家庭收入的90%以上,部分患儿当年医疗支出甚至超过了当年家庭总收入;出生缺陷患儿家庭成员在GQOLI量表的总分及物质生活维度、躯体健康维度、心理健康维度、社会功能维度4个方面得分均低于普通农村人口,且在物质生活维度方面差异最大,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 各种出生缺陷在严重影响患者自身生命质量的同时,给农村家庭造成的负担不客忽视.%Objective:To understand the common birth defect children to the economic burden of the family in the rural area of Jining city.Methods:390 family members with 177 birth defect children were investigated with the kind of birth defect,family annual total income and disease treatment of expenditure,tested with GQOLI to relevant the qualification to the mental healthy and quality of life.Results:All families for birth defect children with medical expenses are more than 90% of the household total income,many birth defect children with medical spending even more than the total family income.The 4 scale of GQOLI of family members with birth defect children were all belower than the general rural population,especially in material life dimension,the difference has statistically significant (P < 0.01).Conslusion:All kinds of birth defect could not only heavily influenced the quality of the patients,but also caused great burden to the family in the rural rare.

  3. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to congenital heart defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Robert J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Botto, Lorenzo D; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Martin, Christa L; Cragan, Janet D; Shin, Mikyong; Correa, Adolfo

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to assess the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among infants with congenital heart defects (CHDs) in an analysis of population-based surveillance data. We reviewed data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, a population-based birth-defects surveillance system, to assess the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among live-born infants and fetal deaths with CHDs delivered from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2005. Among 4430 infants with CHDs, 547 (12.3%) had a chromosomal abnormality. CHDs most likely to be associated with a chromosomal abnormality were interrupted aortic arch (type B and not otherwise specified; 69.2%), atrioventricular septal defect (67.2%), and double-outlet right ventricle (33.3%). The most common chromosomal abnormalities observed were trisomy 21 (52.8%), trisomy 18 (12.8%), 22q11.2 deletion (12.2%), and trisomy 13 (5.7%). In conclusion, in our study, approximately 1 in 8 infants with a CHD had a chromosomal abnormality. Clinicians should have a low threshold at which to obtain testing for chromosomal abnormalities in infants with CHDs, especially those with certain types of CHDs. Use of new technologies that have become recently available (e.g., chromosomal microarray) may increase the identified contribution of chromosomal abnormalities even further.

  4. 降低出生缺陷关键技术及干预措施的研究%Study on key techniques and intervention in reducing birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宝生; 林克萍; 陈红; 李苏云; 苏洁; 卢晓红; 贺静; 朱姝; 焦存仙; 章锦曼; 唐新华; 陶滢

    2011-01-01

    低风险孕妇的妊娠结局,未发现活产儿中有上述目标疾病的患儿。血清学筛查对DS的检出率为84%( 27/32),假阳性率为6.153%( 1702/27 660)。结论孕前及孕早期补充叶酸可降低出生缺陷风险,但育龄期妇女主动补充叶酸者仅占1/3;血清学筛查可高效检出DS、ES和NTD;遗传咨询对诊断高风险和遗传病家族史的人群至关重要;以血清学筛查和产前诊断为关键技术,与常规产前检查相结合,可以降低严重出生缺陷的发生率,应成为我国的新型围产保健策略。%ObjectiveTo investigate key techniques and intervention in reducing birth defects. Method Down's syndrome (DS), trisomy-18 (Edwards syndrome, ES), neural tube defects (NTD), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), thalassemia, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) were chosen as target disease. From Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2009, the condition of intake folie acid were investigated in 5004 pregnant women in Panlong District and Wuhua District of Kunming City. All of the 27 660 pregnant women undergoing prenatal examination were enrolled into the study from the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, the Second People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, the First People's Hospital of Qujing City, the Second People's of Qujing City, Qujing Women and Children's Hospital, People's Hospital of Lincang City, Kunming Maria Women's Hospital, Maternal and Infant's Care Unit of Panlong District of Kunming City, Maternal and Infant's Hospital of Dali City. The screening was performed on serum of those pregnant women at 8 -20 +6 gestational weeks. Prenatal cytogenetic analysis and fetal ultrasonogrspy were performed on the high risk or indicated women after genetic counseling. DNA analysis was administered on those women with family or childbearing history of DMD,SMA, thalassemia, or G6PD. Outcome of pregnancy was followed up to evaluate the effect of

  5. The origin of congenital heart defects and the epigenetic programming of the healthy child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Obermann-Borst (Sylvia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBirth defects are a global burden affecting 7% of births worldwide. Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common congenital malformation with approximately 1 million children born each year. It is not only the most frequent group of birth defects in human, but also the leading caus

  6. 孕妇红细胞叶酸水平与胎儿出生缺陷发病关系的研究%Red cell folate concentration in relation to birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭春英; 王燕; 楚严; 毛学群; 张邵勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective; Make know the relationship between the red cell folate concentration and the birth defeces. Methods; Subjects were women in their first trimester of pregnancy. The 1504 gravidas were invided into three groups; A group; have no folate supplement; B group; have folate supplement after pregnant; C group; have folate supplement before pregnant. A face - to - face questionnaire was administrated to each woman. 2 ml venous blood was drawn and red cell folat concentrations were determined and follow - up the fetus. Then analysis contrast amongst three groups. Results; (J) In A group the mean red cell folate concentration was 348. 88 ±93. 34nmol/L, B was 577.64 ±216. 14 nmol/L, C was 932.09 ±200. 25 nmol/L. There was significant difference among the three groups ( P<0.01). (2) In A group there were 35 fetus who were congenital defects (including congenital heart defects 9, chromosome disorder 3, orofacial clefts 5, urogenital system anomalies 10, NTDs 3, limb anomalies 2, alimentary system 1 and others were 3. In B group there were 8, including chromosome disorder 2, urogenital system anomalies 2, limb anomalies 2, orofacial clefts 1, congenital heart defects 1. In C group there were 7, including Down's syndrome 1, limb anomalies 2, urogenital system anomalies 2, orofacial clefts 1, pulmocystodeoma 1. Conclusion Periconceptional intake of folic acid can increase the red cell folate concentration and can low the morbility of congenital defects, especially in chromosome disorder and congenital heart defects.%目的 探讨孕妇红细胞叶酸水平与胎儿出生缺陷的发病关系.方法 选择2007年9月至2008年12月在北京市海淀区妇幼保健院行常规产检的孕妇1504例作为研究对象,初检孕周12~15周,根据口服叶酸的时间不同分为三组:A组:孕前、孕期从未口服叶酸者210例;B组:孕后口服叶酸组者480例;C组:孕前口服叶酸者801例.在孕妇初诊时抽取外周血检测红细胞叶酸水平,比较三

  7. A cohort study on the relationship between serum folic acid of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and onset of fetal birth defects%妊早期妇女血清叶酸水平与胎儿出生缺陷发病关系的队列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊; 潘新娟; 余增丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between serum folic acid of pregnant women and onset of fetal birth defects. Methods: The pregnant women who received prenatal examination and met the inclusion criteria in the hospital from April 2007 to April 2010 were selected as respondents, then they were divided into group A (never taking folic acid before and during pregnancy) , group B (taking folic acid after pregnancy) , and group C ( taking folic acid before and after pregnancy) , the serum levels of folic acid in the three groups were compared; all the pregnant women were followed up till six months after birth, the pregnancy outcome was surveyed, and the incideuees of birth defects in the three groups were compared. Results: The serum level of folic acid in group A was significantly lower than those in group B and group C, the mean serum level of folic acid in group C was higher than that in group B ( P < 0. 05 ) . The incidence of fetal birth defects in group A was significantly higher than those in group B and group C ( P <0. 05) . Compared with pregnant women taking folic acid regularly during pregnancy, the relative risk ratio of fetuses with birth defects in the pregnant women not taking folic acid regularly was 3. 48 (2. 02/0. 58) , increasing by 2. 48 times. Conclusion: The folic acid level of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy is related to birth defects, taking folic acid during pregnancy can reduce the risk of birth defects.%目的:探讨孕妇血清叶酸水平与胎儿出生缺陷发病的关系.方法:选择2007年4月~ 2010年4月在开封市妇产医院进行产检的、符合纳入标准的孕妇为调查对象,按其服用叶酸的情况分为A组(孕前、孕期从未口服叶酸)、B组(孕后口服叶酸)、C组(孕前、孕后均口服叶酸),比较三组血清叶酸水平;对其进行随访至胎儿出生6个月,调查出生结局,比较三组出生缺陷发生情况.结果:A组的血清叶酸平均水平明显低于B

  8. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  9. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...

  10. 广东省深圳市龙岗区孕期妇女出生缺陷相关知信行调查%Survey on knowledge, attitudes and practices about birth defects among pregnant women in Longgang District of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍强; 廖瑞容; 张玲; 陈文英; 夏洪波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine knowledge, attitude and practice about birth defects among pregnant women, and provide reasonable suggestions to improve perinatal health services and health education. Methods Stratified. Random sampling method was used to select 86 of pregnant women from three streets of Longgang District, Shenzhen City as participants in this study. Results There were 91. 86% of pregnant women had heard of birth defect before pregnancy. 80. 77% of them women said they supported the policy of distributing folic acid free by government 50% of respondents conducted premarital medical examination. In higher education level group, the participation rate in premarital medical examination of couples was significantly higher than that with low literacy. Moreover, pregnant women with higher literacy would pay more attention to prenatal care, prevention of birth defects and folic acid knowledge. The pregnant women with higher per capita monthly income of family would have higher degree of attention to you should get rid of contacting with pesticides/paint and reduce the opportunities of touching cats and dogs. The sources of knowledge about prevention birth defects before pregnancy were mainly from doctors and communication materials, with the proportion of 30.23% and 29.07% , respectively. Conclusion The findings showed that the level of general knowledge about birth defect and folic acid was relatively high among pregnant women in Longgang District. Literacy and per capita monthly income of family are influencing factors on knowledge about birth defects among pregnant women.%目的 了解广东省深圳市龙岗区孕期妇女对预防出生缺陷的知信行情况,为进一步完善围产期保健服务及健康教育工作提供合理化建议.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法,抽取86名孕期妇女进行面对面问卷调查.结果 91.86%的孕期妇女在怀孕前听说过出生缺陷,80.77%的孕期妇女对政府免费发放

  11. 杭州市余杭区人群基础出生缺陷普查及高危因素研究%Prevalence of birth defects and related risk factors among children age 0 - 3 years old in Yuhang District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王撬撬; 周任婧; 陈琴芳; 刘小芹; 袁伟; 王波

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To know about the prevalence of birth defects in Yuhang District of Hangzhou City and to explore the risk factors related to birth defects. Methods; A total of 21 713 children aged 0-3 years old were investigated in Yuhang District. A case - control study was used to determine potential risk factors. Results: A total of 365 children with birth defects were found. Low income, poor health during pregnancy, strenuous work for women three months before pregnancy and taking medicine during pregnancy could increase the risk of birth defects. Moreover, experience of second - smoking exposure for pregnant women, spouses'poor health status and elder age (above 35 years old) also contributed to birth defects. Conclusion; It is necessary to prevent birth defects by improving the knowledge about health care among pregnant women and providing primary prevention strategy.%目的:获得余杭区出生缺陷基本信息,寻找出生缺陷高危因素,为出生缺陷病因学研究及防治措施提供可靠依据.方法:对2007年6月1日~2010年5月31日分娩(孕周≥28周),在余杭区进行出生申报的21 713名0~3岁婴幼儿进行出生缺陷信息收集.根据基线调查结果,采用1:2病例对照研究方法,收集出生缺陷组及对照组孕母人口学特征、孕前及妊娠期精神情况、药物暴露史等信息.结果:共筛查出生缺陷儿365名.出生缺陷高危因素分析发现,家庭收入低、母亲健康状况差、孕前3个月工作强度高、精神压力大和妊娠期间服用药物等因素是余杭地区出生缺陷发生的高危因素.此外,孕妇妊娠期存在被动吸烟情况、配偶健康状况差及生育年龄>35岁也会增加出生缺陷发生危险.结论:进一步加强优生优育宣教,提高育龄妇女自我保健意识,深化出生缺陷一级预防干预策略,以降低出生缺陷发生风险.

  12. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  13. Gastroschisis and associated defects: an international study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2007-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency and type of malformations associated with gastroschisis in a large pool of international data, to identify malformation patterns, and to evaluate the role of maternal age in non-isolated cases. Case-by-case information from 24 registries, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR), were evaluated. After the exclusion of other abdominal wall defects cases were classified as: (a) isolated; (b) recognizable syndrome, chromosomal or not; (c) multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Our results showed that out of 3,322 total cases 469 non-isolated cases were registered (14.1%): 41 chromosomal syndromes, 24 other syndromes, and 404 MCA. Among MCA four groups of anomalies were most frequent: CNS (4.5%), cardio-vascular (2.5%), limb (2.2%), and kidney anomalies (1.9%). No similar patterns emerged except two patterns resembling limb-body wall complex and OEIS. In both of them the gastroschisis could be however misclassified. Chromosomal trisomies and possibly non-syndromic MCA are associated with an older maternal age more than isolated cases. On consideration of our data and the most valid studies published in the literature, the best estimate of the proportion of gastroschisis associated with major unrelated defects is about 10%, with a few cases associated to recognizable syndromes. Recognized syndromes with gastroschisis seem to be so exceptional that the well documented and validated cases are worth being published as interesting case report. An appropriate case definition in etiological studies should include only isolated gastroschisis after an appropriate definition of isolated and non-isolated cases and a thorough case-by-case review.

  14. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  15. Pregnancy complications and birth outcomes of pregnant women with urinary tract infections and related drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2007-01-01

    Maternal urinary tract infections in pregnancy showed an association with a higher rate of preterm birth in previous studies. The aim of this study was to check this relationship, and in addition to evaluate the efficacy of recent medical treatments. The population-based large control (without any defects) data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities was evaluated. Of 38,151 newborn infants, 2188 (5.7%) had mothers with urinary tract infections during pregnancy, and 90% of these maternal diseases were prospectively and medically recorded. The prevalence of pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios showed an association with urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Pregnant women with urinary tract infections in pregnancy had a somewhat shorter gestational age (0.1 week) and a higher proportion of preterm births (10.4% vs 9.1%). These differences were correlated with the severity of urinary tract infections. However, the preterm-inducing effect of maternal urinary tract infections is preventable by some antimicrobial drugs such as ampicillin, cefalexin and cotrimoxazole. In conclusion, maternal urinary tract infections during pregnancy increase pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios, and in addition the rate of preterm birth; however, the latter is preventable by appropriate drug treatments.

  16. Research on Difference in High-risk Birth Defect Epidemic Cause between Zhuang People and Han People in Nanning%南宁壮族与汉族高发出生缺陷流行病因差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋武; 覃頔; 黄永全; 韦金露; 言京礼

    2016-01-01

    Objective To know whether there is a national difference in the incidence rate between different high-risk birth defects in Nanning and study its causes, and summarize the strategies of reducing the incidence rate of birth defects accord-ing to various risk factors and realize the sound child rearing in Nanning region. Methods The exposed risk factors of par-ents of 1274 perinatal infants with birth defects in Nanning were given 1 : 1 matched case-control study, the relevant influ-ence factors were studied and analyzed, and the case data base was established by Excel, and then the data was analyzed and treated by SPSS16.0 statistical software. Results In the defect group, 574 cases were Zhuang people, 666 cases were Han people, the incidence rates of congenital heart disease, cleft palate , harelip and cleft palate, hypospadias and gas-troschisis in Han people were higher than those in Zhuang people, the incidence rates of harelip, congenital hydrocephalus, neural tube defect, fetal edema syndrome, esophageal a-tresia or stenosis, anorectum atresia or stenosis and con-genital diaphragmatic hernia in Zhuang people were high-er than those in Han people, and the differences had sta-tistical significance, living in the polluted environment, exposure to radiation or toxic chemicals during pregnancy, medication without guidance of doctors during pregnancy, age of pregnant women more than 35, congenital disease family history, chemical exposure history of fathers, smoking and alcohol history of fathers, nutrition of pregnant women and dysthymia during pregnancy were related to the birth defects, and all of them were risk factors of birth defects. Conclusion There is a difference in the high-risk birth defect epidemic cause be-tween Zhuang people and Han people in Nanning with national specificity, the intervention in predicting birth defects in our region can be conducted from the aspects of environment, bad living habits, vocational factor and mental factor to reduce

  17. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  18. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 467 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  19. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  20. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... System Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  1. Urban and rural difference and educational difference of cognition degree of birth defect prevention in uygur autonomous region%维吾尔族聚居区出生缺陷预防认知度的城乡区别及文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the relationship of geography and education and cognition degree of birth defect prevention in Uygur Autonomous Region investigated in Urumqi, Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang from January 2006 to July 2013. Methods Statistics of 322 children with birth defects from January 2006 to July 2013 in Urumqi, Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang were summarized. And it was received combined analysis with geography and education of pregnant women to explore the relationship of geography and education and cognition degree of birth defect prevention. Results The awareness rates of unban pregnant women with the high education of at least college about pregnancy folic acid intake, dietary intake of iodine, avoiding environmental pollution, avoiding rubella virus, avoiding the use of teratogenic drugs, genetic defects, avoiding consanguineous marriage, the best eugenic age, pets feeding before and during pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis, avoid smoking and secondhand smoke, the significance of alpha-fetoprotein test and pregnancy tome after taking contraceptive drugs were significantly higher than those of rural pregnant women with the education of at most college (P<0.05). Conclusion Cognition degree of birth defect prevention has certain educational and geographic difference and it is also related to special geographic environment of Urumqi. Prevent birth defects has a certain degree of education and regional differences, and also with the county special geographical environment.%目的:总结新疆维吾尔自治区乌鲁木齐市2006年1月~2013年7月调查维吾尔族聚居区生长地域和文化程度与出生缺陷预防认知度之间的关系。方法总结新疆维吾尔自治区乌鲁木齐市2006年1月~2013年7月322例出生缺陷儿数据,并将其与孕妇地域和文化程度进行结合分析,统计地域和文化程度与出生缺陷预防认知度之间的关系。结果大学专科及以上文化及城镇孕

  2. An epidemiological study about air pollution exposure and the perinatal birth defects in six sentinel hospitals of a certain city in China%大气污染暴露与某市6家哨点医院围生儿出生缺陷的流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤俊; 姚慈将; 张健; 操基玉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨和分析某市大气污染对新生儿出生缺陷的影响。方法收集某市6家哨点医院2012—2013年期间分娩的孕满18周到出生后7 d 内的所有围产儿资料,包括分娩日期、孕产妇孕周以及孕天数和围生儿的性别等资料。同时收集该市2011—2013年的大气污染物日监测资料,包括二氧化硫、二氧化氮、可吸入污染和污染指数等。采用 SPSS16.0软件进行一般性描述、卡方检验、方差分析、Spearman 秩相关等统计分析。结果2年出生缺陷总发生率为11.63‰;2012年的出生缺陷发生率为10.49‰,2013年为12.76‰,但2年之间差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);不同性别出生缺陷患儿的发生率差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),男婴出生缺陷发生率高于女婴。出生缺陷发生率与大气污染物的 Spearman 秩相关分析结果显示:在孕前1月组和孕前2月组,出生缺陷发生率与可吸入颗粒物(PM10)和污染指数呈正相关。结论该次调查的该市妊娠期妇女在妊娠前期2个月内,大气 PM10暴露浓度和污染指数暴露水平与出生缺陷的发生存在统计学关联。%Objective Objective To investigate and analyze the city air pollution effects on birth defects.Methods Data of perinatal fetus from 18 -week gestation to 7 days after the birth,including date of delivery,maternal gestational weeks,days of pregnancy and gender,were collected from six sentinel hospitals of a city during 2012—2013.The daily monitoring data of air pollutants from 2011 to 2013,including sulfur dioxide,nitrogen dioxide,inhaled pollution and pollution index,were collected at the same time.SPSS16.0 soft-ware was used for general description,chisquare test,analysis of variance and Spearman rank correlation.Results The total incidence of birth defects was 11.63 per thousand in 2 years.The incidence of birth defects was 10.49 per thousand in 2012,12.76 per thousand in 2013

  3. 孕母血浆同型半胱氨酸水平与胎儿出生缺陷的关系及其临床意义%Relationship between Maternal Plasma Homocysteine Level and Fetal Birth Defects and It′s Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑕; 柳国胜; 万波; 冯强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level in gestational period and fetal malformation, and the clinical significance in prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis of birth defects. Methods Fifty - one cases of pregnant women confirmed (gestation) fetal malformation by prenatal diagnosis or after birth were enrolled as the study group,and then they were subdivided into 4 groups according to the different types of birth defects:congenital heart malformation group( group A), neural tube defects group( group B) ,cleft lip and palate group( group C) and other sort of malformations group( group D,except for group A ,B and C). In addition ,another 30 cases of the normal pregnant women and the fetus were selected randomly as healthy control group. Maternal peripheral blood and the specimens of fetal cord blood specimens were collected to detect Hcy by enzymatic cycling assay. Results 1. Umbilical Hcy values in the study group was (13.43 ± 6.57 ) μmol · L-1, which was significantly higher than that in the healthy control group [ (6.30 ± 1.38 ) μmol · L- 1 ]( t=5. 687, P=0. 000). 2. Mean concentrations of plasma Hcy in group A, group B, group C and group D were ( 12.22 ± 4.60 ) μmol · L- 1,(22.78 ± 7.42) μmol · L - 1 , ( 11.24 ± 3.42 ) μmol · L- 1, ( 13.44 ± 6.57 ) μmol · L - 1 , respectively, which were significantly higher than that in the healthy control group [ (6.87 ± 1.43 ) μmol · L-1 ] ( Pa =0. 000). 3. There was a positive correlation of Hcy values between pregnant women and the fetuses in the study group and the healthy control group ( r = 0. 922, P=0. 000 ). Conclusions 1. Maternal hyperhomocysteinemia in the gestational period is one of the risk factors for fetus birth defects,especially in congenital heart malformations, neural tube defects and congenital cleft lip and palate defects. 2. It suggests that the plasma Hcy can be taken as an indicator of prenatal screening for birth defects, and that the

  4. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: características do atendimento e propostas para formulação de políticas públicas em genética clínica Birth defects in Brazil and health care: proposals for public policies in clinical genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O impacto dos defeitos congênitos no Brasil vem aumentando, apontando para a necessidade de estratégias específicas na política de saúde. Apesar da íntima ligação da genética clínica com a atenção aos defeitos congênitos, menos de 30% da demanda vem sendo absorvida pelos serviços do país. São problemas na atenção aos defeitos congênitos: dificuldades de acesso aos serviços de genética com concentração destes no Sul/Sudeste e suporte laboratorial insuficiente. Para melhor abordagem aos defeitos congênitos, ações para o estabelecimento de política em genética clínica deveriam ser deflagradas, preferencialmente sob coordenação de grupo técnico vinculado ao Ministério da Saúde, tendo como objetivo organizar rede clínico-laboratorial na especialidade. Ações visando à otimização de recursos e ao aumento da cobertura deverão ser consideradas. Para suporte laboratorial são prementes arranjos visando o fluxo de exames e criação de mecanismos de financiamento. Ações complementares de prevenção e registro epidemiológico dos defeitos congênitos, educação médica e do usuário são recomendadas. Com tais propostas contempladas, será possível a estruturação de uma rede regionalizada, hierarquizada e funcional, além de mais justa e mais democrática, voltada à atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil.The impact of birth defects in Brazil has increased steadily, indicating the need for specific health policy strategies. Despite the close relationship between clinical genetics and management of birth defects, less than 30% of the total demand is currently met by existing genetic services. The main problems are: difficult access to genetic services, services highly concentrated in the South and Southeast regions of the country, and insufficient laboratory support. With the aim of improving management of birth defects, a specific national policy coordinated by the Ministry of Health needs to be

  5. 妊娠合并症与妊娠期接触化学毒物对出生缺陷影响的系统评价%Effect of pregnancy complications and gestational exposure to toxic chemical on birth defect:a systematic ;evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳书华; 万素馨

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠合并症与妊娠期接触化学毒物对出生缺陷的影响,为制定最佳预防控制决策,实行有效的干预措施提供科学依据。方法根据纳入与排除标准进行文献评价与筛选,11篇文献纳入此次Meta 分析,累计病例3248例,对照5722例。由异质性检验结果决定采用固定或随机效应模型,并对合并结果进行χ2检验,同时应用漏斗图综合评估纳入文献的发表性偏倚。结果妊娠合并症的单因素分析合并效应值及其95%CI 为1.074(0.926~1.222),表明妊娠合并症是导致出生缺陷的危险因素;妊娠期接触化学毒物的单因素和多因素分析合并效应值及其95%CI 分别为1.426(1.147~1.704)、1.421(1.174~1.668),提示妊娠期接触化学毒物也是导致出生缺陷的危险因素。结论妊娠合并症和妊娠期接触化学毒物都是导致出生缺陷发生的危险因素,这为针对性预防出生缺陷的发生提供了参考。%Objective To investigate the impact of pregnancy complications and gestational exposure to toxic chemical on birth defect,to provide scientific basis for effective intervention measures.Methods 11 studies were included,the quality evaluation and information extraction were carried out on the studies according to include and exclude standard.3 248 examples in case group and 5 722 examples in control group.Fixed or random effects model was used according to heterogeneity test results,and the combined result was analyzed by Chi -square test.The publi-cation bias of the studies was also evaluated.Results The combined results of single factor analysis of pregnancy complications was 1.074(0.926 -1.222),showed that pregnancy complications were risk factors of birth defects.The combined results of single factor and multiple factors analysis of gestational exposure to toxic chemical were 1.426 (1.147 -1.704),1.421(1.174 -1.668),also showed that gestational

  6. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home un

  7. Reference population for international comparisons and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery proportions in three countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morken, N.H.; Vogel, I.; Kallen, K.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International comparison and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery rates is complex. New techniques that could facilitate interpretation of such rates are needed. METHODS: We studied all live births and stillbirths (>or= 28 weeks gestation) registered in the medical birth...... comparisons over time. This model may in its simplicity prove to be a valuable supplement to assessments of national preterm delivery rates for public health surveillance Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  8. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  9. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  10. 孕前保健对某地区出生缺陷及其他不良妊娠结局影响的观察%Effect of preconception care on birth defect and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in A certain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温小鲜; 陈桂玲; 梁建文; 陈凤仪; 陶小君; 陈莲芬; 李建萍; 王耀强; 张伟强; 赖剑锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of preconception care on birth defect and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in Fanyu District. Methods Select 1000 sample size for research, 500 people who used of preconception care as the observation group, and 500 people without preconception care as the control group. Eugenic knowledge and awareness, taking the case of folic acid, prenatal care and treatment, adverse pregnancy outcomes of two groups were compared. Results Aware of knowledge about eugenics, the rate of taking folic acid and the treatment of chronic diseases coverage of observation group were significantly higher than the control group(P < 0.05); At 4 weeks pregnancy diagnosis rate and birth defects in prenatal screening coverage were significantly higher than the control group(P < 0.05), and the main risk factor for early pregnancy exposure levels was significantly lower than the observation group(P < 0.05); Preterm birth and Expired pregnancy rates, the incidence of neonatal asphyxia, and the incidence of birth defects were significantly lower than the control group(P < 0.05), and the amount of postpartum bleeding was significantly lower than the control group(P<0.05), the difference is statistically significant. Conclusion Preconception care can reduce birth defects, and improve the pregnancy outcome, we should further promote the smooth development of preconception care work.%目的:探讨孕前保健对广州市番禺区出生缺陷及其他不良妊娠结局的影响。方法选择1000个样本量进行研究,将进行孕前保健的500例设为观察组,未进行孕前保健的500例设为对照组,比较两组观察对象优生知识知晓率、叶酸服用情况、产前检查与治疗及不良妊娠结局等指标。结果观察组优生知识知晓率、叶酸服用率、慢性病的治疗覆盖率均明显优于对照组(P<0.05);观察组孕4周内妊娠确诊率、出生缺陷产前筛查覆盖率明显高于对照组,妊娠早期主

  11. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  12. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  13. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  14. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  15. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  16. 重庆市1002例出生缺陷病残儿父母再生育情况调查%Investigation on the second reproduction status of 1002 pairs of parents who had infants with birth defects in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川海; 何杨; 马明福; 李安奇; 李杰; 杨皓; 付新云; 李家菊; 崔容; 刘浚

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the second reproduction status of the parents who had infants with birth defects in Chongqing.Methods: The parents who had infants with birth defects and accorded with the criterion of second reproduction from 2003 to 2008 were surveyed by questionnaires, the questionnaires were filled by investigators.Results: Among 1 002 pairs of parents who had infants with birth defects, 982 pairs of parents received second reproduction direction, and 93.31% of them received preconception counseling; 809 pairs of parents gave birth to the second children, and 9 children were sick; 81.04% of the parents who had given the second children received prenatal examination, the main place of prenatal examination were medical institutes at county level (53.69%), followed by health clinics in towns and townships (31.50%) and medical institutes at city level ( 14.78% ); 93.15% of the pregnant women chose hospital delivery, and 6.80% of them gave birth to their infants in their home; 92.31% of the families had monitoring records established by family planning office.Conclusion: The second reproduction direction, preconception counseling and prenatal examination are not reasonable and standard, the follow - up and monitoring of bearing and rearing better children are not covered fully; scientific, reasonable and standard management services system of second reproduction and eugenic technology should be established quickly.%目的:了解重庆市出生缺陷病残儿父母再生育情况.方法:对2003~2008年经重庆市病残儿童医学鉴定,符合再生育的出生缺陷病残儿父母进行问卷调查,由调查员填写调查表.结果:1 002例出生缺陷病残儿童父母中,982例父母得到再生育指导,有93.31%进行了孕前咨询;有809例生育二胎,其中有9胎患病;有81.04%已生育二胎家庭进行了产前检查,产前检查地点主要在县级医疗机构(53.69%),其次为乡镇卫生院(31.50%),市级医疗机构(14

  17. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ferrer Dufol

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  18. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  19. 常州市育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的城乡差异%Differences of KAP of prevention of birth defects between rural and urban women of childbearing age in Changzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷敏; 张子珩; 温勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the differences of knowledge, attitude and practice ( KAP) of prevention of birth defects between rural and urban women of childbearing age in Changzhou city. Methods; Multistage sampling method was used to investigate 2 003 women of childbearing age from five cities and two counties in Changzhou city by a face - to - face questionnaire survey. Results; The awareness rates of knowledge among the women of childbearing age in urban area and rural area were 82. 6% and 81.0% , respectively; 79. 8% , 78.0% , 88. 7% , and 72. 2% of urban women considered TORCH screening, chromosomal examination, infectious diseases screening, and nutritional level detection were necessary, respectively; for rural women, the proportions were 74.5% , 72.0% , 80.5% , and 61. 5% , respectively; 70. 0% of urban women and 60. 6% of rural women searched eugenic knowledge using network. Conclusion; Compared with urban women, the awareness rate of rural women to knowledge of birth defects was low, the lack of knowledge has impact on the attitude of women to prevention of birth defects directly, they cant form beneficial behaviors to prevent birth defects actively, which indicates that the health education is lacking, the cognition and behavior of the women need improvement.%目的:探讨常州市城乡育龄妇女预防出生缺陷的知识、态度和行为差异.方法:采用多阶段抽样的方法对常州市5区2县的2 003例育龄妇女进行面对面的问卷调查.结果:城市育龄妇女知识知晓率为82.6%,农村为81.0%;认为TORCH筛查、染色体检查、传染病筛查和营养水平检测有必要的城市育龄妇女的比例为79.8%、78.0%、88.7%、72.2%,农村育龄妇女的比例为74.5%、72.0%、80.5%、61.5%;会上网搜索有关优生方面知识的城市育龄妇女为70.0%,农村育龄妇女为60.6%.结论;相对于城市而言,常州市农村育龄妇女对出生缺陷知识的知晓率低,知识的匮乏直接

  20. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  1. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch A A A What's in this article? ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  2. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  3. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring A A A What's in this article? ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  4. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot A A A What's in this article? ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  5. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  6. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A What's in this ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  7. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  8. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the NICHD Staff Directory Skip sharing on social media links Rollup Image Home > Health & Research > A-Z Topics > Contraception and Birth Control > About Page Content ​About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to ...

  9. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiie, T., E-mail: yoshiie@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka-fu 590-0494 (Japan); Sato, K.; Xu, Q. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka-fu 590-0494 (Japan); Nagai, Y. [The Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    In reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very low even after nearly 40 years of operation, though a large number of precipitates existed. In this paper, defect structures obtained from surveillance data of A533B (high Cu concentration) were simulated using reaction kinetic analysis with 11 rate equations. The coefficients used in the equations were quite different from those obtained by fitting a Fe-0.6 wt%Cu alloy irradiated by the Kyoto University Reactor. The difference was mainly caused by alloying elements in A533B, and the effect of alloying elements was extracted. The same code was applied to low-Cu A533B irradiated with high irradiation damage rate, and the formation of voids was correctly simulated.

  10. 海口市孕产妇预防出生缺陷知识、态度、行为及服务利用现况调查%Prevalence survey on knowledge, attitude, behavior, and service utilization of birth defects prevention among the pregnant women in Haikou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于英; 陈冰; 王波; 陈永莲

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study knowledge,attitude,behavior,and service utilization of birth defects prevention among the pregnant women in Haikou,provide scientific reference for constructing appropriate regional prevention mode of birth defects.Methods:Stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used to conduct a questionnaire survey among 2 996 pregnant women from December 2013 to December 2014 in Haikou city.Results:Most of the pregnant women took a positive attitude on birth defects,67.69% of the pregnant women took folic acid before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy; 52.20% of the pregnant women received premarital examination,the main reason for not receiving premarital medical examination was not necessary to check; 45.49% of the pregnant women received examination before pregnancy,the main reason for not receiving examination before pregnancy was an unplanned pregnancy; 30.11% of the pregnant women received eugenic knowledge related training,23.80% of the pregnant women received genetic counseling; 99.60% of the pregnant women received prenatal examination and 36.82% of the pregnant women received prenatal examination for the first time on the eighth gestational week and before the eighth gestational week ; the majority of pregnant women received prenatal examination for the first time over the sensitive period of fetal malformations.Conclusion:The health resources are concentrated in urban areas,the rural women have relatively few opportunities for maternal counseling and pre-pregnancy examination; to expand health service areas of the health department,the allocation of resources and capacity building should be strengthened,the consciousness and behavior of prevention of birth defects should be improved,the utilization of health services about birth defects prevention should be improved,which is a key point of prevention work for birth defects in Haikou.%目的:研究海口市孕产妇预防出生缺陷知识、态度

  11. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  12. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  13. Enhanced surveillance of maternal mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Larissa J; Lloyd, Linda E; Selwyn, Beatrice J

    2012-12-01

    Maternal mortality is often used to measure health and well-being for women. Improved surveillance efforts can improve maternal mortality estimates and inform the development of strategies to address the needs of maternal and child health populations. The purpose of this study was to provide better estimates of maternal mortality in Texas by using enhanced surveillance methods. Results from our analyses of fetal death and live birth records in Texas from 2000 through 2006 were then linked to pregnancy-related death records and death records of women of childbearing age (15-44 years) in Texas from 2001 through 2006. Enhanced surveillance identified almost 3.5 times as many deaths that might be associated with pregnancy than do current methods and confirmed a persistent race/ethnicity trend in maternal mortality. The leading cause of these 2001-2006 pregnancy-associated deaths was accidents. Enhanced surveillance allows the identification of additional deaths possibly associated with pregnancy and provides a stable foundation to investigate trends further and to review maternal mortality cases systematically.

  14. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  15. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  16. at birth, at a birth, by birth, from birth, of... birth与give birth to

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝亚娟

    2000-01-01

    birth是中学英语教材中的一个常用词,也常见于birthday(生日)、birthplace(出生地)、birthrate(出生率)和birth control(计划生育)等一些复合名词或短语之中。从字面看,这些复合词和短语的意义容易理解,但下面一些含birth的介词短语和动词短语对于中学生来说就不那么容易理解了。

  17. Trends in occurrence of twin births in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Masuno, Mitsuo; Kuroki, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the rate of multiple births since the 1980s is due to the effect of advanced maternal age and increased use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). To determine the trends of prevalence in twin births, we studied the data of a population-based birth defects monitoring system during 26 years in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. A total of 15,380 twins from 7,690 deliveries were ascertained from 990,978 births in the Kanagawa Birth Defects Monitoring Program (KAMP) during 1981-2008. From the start of KAMP in 1981, the incidence of twin births had been consistently increasing from 57.0 to 98.6 per 10,000 deliveries until 2003, but after this time, the incidence declined to 78.5 in 2007. While the rate of monozygotic twins has been stable (∼40 per 10,000 deliveries) after 1990, that of dizygotic twins increased from 25.3 to 57.3 per 10,000 deliveries until 2002, and recovered to 40.1 in 2007. These results showed the most recent tendency of twin births and indicated that the single embryo transfer method can provide protection and reduction of perinatal risk caused by multiple births.

  18. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  19. Prediction and prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y

    2007-08-01

    Rates of preterm birth have continued to rise despite intensive research efforts over the last several decades. A woman who has a spontaneous preterm birth is at high risk for a subsequent preterm birth. Studies have identified clinical, sonographic, and biochemical markers that help to identify the women at highest risk. Determining cervical length and measuring cervicovaginal fibronectin have been proposed as useful tools for evaluating women at risk of preterm birth and may identify those who might benefit from a timely course of antenatal corticosteroids, but effective interventions to prevent preterm birth remain elusive. In the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth, recent trials have confirmed the use of progesterone beginning in the second trimester as an effective intervention. Optimal management of women with a history of spontaneous preterm birth includes a thorough review of the obstetric, medical, and social history, with attention to potentially reversible causes of preterm birth (eg, smoking cessation, acute infections, strenuous activities), accurate ultrasound dating, consideration of progesterone therapy beginning at 16-20 weeks of gestation, and close surveillance during the pregnancy for evolving findings. Results from the ongoing trials of cerclage as an interventional therapy and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as a preventive therapy will provide additional knowledge for the optimal management of these high-risk women.

  20. 1∶2 matched case-control study on birth defect among children aged 0 ~ 5 years old in Chongqing%重庆市0~5岁儿童出生缺陷疾病1∶2配对病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 童琦; 邓小霞; 杨柳; 周宗社; 陈庆

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨重庆市儿童出生缺陷疾病发生的危险因素,评估其危险度,为制定出生缺陷干预措施、做好优生优育提供科学依据.方法:采用1∶2配对病例对照研究,对165例病例、330例对照进行调查;使用SAS9.2统计软件进行统计分析,主要采用描述性分析、单因素分析logistic回归分析和多因素1:2匹配条件logistic回归分析方法.结果:有统计学意义的调查因素有:母亲妊娠期先兆流产(OR=80.60)、妊娠合并症(OR=13.06)、母亲家族遗传史(OR=63.40)、父亲患有慢性病(OR=13.01)、父亲饮酒(OR=3.52)、父亲职业有害接触(OR=10.37)、参加婚前检查(OR =0.37)、服用叶酸类药物(OR=0.30)、妊娠期吃鱼虾类食品(OR =0.18).结论:母亲家族遗传史、妊娠期出现先兆流产、有妊娠合并症、父亲患有慢性病、父亲饮酒、父亲职业有害接触是导致出生缺陷发生的危险因素;参加婚前检查、服用叶酸类药物、妊娠期多吃鱼虾类食品是防止出生缺陷发生的保护因素.%Objective: To investigate the risk factors of birth defect in Chongqing City, and to provide scientific evidence for the interventions. Methods; A 1:2 matched case - control study was conducted with 165 cases and 330 controls. Data were analyzed for descriptive study, univariate logistic regression and 1:2 matched conditional logistic regression with SAS9.2 statistical software. Results: The following factors were found to be significantly related to birth defects: threatened abortion during pregnancy ( OR - 80. 60) , pregnancy complication ( OR = 13. 06 ) , history of maternal line ( OR = 63. 40 ) , father with chronic diseases (OR = 13.01) , father's alcohol intake ( OR = 3. 52) , father s occupational contact of harmful substance ( s) (OR = 10. 37) , premarital checkup (OR =0.37) , folic acid supplement (OR =0. 30) , seafood in dietary during pregnancy (OR =0.18). Conclusions: The history of maternal line, threatened

  1. Politics, power, and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  2. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pushing your baby down and out of the birth canal. In other words, labor pain has a purpose. Try the following to help ... Opioids don't get rid of all the pain, and they are short-acting. They can make ... birth. Epidural and spinal blocks – An epidural involves placing ...

  3. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  4. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects. 101....79 Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects. (a) Relationship between folate and neural tube defects—(1) Definition. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain or spinal cord that...

  5. Paravaginal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenholt, Louise T S; Pedersen, Bodil Ginnerup; Glavind, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    , arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP), pubocervical fascia, and uterosacral/cardinal ligaments. Studies conclude that physical examination is inconsistent in detecting paravaginal defects. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to describe patterns in the appearance...

  6. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  7. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  8. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  9. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    anomalies 1,598 (110) 976 (102) 39 (112) Low birth weight 1,489 (113) 373 (116) 0 (137) Birth asphyxia and birth trauma 178 (136) 79 (129) 71 (103) April...4.7 Pregnancy and delivery (ICD–9: 630–679, relevant V-codes) 11,480 Trauma to perineum and vulva during delivery 2,549 22.2 Late pregnancy 991 8.6...2,605 3.9 Musculoskeletal system (ICD-10: M00–M99) 755,036 Pain in joint 260,351 34.5 Low back pain 143,349 19.0 Pain in limb, hand, foot, fi ngers

  10. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  11. Birth control after 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerassi, C

    1970-09-04

    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  12. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  13. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9743 Accredited since January 2016 98 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited 29135 Ellensburg ... Accredited since November 2015 96 Footprints in Time Midwifery Services and Birth Center Accredited 351 N. Water ...

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal aortopulmonary septal defect with ventricular septal defect by two-dimension echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fetal aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD) is an extremely rare condition, accounting for 0.1%-0.2% of all cardiac defects in live births world wide.1 Hospital mortality is 13% and 33% for simple and complex APSD, respectively.2 This rare cardiac defect refers to a congenital malformation in the development of the arteriosus truncus septum, and is usually associated with a wide variety of other structural cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary valve stegnosis and so on.3 Prenatal diagnosis of an APSD is possible by echocardiography.

  15. 妊娠中期孕妇血清三联生化标记物在出生缺陷筛查中的应用价值%Value of serum triple biochemical marker in the screening of birth defects in mid-pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞春玉; 吴学礼

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the value of serum triple biochemical marker for screening birth defects in mid-pregnant women. Methods A total of 5 922 women in mid-term pregnancy (15~20+6 weeks), who admitted to our hospital from Dec. 2014 to Dec. 2015, were collected. Alpha fetal protein (AFP), free human chorionic gonadotropin (free-β-HCG), unconjugated estriol 3 (uE3) and others serum biochemical indexes of all pregnant women were detected. Birth defects and risks were evaluated by using the software of prenatal screening in all pregnant women. Results Af-ter serological screening, there were 473 cases of high risks, including 416 cases of high risk of Down's syndrome, 5 cas-es of high risk of Edward syndrome, 52 cases of high risk of neural tube defect (NTD). Distribution of high risk in differ-ent age ranges showed no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). The detection of women with high risk of Down's syndrome, Edward syndrome and NTD concentrated in the 16 to 19 weeks gestational age, with the detection number of 416 cases, 5 cases, 52 cases, respectively, with no significant difference between the three groups (P>0.05). The abnormal rate of pregnancy outcome in the high-risk group was significantly higher than that in low risk group, 3.38%(16/473) vs 0.99%(54/5 449), P0.05);21-三体高风险、18-三体高风险及NTD高风险检出数集中分布于孕周16~19周,检出数分别为416例、5例、52例,三组检出数比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);筛查高风险组妊娠结局异常率3.38%(16/473),明显高于筛查低风险组的0.99%(54/5449),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);年龄在20~34岁孕妇出生缺陷异常率为2.03%(118/5812),低于35~41岁孕妇异常率的4.55%(5/110),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论妊娠中期孕妇血清三联生化标记物作为21-三体综合征、18三体综合征及NTD等重要出生缺陷筛查指标,能有效降低胎儿出生缺陷发生率,对提高人口素质具有积极意义。

  16. Atrioventricular septal defects among infants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolas; Andersen, Helle; Garne, Ester

    2013-01-01

    2000-2008 were included. RESULTS: There was a total of 993 cases of atrioventricular septal defects, with a total prevalence of 5.3 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval 4.1 to 6.5). Of the total cases, 250 were isolated cardiac lesions, 583 were chromosomal cases, 79 had multiple anomalies, 58...... had heterotaxia sequence, and 23 had a monogenic syndrome. The total prevalence of chromosomal cases was 3.1 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 4.3), with a large variation between registers. Of the 993 cases, 639 cases were live births, 45 were stillbirths, and 309 were terminations...... of pregnancy owing to foetal anomaly. Among the groups, additional associated cardiac anomalies were most frequent in heterotaxia cases (38%) and least frequent in chromosomal cases (8%). Coarctation of the aorta was the most common associated cardiac defect. The 1-week survival rate for live births was 94...

  17. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in pregnant women and birth outcomes of their children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Ács, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the possible association of pregnant women with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) with the possible risk for adverse birth outcomes, particularly different congenital abnormalities (CAs) in their children. Prospectively and medically recorded PSVT was evaluated in 103 pregnant women who later had offspring with CA (case group) and 149 pregnant women who later delivered newborn infants without CA (control group) and matched to cases in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. Of 252 pregnant women with PSVT, 115 (45.6%) had the onset of this condition before the study pregnancy, that is, their PSVT was a chronic condition, while the rest (N = 137) of PSVT was considered as new onset in the study pregnancy. The comparison of occurrence of PSVT in pregnant women who had offspring with different CA groups and in control mothers showed a higher risk for cardiovascular CAs (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 2.1, 1.1-3.8) explained mainly by secundum atrial septal defect. This association was confirmed in pregnant women with PSVT in the second and/or third gestational month, that is, critical period of cardiovascular CAs. In conclusion PSVT in pregnant women associates with a higher risk of secundum atrial septal defect in their children.

  18. Validity of Health Plan and Birth Certificate Data for Pregnancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Susan E.; Scott, Pamela E.; Davis, Robert L.; Li, De-Kun; Getahun, Darios; Cheetham, T. Craig; Raebel, Marsha A.; Toh, Sengwee; Dublin, Sascha; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Hammad, Tarek A.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Smith, David H.; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Cooper, William O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the validity of health plan and birth certificate data for pregnancy research. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using administrative and claims data from 11 U.S. health plans, and corresponding birth certificate data from state health departments. Diagnoses, drug dispensings, and procedure codes were used to identify infant outcomes (cardiac defects, anencephaly, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission) and maternal diagnoses (asthma and systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]) recorded in the health plan data for live born deliveries between January 2001 and December 2007. A random sample of medical charts (n = 802) was abstracted for infants and mothers identified with the specified outcomes. Information on newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics (gestational age at birth, birth weight, previous pregnancies and live births, race/ethnicity) was also abstracted and compared to birth certificate data. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated with documentation in the medical chart serving as the gold standard. Results PPVs were 71% for cardiac defects, 37% for anencephaly, 87% for preterm birth, and 92% for NICU admission. PPVs for algorithms to identify maternal diagnoses of asthma and SLE were ≥ 93%. Our findings indicated considerable agreement (PPVs > 90%) between birth certificate and medical record data for measures related to birth weight, gestational age, prior obstetrical history, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions Health plan and birth certificate data can be useful to accurately identify some infant outcomes, maternal diagnoses, and newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics. Other outcomes and variables may require medical record review for validation. PMID:22753079

  19. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked ......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  20. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  1. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  2. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  3. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  4. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari...

  5. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  6. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  7. Study on the use of model life tables methodology in birth defect's life expectancy estimation:the case of Down's syndrome%模型生命表方法在出生缺陷患者预期寿命估算中的应用——以唐氏综合征为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪颖; 陈功; 郑晓瑛

    2008-01-01

    以唐氏综合征为例,研究采用Brass-Logit模型生命表的原理,通过美国一般人群的生命表、美国唐氏综合征患者的生命表、中国一般人群的生命表,间接估算中国唐氏综合征患者的生命表和预期寿命.经过与其他国家一般人群和唐氏综合征人群预期寿命的比较,研究认为,用Brass-Logit模型生命表原理来推算出生缺陷患者的生存状况和预期寿命,是在某一国家或地区的出生缺陷患者存活的数据非常缺乏、而另一些国家已有比较系统数据的情况下可以考虑使用的方法.%Using Brass-Logit model and life tables for general population and Down's syndrome patients in U.S.A and lire tables for general population in China,we estimated the life table of Down's syndrome patients in China.Through comparing with data from other countries,we suggested that BrassLogit Model Life Table could be adopted were minimum data of birth defects survival was available and systematic data was handy in another areas.

  8. Atrial – Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Panagiotopoulos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atrial and ventricular septal defect constitute the most common congenital heart disease.Aim: Τhe aim of the present retrospective study was to record data and factors that affect atrial and ventricular septal defect.Method and material: The sample study included patients of both sexes who were hospitalized with diagnosis atrial and ventricular septal defect in a Cardiac Surgery hospital of Athens. A specially constructed printed form was used for data collection, where were recorded the demographic and personal variables, the pathological, surgical, cardiology and obstetric history, the habits of adults, as well as the personal characteristics of mothers. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistical analysis.Results: The sample study consisted of 101 individuals with diagnosis atrial or ventricular Septal Defect, of which 40% were boys and 60% girls. The 70% of the sample study suffered from atrial Septal Defect and the 30% suffered from ventricular Septal Defect. Regarding age, 12% of the sample study was 0-1 years old, 35% was >1 years old, 8% was >12-18 years old and 45% over than 18 years old. Regarding educational status of the adult participants, 9% was of 0-6 years education, 22%>6 -12 years, 13%>12 years. 14% of the adult paticipants smoked, 4% consumed alcohol and 5% smoked in conjunction with alcohol. In terms of the obstetric history of the sample studied, 32% of the cases had normal birth, 4% had a twin birth and 1% had a triplet one. According to the variables related to mothers, the mean age of the mother was 30 years and 3 months, 10% were smokers at pregnancy and 3% used chemical substance and mainly hair color. Also, the results of the present study showed that individuals of 12-18 and >18 years old did not suffer from ventricular Septal Defect, whereas the infants 0-1 years old did not suffer from Atrial Septal Defect. The mean value of age at the admission in intensive care unit was 7 months (12% for the infants

  9. Analysis on the prevalence of perinatal neural tube defects in Guangxi from 2006 to 2011%2006~2011年广西围产儿神经管缺陷发生状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚慧; 丘小霞; 田晓先; 曾萼; 李映

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解广西出生缺陷医院监测网神经管缺陷(NTDs)变化趋势及影响因素,为政府决策提供依据.方法:按照中国出生缺陷监测方案的要求,对2006 ~ 2011年的41所出生缺陷医院监测点的神经管缺陷资料进行流行病学分析,将在医疗保健机构住院分娩的孕28周至产后7天的围产儿作为监测对象.结果:6年间共监测的围产儿有484 304人,其中NTDs为231例,NTDs总发生率4.77/万,年度发生率呈逐年下降趋势,降幅达64.57%.其中无脑畸形、脊柱裂、脑膨出发生率分别是2.44/万、1.67/万、0.66/万.围产儿NTDs的发生率男性为4.60/万,女性为4.75/万.城镇为2.45/万,乡村为6.52/万;产妇年龄别发生率的差异有统计学意义,<20岁组发生率最高(11.04/万).产前确诊的比例74.46%,产前B型超声波诊断的比例为77.06%.结论:2006~2011年广西围产儿NTDs的发生率出现下降趋势,农村育龄妇女是NTDs干预的重点人群.%Objective: To understand the change trend and influencing factors of Neural Tube Defects ( NTDs) of Guangxi Birth Defect Surveillance Network, and provide evidence for governments to make decisions. Methods: An epidemiological analysis on the data of neural tube defects in 41 birth defect surveillance hospitals from 2006 to 2011 in accordance with the requirements of China Birth Defect Surveillance Scheme. Surveillance subjects were the perinatal infants from 28 gestational weeks to 7 days after birth in healthcare institutions. Results: There were 484 304 perinatal infants under surveillance from 2006 to 2011 , and 231 cases were found with NTDs, the incidence rate was 4. 77/10 000. The annual incidence rate decreased gradually by 64. 57%. The incidence rates of anencephaly, spina bifi-da, and encephalocele were 2. 44/10 000, 1. 67/10 000, and 0. 66/10 000, respectively. The perinatal incidence rates of NTDs were 4. 60/ 10 000 in males and 4. 75/10 000 in females, 2. 45/10 000 in urban

  10. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  11. Birth Defects: What They Are and How They Happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  12. Treatment of Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy and Birth Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clementi, Maurizio; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Cassina, Matteo; Leoncini, Emanuele; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Context: Clinical hyperthyroidism is not uncommon in pregnancy, with a reported prevalence of 0.1 to 0.4%. The available antithyroid drugs are propylthiouracil and methimazole/carbimazole. Objectives: In this report we examined the association of both drugs with congenital malformations using data f

  13. FastStats: Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deaths and Mortality Leading Causes of Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  14. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 of her menstrual cycle. It remains in place for 3 weeks in a row. At the end of the third week, on the same day of the week ... birth control until the ring has been in place for 7 days. If the ring is out for more than 3 hours during your third week wearing it, call your doctor to see ...

  15. Visual Memory at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Alan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  16. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  17. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)