WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth defects surveillance

  1. Building capacity for birth defects surveillance in Africa: Implementation of an intermediate birth defects surveillance workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Alina; Valencia, Diana; Sekkarie, Ahlia; Hillard, Christina L.; Williams, Jennifer; Groisman, Boris; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bauwens, Lieven; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Each year around the world, it is estimated that 300,000 neonates are born with a neural tube defect. Many countries, however, are still lacking comprehensive birth defects surveillance registries. Comprehensive birth defects surveillance systems can help countries understand the magnitude and distribution of the problem. These systems can also provide information about biological, contextual, social and environmental determinants of birth defects. This information in turn can be used to iden...

  2. The current state of birth outcome and birth defect surveillance in northern regions of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Arbour, Laura; Melnikov, Vladimir; McIntosh, Sarah; Olsen, Britta; Osborne, Geraldine; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Little is known about the rates of congenital anomalies in the northernmost regions of the world. As in other parts of the world, it is crucial to assess the relative rates and trends of adverse birth outcomes and birth defects, as indicators of population health and to develop public health strategies for prevention. The aim of this review is to catalogue existing and developing birth outcome and birth defect surveillance within and around the geographic jurisdiction of the Inter...

  3. Birth Defects Data from Surveillance Hospitals in Hubei Province, China, 200l – 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Jj Lin; Xd Li; Hp Zhang; Li, H; Lh Tu; Cl Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of birth defects in perinatal infants in Hubei Province during 200l-2008.Methods: The prevalence of birth defects in perinatal infants delivered after 28 weeks or more was analyzed in Hubei surveillance hospitals during 200l-2008.Results: The incidence of birth defects in perinatal infants from 200l to 2008 was 120.0 per 10,000 births, and was increased by about 41% from 81. 1 in 2001 to 138.5 per 10,000 births in 2008. The incidence...

  4. Population and case-control surveillance in the search for environmental causes of birth defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    An important national health goal is to reduce morbidity attributable to birth defects and developmental disabilities. Population-based surveillance has made notable contributions toward preventing these problems; it is also useful in monitoring changes in their incidence and in helping to identify reproductive hazards in the environment. The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program of the Centers for Disease Control is a model for such surveillance activities. Its register contains da...

  5. Collection, use, and protection of population-based birth defects surveillance data in the united states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Cara T; Law, David J; Mason, Craig A; McDowell, Bradley D; Meyer, Robert E; Musa, Debra

    2007-12-01

    Birth defects surveillance systems collect population-based birth defects data from multiple sources to track trends in prevalence, identify risk factors, refer affected families to services, and evaluate prevention efforts. Strong state and federal public health and legal mandates are in place to govern the collection and use of these data. Despite the prima facie appeal of "opt-in" and similar strategies to those who view data collection as a threat to privacy, the use of these strategies in lieu of population-based surveillance can severely limit the ability of public health agencies to accurately access the health status of a group within a defined geographical area. With the need for population-based data central to their mission, birth defects programs around the country take their data stewardship role seriously, recognizing both moral and legal obligations to protect the data by employing numerous safeguards. Birth defects surveillance systems are shaped by the needs of the community they are designed to serve, with the goal of preventing birth defects or alleviating the burdens associated with them. PMID:18064713

  6. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease of 51 % in the prevalence of neural tube defects from the pre-fortification period to the post-fortification period. Folic acid fortification via several basic food sources has shown to be a successful public health intervention for Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs. PMID:24952876

  8. DESCRIPTIVE CASES STUDY OF CARE, SURVEILLANCE AND PREVENTION OF BIRTH DEFECTS IN RWANDAN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    JJ. Irakiza; L. Mutesa

    2014-01-01

    “According to the World Health Statistics 2008, about 260 000 neonatal deaths worldwide are caused by Congenital anomalies. This fiure represents about 7% of all neonatal deaths”. In our study, birth accounted Defects for 14.9% out of 581 recruited infants with birth defects (87 cases). In this series, 52.9% were Female whereas 47.1% were male.13.8% were premature babies (≤37weeks), 74.7% aged

  9. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, P. W.; Rasmussen, S A; Lynberg, M. C.; Moore, C A; Anderka, M.; Carmichael, S.L.; Costa, P.; Druschel, C.; Hobbs, C. A.; Romitti, P A; Langlois, P. H.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Birth Defects Prevention Study was designed to identify infants with major birth defects and evaluate genetic and environmental factors associated with the occurrence of birth defects. The ongoing case-control study covers an annual birth population of 482,000 and includes cases identified from birth defect surveillance registries in eight states. Infants used as controls are randomly selected from birth certificates or birth hospital records. Mothers of case and control infants ...

  10. DESCRIPTIVE CASES STUDY OF CARE, SURVEILLANCE AND PREVENTION OF BIRTH DEFECTS IN RWANDAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ. Irakiza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available “According to the World Health Statistics 2008, about 260 000 neonatal deaths worldwide are caused by Congenital anomalies. This fiure represents about 7% of all neonatal deaths”. In our study, birth accounted Defects for 14.9% out of 581 recruited infants with birth defects (87 cases. In this series, 52.9% were Female whereas 47.1% were male.13.8% were premature babies (≤37weeks, 74.7% aged <5 months and 11.5% were infants aged between 5 and 12 months. Polymalformative conditions were the most common Cause of death identifid in 21 cases (24%, gastrointestinal birth defects caused death in 15 cases (17%, nervous system in 14 (16%, Cardio-vascular birth defects in 10 cases (12%, Chromosomal abnormalities In 10 cases (12%, musculoskeletal defects in 10 cases (12%, congenital mass in 2 cases (2%, oral defects in 2 cases (2%, congenital skin defect in 1 case(1%, whereas congenital respiratory defect and genitourinary malformations in 1 case each (1%.Over 50% patients died in referral hospitals and 77% died after 24 hours of life.

  11. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection

  12. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

  13. Sirenomelia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    M.Orioli, Ieda; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; Arteaga-Vasquez, Jazmin; K.Bakker, Marian; Bianca, Sebastiano; D.Botto, Lorenzo; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyigh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; S. Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; Martinez-Fria, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and were reported according to a single pre-established protocol. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and ...

  14. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle

  15. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  16. Amelia : A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all conti

  17. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  18. Sirenomelia : An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orioli, Ieda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system m

  19. Urgent global opportunities to prevent birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P; Brent, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    Birth defects are an urgent global health priority. They affect millions of births worldwide. But their prevalence and impact are largely under-ascertained, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Fortunately, a large proportion of birth defects can be prevented. This review examines the global prevalence and primary prevention methods for major preventable birth defects: congenital rubella syndrome, folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly, fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, rhesus hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn; and those associated with maternal diabetes, and maternal exposure to valproic acid or iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Challenges to prevention efforts are reviewed. The aim of this review is to bring to the forefront the urgency of birth defects prevention, surveillance, and prenatal screening and counseling; and to help public health practitioners develop population-based birth defects surveillance and prevention programs, and policy-makers to develop and implement science-based public health policies. PMID:24333206

  20. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  1. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... there is a problem with a baby's body chemistry, it is called a metabolic birth defect. Metabolic ...

  2. Birth Defects. Matrix No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L.

    This report discusses the magnitude of the problem of birth defects, outlines advances in the birth defects field in the past decade, and identifies those areas where research is needed for the prevention, treatment, and management of birth defects. The problem of birth defects has consumed a greater portion of our health care resources because of…

  3. Postmarketing analysis of medicines: methodology and value of the spanish case-control study and surveillance system in preventing birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, María Luisa

    2007-01-01

    There are many surveillance systems of congenital defects all over the world; several of them have developed specific approaches to generate and test selected hypotheses regarding human teratogens. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of them have a permanent and systematised programme for the study of the risk and safety of drugs. The aim of this article is to describe the research programme on the potential effects of drugs in pregnancy followed by the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECEMC), which is a permanent ongoing case-control study and surveillance system. The programme to analyse drugs includes a continuous and systematic study on the potential effects of medicines used during pregnancy. This programme has several characteristics that make it different from other current systems: (i) the collection of numerous datapoints (up to 312 per infant) in a case-control design; (ii) the use of a versatile and specific coding of birth defects; (iii) a specific programme for the continuous analysis of the potential effects of each type of drugs used during pregnancy that has been developed specifically for the ECEMC methodology, including its dysmorphological coding system. The description of the ECEMC's approach to surveillance of the effects of drug use during pregnancy may help researches in this area, particularly those using data from birth defects registries. PMID:17408307

  4. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Podcasts & Video E-Cards Flu Badge Real Stories Cleft Lip and Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Eye Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... premature birth, certain birth defects (such as cleft lip, cleft palate, or both ), and infant death. Quitting smoking before ...

  5. Surveillance of Adverse Fetal Effects of Medications (SAFE-Med): findings from the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR).

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Alessandra; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Bakker, Marian K; Bianca, Sebastiano; Cocchi, Guido; De Vigan, Caterine; Da Gra?a Dutra, Maria; Horacek, Jiri; Merlob, Paul; Pierini, Anna; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; Sipek, Antonin; Yamanaka, Michiko

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether the routinely collected data in birth defect registries could be used to assess association between medications and risk for congenital anomalies an "exposed case-only" design was performed. Twelve registries provided 18,131 cases exposed to a medication during the first trimester of pregnancy and with at least one major malformation. Odds ratios for malformations associated with maternal use of selected medications were computed. Among seven most commonly used medications...

  6. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ...

  7. Evaluation of the hospital discharge diagnoses index and the birth certificate as sources of information on birth defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hexter, A C; Harris, J.A.; Roeper, P; Croen, L A; Krueger, P.; Gant, D

    1990-01-01

    The hospital discharge diagnoses index (DI) for newborns and the birth certificate were evaluated as sources of information about birth defects by comparing them with the same births in the case registry of the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP). The CBDMP is an active surveillance system; the staff visit hospitals to identify children with birth defects diagnosed in the first year of life. The study population comprised 66,481 live births to residents of five counties in the...

  8. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  9. Defying birth defects through diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Crider, Krista S.; Lynn B. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    The risk of certain birth defects can be modified by maternal diet. A high-fat maternal mouse diet has recently been reported to substantially increase the penetrance of birth defects known to be associated with a deficiency of transcription factor Cited2 as well as induce cleft palate. These effects were associated with a more than twofold reduction in embryonic expression of Pitx2c. This investigation suggests the need to further explore this provocative gene-diet interaction in human studies.

  10. How Valid Are the Rates of Down Syndrome Internationally? Findings from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Cocchi, Guido; Anneren, Goran; Bower, Carol; Halliday, Jane; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canessa Tapia, Maria Aurora; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dastgiri, Saeed; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Gatt, Miriam; Hirahara, Fumiki; Landau, Danielle; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; McDonnell, Robert; Mathew, Triphti M.; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Poetzsch, Simone; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Sipek, Antonin; Szabova, Elena; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Zhuchenko, Ludmila; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Rates of Down syndrome (DS) show considerable international variation, but a systematic assessment of this variation is lacking. The goal of this study was to develop and test a method to assess the validity of DS rates in surveillance programs, as an indicator of quality of ascertainment. The propo

  11. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi′an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Soc...

  12. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Min; Ping, Zhiguang; Zhang, Shuiping; He, Yuying; Dong, Rui; Guo, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi’an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003–2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Social ...

  13. Birth Defects and Adolescent Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James

    1975-01-01

    Home economists who work with adolescents can help prepare them for responsible parenthood later in life by explaining the known causes of various birth defects; providing basic information about human genetics, prenatal nutrition, and drug and alcohol effects; and motivating adolescents to exercise increased responsibility in their sexual…

  14. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy during pregnancy, and giving your baby a healthy start in life will help you to have peace of mind. Before pregnancy » During pregnancy » To learn about CDC’s work to help prevent birth defects, visit our Research and Tracking page. Related Links Disability and Health ...

  15. Folic acid and birth defect prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of certain birth defects. These include spina bifida, anencephaly, and some heart defects. Experts recommend women who ... Women who have had a baby with a neural tube defect may need a higher dose of folic acid. ...

  16. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  17. Maternal Age and Birth Defects in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Fariba; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Birth defect is a global health problem with more severe consequences in low and middle income countries (LMICs), where it is estimated that more than 94% of severe defects and 95% of affected children\\'s death occur

  18. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A. H.; Shapira, S. K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Olshan, A F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation and birth defects in a case–control study of cases comprising over 60 different types of birth defects (n=9998) and non-malformed controls (n=4066) with dates of delivery between 1997 and 2004. Me...

  19. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects. PMID:27007730

  20. 10 Things You Need to Know about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Features 10 Things You Need To Know About Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... death. Learn more. 1. Did you know that birth defects are common? Fact: Birth defects affect 1 in ...

  1. Public health approach to birth defects: the Argentine experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, María Paz; Groisman, Boris; Barbero, Pablo; Liascovich, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Birth defects are a global problem, but their impact is particularly severe in low and middle income countries, where the conditions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation are more critical. The epidemiological transition in the infant mortality causes, and the concern of the community and the mass media about the teratogenic risk of environmental pollutants, has made health authorities aware of the importance of birth defects in Argentina. The objective of this paper is to outline those actions specifically taken in Argentina aimed at the prevention of birth defects at a national level. Firstly, we focus on birth defects in Argentina on a general basis, and then we present different laws and actions taken in terms of surveillance and public health programs, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Finally, we present the Teratology Information Service "Fetal Health Line", and the genetic services organization and health professionals training by the National Center of Medical Genetics and the National Program of Genetics Network. In conclusion, in the country, several programs focus on different approaches to the problem, and the challenge is to coordinate the teamwork between them. Finally, we list tips to address birth defects from the public health perspective. PMID:25564015

  2. Effect analysis of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan%中山地区重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施的实施对降低唐氏综合征出生率的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 江陵; 吴剑波; 陈昂; 陈咏莲; 李莉敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analysize the effect of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan, 2010 -2011. Methods; Prenatal screening of Down's syndrome has been free in residents since January 1, 2010. The Surveillance and Intervention were carried out at the same time. Data of the surveillance were analyzed, 2008 -2011 , comparing the difference of the incidences. Results; After the surveillance and intervention, the rate of prenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome increased significantly. The rate of live births with Down's syndrome decreased in 2010 -2011 (1. 63 -0. 64/ten thousand) compared with 2008 and 2009 (3. 5-3. 78/ten thousand). Conclusion; The Surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on were effective on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan.%目的 分析2010年-2011年中山地区对重大出生缺陷采取的监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面的实际效果.方法 2010年1月1日始中山市对户籍人口实施免费产前筛查唐氏综合征,并进行监控和干预措施,通过2008年-2011年中山市出生缺陷监测网监测唐氏综合征儿数据,比较唐氏综合征出生率的差异.结果 实施重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施后,唐氏综合征的产前诊断率显著提高,唐氏综合征出生率2010年-2011年(1.63-0.64/万)较2008年-2009年(3.5-3.78/万)有明显下降(P =0.001).结论 2010年-2011年中山市对重大出生缺陷采取监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面起到很好的效果.

  3. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  4. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and birth defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S S; Huang, Y; Wang, C Y; Ren, A G

    2016-06-01

    Birth defects are one of the most common adverse birth outcomes, which create a heavy economic burden to the country, society and family. And they are also one of the biggest problems facing public health today. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic pollutants existing in the environment widely, resulting from incomplete organic matter combustion, and can be taken into the body through various ways including the digestive tract, respiratory tract and so on. Recent researches suggest that the exposure of PAHs may be associated with various birth defects, while the special mechanism isn't very clear. This paper is a review of the relationship between PAHs and birth defects from the aspects of epidemiological data, experimental evidence on animals, which indicates that exposure of PAHs during pregnancy may be associated with birth defects including congenital heart defects, neural tube defects and cleft lip/plate. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism, including oxidative stress, oxidative damage and the changes of signal transduction pathway in order to provide some recommendations and suggestions on the future work. PMID:27256742

  5. CDC Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika Three babies born with defects, while three pregnancies ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In the first reporting of Zika-related birth defects in the United States, federal ...

  6. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  7. Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses background and nature of alcohol-related birth defects. Describes a continuum of impairment to offspring of drinking mothers that is dose-related and produces serious behavioral/learning deficits. The continuum includes young people of normal intelligence who perform below expected levels and find school adjustment difficult. Offers…

  8. Birth prevalence of selected external structural birth defects at four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogath Kishimba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 94% of all birth defects (BD and 95% of deaths due to the BD occur in low and middle income countries, many of which are preventable. In Tanzania, there is currently a paucity of BD data necessary to develop data informed prevention activities. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of deliveries identified with BD in the labor ward registers at four Dar es Salaam hospitals between October, 2011 and February, 2012. The birth prevalence of structural BD, case fatality proportion, and the distribution of structural defects associated deaths within total deaths were calculated. A total of 28 217 resident births were encountered during the study period. Overall birth prevalence of selected defects was 28.3/10 000 live births. Neural tube defects and indeterminate sex were the most and least common defects at birth (9.9 and 1.1/10 000 live births respectively. Among stillbirths (66.7% and deaths that occurred within less than 5 days of an affected live birth (18.5%, neural tube defects were the most frequently associated structural defect. Structural BD is common and contributes to perinatal mortality in Dar es Salaam. More than half of perinatal deaths encountered among the studied selected external structural BD are associated with neural tube defects, a birth defect with well–established evidence based prevention interventions. By establishing a population–based BD surveillance program, Tanzania would have the information about neural tube defects and other major structural BD needed to develop and monitor prevention activities.

  9. A population-based study of birth defects in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, M K; Ho, J J; Khatijah, N N

    2005-01-01

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of paediatric disability and mortality in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. One of the objectives of this study was to determine the epidemiology of major birth defects in births during the perinatal period in Kinta district, Perak, Malaysia over a 14-month period, using a population-based birth defect register. There were 253 babies with major birth defects in 17,720 births, giving an incidence of 14.3/1000 births, a birth prevalence of 1 in 70. There were 80 babies with multiple birth defects and 173 with isolated birth defects. The exact syndromic diagnosis of the babies with multiple birth defects could not be identified in 18 (22.5%) babies. The main organ systems involved in the isolated birth defects were cardiovascular (13.8%), cleft lip and palate (11.9%), clubfeet (9.1%), central nervous system (CNS) (including neural tube defects) (7.9%), musculoskeletal (5.5%) and gastrointestinal systems (4.7%), and hydrops fetalis (4.3%). The babies with major birth defects were associated with lower birth weights, premature deliveries, higher Caesarean section rates, prolonged hospitalization and increased specialist care. Among the cohort of babies with major birth defects, the mortality rate was 25.2% during the perinatal period. Mothers with affected babies were associated with advanced maternal age, birth defects themselves or their relatives but not in their other offspring, and significantly higher rates of previous abortions. The consanguinity rate of 2.4% was twice that of the control population. It is concluded that a birth defects register is needed to monitor these developments and future interventional trials are needed to reduce birth defects in Malaysia. PMID:16096215

  10. FastStats: Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Data Set [PDF - 993 KB] Search Tables for Birth Defects in Health Data Interactive Trends in Spina Bifida ...

  11. Study Explores Mechanism Between Zika Virus, Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158048.html Study Explores Mechanism Between Zika Virus, Birth Defects Protein on fetal stem cells provides pathway for ... Zika virus might cause severe brain and eye birth defects. The Zika outbreak in Brazil and other parts ...

  12. Girl with Zika Birth Defect Born At New Jersey Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159145.html Girl With Zika Birth Defect Born at New Jersey Hospital The mother was ... Jersey hospital to a baby girl with the birth defect characteristic of the disease, officials said. The baby ...

  13. Scientists Report Insights into Zika Virus and Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_157604.html Scientists Report Insights Into Zika Virus and Birth Defect The pathogen appears to attack ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus may cause the birth defect microcephaly by targeting ...

  14. Laterality Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998–2007): Birth Prevalence and Descriptive Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Angela E.; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L.; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D; Botto, Lorenzo D.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence inte...

  15. Perinatal surveillance of birth defects in Zhengzhou City%河南省郑州市各级医院出生缺陷儿监测情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚楠; 赵悦淑; 张展; 胡孟彩; 姚梅玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:动态分析郑州市各级医院出生缺陷发生情况,为出生缺陷预防提供决策依据.方法:对2011年7月~2012年6月郑州市各级医院正常分娩婴儿及治疗性引产的围产儿进行出生缺陷监测.结果:共监测围产儿138 376例,死亡1 408例,死亡率为10.18%.;出生缺陷儿1 315例,出生缺陷率为953.4‰;1 408例死亡围产儿中缺陷儿488例,占34.66%;≥35岁孕妇分娩围产儿出生缺陷率1 260.6%.;缺陷儿产前诊断率为45.40%,产前诊断的出生缺陷疾病前3位分别是先天性心脏病、总唇裂和先天性脑积水,出生后诊断的出生缺陷疾病前3位分别是多指(趾)、外耳畸形和总唇裂.结论:出生缺陷是围产儿死亡的主要原因,重视优生知识宣传,加强产前筛查,提高产前诊断技术是降低出生缺陷儿出生的关键.%Objective; To investigate the status of birth defects in Zhengzhou City, and to provide a evidence base for the countermeasures. Methods: Birth defects were monitored in the childbirths of normal deliveries and those of therapeutic induction of labor in the hospitals of Zhengzhou City, from July 2011 to June 2012. Results; The perinatal mortality was 10. 18% (1,408/138,376) , of which 34. 66% (488/1,408) were the deaths with birth defect( s). The incidence of birth defect( s) was 9.53/10,000 (1,315/128,376). The incidence of birth defect(s) in the children of the mothers over 35 years old was the highest (126.06/10,000). The prenatal diagnosis rate of birth defect(s) was45.40%. The top three birth defects prena-tally diagnosed were congenital heart disease, total cleft lip and congenital hydrocephalus, while the top three birth defects postnatally diagnosed were multi -finger (toe) , outer ear deformity and total cleft lip. Conclusion; Birth defects have become one of the major causes of perinatal deaths. Perinatal education and prenatal screening should be strengthened. The improved prenatal diagnostic techniques

  16. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention

    OpenAIRE

    Rinku Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects (structural, functional and metabolic disorder present from birth, may be diagnosed later) rising up as an important cause of infant mortality even in developing countries where infant mortality has been reduced to much extent. Seventy percent of birth defects are preventable through the application of various cost effective community genetic services. Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, larg...

  17. Evaluation of birth defect histories obtained through maternal interviews.

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, S A; Mulinare, J; Khoury, M J; Maloney, E. K.

    1990-01-01

    Etiologic studies of birth defects often use family history information provided by parents of patients. The validity of this information has not been adequately assessed. Using data from the Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control study, we evaluated sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of mothers' responses regarding the presence of birth defects in their offspring. A total of 4929 mothers of infants with major structural defects ascertained by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congeni...

  18. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural Minnesota.

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, V F; Schreinemachers, D; Harkins, M E; Griffith, J

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies by our group suggested the possibility that offspring of pesticide appliers might have increased risks of birth anomalies. To evaluate this hypothesis, 935 births to 34,772 state-licensed, private pesticide appliers in Minnesota occurring between 1989 and 1992 were linked to the Minnesota state birth registry containing 210,723 live births in this timeframe. The birth defect rate for all birth anomalies was significantly increased in children born to private appliers. Specific...

  20. Maternal smoking and birth defects: validity of birth certificate data for effect estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Honein, M. A.; Paulozzi, L. J.; Watkins, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the validity of birth certificate data for estimating the association between maternal smoking and birth defects. The US standard birth certificate includes check boxes for maternal smoking and for 21 congenital anomalies. The sensitivity and specificity of birth certificate data have been studied, but previous studies have not addressed the validity of these data for estimating the association between birth defects and maternal smoking or other risk f...

  1. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whether the use of folic acid alone or folic acid-containing multivitamins is better. The second one is connected with the dilemma of whether high dose of folic acid (e.g. 5 mg might be better than a daily multivitamin with 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid. Comparison of the pooled data of two Hungarian trials using a multivitamin containing 0.8 mg folic acid and the data of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities using high dose of folic acid seemed to be appropriate to answer these questions. Multivitamins containing 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid were more effective for the reduction of neural-tube defects than high dose of folic acid. Both multivitamins and folic acid can prevent some part of congenital cardiovascular malformations. Only multivitamins were able to reduce the prevalence at birth of obstructive defects of urinary tract, limb deficiencies and congenital pyloric stenosis. However, folic acid was effective in preventing some part of rectal/anal stenosis/atresia, and high dose of folic acid had effect in preventing some orofacial clefts. The findings are consistent that periconceptional multivitamin and folic acid supplementation reduce the overall occurrence of congenital abnormalities in addition to the demonstrated effect on neural-tube defects.

  2. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, Andrew E

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whether the use of folic acid alone or folic acid-containing multivitamins is better. The second one is connected with the dilemma of whether high dose of folic acid (e.g. 5 mg) might be better than a daily multivitamin with 0.4 - 0.8 mg of folic acid. Comparison of the pooled data of two Hungarian trials using a multivitamin containing 0.8 mg folic acid and the data of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities using high dose of folic acid seemed to be appropriate to answer these questions. Multivitamins containing 0.4 - 0.8 mg of folic acid were more effective for the reduction of neural-tube defects than high dose of folic acid. Both multivitamins and folic acid can prevent some part of congenital cardiovascular malformations. Only multivitamins were able to reduce the prevalence at birth of obstructive defects of urinary tract, limb deficiencies and congenital pyloric stenosis. However, folic acid was effective in preventing some part of rectal/anal stenosis/atresia, and high dose of folic acid had effect in preventing some orofacial clefts. The findings are consistent that periconceptional multivitamin and folic acid supplementation reduce the overall occurrence of congenital abnormalities in addition to the demonstrated effect on neural-tube defects. PMID:15912190

  3. 佛山市2007~2009年围产儿出生缺陷监测分析%Analysis on surveillance of birth defects among perinatal infants of Foshan city from 2007 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾德勤; 王星; 伍捷阳; 吴雪丽

    2011-01-01

    目的了解佛山市2007~2009年围产儿出生缺陷发生状况和变化趋势,分析影响其出生缺陷发生的危险因素.方法 对2007~2009年在广东省佛山市妇幼保健院接受产前检查和(或)住院分娩的孕期满28周至产后7 d内的围产儿18 073例进行出生缺陷及相关因素的监测.结果 (1)3年来围产儿出生缺陷率为608.09/万,呈逐年上升的趋势.(2)出生缺陷前5位依次为先天性心脏病、葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺陷症、外耳其他畸形、多指(趾)、α-地中海贫血.上述几种缺陷的发生率均明显高于全国平均水平.(3)出生缺陷发生的性别差异明显,男性高于女性.(4)孕母大于或等于30岁是出生缺陷的高发年龄段,尤其是大于或等于35岁组出生缺陷发生率明显高于其他各年龄组.(5)出生缺陷围产儿死亡率为141.04‰.结论 出生缺陷发生率逐年上升,应积极开展婚前医学检查,提高产前诊断水平,及时进行新生儿疾病筛查,提高人口素质.%Objective To understand the incidence of the birth defects and variation tendency from 2007 to 2009 in foshan,and to analyse the risk factor which influence the incidence of birth defects. Methods The birth defects and its relevant factor of 18 073 perinatal neonates(dated from 2007 to 2009)were monitored. Results (1)In recent 3 years the average detection rate of birth defects was 608.09/10 000,which showed an increasing tendency year by year. (2)Top five birth defects were congenital heart disease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, deformity of external ear, polydactyly fingers, α-thalassemia. (3) The incidence of these defects were significantly higher than the nationwide average. (4)The occurrence of birth defects was higher in male than that in female according to the sex distribution. (5)Pregnant female over 30 years old was higher outbreak age group, especially more than 35 years. (5)The mortality of birth defects was 141.04‰. Conclusion

  4. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-17

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  5. Dietary Glycemic Index and the Risk of Birth Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Anderka, Marlene; Yazdy, Mahsa M.

    2012-01-01

    Prepregnancy diabetes and obesity have been identified as independent risk factors for several birth defects, providing support for a mechanism that involves hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the development of malformations. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study from 1997 to 2007 were used to investigate the association between the maternal dietary glycemic index (DGI) and the risk of birth defects among nondiabetic women. DGI was categorized by using spline regression mo...

  6. Prevalence of Birth Defects in Korean Livebirths, 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-A; Yee, Nan Hee; Choi, Jeong Soo; Choi, Jung Yun; Seo, Kyung

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the livebirths prevalence and occurrence pattern of birth defects in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was done in 2,348 medical institutions around the nation, the birth defect prevalence of livebirths in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of livebirths in Korea was 883,184 from 2005-2006, and 25,335 cases of birth defects were notified to our study, equivalent...

  7. Birth defects, causal attributions, and ethnicity in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amy P; Royle, Marjorie; Scheuerle, Angela E; Carmichael, Suzan L; Moffitt, Karen; Ramadhani, Tunu

    2014-10-01

    In order to translate research findings into effective prevention strategies, it is important to understand people's beliefs about the causes of poor health outcomes. However, with the exception of knowledge and beliefs about folic acid supplementation, little is known regarding women's causal attributions women regarding birth defects. We employed Attribution Theory constructs to analyze open-text interview responses from 2,672 control mothers in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study who gave birth in 1997-2005. Common themes included use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and medications during pregnancy. Stress and emotional upset were also suggested as possible causes of birth defects. Genetic- and heredity-related responses were more likely to be mentioned by Asian/Pacific Islander women compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic women were less likely to suggest several specific possible teratogens, such as paint, pesticides, or other chemicals, but were more likely to suggest events occurring during childbirth. Differences also emerged among ethnic groups for theoretical constructs, although most responses were categorized as controllable, changeable over time, and with an internal locus of causality. PMID:24682893

  8. A Prescription for the Prevention of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Harold C.

    1984-01-01

    Factors influencing birth defects include maternal age (teenagers and women over 32 are at risk), genetics, drug use, diet habits, and environmental hazards. The physical, social, and economic costs of birth defects are extreme. Prevention must involve efforts to change some of these factors. (Author/CS)

  9. Birth Defects in India: Magnitude, Public Health Impact and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects refer to a group of diverse congenital conditions, which are responsible for stillbirths, neonatal deaths, chronic medical conditions and disability. Due to their low prevalence and high mortality, birth defects are not considered to be a significant health problem in India. Various data however identify that India may harbour a significant burden of birth defects, and that these conditions may be responsible for a considerable proportion of neonatal deaths in India. Although it is widely assumed that survival of patients with birth defects is low, data suggests that in 2002, there were nearly six million Indians living with impairments arising at birth. These data urge the need for implementation of a national birth defects programme in India, with a strong component of prevention. The need for significant research investments to understand the epidemiology and public health impact of birth defects in India is identified. Translation research, transcending the disciplines of medicine, public health and genetics is required to develop a low cost birth defects service as a component of the existing maternal and child health programme.

  10. Four Polygamous Families with Congenital Birth Defects from Fallujah, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Manduca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, congenital malformations have increased to account for 15% of all births in Fallujah, Iraq. Congenital heart defects have the highest incidence, followed by neural tube defects. Similar birth defects were reported in other populations exposed to war contaminants. While the causes of increased prevalence of birth defects are under investigation, we opted to release this communication to contribute to exploration of these issues. By using a questionnaire, containing residential history and activities that may have led to exposure to war contaminants, retrospective reproductive history of four polygamous Fallujah families were documented. Our findings point to sporadic, untargeted events, with different phenotypes in each family and increased recurrence. The prevalence of familial birth defects after 2003 highlights the relevance of epigenetic mechanisms and offers insights to focus research, with the aim of reducing further damage to people’s health.

  11. Congenital malformations in Ecuadorian children: urgent need to create a National Registry of Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio González-Andrade

    2010-04-01

    females 30.40.Conclusion: This report documents the prevalence estimates for birth defects reported in the hospital discharge data. These estimates are important to 1 plan for health-care and education needs of the Ecuadorian population, 2 identify increased occurrences of birth defects in specific geographic regions, 3 serve as a reference point for assessment of provincial surveillance systems, 4 evaluate national public health interventions, 5 compare Ecuador prevalence estimates with those of other countries, and 6 help determine the appropriate allocation of resources for basic and public health research. There is an urgent need to establish a National Registry of Birth Defects involving different sources of information such as prenatal medical records, birth records and medical records during the first year of life at an early stage, and surveys on cytogenetic prenatal diagnostic surveys and cytogenetics of therapeutic abortions.Keywords: Ecuador, genetics, birth defects surveillance, database, prevalence, epidemiology, congenital malformations

  12. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah;

    2007-01-01

    maternal conditions. There was no elevation in risk of fatal birth defect if the father was admitted with schizophrenia or any other psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There are many possible explanations for a higher risk of fatal birth defect with maternal schizophrenia and affective disorder. These......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared to...

  13. Maternal age and birth defects: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, P A; Sadovnick, A D; Yee, I M

    1991-03-01

    Since more and more women in developed countries are delaying childbearing to an older age, it is important to find out whether birth defects, other than those resulting from chromosomal anomalies, are related to maternal age. We have studied all 26,859 children with birth defects of unknown aetiology identified among 576,815 consecutive livebirths in British Columbia. All these cases' records were linked with provincial birth records to allow determination of maternal age at birth. We excluded children with chromosomal anomalies and those with other birth defects of known aetiology. Only 3 of the 43 birth defect categories studied showed significant maternal-age-specific trends: there were decreasing linear trends with maternal age for patent ductus arteriosus (chi 2 = 36.65, 1 df, p less than 0.01) and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (chi 2 = 4.90, 1 df, p less than 0.05) and a bell-shaped curve (risk increasing to maternal age 30 then falling) for congenital dislocatable hip/hip click. The findings from this population-based analysis of no association between the incidence of birth defects of unknown aetiology and advancing maternal age should be reassuring to healthy women who opt to delay childbearing. PMID:1671898

  14. Is Maternal Parity an Independent Risk Factor for Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hao T.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Case, Amy; McNeese, Melanie L.; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although associations between maternal parity and birth defects have been observed previously, few studies have focused on the possibility that parity is an independent risk factor for birth defects. We investigated the relation between levels of parity and a range of birth defects, adjusting each defect group for the same covariates. METHODS We included infants who had an estimated delivery date between 1997 and 2007 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite case-control study. Cases included infants or fetuses belonging to 38 phenotypes of birth defects (n = 17,908), and controls included infants who were unaffected by a major birth defect (n = 7173). Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 12 covariates using logistic regression. RESULTS Compared with primiparous mothers, nulliparous mothers were more likely to have infants with amniotic band sequence, hydrocephaly, esophageal atresia, hypospadias, limb reduction deficiencies, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, gastroschisis, tetralogy of Fallot, and septal cardiac defects, with significant ORs (1.2 to 2.3). Compared with primiparous mothers, multiparous mothers had a significantly increased risk of omphalocele, with an OR of 1.5, but had significantly decreased risk of hypospadias and limb reduction deficiencies, with ORs of 0.77 and 0.77. CONCLUSIONS Nulliparity was associated with an increased risk of specific phenotypes of birth defects. Most of the phenotypes associated with nulliparity in this study were consistent with those identified by previous studies. Research into biologic or environmental factors that are associated with nulliparity may be helpful in explaining some or all of these associations. PMID:22371332

  15. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rinku

    2013-04-01

    Birth defects (structural, functional and metabolic disorder present from birth, may be diagnosed later) rising up as an important cause of infant mortality even in developing countries where infant mortality has been reduced to much extent. Seventy percent of birth defects are preventable through the application of various cost effective community genetic services. Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, large number of unplanned pregnancies, poor coverage of antenatal care, poor maternal nutritional status, high consanguineous marriages rate, and high carrier rate for hemoglobinopathies. India being the second most populous country with a large number infant born annually with birth defects should focus its attention on strategies for control of birth defects. Many population based strategies such as iodization, double fortification of salt, flour fortification with multivitamins, folic acid supplementation, periconceptional care, carrier screening and prenatal screening are some of proven strategies for control of birth defects. Strategies such as iodization of salt in spite of being initiated for a long time in the past do have a very little impact on its consumption (only 50% were using iodized salt). Community genetic services for control of birth defects can be easily flourished and integrated with primary health care in India because of its well established infrastructure and personnel in the field of maternal and child health care. As there is wide variation for infant mortality rate (IMR) in different states in India, so there is a need of deferential approach to implement community genetic services in states those had already achieved national goal of IMR. On the other hand, states those have not achieved the national goal on IMR priority should be given to management of other causes of infant mortality. PMID:24019610

  16. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi′an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  17. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of metabolism in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Hamad Al Bu Ali; Magdy Hassan Balaha; Mohammed Saleh Al Moghannum; Ibrahim Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth defects and inborn errors of metabolism are related to variable poor perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Our aim was to explore the pattern and prevalence of birth defects and metabolic birth errors in Al-Ahsa Governorate in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods This retrospective case control study was done from April 2006 to 2009. Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control g...

  18. [Reliability of birth defect data on birth certificates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fernando Antônio Ramos; Llerena Jr, Juan Clinton; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Cunha, Cynthia Braga da; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the reliability of birth certificate data related to birth defects in Brazil's Live Birth Information System (SINASC). We selected 24 maternity hospitals in the Unified National Health System (SUS) and compared the reports of birth defects from birth certificates with medical records of mothers and live born infants in the city of Rio de Janeiro for the year 2004. After transposing the data to a specific form, the birth defects were coded by types and organ systems and compared to the SINASC data. The most commonly affected organs involved the central nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Agreement was more than 50% for the digestive, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems and chromosomal anomalies. Prevalence-adjusted kappa varied according to 2 or 3-digit ICD-10 analysis, with better results for the musculoskeletal, digestive, and genitourinary systems and congenital anomalies, and worse for the central nervous and cardio-circulatory systems, eye, neck, and ear malformations, and cleft lip and palate. The results were unsatisfactory, suggesting the need for more investments to train the persons responsible for completing birth certificates in maternity hospitals and develop a model for coding birth defects on these documents. PMID:18278291

  19. Maternal Exposure to Methotrexate and Birth Defects: a Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, April L.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita; Arena, J. Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Methotrexate is an anti-folate medication that is associated with increased risk of multiple birth defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States, we examined mothers exposed to methotrexate. The study population included mothers of live-born infants without major birth defects (controls) and mothers of fetuses or infants with a major birth defect (cases), with expected dates of delivery between October 19...

  20. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, large number of unplanned pregnancies, poor coverage of antenatal care, poor maternal nutritional status, high consanguineous marriages rate, and high carrier rate for hemoglobinopathies. India being the second most populous country with a large number infant born annually with birth defects should focus its attention on strategies for control of birth defects. Many population based strategies such as iodization, double fortification of salt, flour fortification with multivitamins, folic acid supplementation, periconceptional care, carrier screening and prenatal screening are some of proven strategies for control of birth defects. Strategies such as iodization of salt in spite of being initiated for a long time in the past do have a very little impact on its consumption (only 50% were using iodized salt. Community genetic services for control of birth defects can be easily flourished and integrated with primary health care in India because of its well established infrastructure and personnel in the field of maternal and child health care. As there is wide variation for infant mortality rate (IMR in different states in India, so there is a need of deferential approach to implement community genetic services in states those had already achieved national goal of IMR. On the other hand, states those have not achieved the national goal on IMR priority should be given to management of other causes of infant mortality.

  1. Follow-up studies of children with birth defects in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Rolv T.; Rolv Skjærven

    2009-01-01

    In two studies published from data in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we described the survival, tendency to reproduce and subsequent recurrence of birth defects in offspring for children with a range of categories of birth defects. The studies were done separately for girls and boys. The current review summarizes data from these reports and makes some comparisons between boys and girls. More boys than girls are born with birth defects. The survival and tendency to reproduce showed great...

  2. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range, glycemic threshold and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Reece, E Albert; Wang, Fang; Yang, Peixin

    2015-04-15

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age (18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3 million American women have diabetes mellitus, and it has been estimated that this number will double by 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is a significant public health problem that increases the risk for structural birth defects affecting both maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most common types of human structural birth defects associated with PGD are congenital heart defects and central nervous system defects. However, diabetes can induce birth defects in any other fetal organ. In general, the rate of birth defects increases linearly with the degree of maternal hyperglycemia, which is the major factor that mediates teratogenicity of PGD. Stringent prenatal care and glycemic control are effective means to reduce birth defects in PGD pregnancies, but cannot reduce the incidence of birth defects to the rate of that is seen in the nondiabetic population. Studies in animal models have revealed that PGD induces oxidative stress, which activates cellular stress signalling leading to dysregulation of gene expression and excess apoptosis in the target organs, including the neural tube and embryonic heart. Activation of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-forkhead transcription factor 3a (FoxO3a)-caspase 8 pathway causes apoptosis in the developing neural tube leading to neural tube defects (NTDs). ASK1 activates the c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), which leads to activation of the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Deletion of the ASK1 gene, the JNK1 gene, or the JNK2 gene, or inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acid abrogates diabetes-induced apoptosis and reduces the formation of NTDs. Antioxidants, such as thioredoxin, which inhibits the ASK1-FoxO3a-caspase 8 pathway or ER stress inhibitors, may prevent PGD-induced birth defects. PMID:25897357

  3. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whet...

  4. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range, glycemic threshold and pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Reece, E. Albert; Wang, Fang; Yang, Peixin

    2015-01-01

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age (18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3 million American women have diabetes mellitus, and it has been estimated that this number will double by 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is a significant public health problem that increases the risk for structural birth defects affecting both maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most common types of human structural birth defects associated with PGD are congenital heart defec...

  5. Autosomal Chromosome Abnormality: A Cause of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Diane

    Intended for parents and professionals, the book explains chromosome abnormalities in lay terms and discusses the relationship of specific conditions to birth defects. Chromosomal abnormalities are defined and factors in diagnosis and recurrence are discussed. Normal chromosome reproduction processes are covered while such numerical abnormalities…

  6. Study Sees No Link Between Common Epilepsy Drug, Certain Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sees No Link Between Common Epilepsy Drug, Certain Birth Defects Large review found no greater risk of clubfoot, ... pregnancy may not raise the risk for certain birth defects, a large new study finds. "An initial study ...

  7. Are epidemiological approaches suitable to study risk/preventive factors for human birth defects?

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Oberg, Anna Sara

    2015-01-01

    Birth defects are a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and contribute substantially to long-term disability. One out of every 33 babies is born with some type of birth defect. Despite decades of research on environmental, behavioral and genetic risk factors, the vast majority of birth defects still occur without known cause. It is possible that birth defects are largely stochastic (and unavoidable) events, at which efforts to investigate their causes would be futile and unjustified...

  8. Insights from Parents about Caring for a Child with Birth Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Mateus; Jodi Lemacks; Kristin Fowles; Kayte Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects affect 1 in 33 babies. Having a child with a birth defect impacts the whole family. Parents of children who have birth defects face unique challenges and desire to make life better for their kids. They also want to help to prevent birth defects in the future. Some of the challenges parents face involve communication with healthcare professionals, quality of life issues, creating awareness and advocating for research and funding, finding resources and support, and helping teens t...

  9. Review on Genetic Variants and Maternal Smoking in the Etiology of Oral Clefts and Other Birth Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Min; Wehby, George L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    A spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and birth defects has been linked with maternal smoking during pregnancy. This article includes a review of studies investigating interactions between genetic variants and maternal smoking in contributing to birth defects using oral clefting as a model birth defect. The primary gene-smoking studies for other major birth defects are also summarized. Gene-environment interaction studies for birth defects are st...

  10. Evaluating alcohol related birth defects in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuler, Kristrina A.; Schroeder, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are yet undocumented among past communities, although alcohol is the leading cause of non-heritable birth defects in the US today. We evaluate potential ARBD at Newton Plantation, Barbados (ca. 1660-1820), where earlier studies suggest frequent, community-wide...... ARBD, past and present. Ours is the first attempt to explore developmental signatures of alcohol use archeologically. We report the first possible case of ARBD from a past community. © 2013 Elsevier Inc....... identify ARBD in most individuals, including those with isotopic signatures of Barbadian origin who also showed consistently elevated dental lead levels. We discuss how such patterns may have emerged from timing of exposures and colonial medical practices, but underreporting remains a likely concern with...

  11. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range,glycemic threshold and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rinat Gabbay-Benziv; E Albert Reece; Fang Wang, Peixin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age(18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3million American women have diabetes mellitus, andit has been estimated that this number will doubleby 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is asignificant public health problem that increases therisk for structural birth defects affecting both maternaland neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most commontypes of human structural birth defects associated withPGD are congenital heart defects and central nervoussystem defects. However, diabetes can induce birthdefects in any other fetal organ. In general, the rateof birth defects increases linearly with the degree ofmaternal hyperglycemia, which is the major factor thatmediates teratogenicity of PGD. Stringent prenatal careand glycemic control are effective means to reducebirth defects in PGD pregnancies, but cannot reducethe incidence of birth defects to the rate of that is seenin the nondiabetic population. Studies in animal modelshave revealed that PGD induces oxidative stress,which activates cellular stress signalling leading todysregulation of gene expression and excess apoptosisin the target organs, including the neural tube andembryonic heart. Activation of the apoptosis signalregulatingkinase 1 (ASK1)-forkhead transcription factor3a (FoxO3a)-caspase 8 pathway causes apoptosis in thedeveloping neural tube leading to neural tube defects(NTDs). ASK1 activates the c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2), which leads to activation of the unfoldedprotein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.Deletion of the ASK1 gene, the JNK1 gene, or the JNK2gene, or inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acidabrogates diabetes-induced apoptosis and reduces theformation of NTDs. Antioxidants, such as thioredoxin,which inhibits the ASK1-FoxO3a-caspase 8 pathway orER stress inhibitors, may prevent PGD-induced birthdefects. Gabbay-Benziv R et al . Birth defects in pregestational diabetes

  12. Prenatal Nitrate Intake from Drinking Water and Selected Birth Defects in Offspring of Participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J.; Romitti, Paul A.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Shinde, Mayura U; Vuong, Ann M; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dwivedi, Dipankar; Horel, Scott A; Kantamneni, Jiji; Huber, John C; Zheng, Qi; Werler, Martha M.; Kelley, Katherine E.; Griesenbeck, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs. Objectives: We examined the relation between prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and selected birth defects, accounting for maternal water consumption patterns and nitrosatable drug exposure. Methods: With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we linked addresses o...

  13. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  14. Genetic link between renal birth defects and congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Agustin, Jovenal T; Klena, Nikolai; Granath, Kristi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Stewart, Eileen; Devine, William; Strittmatter, Lara; Jonassen, Julie A; Liu, Xiaoqin; Lo, Cecilia W; Pazour, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a similar spectrum. Together, these findings demonstrate a common shared genetic aetiology for CHD and renal anomalies, indicating that CHD patients are at increased risk for complications from renal anomalies. This collection of mutant mouse models provides a resource for further studies to elucidate the developmental link between renal anomalies and CHD. PMID:27002738

  15. A Multi-center Study for Birth Defect Monitoring Systems in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jae-Hyug; Kim, Yon-Ju; Chung, Jin-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Young; Ryu, Hyun-Mee; Ahn, Hyun-Kyong; Han, Jung-Yul; Yang, Soon-Ha; Kim, Ahm; Kim, Hyun-Se; Lee, Pyo-Jong; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Young-Ju; Koh, Kyung-Sim; Shin, Jong-Chul

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a multi-center birth defects monitoring system to evaluate the prevalence and the serial occurrence of birth defects in Korea. Ten medical centers participated in this program. A trained nurse collected relevant records from delivery units and pediatric clinics in participating hospitals on a monthly basis. We observed 1,537 cases of birth defects among 86,622 deliveries, which included live births and stillbirths. The prevalence of birth defects was 1.8...

  16. Application Research of "3+1" Mode for Birth Defects Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LIU; Cheng-liang XIONG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects and quality control measures based on the population,and to obtain the related information data for birth defects.Methods With the community population as the basis,adopting the unified monitoring scheme dominant by the leadership and administration of government,with districts(counties)as the monitoring sites,the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects was based on a complete monitoring team with the combination of villages/residents'committees,townships(towns),counties(districts)and the municipality.Demonstration research was carried out in the pilot districts/counties in Chongqing City.Results Birth defects population monitoring system based on population and family planning management and service network was established,and during 2005 and 2006,application research was carried out for the monitoring methods among birth deflects population in the pilot districts(counties),obtaining the relevant information in regional birth defects,with a monitoring coverage of over 99%.Conclusion Fully utilizing the birth management functions of Population and Family Planning System and the advantages of service networks,long term,dynamic birth defects monitoring system based on community population was established,with the integration of birth defects monitoring and regular reproductive health services,obtaining overall birth defects occurrence information in details,providing scientific basis for the government to formulate scientific,practical,economic and effective birth defects intervention policy,so as to improve the quality of the population.

  17. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Xingguang; Li Su; Wu Siqintuya; Hao Xiaojin; Guo Shuyi; Suzuki Kota; Yokomichi Hiroshi; Yamagata Zentaro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline ...

  18. Epidemic Intelligence. Langmuir and the Birth of Disease Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle Fearnley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the SARS and influenza epidemics of the past decade, one public health solution has become a refrain: surveillance systems for detection of disease outbreaks. This paper is an effort to understand how disease surveillance for outbreak detection gained such paramount rationality in contemporary public health. The epidemiologist Alexander Langmuir is well known as the creator of modern disease surveillance. But less well known is how he imagined disease surveillance as one part of what he called “epidemic intelligence.” Langmuir developed the practice of disease surveillance during an unprecedented moment in which the threat of biological warfare brought civil defense experts and epidemiologists together around a common problem. In this paper, I describe how Langmuir navigated this world, experimenting with new techniques and rationales of epidemic control. Ultimately, I argue, Langmuir′s experiments resulted in a set of techniques and infrastructures – a system of epidemic intelligence – that transformed the epidemic as an object of human art.

  19. Agrichemicals in surface water and birth defects in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Winchester, Paul D; Huskins, Jordan; Ying, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate if live births conceived in months when surface water agrichemicals are highest are at greater risk for birth defects. Methods: Monthly concentrations during 1996–2002 of nitrates, atrazine and other pesticides were calculated using United States Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment data. Monthly United States birth defect rates were calculated for live births from 1996 to 2002 using United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention natality ...

  20. Maternal use of oral contraceptives and risk of birth defects in Denmark: prospective, nationwide cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, Brittany M; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Svanström, Henrik; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Pasternak, Björn; Melbye, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Study question Is oral contraceptive use around the time of pregnancy onset associated with an increased risk of major birth defects? Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study, data on oral contraceptive use and major birth defects were collected among 880 694 live births from Danish registries between 1997 and 2011. We conservatively assumed that oral contraceptive exposure lasted up to the most recently filled prescription. The main outcome measure was the number of major birth d...

  1. Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hadithi Tariq S; Al-Diwan Jawad K; Saleh Abubakir M; Shabila Nazar P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects dat...

  2. Use of Decongestants During Pregnancy and the Risk of Birth Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Wai-Ping; MITCHELL, ALLEN A.; Lin, Kueiyu Joshua; Werler, Martha M.; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that early pregnancy exposure to specific oral decongestants increases the risks of several birth defects. Using January 1993–January 2010 data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, we tested those hypotheses among 12,734 infants with malformations (cases) and 7,606 nonmalformed control infants in the United States and Canada. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for specific birth defects, with controlling for potential...

  3. Feasibility of identifying families for genetic studies of birth defects using the National Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan Vikki G; Wyszynski Diego F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the National Health Interview Survey is a useful source to identify informative families for genetic studies of birth defects. Methods The 1994/1995 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to identify households where individuals with two or more birth defects reside. Four groups of households were identified: 1) single non-familial (one individual with one birth defect); 2) single familial (more than one individu...

  4. Insights from Parents about Caring for a Child with Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mateus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects affect 1 in 33 babies. Having a child with a birth defect impacts the whole family. Parents of children who have birth defects face unique challenges and desire to make life better for their kids. They also want to help to prevent birth defects in the future. Some of the challenges parents face involve communication with healthcare professionals, quality of life issues, creating awareness and advocating for research and funding, finding resources and support, and helping teens transition to appropriate, specialized adult care. This paper addresses these issues and their sub-issues, provides examples, and makes suggestions for improvement and research.

  5. Heart Defects At Birth May Raise Risk for PTSD Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Defects at Birth May Raise Risk for PTSD Later in Life Rate is three times higher ... heart defects may be at increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), researchers say. The reason? High levels of ...

  6. Folic acid and primary prevention of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Carbone, Pietro; Granata, Orietta; Baldi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) are an important public health problem, due to their overall incidence, occurring in 2-3% of live births in European Union. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among major NTDs, due to their severity and relatively high incidence; in the meanwhile NTDs are also the most effectively preventable BDs to date. In particular, an adequate folic acid (FA) intake reduces both the occurrence and the recurrence of NTDs; FA is the synthetic form of folates, naturally occurring vitamins in a number of foods, especially vegetables. The daily intake of 0.4 mg of FA should be recommended to all women of childbearing age who plan to become pregnant. The Italian Network for Primary Prevention of BDs through FA Promotion has achieved a significant improvement in FA awareness and use in the periconceptional period. Nevertheless, primary prevention of BDs needs to make further progress; the Italian National Centre for Rare Diseases participates in european sureveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT) Joint Action as coordinator of activities on the effectiveness of BDs prevention. Mandatory food fortification with FA has not been introduced in any European country. The health benefits of FA in reducing the risk of NTDs are undisputed; however mechanistic and animal studies suggest a relationship between high FA intakes and increased cancer promotion, while human studies are still inconsistent and inconclusive. A Working Group organized by the European Food Safety Authority pointed out significant uncertainties about fortification safety and the need for more studies; currently, FA intake from fortified foods and supplements should not exceed 1 mg/day in adults. In conclusion, based on up-to-date scientific evidence, the Italian Network strategy pivots on periconceptional supplementation integrated with promotion of healthy eating habits, support to health education, enhancing the role of women in managing life choices about their health and pregnancy and increasing

  7. Zika virus and birth defects: an obstetric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochukwu C. Okeke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that is relatively unknown, unstudied and under-diagnosed, but has potentials to spread to new geographical areas that favour survival of Aedes mosquitoes. It is associated with an alarming rise in babies with microcephaly that require much care and support with a lot of financial assistance. This is a review article on Zika virus and birth defects; a worrisome issue in today's obstetric and medical practices. Since Zika's discovery in Uganda, the virus was known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia with no or mild symptoms. It has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade with accelerated geographic spread of the virus in the last nine years. The risk of Zika virus to the fetus is poorly understood, difficult to quantify and problematic. The causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly was initially speculative, strongly suspected and scientifically unproven. However, on 13th April, 2016, it was concluded that Zika virus is the cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC authors reviewed and weighed evidences using established scientific criteria to conclude after a careful review of the report published in the New England Journal of Medicine. There is no prophylaxis, treatment or vaccine to protect against Zika virus infection. However, preventive personal measures are highly recommended to avoid mosquito bites. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2488-2496

  8. A Birth Defects Prevention Curriculum for Inner-City Junior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ellen J.; Cohen, Carl I.

    1981-01-01

    Educators have begun to recognize that the public school system is an ideal setting in which to introduce the topic of birth defects prevention. A highly structured two week curriculum was developed using March of Dimes materials to teach inner-city school children about birth defects prevention. (JN)

  9. Occurrence of Conotruncal Heart Birth Defects in Texas: A Comparison of Urban/Rural Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter H.; Jandle, Leigh; Scheuerle, Angela; Horel, Scott A.; Carozza, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: (1) Determine if there is an association between 3 conotruncal heart birth defects and urban/rural residence of mother. (2) Compare results using different methods of measuring urban/rural status. Methods: Data were taken from the Texas Birth Defects Registry, 1999-2003. Poisson regression was used to compare crude and adjusted birth…

  10. Risk factors associated with birth defects at a tertiary care center in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Mohammad Zeeshan; Sheikh, Asfandyar; Ahmed, Syed Salman; Ali, Sajid; Naqvi, Syed Mumtaz Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background Birth defects are defined as those conditions that are substantially determined before or during birth and which are recognizable in early life. They are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The main objective of the study was to determine the association of certain risk factors with birth defects occurring in pediatric patients seeking care in Civil Hospital, Karachi. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at Department of Pediatrics: ...

  11. Predicting needs for special education resources for mental retardation from birth defects records.

    OpenAIRE

    Brewster, M A; Kirby, R S; Feild, C R; Cunniff, C M

    1992-01-01

    Planning of service delivery systems for children with special health care needs would be enhanced by knowledge of numbers of cases anticipated in defined geographic areas. A method is described for predicting numbers of children who will likely have mental retardation sufficient to require special education services, based on the birth prevalence of birth defects and clinicians' estimates of the likelihood of mental retardation associated with each specific birth defect. This method is appli...

  12. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    OpenAIRE

    Song Xinming; Pang Lihua; Chen Gong; Meng Bin; Wang Jinfeng; Wu Jilei; Zhang Keli; Zhang Ting; Zheng Xiaoying

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS)". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD) occurr...

  13. Audit of birth defects in 34,109 deliveries in a tertiary referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noraihan, M N; See, M H; Raja, R; Baskaran, T P; Symonds, E M

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the study is to determine the proportion and different types of birth defects among the children born in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 18 months where all consecutively born infants, dead or alive were included. There were total of 34,109 births recorded during this period. The proportion of birth defects in Hospital Kuala Lumpur was 3.1% (n = 1056). The commonest involved were the hematology system, (157.7 per 10,000 births), the central nervous system, genitourinary system and chromosomal anomalies. The proportion was significantly higher in males and in the Chinese (p defect is common and ranked second after G6PD deficiency. There is a need for a birth defect registry to assess the extent of the problem in Malaysia. PMID:16570708

  14. Birth prevalence of selected external structural birth defects at four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2011–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rogath Kishimba; Rose Mpembeni; Mghamba, Janneth M; David Goodman; Diana Valencia

    2015-01-01

    Background 94% of all birth defects (BD) and 95% of deaths due to the BD occur in low and middle income countries, many of which are preventable. In Tanzania, there is currently a paucity of BD data necessary to develop data informed prevention activities. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of deliveries identified with BD in the labor ward registers at four Dar es Salaam hospitals between October, 2011 and February, 2012. The birth prevalence of structural BD, case fatality pro...

  15. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  16. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: → Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. → An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. → Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of selected birth defects, areas of Lombardy, Italy, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Frassoldi Emanuela; Gambino Maria; Pisani Salvatore; Bellotti Maria; Vergani Daniele; Tittarelli Andrea; Maghini Anna; Fabiano Sabrina; Caramaschi Fausta; Tessandori Roberto; Tagliabue Giovanna; Costa Enrica; Gada Daniela; Crosignani Paolo; Contiero Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Birth defects are a leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality in Italy, however little is known of the etiology of most defects. Improvements in diagnosis have revealed increasing numbers of clinically insignificant defects, while improvements in treatment have increased the survival of those with more serious and complex defects. For etiological studies, prevention, and management, it is important to have population-based monitoring which provides reliable data on th...

  18. BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

  19. Adding Folic Acid to Corn Masa Flour May Prevent Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Adding Folic Acid to Corn Masa Flour May Prevent Birth Defects Share Tweet ... mainstay of their regular diets—which often are corn masa-based.” This could be a reason why ...

  20. Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158906.html Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study ... prescribed for a range of health problems, including epilepsy, fibromyalgia and anxiety. The new study findings should ...

  1. Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158906.html Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study ... prescribed for a range of health problems, including epilepsy, fibromyalgia and anxiety. The new study findings should ...

  2. "Birth Defects Today--Their Impact Upon the Family, the Patient and Society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, May

    1969-01-01

    Discusses fully necessity for parent, community education concerning birth defects; need for proper prenatal care as possible means of prevention, flexible services for handicapped children with focus on child, not handicap. (CJ)

  3. Birth defects following maternal exposure to ergotamine, beta blockers, and caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, H E; Goldstein, D A

    1988-01-01

    Ergotamine exposure during pregnancy has been suggested to cause birth defects which have a vascular disruptive aetiology. The present case provides additional support for the possible adverse fetal effects of exposure to ergotamine, caffeine, and propranolol during the first four months of pregnancy. At birth the infant showed evidence of early arrested cerebral maturation and paraplegia. The nature of these defects suggests a primary vascular disruptive aetiology. We hypothesise that ergota...

  4. Hypospadias and maternal exposure to atrazine via drinking water in the National Birth Defects Prevention study

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Jennifer J.; Emch, Michael; Meyer, Robert E.; Langlois, Peter; Weyer, Peter; Mosley, Bridget; Olshan, Andrew F.; Band, Lawrence E.; Thomas J. Luben; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals might increase the risk of hypospadias by interrupting normal urethral development. Methods Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study, we considered the role of maternal exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide and potential endocrine disruptor, via drinking water in the ...

  5. Cancer Risk in Children and Adolescents with Birth Defects: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flood, Timothy; Little, Julian; Fluchel, Mark N.; Krikov, Sergey; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Wu, Yuan; Goedken, Rhinda; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. Methods and Findings This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Ar...

  6. A case–control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Agopian, AJ; Waller, D. Kim; Philip J. Lupo; Canfield, Mark A.; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Background Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Methods Data for cases with one ...

  7. Birth defects in infants conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an alternative interpretation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurinczuk, J.J.; Bower, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that liveborn infants conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection are at an increased risk of having a major birth defect. DESIGN: Reclassification of the birth defects reported in infants born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in Belgium and comparison with prevalence estimated in Western Australian population by means of same classification system. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: 420 liveborn infants who were conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in...

  8. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Geiza Cesar Nhoncanse; Germano, Carla Maria R.; Lucimar Retto da S. de Avo; Debora Gusmao Melo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants), cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a ...

  9. The Association of Maternal Lifestyle with Birth Defects in Shaanxi Province, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Leilei; Kang, Yijun; Cheng, Yue; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The main objective was to investigate the burden of birth defects among alive infants and explore the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on the burden of birth defects in Northwest China. Methods A stratified multi-stage sampling method was used to study infants born during 2010–2013 (and their mothers) in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire, and medical records from the local hospitals were us...

  10. Parental Reactions to an Infant with a Birth Defect: A Study of Five Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, Dorian

    Five families whose first born infant experienced a birth anomaly were followed for two years through a combination of home and laboratory visits. Findings suggested that the birth of an infant with a defect was experienced by the parents as a narcissistic injury and a series of narcissistic insults that affect the parents' self esteem, interfere…

  11. Specific SSRIs and birth defects: bayesian analysis to interpret new data in the context of previous reports

    OpenAIRE

    Reefhuis, Jennita; Devine, Owen; Friedman, Jan M.; Louik, Carol; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To follow up on previously reported associations between periconceptional use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and specific birth defects using an expanded dataset from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Design Bayesian analysis combining results from independent published analyses with data from a multicenter population based case-control study of birth defects. Setting 10 centers in the United States. Participants 17 952 mothers of infants with birth de...

  12. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiza Cesar Nhoncanse

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants, cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047. A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001 and cesarean delivery (p=0.004 was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs.

  13. Birth defects registries in the genomics era: challenges and opportunities for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meow-Keong eThong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects or congenital anomalies are one of the major causes of disability in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. Increasingly there is a shift to genetic testing and genomics study of birth defects. However the translation from bench findings to bedside medicine has been muted. There is a need to address this imbalance where congenital anomalies remained the top aetiology for neonatal mortality in developing countries. To build capacity in low resource countries, there is a need for accurate collection and ascertainment of birth defects in developing countries. The systematic collection and analysis of data on major birth defects using birth defects registries (BDR are an integral part of all clinical genetic services. Healthcare planners in developing countries must be aware of the advantages and limitations of BDRs. Despite the advent of the genomics era, BDRs are essential to the planning and developing care and prevention services at local and national levels, particularly in low resource or developing countries.

  14. The influence of the post-Chernobyl fallout on birth defects and abortion rates in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, M C; Berghold, A; Schoell, W; Hofer, P; Schaffer, M

    1992-10-01

    Researchers analyzed data on 66,743 births which occurred between 1985-1989 in the Styria region in southern Austria to determine whether radioactive fallout from the meltdown of the nuclear reaction at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, USSR in may 1986 affected the birth defect and abortion rates in this area of Austria. There were 1695 birth defect cases. Of the birth defects which occurred during embryogenesis, most occurred 14-49 days postconception (group 2; n=630). The researchers did not note a short-term effect of the fallout in group 2 or the other groups (relative risk= 0.75, 0.73 for group 1, and 0.93 for group 2). Baseline birth defect rates (per 1000 births) for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2.5, 8.5, and 1,8 respectively. The only sizable increase occurred in group 2 at years 2 and 3 (10.6 and 10.3, respectively). More reported minor congenital defect cases accounted for this increase due to the newly established data base in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the University of Graz. Thus the increase was an artifact and not a true increase. Abortion rates varied from 10% to 14% and did not increase significantly after Chernobyl. Counseling frequency at abortion clinics fluctuated greatly (117-205) both before and after Chernobyl and the changes were not significant. These results indicated that the low dosage of radiation did not have a detectable biologic effect in terms of birth defects and abortions. The researchers addressed the difficulties with measuring teratologic potential of low dose radiation. They also highlighted the need for accurate categorizing of birth defects, adequate baseline data, and very reliable registries. Future research on possible environmental disasters which affect Austria can use these data as baseline data. PMID:1415387

  15. Prenatal Care Demand and its Effects on Birth Outcomes by Birth Defect Status in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Wehby, George L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to identify determinants of prenatal care demand and evaluate the effects of this demand on low birth weight and preterm birth. Delay in initiating prenatal care was modeled as a function of pregnancy risk indicators, enabling factors, and regional characteristics. Conditional maximum likelihood (CML) estimation was used to model self-selection into prenatal care use when estimating its effectiveness. Birth registry data was collected post delivery on infants with and withou...

  16. Folic acid sensitive birth defects in association with intrauterine exposure to folic acid antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.M.; Walle, H.E.K.de; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2005-01-01

    Since the protective effect of folic acid (FA) on birth defects is well known, it is reasonable to assume intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists increases the risk on these defects. We have therefore performed case-control analyses to investigate the risk of intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists,

  17. The risk of birth defects in dichorionic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Matsubara, Shigeki; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Watanabe, Takashi; Izumi, Akio; Honma, Yoko; Yada, Yukari; Shibahara, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether dichorionic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART; intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI], in vitro fertilization [IVF], gamete-intrafallopian tube transfer [GIFT]) have a higher risk of birth defects compared to dichorionic twins conceived naturally. We reviewed the medical records of 406 mothers with dichorionic twin pregnancies, who received continuous antenatal care from or = 24 weeks of gestation in our institute. Birth defects were diagnosed at the time of hospital discharge according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Occurrence of birth defects was compared between twins conceived by ART and those conceived naturally using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 51 of 812 infants (51/812 = 6.2%) had birth defects. The incidence of birth defects in ART-conceived twins was significantly higher than that of naturally conceived twins with an odds ratio of 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1, 22.5), 3.7 (95% CI 1.2, 12.0), and 4.3 (95% CI 1.4, 14.3) for ICSI, IVF, and GIFT, respectively. The higher frequency of birth defects in ART-conceived twins was still significant after adjusting for higher maternal age in the ART group, with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.7 (95% CI 2.1, 21.9), 3.6 (95% CI 1.1, 11.5), and 3.7 (95% CI 1.2-11.8) for ICSI, IVF, and GIFT, respectively. Dichorionic twins conceived by ART, compared to dichorionic twins conceived naturally, had a much higher risk for birth defects diagnosed at hospital discharge. PMID:15193165

  18. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  19. Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of birth defects is generally accredited with genetic factors, environmental causes, but the contribution of environmental factors to birth defects is still inconclusive. With the hypothesis of associations of geochemical features distribution and birth defects risk, we collected birth records and measured the chemical components in soil samples from a high prevalence area of birth defects in Shanxi province, China. The relative risk levels among villages were estimated with conditional spatial autoregressive model and the relationships between the risk levels of the villages and the 15 types of chemical elements concentration in the cropland and woodland soils were explored. The results revealed that the arsenic levels in cropland soil showed a significant association with birth defects occurring risk in this area, which is consistent with existing evidences of arsenic as a teratogen and warrants further investigation on arsenic exposure routine to birth defect occurring risk. - Highlights: • Association between soil geochemical components and birth defects risk was proposed. • The relative risk difference among villages were estimated with CAR model. • Arsenic levels in cropland showed a significant association to birth defect risk. • The finding warrants further investigation on arsenic as a teratogen. - The difference of risk levels estimate by spatial statistics to birth defect significantly associated with arsenic levels in cropland soils warrants further investigation

  20. Maternal occupation and the risk of major birth defects: a follow-up analysis from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao; Herdt-Losavio, Michele L; Chapman, Bonnie R; Munsie, Jean-Pierre; Olshan, Andrew F; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2013-06-01

    This study further examined the association between selected maternal occupations and a variety of birth defects identified from prior analysis and explored the effect of work hours and number of jobs held and potential interaction between folic acid and occupation. Data from a population-based, multi-center case-control study was used. Analyses included 45 major defects and specific sub-occupations under five occupational groups: healthcare workers, cleaners, scientists, teachers and personal service workers. Both logistic regression and Bayesian models (to minimize type-1 errors) were used, adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by folic acid was also assessed. More than any other occupation, nine different defects were positively associated with maids or janitors [odds ratio (OR) range: 1.72-3.99]. Positive associations were also seen between the following maternal occupations and defects in their children (OR range: 1.35-3.48): chemists/conotruncal heart and neural tube defects (NTDs), engineers/conotruncal defects, preschool teachers/cataracts and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P), entertainers/athletes/gastroschisis, and nurses/hydrocephalus and left ventricular outflow tract heart defects. Non-preschool teachers had significantly lower odds of oral clefts and gastroschisis in their offspring (OR range: 0.53-0.76). There was a suggestion that maternal folic acid use modified the effects with occupations including lowering the risk of NTDs and CL/P. No consistent patterns were found between maternal work hours or multiple jobs by occupation and the risk of birth defects. Overall, mothers working as maids, janitors, biologists, chemists, engineers, nurses, entertainers, child care workers and preschool teachers had increased risks of several malformations and non-preschool teachers had a lower risk of some defects. Maternal folic acid use reduced the odds of NTDs and CL/P among those with certain occupations. This hypothesis

  1. Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hadithi Tariq S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects data from Al-Ramadi Maternity and Paediatric Hospital in Al-Anbar Governorate in Iraq from1st July 2000 through 30th June 2002. In addition to depleted uranium other war-related environmental factors have been studied and linked directly or indirectly with the increasing prevalence of birth defects. However, the reviewed studies and the available research evidence do not provide a clear increase in birth defects and a clear indication of a possible environmental exposure including depleted uranium although the country has been facing several environmental challenges since 1980.

  2. Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithi, Tariq S; Al-Diwan, Jawad K; Saleh, Abubakir M; Shabila, Nazar P

    2012-01-01

    An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects data from Al-Ramadi Maternity and Paediatric Hospital in Al-Anbar Governorate in Iraq from1st July 2000 through 30th June 2002. In addition to depleted uranium other war-related environmental factors have been studied and linked directly or indirectly with the increasing prevalence of birth defects. However, the reviewed studies and the available research evidence do not provide a clear increase in birth defects and a clear indication of a possible environmental exposure including depleted uranium although the country has been facing several environmental challenges since 1980. PMID:22839108

  3. Morbidity due to acute lower respiratory infection in children with birth defects: a total population-based linked data study

    OpenAIRE

    Jama-Alol, Khadra A; Moore, Hannah C.; Jacoby, Peter; Bower, Carol; Lehmann, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are leading causes of hospitalisation in children. Birth defects occur in 5% of live births in Western Australia (WA). The association between birth defects and ALRI hospitalisation is unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 245,249 singleton births in WA (1996-2005). Population-based hospitalisation data were linked to the WA Register of Developmental Anomalies to investigate ALRI hospitalisations in children with an...

  4. The Relationship between Drug-and Chemical-exposure and Birth Defects during Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈启芳; 张忠恕; 方可娟; 丁亦诺; 顾江; 王仁礼; 杨跃英; 李海放; 蒋秀蓉; 薛寿征

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study was conductedin 36 hospitals of the urban and suburban areas of Shanghai about the relationships between birth defects and drug use and chemieal exposures during pregnancy in the period of July 1987-December 1990. The case group was composed of 1.609 subjects, and the control group 3,218 cases. On statistical analysis, it was found that a correlation existed between birth defects and the intake of APC and diazepam, and the exposure to pesticides, organic soh, ents, benzene, synthetic resin and physical factors (noises) on the part of the mother, and the exposure to harmful chemicals and physical factors and the smoking of 20 or more cigarettes a day on the part of the father. It is also found that the familial hereditary history of the parents and muhigravidio,, malnutrition, common colds, hepatitis and diarrhea during pregnancy may also be related to the birth defects.

  5. Hybrid Procedure for Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect in a Low Birth Weight Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Young; Seo, Dong-Man; Shin, Hong Ju; Kim, Soo-Jin; Son, Jae Sung

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac surgery in neonates with congenital heart disease has progressed dramatically in the past three decades. However, low-birth-weight neonates with congenital heart disease continue to challenge the intellectual and technical skills of healthcare professionals. We present a case of a low-birth-weight neonate with pulmonary atresia and a ventricular septal defect, in whom palliation was achieved with a right ventricular outflow tract stent using a hybrid procedure.

  6. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  7. Maternal dietary glycemic intake during pregnancy and the risk of birth defects

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdy, Mahsa M.; MITCHELL, ALLEN A.; Liu, Simin; Werler, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    High sugar intake has been linked to fetal anomalies in the presence and absence of insulin resistance. Using dietary data collected in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study, we examined whether high dietary glycemic index (dGI) or load (dGL) increased the risk of birth defects. Non-diabetic mothers of 1,921 cases and 704 controls were interviewed within six months after delivery (1988–1998) about pregnancy events and exposures, including a 99-item food frequency questi...

  8. Development of biomarkers to assess fumonisin exposure and birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisin is suspected to be a risk factor for increased incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) in humans where maize is consumed in large amounts and diets are likely to be deficient in folate. In susceptible mice, fumonisin induction of NTD appears to be closely linked to disruption of sphingolip...

  9. Birth defects in perinatal infants in areas contiguous to Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant before its normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To understand the status of birth defects among the perinatal infants in the areas contiguous to Hongyanhe nuclear power plant before its normal operation, so as to provide background information for the evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plant on birth defects. Methods: From 1 October 1995 to 30 September 2009 the midwifery units at second class and above of Wafangdian City were asked to be in charge of recording the birth defects among the perinatal infants born during this period within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. Results: The total number of birth defects was 697, and the maternal number Was 83779. The average defect rate Was 83.20/104. There were significant differences in the birth defect rate among different years (χ2=39.54, P<0.05), however, without linear trend therein,and among the survey areas (χ2=15.36, P<0.05) as well. The top five birth defects were congenital heart disease (148 cases), cleft lip with cleft palate (67 cases), congenital hydrocephalus (63 cases), and spina bifida (37 cases) and cleft lip (36 cases). Conclusions: The birth defect rate within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant is lower than that of the region of Liaoning Province and the national rate of birth defects. (authors)

  10. Diabetes and Obesity-Related Genes and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lupo, Philip J.; Canfield, Mark A.; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A.J.; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M.; Waller, D. Kim; Olshan, Andrew F.; Finnell, Richard H.; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999–2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and...

  11. BIRTH DEFECTS IN FOUR U.S. WHEAT-PRODUCING STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth Defects in Four U.S. Wheat - Producing StatesDina M. Schreinemachers, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711Wheat agriculture in Mi...

  12. Timing of Zika Infection in Pregnancy May Be Key to Birth Defect Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159383.html Timing of Zika Infection in Pregnancy May Be Key to Birth Defect Risk Colombian ... federal policy. More Health News on: Infections and Pregnancy Zika Virus Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  13. Overview of Epidemiology, Genetics, Birth Defects, and Chromosome Abnormalities Associated With CDH

    OpenAIRE

    Pober, Barbara R.

    2007-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations.

  14. Proceedings of the Conference on Birth Defects for Educators (May 4, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael S., Ed.; Davidson, Mary W., Ed.

    Six papers from a 1978 conference on birth defects focus on prevention. G. Stickle ("The Health of America's Babies: How Do We Stack Up?'" reviews risk in pregnancy, cites inadequate prenatal care and maternal nutrition, and discusses examples of how the United States is not applying its knowledge of how to improve pregnancy outcome. In "Genetic…

  15. Drinking & Congenital Birth Defects: Alcohol Awareness in the Northern Rivers Region of New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeigh, Tony; Dip, Grad; Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Guidelines developed to minimise the risk of harm associated with alcohol consumption in Australia focus on promoting population health by changing cultural attitudes. This research study was conducted to uncover attitudes toward maternal drinking and awareness of alcohol-related birth defects within the semi-rural Northern Rivers area of…

  16. Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and birth defects in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girguis, Mariam S; Strickland, Matthew J; Hu, Xuefei; Liu, Yang; Bartell, Scott M; Vieira, Verónica M

    2016-04-01

    Exposures to particulate matter with diameter of 2.5µm or less (PM2.5) may influence risk of birth defects. We estimated associations between maternal exposure to prenatal traffic-related air pollution and risk of cardiac, orofacial, and neural tube defects among Massachusetts births conceived 2001 through 2008. Our analyses included 2729 cardiac, 255 neural tube, and 729 orofacial defects. We used satellite remote sensing, meteorological and land use data to assess PM2.5 and traffic-related exposures (distance to roads and traffic density) at geocoded birth addresses. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models. Generalized additive models were used to assess spatial patterns of birth defect risk. There were positive but non-significant associations for a 10µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.83), patent foramen ovale (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.54) and patent ductus arteriosus (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.62). There was a non-significant inverse association between PM2.5 and cleft lip with or without palate (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.10), cleft palate only (OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.46) and neural tube defects (OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.05). Results for traffic related exposure were similar. Only ostium secundum atrial septal defects displayed significant spatial variation after accounting for known risk factors. PMID:26705853

  17. Correlation Between Birth Defects and Dietary Nutrition Status in a High Incidence Area of China1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO-YUAN ZHANG; QING-SHAN ZHANG; JIN ZHAO; YU-FU QIN; XIU-FENG YANG; GONG CHEN; JU-FEN LIU; XIN-MING SONG; XIAO-YING ZHENG; TING ZHANG; LIANG-MING LIN; FANG WANG; RUO-LEI XIN; XUE GU; YU-NA HE; DONG-MEI YU; PEI-ZHEN LI

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between birth defects and dietary nutrient intake in a high risk area of China.Methods A dietary survey was performed and serum folic acid was measured in women whose pregnancy was affected by neural tube defects(NTDs)or unaffected by any birth defects(BDs)in Zhongyang and Jiaokou Counties in Shanxi Province of China.Results The local average censureption of foods including dark green vegetables,fluits,fat and meat,and nutrient intake(e.g.energy,protein,retinol,riboflavin,vitamin E,and selenium)were lower than the national average level.In women of childbearing age,these regions,the intake of nutrients was much lower than the recommended nutrient intake(9%-77%)The case-centrel dietary nutrition smdv of women whose pregnancy was affected bv BDs(including MTDs and congenital heart defects)demonstrated that,in early pregnancy,adequate nutrition(I.e.eating meat,fresh vegetables,fruit more than once a week)was a protective factor,while eating germinated potatoes was a risk factor.The geometrical mean(p5-p95)of serum folic acid in women with NTD birth defects was 9.6 nmol/L(3.6,23.03),which was significantly lower than that in normal women(14.03 nmol/L). Conclusion Wemen of childbearing age in the two counties of Shanxi Province,Chim,have a marked insufficient intake of some nutrients,especially folic acid,zinc,vitamins A and B12.This nutrient deficiency may be an important risk factor for the high prevalence of birth defects in these regions.Therefore,adequate dietary nutrition in early pregnancy can prevent BDs.

  18. Association between prenatal exposure to antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: an analysis of the French perinatal cohort study (ANRS CO1/CO11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Sibiude

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV drug used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388 were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%-4.7%, according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%. Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.8, p = 0

  19. Comparison of residential geocoding methods in population-based study of air quality and birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M; Mendola, Pauline; Olshan, Andrew F; Harness, Catherine; Loomis, Dana; Langlois, Peter H; Savitz, David A; Herring, Amy H

    2006-06-01

    Our population-based case-control study of air quality and birth defects in Texas relied on the geocoding of maternal residence from vital records for the assignment of air pollution exposures during early pregnancy. We attempted to geocode the maternal addresses for 5,338 birth defect cases and 4,574 frequency-matched controls using an automated procedure with standard matching criteria in ArcGIS 8.2 and 8.3. Initially, we matched 7,266 observations (73%). To increase the proportion of successful matches, we used an interactive procedure for the 2,646 addresses that were initially not geocoded by the software. This yielded an additional 985 matches (37%). Using the same 2,646 initially unmatched addresses, we compared the results of this interactive procedure to those of an automated procedure using lower standards. The automated procedure with lower standards yielded more matches (n=1,559, 59%) but with questionable accuracy. We included the interactively geocoded observations in our final data set. Their inclusion did not affect the estimates of air pollution exposure but increased our statistical power to detect associations between air quality and risk of selected birth defects. The geocoded and not geocoded populations differed in the distribution of Latino ethnicity (51% vs 59%) and ethnicity was independently associated with air pollution exposures (Pbirth defects; Latina women appeared to have a slightly lower risk of birth defects than non-Latina women in the geocoded population and to have a slightly higher risk in the not geocoded population. Incomplete geocoding may have resulted in a selection bias because of the under-representation of Latinas in our study population. PMID:16483563

  20. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M;

    2015-01-01

    : This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins......BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS...... consanguinity prevalence for all included women was 49.6%. The consanguinity among babies with major Birth Defects (BDs) was 54.5% and 45.2% for controls (P < 0.0002). The prevalence of major birth defects was 41.1 per 1000 total births. Univariate analysis showed that consanguinity had a statistically...

  1. Factors associated with major structural birth defects among newborns delivered at Muhimbili National Hospital and Municipal Hospitals in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania 2011 – 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Mpembeni, Rose; Mghamba, Janneth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-four percent of all birth defects and 95% of deaths due to the birth defects occur in low and middle income countries, Tanzania among them. In Tanzania there are currently limited birth defects prevention strategies in place due to limited information on factors associated with the occurrence of birth defects. Methods We conducted a case control study that included newborns born from October, 2011 through February, 2012 at 4 participating hospitals. A case was defined as a...

  2. Construction of HMI Network System for Individualized Maternity Intervention Service against Birth Defects in Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-huai HU

    2007-01-01

    The paper expounds the community maternity service system against birth defects,from the viewpoint of individualized service in family planning. We have utilized modern information technology to develop health management information (HMI) network with individualized maternity, and to establish the community service system for intervention of birth defects. The service system applied the concept of modern health management information to implementing informational management for screening,treatment, following up, outcome monitoring, so as to provide a base for promotion of health, diagnosis, treatment as well as scientific research, with the prenatal screening of Down's syndrome as a model. The introduction to informational network during the processes of service has been carried out with regards to its composition, function and application, while introducing the effects of computerized case record individualized in prevention, management and research of Down's syndrome.

  3. Congenital malformations in Ecuadorian children: urgent need to create a National Registry of Birth Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricio González-Andrade; Ramiro López-Pulles

    2012-01-01

    Fabricio González-Andrade1, Ramiro López-Pulles21Department of Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital, Quito, Ecuador; 2Science and Technology Process of the Ministry of Public Health, Biomedical Center of the Central University and Regional Autonomic University of the Audes, Quito, Ecuador Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, EcuadorAim: This study sets out (a) to estimate the prevalence of admissions by birth defects, using the official database of hospitals of Ecuador; an...

  4. Antiretroviral therapy, pregnancy, and birth defects: a discussion on the updated data

    OpenAIRE

    Prestes-Carneiro LE

    2013-01-01

    Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro1–21Immunology Department, University of Oeste Paulista, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: An increasing number of HIV-infected women of childbearing age are initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide. This review aims to discuss updated data of the eligible ART regimens and their role in inducing birth defects in utero. Zidovudine and lamivudine plu...

  5. A Study of Handling Cytotoxic Drugs and Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Female Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleh Shirangi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05–4.15. Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03 and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00–3.48 and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18–5.42. This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs.

  6. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ≤1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ≥2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ≥2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

  7. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 338-348. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2012/01/25/peds.2011-3435.abstract ... NICHD News and Spotlights Zika virus damages placenta, kills fetal mice NICHD Begins ...

  8. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands : a 30-year population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasluian, Ecaterina; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Essen, Anthonie J; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964-1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964-1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other bir

  9. Impact of Co-Occurring Birth Defects on the Timing of Newborn Hearing Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Derek A.; Stampfel, Caroline C.; Bodurtha, Joann N.; Dodson, Kelley M.; Pandya, Arti; Lynch, Kathleen B.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Early detection of hearing loss in all newborns and timely intervention are critical to children's cognitive, verbal, behavioral, and social development. The initiation of appropriate early intervention services before 6 months of age can prevent or reduce negative developmental consequences. The purpose of this study was to assess, using large, population-based registries, the effect of co-occurring birth defects (CBDs) on the timing and overall rate of hearing screening and diagnosis. Method The authors linked statewide data from newborn hearing screenings, a birth defects registry, and birth certificates to assess the timeliness of newborn hearing screening and diagnosis of hearing loss (HL) for infants with and without CBDs in 485 children with confirmed HL. Results Nearly one third (31.5%) of children with HL had 1 or more CBDs. The presence of CBDs prolonged the time of the initial infant hearing screening, which contributed to further delays in the subsequent diagnosis of HL. Conclusions Better coordination of HL assessment into treatment plans for children with CBDs may enable earlier diagnosis of HL and provide opportunities for intervention that will affect long-term developmental outcomes for these children. PMID:21940980

  10. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus–associated birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of birth defects in relation to diabetes mellitus and the lack of use of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. STUDY DESIGN The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2004) is a multicenter, population-based case-control study of birth defects (14,721 cases and 5437 control infants). Cases were categorized into 18 types of heart defects and 26 noncardiac birth defects. We estimated odds ratios for independent and joint effects of preexisting diabetes mellitus and a lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. RESULTS The pattern of odds ratios suggested an increased risk of defects that are associated with diabetes mellitus in the absence vs the presence of the periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. CONCLUSION The lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid may be associated with an excess risk for birth defects due to diabetes mellitus. PMID:22284962

  11. Analysis of the Monitoring Results of Birth Defect in Hospitals Between 2001 and 2010 in Changsha%长沙市2001~2010年医院出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖月娥; 朱琳; 周红女; 周燕飞; 李杏秀; 王卫东; 徐扬; 林蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze the monitoring results of birth defect in hospital between 2001 and 2010 in Changsha in order to provide the basis for formulating the policy to reduce the birth defect rate of hospitals by health administrative department .[Methods] The statistical data from 13 birth defect monitoring hospitals of Changsha were analyzed .All the 13 hospital were accorded with birth defect definition and diagnostic standard in Chinese birth defect monitoring program and Chinese birth defect monitoring manual .All birth defect children were examined and registered by the trained physicians .The classification and statistical analysis were taken .[Results] In the past 10 years ,there were 173527 perinatal children born in 13 birth defect surveillance hospitals . Among them ,3856 children were birth defects .The total incidence rate was 222 .16/10000 .The incidence rate of birth defect during 10 years was increased obviously .The top 5 birth defects were congenital heart disease ,outer ear and other malformations ,cleft lip complicated with cleft palate ,multi-finger(toe) and congenital hydroceph-alus .Except the constituent ratio of congenital heart disease was increased ,the constituent ratio of 4 other birth defects had the declining trend .[Conclusion] The strategical change of the prevention mode of birth defect should be implemented so as to reduce the birth defect .%[目的]通过分析长沙市2001~2010年医院出生缺陷监测结果数据,为上级医疗行政部门制定降低医院出生缺陷率的政策提供依据。[方法]参照长沙市13所出生缺陷监测医院的统计数据。13所医院均按照《中国出生缺陷监测方案》及《中国出生缺陷监测手册》中有关出生缺陷的定义特征和诊断标准,经专职医生临床体检和相关检查确诊并分类统计。[结果]10年中13所出生缺陷监测医院总出生围生儿为173527例,出生缺陷3856例,总发生率为222.16/万,10年间出生缺

  12. Preventive program of birth defects: incidence of anencephaly in Maracaibo, Venezuela. 1993-1996 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia, and specifically in the Eastern Coast of Lake Maracaibo, an oil exploitation area, has been declared high since the beginning of the 80's, coincident with the generalized use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for fetal evaluation. Through the Birth Defects Preventive Program, established at the Hospital Chiquinquira in Maracaibo, we have developed a fourfold strategy for the study of birth defects: i) analysis of more than 32,332 ultrasound evaluations within the Ultrasound Service, between 1993 and 1996, ii) a case-control malformation registry beginning in 1995, iii) a study of malformed stillbirths at the Pathology Service, observed after 4232 deliveries within this hospital, and iv) a registry of over 638 mothers with high risk pregnancy for fetal defects detected at the prenatal clinic and carried out at the Perinatal Medical Genetics Service. As a reference population we study 345 medical histories obtained from the Medical Genetics and Prenatal Diagnostic Service at Hospital Coromoto, and oil companies related medical facility. This approach has led us to conclude that the incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia is 0.75/1000, significantly similar to that expected for most populations

  13. A retrospective population-based study of childhood hospital admissions with record linkage to a birth defects registry

    OpenAIRE

    Bower Carol; Colvin Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Using population-based linked records of births, deaths, birth defects and hospital admissions for children born 1980–1999 enables profiles of hospital morbidity to be created for each child. Methods This is an analysis of a state-based registry of birth defects linked to population-based hospital admission data. Transfers and readmissions within one day could be taken into account and treated as one episode of care for the purposes of analyses (N = 485,446 children; 742,8...

  14. Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Preet Allagh

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India. Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement.The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9. The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5. Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn.The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.

  15. [Pesticide exposure and reproductive and birth defects. Critical analysis of epidemiological and experimental evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, María Fernanda

    2004-07-01

    Several epidemiological studies link pesticide exposure to reproductive and developmental toxicity. However, additional studies have shown little or no evidence to support such relationship. On the other hand, experimental data show that some pesticides may indeed alter the reproductive function or produce birth defects (as evidenced by intrauterine death, in utero growth retardation, visceral and skeletal malformations or functional deficits) in laboratory animals. This review is a critical analysis of the epidemiological and experimental evidence available to date, that links pesticide exposure with induction of reproductive or developmental defects. Factors that must be considered when establishing a cause-effect relationship are also discussed, including the shape of the dose-response curve, exposure to pesticides in chemical mixtures and the influence of genetic background. PMID:15379337

  16. Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis Diagnosed in a 49-Year-Old Woman after 10 Uneventful Births

    OpenAIRE

    Altin, Firat H.; Yildiz, Okan; Karacalilar, Mehmet; Tosun, Oyku; Kocyigit, Ozgen Ilgaz; Erek, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    Atrioventricular septal defects constitute 4% of all congenital cardiac malformations. Patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect rarely survive for decades without surgical treatment. Pulmonary stenosis can provide a delicate balance between the pulmonary and systemic circulations and thereby increase longevity. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman whose complete atrioventricular septal defect and associated pulmonary stenosis were diagnosed only after she had given birth to...

  17. Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal: 2012 follow-up survey and use of skilled birth attendants

    OpenAIRE

    Choulagai, Bishnu P; Aryal, Umesh Raj; Shrestha, Binjwala; Vaidya, Abhinav; Onta, Sharad; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point.Desig...

  18. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  19. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias; Simon, Judith; Nagenborg, Michael

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...

  20. The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2 assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3 provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects. METHODS: We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ≥ 28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59, exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30, maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33, drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95, maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57, and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53. Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary

  1. Concordance Rates of Birth Defects After Assisted Reproductive Technology Among 17 258 Japanese Twin Pregnancies: A Nationwide Survey, 2004–2009

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Background Most twins after assisted reproductive technology (ART) are dizygotic. Analysis of dizygotic twin pairs is useful in assessing familial aggregation in the development of birth defects. Methods Using nationwide post-ART data from the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, recurrence risk ratios (RRRs)—defined as probandwise concordance rates of birth defects in twins divided by the prevalence of birth defects in the general population—were calculated as indicators of familial a...

  2. Congenital hydrocephalus in two pregnancies following the birth of a child with a neural tube defect: aetiology and management.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, R D; Sarti, D A; Brown, W J; Crandall, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    A family is described with congenital hydrocephalus occurring in two pregnancies following the birth of a child with a neural tube defect (NTD). Prenatal diagnosis of hydrocephalus at mid-gestation was achieved by ultrasonography. The increased frequency of hydrocephalus among sibs of probands with a NTD and vice versa suggests that, following the birth of a child with either malformations, subsequent pregnancies should be monitored at mid-gestation by amniotic fluid AFP and serial ultrasound...

  3. Diabetes and obesity-related genes and the risk of neural tube defects in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Waller, D Kim; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-12-15

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999-2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. PMID:23132673

  4. Epidemiology of birth defects, perinatal mortality and thyroid cancer before and after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial and temporal trends of birth defects and perinatal mortality in Germany and Europe as well as in least and most contaminated regions have been compared and investigated by trends. In numerous data sets, especially from northern and eastern Europe, positive and significant trend variations with upward 'disturbances' in temporal relation associated with the Chernobyl accident 1986 have been identified and spatial associations with regional fallout have been found. A surprisingly consistent picture evolves of significantly raised stillbirth rates after Chernobyl of ca. 5 % in Poland, ca. 10 % in parts of Germany and Sweden, ca. 20 % in Denmark and Finland, and up to ca. 30% in Iceland and Hungary. Low as compared to higher contaminated regions show weaker or stronger effects, respectively. The additional relative risks for birth defects are in the same order of magnitude as the additional relative risks for stillbirth, namely 0,5%-20 %/kBq·m2. Using well-known conversion coefficients, the excess relative risk of 1 %/kBq·m2 translates theoretically to a preliminary relative risk of 1,6/mSv/a. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma among children affected by Chernobyl fallout has increased dramatically in certain parts of Europe. Less evidence exists for a similar effect among adolescents and adults. The cancer registry of the Czech Republic provides an opportunity to study various determinants of the occurrence of thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl accident, the thyroid cancer incidence of the Czech Republic reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender. The additional increases of thyroid cancer in the whole population of the Czech Republic are consistent with reports from other countries. To investigate trends in the sex distribution of newborns before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden

  5. Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally Premature Birth in a Cohort of Couples with Documented Parental Exposure to Military Attacks: Observational Study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Manduca; Awny Naim; Simona Signoriello

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents ...

  6. Genetic Conditions: A Resource Book and Instructional Guide to Human Heredity and Birth Defects for Kindergarten Through Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Designed for administrators, teachers, school nurses, and others involved in health education for kindergarten through adult education, the resource guide provides curriculum ideas for instruction in genetic conditions, heredity, and birth defects. Student learning objectives, content information, learning activities, and evaluation methods are…

  7. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  8. 10 Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Have You Heard about Alcohol and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jerry; And Others

    A set of two pamphlets is presented on the topic of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. "Ten Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects" provides ideas and materials for students and others to use in educating the public about the dangers of alcohol use during pregnancy. It offers…

  9. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  10. Low birth weight and zygosity status is associated with defective muscle glycogen and glycogen synthase regulation in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Vaag, Allan

    2007-01-01

    lower fractional GS activity amidst higher glycogen and GS protein levels compared with dizygotic twins. In addition, we demonstrated strong nongenetic associations between birth weight and defect muscle glycogen metabolism in elderly--but not in younger--twins. Thus, for every 100 g increase in birth......OBJECTIVE: An adverse intrauterine environment indicated by both low birth weight and monozygosity is associated with an age- or time-dependent reduction in glucose disposal and nonoxidative glucose metabolism in twins, suggesting impaired regulation of muscle glycogen synthesis. RESEARCH DESIGN...... weight within pairs, GS fractional activity, GS protein level, and glycogen content was increased by 4.2, 8.7, and 4.5%, respectively, in elderly twins. Similarly, for every 100 g increase in birth weight, GSK3 alpha activity and GS phosphorylation at the sites 2, 2+2a, and 3a+3b were decreased by 3.1, 9...

  11. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed an exploratory analysis of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Data on births were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) in Texas. Air pollution concentrations were previously determined by combining modeled air pollution concentrations with air monitoring data. The analysis generated hypotheses for future, confirmatory studies; although many of the observed associations were null. The hypotheses are provided by an observed association between O3 and craniosynostosis and inverse associations between PM2.5 and septal and obstructive heart defects in the TBDR. Associations with PM2.5 for septal heart defects and ventricular outflow tract obstructions were null using the NBDPS. Both the TBDR and the NBPDS had inverse associations between O3 and septal heart defects. Further research to confirm the observed associations is warranted. - Highlights: • Air pollution concentrations combined modeled air data and air monitoring data. • No associations were observed between the majority of birth defects and PM2.5 and O3. • Estimated associations between PM2.5 and certain heart defects varied by dataset. • Results were suggestive of an inverse association between O3 and septal heart defects. • Higher O3 concentrations may be associated with increased odds of craniosynostosis. - Although most observed associations between ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations and birth defects were null, some were present and warrant further consideration

  12. New development of the yolk sac theory in diabetic embryopathy: molecular mechanism and link to structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Daoyin; Reece, E Albert; Lin, Xue; Wu, Yanqing; AriasVillela, Natalia; Yang, Peixin

    2016-02-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects and neural tube defects. With the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in women of childbearing age, diabetes mellitus-induced birth defects have become an increasingly significant public health problem. Maternal diabetes mellitus in vivo and high glucose in vitro induce yolk sac injuries by damaging the morphologic condition of cells and altering the dynamics of organelles. The yolk sac vascular system is the first system to develop during embryogenesis; therefore, it is the most sensitive to hyperglycemia. The consequences of yolk sac injuries include impairment of nutrient transportation because of vasculopathy. Although the functional relationship between yolk sac vasculopathy and structural birth defects has not yet been established, a recent study reveals that the quality of yolk sac vasculature is related inversely to embryonic malformation rates. Studies in animal models have uncovered key molecular intermediates of diabetic yolk sac vasculopathy, which include hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and its inhibitor thioredoxin-1, c-Jun-N-terminal kinases, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Yolk sac vasculopathy is also associated with abnormalities in arachidonic acid and myo-inositol. Dietary supplementation with fatty acids that restore lipid levels in the yolk sac lead to a reduction in diabetes mellitus-induced malformations. Although the role of the human yolk in embryogenesis is less extensive than in rodents, nevertheless, human embryonic vasculogenesis is affected negatively by maternal diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic studies have identified potential therapeutic targets for future intervention against yolk sac vasculopathy, birth defects, and other complications associated with diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26432466

  13. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  14. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  15. Exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen M H J van Gelder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs during pregnancy is common, small increases in the risk of birth defects may have significant implications for public health. Results of human studies on the teratogenic risks of NSAIDs are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of selected birth defects after prenatal exposure to prescribed and over-the-counter NSAIDs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on 69,929 women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 1999 and 2006. Data on NSAID exposure were available from a self-administered questionnaire completed around gestational week 17. Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Only birth defects suspected to be associated with NSAID exposure based upon proposed teratogenic mechanisms and previous studies were included in the multivariable logistic regression analyses. A total of 3,023 women used NSAIDs in gestational weeks 0-12 and 64,074 women did not report NSAID use in early pregnancy. No associations were observed between overall exposure to NSAIDs during pregnancy and the selected birth defects separately or as a group (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.1. Associations between maternal use of specific types of NSAIDs and the selected birth defects were not found either, although an increased risk was seen for septal defects and exposure to multiple NSAIDs based on small numbers (2 exposed cases; crude odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 0.9-15.7. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to NSAIDs during the first 12 weeks of gestation does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of the selected birth defects. However, due to the small numbers of NSAID-exposed infants for the individual birth defect categories, increases in the risks of specific birth defects could not be excluded.

  16. Relating Factors and Effects of Intervention on Birth Defects in Zhuhai City%珠海市围产儿出生缺陷危险因素及干预措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 金正平; 戚小兵; 赵静; 胡翀; 张红忠; 曾淑萍; 李文典; 梁雄; 谭晓燕; 黄辉文

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To find out the status of birth defects and the relating factors in Zhuhai city, to valuate the effect of the measures of integrated intervention and to provide evidence for intervention measures and decisions-making. Methods Data was collected from the Zhuhai birth defects surveillance system from 2007 to 2010. And a case-control study was carried out on congenital malformations to evaluate the risk factor and the effect of the measures of integrative intervention. Results The incidence of birth defects reduced after the integrative intervention, top birth defects ranking changed, the incidence of NTD reduced. The main risk factors of congenital malformations were the history of abortion, times of abortion, exposure to chemical substances before or during pregnancy, the history of birth defect, the father's smoking history, maternal malnutrition during pregnancy, and maternal bad feelings during pregnancy. Conclusions Some risk factors were identified as having important effect on preinstall congenital malformations. Taking serial integrative intervention measures and strengthening three-level prevention will be beneficial to the reduction of birth defects.%目的 调查珠海市围产儿出生缺陷的发生情况,了解围产儿出生缺陷发生的危险因素,为围产儿出生缺陷的预防和干预提供依据.方法 收集珠海市2006~2010年出生缺陷资料,对先天畸形儿的双亲进行了病例对照研究,调查其危险因素,并对其综合干预措施的效果进行对比评估.结果 干预后,珠海市出生缺陷发生率下降,出生缺陷顺位及构成发生变化,神经管畸形发生率降低.出生缺陷的主要影响因素有:流产史及流产次数、孕期接触化学制剂、生产畸胎史、父亲吸烟史、母亲孕期营养不良、母亲孕期情绪不良.结论 影响出生缺陷的相关危险因素较多,降低出生缺陷发生率,应建立多种形式的综合措施,做好三级预防工作.

  17. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  18. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, John C.; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H.; Canfield, Mark A.; Romitti, Paul A.; Weyer, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. Methods For this population-based case–control study, data from a 58-...

  19. Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and birth defects and infant mortality in nearby communities 1971-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was commissioned to examine whether there were elevated rates of stillbirth, birth defects, or death in the first year of life between 1971 and 1988 among offspring of residents of communities within a 25-kilometre radius of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The study was also to investigate whether there were any statistical associations between the monthly airborne or waterborne tritium emissions from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and the rates of these reproductive outcomes. Overall analysis did not support a hypothesis of increased rates of stillbirths, neonatal mortality or infant mortality near the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, or a hypothesis of increased birth prevalence of birth defects for 21 of 22 diagnostic categories. The prevalence of Down Syndrome was elevated in both Pickering and Ajax; however, there was no consistent pattern between tritium release levels and Down Syndrome prevalence, chance could not be ruled out for the associations between Down Syndrome and tritium releases or ground-monitored concentrations, the association was detected in an analysis where multiple testing was done which may turn up significant associations by change, and maternal residence at birth and early in pregnancy needs to be verified. The association between Down Syndrome and low-level radiation remains indeterminate when existing evidence from epidemiological studies is summed. The estimated radiation exposure from the nuclear plant for residents of Pickering and Ajax is lower by a factor of 100 than the normal natural background radiation. Further study is recommended. (21 tabs., 29 figs., 5 maps, 37 refs.)

  20. Severe birth defects in children perinatal exposed to HIV from a “real-world” setting: Infectious Diseases National Institute, Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Tudor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The shift in epidemic trends in recent years in Romania shows new problems in regard of HIV vertical transmission, firstly in intravenous drug user's mothers co-infected with hepatitis viruses and with social problems, and secondly the children of young mothers with an old HIV infection and long antiretroviral therapy history. Materials and Methods: We studied all HIV perinatal exposed children routinely followed up in the Paediatric Department of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, since January 1st 2006 till December 31st 2012. The analyses consisted of describing the birth defects and association with certain risk factors: gender, mother's age at birth and exposure to antiretrovirals in the first trimester of pregnancy. Results: We analyzed 244 children born to HIV-infected mothers. The incidence of HIV infection was 16.39%. The rate of birth defects was 39.34% (96/244 cases. The most frequent findings were cardiac malformations (47/96, followed by musculoskeletal defects (24/96, neurologic defects (20/96, urogenital malformations (13/96, digestive tract defects (3/93, metabolic disorders (2/96 and genetic disorders (2/96. We found nine cases of severe congenital anomalies: complex heart defect, total congenital aganglionic megacolon, anal imperforation, Dandy-Walker syndrome, gangliosidosis, Niemann-Pick syndrome, Down syndrome, true hermaphroditism and cleft palate. Two children died during first year of life due to severe malformations. 9% of cases had associated malformations. The gender rate was in favour of males in group with birth defects (58/38 and with no birth defects (82/66. The median age at birth in mothers was 22 years, similar in both groups. The highest mean age at birth was in offspring's mothers with neurologic congenital defects 25, 15 years old, but is not statistically significant (p=0.1. In the studied period the highest number of birth defects were found in 2012, 37 children, compared with less

  1. When folic acid fails: Insights from 20 years of neural tube defect surveillance in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bupp, Caleb P; Sarasua, Sara M; Dean, Jane H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common of the severe malformations of the brain and spinal cord. Increased maternal intake of folic acid (FA) during the periconceptional period is known to reduce NTD risk. Data from 1046 NTD cases in South Carolina were gathered over 20 years of surveillance. It was possible to determine maternal periconceptional FA use in 615 NTD-affected pregnancies. In 163 occurrent (26.9%) and two recurrent (22%) NTD cases, the mothers reported periconceptional FA use. These women were older and more likely to be white. Maternal periconceptional FA usage was reported in 40.4% of cases of spina bifida with other anomalies but in only 25.2% of isolated spina bifida cases (P = 0.02). This enrichment for associated anomalies was not noted among cases of anencephaly or of encephalocele. Among the 563 subsequent pregnancies to mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies, those taking FA had a 0.4% NTD recurrence rate, but the recurrence without FA was 8.5%. NTDs with other associated findings were less likely to be prevented by FA, suggesting there is a background NTD rate that cannot be further reduced by FA. Nonetheless, the majority (73.9%) of NTDs in pregnancies in which the mothers reported periconceptional FA use were isolated NTDs of usual types. Cases in which FA failed in prevention of NTDs provide potential areas for further study into the causation of NTDs. The measures and techniques implemented in South Carolina can serve as an effective and successful model for prevention of NTD occurrence and recurrence. PMID:26108864

  2. The role of senescence and prosurvival signaling in controlling the oncogenic activity of FGFR2 mutants associated with cancer and birth defects

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, Sara; Zhou, Zi-Qiang; Link, Jason M; Hurlin, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) cause human birth defect syndromes and are associated with a variety of cancers. Although forced expression of mutant activated FGFRs has been shown to oncogenically transform some immortal cell types, their activity in primary cells remains unclear. Here, we show that birth defect and cancer-associated FGFR2 mutants promote DNA-damage signaling and p53-dependent senescence in primary mouse and human cells. Senescence promoted by FGFR mu...

  3. Exposure to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs during Pregnancy and the Risk of Selected Birth Defects: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Roeleveld, N.; H. Nordeng

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during pregnancy is common, small increases in the risk of birth defects may have significant implications for public health. Results of human studies on the teratogenic risks of NSAIDs are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of selected birth defects after prenatal exposure to prescribed and over-the-counter NSAIDs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on 69,929 women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child C...

  4. The Impact of Age of Pregnancy and Birth Order on Birth Defects%怀孕年龄与胎次对出生缺陷的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 李骅; 米红

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 5782 cases of patients from the Attached of Obstetrical and Gynecological Hospital of Zhejiang University , the paper analyzes the impacts of pregnant age and birth order on the fetal defect rate as well as impacts of the fetal defect on the population quality at the policy of two-children for all families. It is found that the pregnant age lower than 19 and older than 35 can cause the increase of fetal defect rate , while the birth order impact the birth defect rate in different ways , the higher the birth order is , for those mothers younger than 24 , the higher rate of birth defect and for the mothers aged 25-44 there is no increase of birth defect rate for their second and third child birth but with a relatively higher birth defects for their fourth child birth. It seems that the birth defect rate of second child have no negative impacts on population quality even after the permit of second child birth for all families in future.%本研究通过抽取浙江大学医学院附属妇产科医院某病区5782个病例(736例患病),从出生缺陷的角度,通过对妇女怀孕年龄及胎次与胎儿畸形患病率的关系对开放二胎政策之后的人口质量的影响进行分析,发现孕妇年龄过低(19岁以下)与过高(35岁以上)均会导致出生缺陷率提高;而胎次的影响比较复杂,对于24岁以下的年龄段来说,胎次越高,患病率越高,而对于25-44岁的孕妇来说,除了第4胎及以上的患病率较高,第2、3胎的患病率没有明显的差别。因此,放开二胎将不会对人口质量产生显著影响。

  5. Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal: 2012 follow-up survey and use of skilled birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu P. Choulagai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point. Design: We used a structured questionnaire to survey 3,505 households in the JD-HDSS, Bhaktapur, Nepal. To investigate the use of SBAs, we interviewed 434 women who had delivered a baby within the prior 2 years. We compared demographic and health indicators at baseline and follow-up and assessed the association of SBA services with background variables. Results: Due to rising in-migration, the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS increased (13,669 and 2,712 in 2010 vs. 16,918 and 3,505 in 2012. Self-reported morbidity decreased (11.1% vs. 7.1%, respectively, whereas accidents and injuries increased (2.9% vs. 6.5% of overall morbidity, respectively. At follow-up, the proportion of institutional delivery (93.1% exceeded the national average (36%. Women who accessed antenatal care and used transport (e.g. bus, taxi, motorcycle to reach a health facility were more likely to access institutional delivery. Conclusions: High in-migration increased the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban area where most health indicators exceed the national average. Major morbidity conditions (respiratory diseases, fever, gastrointestinal problems, and bone and joint problems remain unchanged. Further investigation of reasons for increased proportion of accidents and injuries are recommended for their timely prevention. More than 90% of our respondents received adequate antenatal care and used institutional delivery, but only 13

  6. Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally Premature Birth in a Cohort of Couples with Documented Parental Exposure to Military Attacks: Observational Study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Manduca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents to weapons containing metal contaminants, during attacks in 2009. We detect, in significantly higher amounts than in normal babies, different specific teratogen or toxicant elements, known weapons’ components, characteristic for each of birth defect or premature babies. This is the first attempt to our knowledge to directly link a phenotype at birth with the in utero presence of specific teratogen and/or toxicant metals in a cohort with known episodes of acute exposure of parents to environmental contamination by these same metals, in this case delivered by weaponry The babies were conceived 20–25 months after the major known parental exposure; the specific link of newborn phenotypes to war-remnant metal contaminants, suggests that mothers’ contamination persists in time, and that the exposure may have a long term effect.

  7. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  8. Multivitamins, Folic Acid and Birth Defects: Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviors of Hispanic Women in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background: Consumption of folic acid prior to conception can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) issued a recommendation that all women of childbearing age capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 [mu]g of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for a NTD-affected…

  9. 10年围产儿出生缺陷调查研究%Investigation and analysis of perinatal birth defects during 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管淑彩; 李敏; 刘青

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨出生缺陷的状况及其影响因素,为降低出生缺陷干预措施的制定提供依据.方法 回顾性监测分析我院2001年1月至2010年12月10年间分娩的围产儿出生缺陷状况.结果 10年监测17 365例围产儿,其中出生缺陷儿205例,平均出生缺陷发生率为11.81‰,总体出生缺陷的年度发生率间无显著性差异(χ2=4.303,P=0.890>0.05),但2006年至2010年与2001年至2005年相比,神经管畸形的构成比明显下降(17.09%vs29.55%,χ2=4.474,P=0.034 0.05 ). But compared with the period of 2001-2005, the constituent ratio of neural tube defect at the period of 2006-2010 decreased significantly ( 17.09% vs 29. 55% ,χ2 = 4. 474,P = 0.034 <0.05,OR =0. 492 ). The first 5 types of birth defect were neural tube defect, polysyndactyly, cheilopalatognathus, urinary tract defect and congenital cardiopathy in turn, and the incidence rates of them were 2. 66 , 2.49 , 1. 22 , 1. 10 and 0. 98 , respectively. The sum of incidence of the first three types occupied 52. 69% of overall birth defect rate. The age of puerperants (x = 14. 946,P =0.000 <0. 05,OR = 1.712 ) and the gender of perinatal infants (χ2 = 6.488 ,P = 0. 011 <0. 05, OR = 1.440 ) were closely related with birth defect. There were 52. 20% of birth defect diagnosed before birth, and B-ultrasound was the main method for diagnosing ( 57. 07% ). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defect in the area needs to be cut down, especially the types of neural tube defects, polysyndactyly and cheilopalatognathus. Low-dose of folic acid has significant effect in preventing neural tube defects.

  10. 我院1996-2011年出生缺陷监测分析%Monitoring of birth defects in our hospital from 1996 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 刘华平

    2013-01-01

      目的了解新生儿出生缺陷的相关因素,制定干预措施。方法对1996-2011年我院围产儿的出生缺陷情况进行回顾性分析。结果10025例围产儿中,出生缺陷217例,发生率21.65‰。1996-2003年的出生缺陷率明显低于2004-2011年,出生缺陷与孕母年龄、新生儿性别以及孕早期发热、服用药物、接触有毒有害物质有关。出生缺陷中先天性心脏病的发生率最高,而且明显升高。B超在产前检查中起重要作用。结论提高产前诊断水平,加强优生优育意识,降低出生缺陷的发生,提高人口素质。%Objective To investigate the birth defects-related factors in order to take countermeasures against them. Methods Data about birth defects in our hospital from 1996 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of the 10 025 perinatal infants, 217 (21.65‰) had birth defects. The rate of birth defects was significantly lower in 1996-2003 than in 2004-2011. The birth defects were related with the maternal age, newborn gender, fever in the early gestational period, taking drugs and exposure to toxic or harmful substances. The incidence of congenital heart disease was the highest in perinatal infants with birth defects. B ultrasound plays an important role in prenatal examination. Conclusion The incidence of birth defects should be reduced by improving their prenatal diagnosis, strengthening the good birth and good care awareness and enhancing the population quality.

  11. Intraperitoneal microdialysis in the postoperative surveillance of infants undergoing surgery for congenital abdominal wall defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Jakobsen, Marianne S;

    2015-01-01

    underwent primary closure. None of the infants with omphalocele received parenteral nutrition whereas all of the infants with gastroschisis did. There was no significant difference in duration of parenteral nutrition or tube feeding, respectively, when comparing the gastroschisis children with high versus...... low intraperitoneal lactate values. Placement of the MD catheter in the intraperitoneal cavity was feasible and without any major complications. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal MD is a safe procedure and an applicable method in surveillance of inflammatory changes in the peritoneal cavity in infants after...

  12. Exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Roeleveld, N.; Nordeng, H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during pregnancy is common, small increases in the risk of birth defects may have significant implications for public health. Results of human studies on the teratogenic risks of NSAIDs are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated

  13. Birth-death process of local structures in defect turbulence described by the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Konno, Hidetoshi

    2014-04-01

    Defect turbulence described by the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is investigated and analyzed via a birth-death process of the local structures composed of defects, holes, and modulated amplitude waves (MAWs). All the number statistics of each local structure, in its stationary state, are subjected to Poisson statistics. In addition, the probability density functions of interarrival times of defects, lifetimes of holes, and MAWs show the existence of long-memory and some characteristic time scales caused by zigzag motions of oscillating traveling holes. The corresponding stochastic process for these observations is fully described by a non-Markovian master equation.

  14. Analysis of perinatal birth defects monitoring results in Gansu province from 2001 to 2008%甘肃省2001年~2008年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁秀琴; 郭瑛泉; 张玲; 廖丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the trend of birth defects incidence, species and changes in Gansu province, in order to provide evidence for preventive measure.Methods: According to Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Program and Maternal and child health surveillance program in Gansu Province, to monitor perinatal birth in 43 hospitals in Gansu province from 2001 to 2008.Results:( 1 ) In 8 years, the birth defects average incidence is 11.043 per thousand, its trend began go up in 2004, but there is no statistical difference between every years.(2) And the birth defects average incidence no statistical difference between boys and girls ( P >0.05 ); The pregnant motheres age distribution characterized with "two side high and middle low", the lowest incidence (5.9 -9.7 per thousand ) is at 25 - 29 years age group, higher in country than in city ( P < 0.05 ).( 3 ) In 8 years, most common birth defects were neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus, cleftlip, talipes equinovarus, limb shorten, polydactyly and congenital heart disease.Neural tube defects and congenital hydrocephalus were always in first there birth defects in Gansu province.Conclusion: Neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus, cleftlip are high incidence in all birth defects, which are result of genetic or environmental factors, or interaction of both.Prevention is preior to therapy.Aiming at high detection rate of birth defects, to establish effective administrative intervention and medical care meature.%目的 探讨甘肃省出生缺陷的发生率、种类及变化趋势,为预防措施的制定提供依据.方法 按<中国出生缺陷监测方案>及<甘肃省妇幼卫生监测方案>,对甘肃省2001年~2008年间在43家监测医院住院分娩的围产儿进行监测.结果 (1)8年间的出生缺陷发生率平均为110.43/万,2004年起有明显上升趋势,各年份间出生缺陷发生率无显著的统计学差异.(2)胎儿性别间出生缺陷发生率

  15. Quality of reporting on birth defects in birth certificates: case study from a Brazilian reference hospital Qualidade da notificação de defeitos congênitos nas declarações de nascido vivo: estudo de caso em hospital de referência no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Varela Luquetti; Rosalina Jorge Koifman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the coverage, validity and reliability of Brazil's Information System on Live Births (SINASC) for birth defects in a hospital in the city of Campinas (São Paulo State). The study population consisted of 2,823 newborn infants delivered in 2004 at the Women's Integrated Health Care Center (CAISM). A birth defect registry (ECLAMC) was used as the gold-standard. All birth defect cases reported at CAISM in 2004 (92 cases) were selected from SINASC data files. ...

  16. 出生缺陷干预及规范化模式的研究%Study on Birth Defect Intervention and Standardization Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁文强; 幸惠云

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study and explore the intervention of birth defects on the effect of themarried couples, in order to reduce the birth rate of birth defects, improve the comprehensive quality of the birth population reference.Method: 12 000 married couples in our region from June 2011 to May 2014 were selected as the research objects, and they were given birth defect intervention on its three. The first level intervention was to prevent the birth of children with birth defects, secondary interventions was to reduce the incidence of birth defects, three intervention was to treat children of birth defects. Interventions focus was on primary intervention to prevent birth defects in children born.District,town,village three level of division of labor,cooperation, for marriedcouples of childbearing age premarital examination,free eugenics propaganda and education,pre pregnancy virus and genetic disease detection, pre pregnancy and early pregnancytaking free pregnancy B ultrasound examination,Fu Shi Fu,regular follow-up.Result:Premarital education to carry out rate,pre-marital medical examination rate,pregnancy B-examination and regular follow-up of the number of persons in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013,2012 and 2011(P<0.05).Early pregnancy rates of four viruses tested positive for the virus (rubella virus,herpes virus, Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus), a genetic disease before pregnancy rate (thalassemia,G6PD deficiency) in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013, 2012 and 2011(P<0.05).And the number of women in early pregnancy taking Forceval was significantly higher than that of 2013,2012 and 2011.The birth defect rate in 2014 was significantly lower than that in 2013,2012,2011(P<0.05), the intensity was positively correlated with the level of intervention.Conclusion:For married women of childbearing age of birth defect intervention, especially the level of intervention, to the birth of children with birth defects play a preventive role

  17. Rational Reflections about Euthanasia of Newborn with Birth Defect%对缺陷新生儿安乐死问题的理性思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is semi-open and hidden euthanasia of newborn with birth defects. Due to great family burden, social tolerance and the incomplete relevant legislation of birth defect, this phenomenon has existed for a long time. In order to avoid abuse, disordered and protect the interests of non-serious defects newborn, this article suggests that it should develop regulations as an important component of the birth defect intervention legislation.%分析目前我国存在着的半公开的、隐蔽的缺陷新生儿安乐死行为,因家庭负担、社会宽容态度和相关法律不完善致使该现象长期存在.当务之急是制定缺陷新生儿处置法规并将其作为整个出生缺陷干预立法的重要组成部分,以此来避免缺陷新生儿安乐死行为的滥用和无序,保障成千上万非严重缺陷新生儿的生命权益.

  18. 2008-2010年围产期出生缺陷分析%2008-2010 years perinatal birth defect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景丽丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective: in order to know the QingShanOu incidence of birth defects, this paper discusses the related factors birth defects happen for formulating and take measures to provide the basis. Methods: according to the national birth defects monitoring scheme, at the request of (2008-2010) on October 1, 2007-October 31, 2010 QingShanOu 5 home delivery hospital inpatient delivery at full and thoughtful within 7 days after perinatal infants dead for monitoring. Results: three years were monitoring perinatal infants dead 11 850 cases, birth defects in 104 cases, de- fect rate of 8.8%, which was born in 2008 to 3.6 per 2009, defects in 10.1%~, in 2010 to 13.2 per thousand. Birth defects increasing year by year, the top five birth defects is as follows: (1) the outer ear malformation; (2) by and means; Cleft palate (3); (4) foot deformity; (5) head facial deformity. Mother from air pollution in the area close to significantly higher than the far from air pollution area, mother of low degree of culture birth defects son is obviously higher than that of the culture degree is high. The occurrence of the birth defects and gender no phase relationship. Conclusion: to widely develop health education, general knowledge level of eugenic and superior nurture, strengthen the examination before marriage, prenatal care and prenatal diagnosis work.%目的:了解青山区出生缺陷发生率,探讨出生缺陷发生的相关因素,为制定和采取预防干预措施提供依据。方法:按照全国出生缺陷监测方案的要求,对(2008-2010年)2007年10月1日-2010年10月31日青山区5家分娩医院住院分娩的孕满28周到产后7天内围产儿进行监测。结果:3年共监测围产儿11850例,出生缺陷儿104例,缺陷发生率为8.8%,其中2008年出生缺陷率为3.6%。、2009年为10.1%。、2010年为13.2%。。出生缺陷呈逐年上升趋势,前5位出生缺陷依次为:①外耳畸

  19. 武汉市出生缺陷相关因素分析%Analysis on the related factors of birth defect in Wuhan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 杨蓉; 刘明珠; 刘艳; 胡荣华; 杜玉开

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To understand the current situation of birth defect in Wuhan city from 2008 to 2010, explore the related effect factors of birth defect, provide a basis for further study. Methods; The data of birth defect were collected from 11 obstetrical institutions in Wuhan, 933 infants with birth defect were selected as case group, 933 lying - in women who gave birth to normal neonates from 2008 to 2010 were selected from Wuhan MCH information system as control group, the related data were obtained according to report cards of birth defect and MCH information system, then statistical analysis was performed. Results; The incidence of birth defect in Wuhan city from 2008 to 2010 was 17.77% , the incidence of birth defect in remote urban area was significantly higher than that in central urban area ( P <0.01); the incidence of birth defect among the lying - in women less than 25 years, equal to and more than 35 years were significantly higher than that among the lying - in women aged 25 ~35 years old (P <0.01) ; 11 factors, such as gravida, fetal gender, being ill during the first trimester of pregnancy, were used as independent variables for logistic regression analysis, the result showed that permanent address during pregnancy, being ill during the first trimester of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion history were included into the modeL Living in remote urban area, viral infection and hyperemesis gravidarum during the first trimester of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion history ( more than two times) increased the risk of birth defect. Conclusion; Primary prevention of birth defect should be paid more attention to, large - scale case - control study based on population should be carried out, and the epidemiological factors of birth defect should be understood, in order to a-dopt corresponding interventional measures and reduce the occurrence of birth defect.%目的:了解2008~2010年武汉市出生缺陷发生的情况,弄清对出生缺陷发生有影响的相关

  20. 426例出生缺陷儿产前超声诊断分析%Cases study on 426 birth defects monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉环

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨我院分娩的出生缺陷儿临床类型与产前超声诊断分析,为孕期早期诊断出生缺陷提供科学依据.方法 回顾性分析我院2001年至2009年共分娩28 311例,出生缺陷儿426例,发生率15‰,产前超声诊断269例,(检出率63.1%),我院采取产科超声检查三个重点时间段进行筛查(孕龄10 -14周,22-26周及32 -36周)检测胎儿发育情况.结果 孕龄14 -27周超声检查出生缺陷人工终止妊娠92例(21.59%),出生缺陷发生率前五位依次为:神经管畸形(21.8%),唇腭裂(16.9%),多指并指(趾)畸形(10.01%),胎儿水肿(9.85%),外耳畸形(4.22%),产前超声检出率分别为:95.69%,50.72%,9.30%,80.95%,0,结论 产前超声诊断除神经管畸形,胎儿水肿,唇腭裂外,其它发病率较高的畸形超声检出率较底,因此加强产前诊断人员的技术培训,提高超声诊断技术水平,是提高人口素质降低出生缺陷的重要措施.%Objective: Study the birth defects type and the prebirth monitoring result at the hospital in order to improve the diagnosis of birth defects. Methord; All toghter there are 28 311 births at the hospital, and 426 birth defects were found. The frequency is 1.5%. 426 cases were diagnosed by prebirth monitoring (63. 1%). The monitoring was done at three key points of the pregnancy. (10-14 week, 22-26 week, 32 - 36week). Results: 92 birth defects cases were found and the pregnancy terminated. The most likely occurred five birth defects are neural tube defects (21. 8% ), cheilopalatognathus (16. 9% ), polysyndactyly (10.01%), fetus edema (9.85% ), deformity of external ear (4.22% ). And the monitoring diagnosis rate are: 95.69% , 50.72% , 9.30% , 80. 95% , 0. Conclusion: the monitoring diagnosis rate of birth defects is low except neural tube defects, fetus edema and cheilopalatognathus. Therefor, improving the successful diagnosis of birth diagnosis throught technology and training is essential for population quality

  1. Monitoring analysis of birth defects from 2009 to 2010 in Guangzhou%广州市2009至2010年出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹兴文; 王平; 杨丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨广州市2009至2010年出生缺陷发生率、发生类型、转归及影响因素.方法 收集并分析广州市全部148家医院在2009至2010年期间分娩儿出生缺陷监测资料.结果 共监测352 084例围产儿,发生出生缺陷5 724例,出生缺陷发生率162.6/万,前五位缺陷类型依次是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、总唇腭裂、马蹄内翻足和外耳其他畸形.男性围产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于女性(177.74/万 vs 144.66/万,P<0.05),早产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于足月儿(756.40/万 vs 122.19/万,P<0.05),孕母年龄越大,发生出生缺陷的风险越高(P<0.05).严重出生缺陷的治疗性引产率超过60%.结论 广州市出生缺陷发生率偏高,应重视对男婴、早产儿的先天畸形检查,加强对高龄孕妇的管理.提高产前确诊率和致死性畸形的治疗性引产率.%Objective To explore the incidence, type, outcomes and influencing factors of birth defects in Guangzhou from 2009 to 2010. Methods The data of birth defects during this period from all of 148 hospitals in Guangzhou was collected and analyzed. Results Among 352 084 perinatal infants monitored, 5724 cases were detected with birth defects with incidence of 162. 6 per ten thousand. The first five birth defects were congenital heart disease, polydactylia, total cheiloschisis/palatoschisis, congenital talipes equino varus and deformity of external ear in order. The incidence of birth defects in boys was higher than that in girls (177. 74/ten thousand vs 144. 66/ten thousand, P < 0. 05 ), and it was higher in premature infants than term infants ( 756. 40/ten thousand vs 122. 19/ten thousand, P < 0. 05 ). The older the pregnant women were, the greater the risk of birth defects was. The rate of therapeutic termination of severe birth defects was more than 60%. Conclusion The incidence of birth defects is slightly high in Guangzhou. Attention should be paid to malformation examination on male infants and

  2. Study on the Secondary Prevention Strategy for Birth Defects%出生缺陷二级预防策略的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋桂荣; 肖绪武; 孙瑾; 刘启贵

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and compare the economic effectiveness of three strategies of the sec-ondary prevention for birth defects in order to provide the basis for the prevention decision on congenital disa-bilities .Methods:A decision tree model was used to make a decision analysis on the cost-effectiveness of the three strategies .Results :The birth defects detection rates of three strategies were 82 .82% ,98 .2% ,94 . 50% respectively .The cost of one birth defect detected of the third strategy was lowest .Conclusions :In-creasing an ultrasound screening for high-risk pregnant women is an economical and effective strategy to pre-vent birth defects .%目的:评价、比较出生缺陷的3种二级预防策略的经济学效果,为有效预防先天性残疾提供决策依据。方法:采用决策树模型,对3种策略的成本-效果进行比较。结果:3种策略的出生缺陷检出率分别为82.82%、98.2%、94.50%,策略3成本/效果比最低。结论:高危孕妇增加超声筛查是一种既经济又有效的预防策略。

  3. Birth defects, season of conception, and sex of children born to pesticide applicators living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA.

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, Vincent F; Harkins, Mary E; Erickson, Leanna L; Long-Simpson, Leslie K; Holland, Seth E; Burroughs, Barbara L

    2002-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the frequency of birth defects among children of residents of the Red River Valley (RRV), Minnesota, USA, was significantly higher than in other major agricultural regions of the state during the years 1989-1991, with children born to male pesticide applicators having the highest risk. The present, smaller cross-sectional study of 695 families and 1,532 children, conducted during 1997-1998, provides a more detailed examination of reproductive health outcomes in...

  4. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quad screen tests the levels of 4 proteins AFP (alpha-fetoprotein), hCG, estriol, and inhibin-A. Generally, ... of the proteins for which an amniocentesis tests. AFP AFP stands for alpha-fetoprotein, a protein the ...

  5. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: panorama atual Birth defects and health strategies in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O impacto dos defeitos congênitos no Brasil vem aumentando progressivamente, tendo passado da quinta para a segunda causa dos óbitos em menores de um ano entre 1980 e 2000, apontando para a necessidade de estratégias específicas na política de saúde. Foram localizadas, no Brasil, direcionadas aos defeitos congênitos, ações governamentais e não-governamentais. Estas envolvem serviços de informação sobre agentes teratogênicos na gravidez e sobre doenças metabólicas geneticamente determinadas, monitorização de defeitos congênitos, programa de triagem neonatal e tratamento de algumas doenças genéticas, imunização contra rubéola, além da fortificação de farinhas com ácido fólico como ação preventiva de certos defeitos congênitos. Apesar da importância de tais iniciativas, é pouco provável que seja possível atender à questão dos defeitos congênitos de forma integrada. Para a efetivação de um sistema de atenção voltado aos defeitos congênitos, deverá ser formulada política específica, de âmbito nacional, com a participação ativa do Ministério da Saúde, utilizando, como espinha dorsal, os serviços de genética existentes. Só assim, será possível a estruturação de uma rede regionalizada, hierarquizada e funcional voltada à atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil.Birth defects have increased progressively in Brazil, shifting from the fifth to the second cause of infant mortality from 1980 to 2000, thus highlighting the need for specific health policy strategies. Some governmental and nongovernmental actions related to birth defects in Brazil include information services on teratogenic agents and inborn errors of metabolism, monitoring of birth defects, neonatal screening and treatment of some genetic diseases, and rubella immunization. In addition, flour fortification with folic acid for prevention of certain birth defects has begun recently. Despite the importance of such initiatives, it is

  6. 2010年常州市围产儿出生缺陷及城市功能区出生缺陷状况%Birth defects of perinatal infants in Changzhou city in 2010 and birth defects in different functional areas of the city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪金剑; 周华; 蒋健

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the birth defects in Changzhou city in 2010 and the birth defects in different functional areas of the city, explore the related factors of occurrence of birth defects in Changzhou city. Methods: The perinatal infants with birth defects who were bom in obstetric department of all the hospitals in Changzhou city in 2010 were collected, and the city was divided into central urban area, industrial area, and agricultural area according to the functions of the city, the birth defects of perinatal infants were compared among different functional areas. Results: There were 39 399 perinatal infants in 2010, the incidence of birth defects was 5.10‰, the incidence of birth defects and the top three birth defects were in accord with those from 2007 to 2009, the mean incidence of birth defects in Changzhou city was 5.10‰, and the incidences of birth defects in industrial area, central urban area, and agricultural area were 9.13‰, 4.60‰, and 3. 24‰, respectively, the incidence of birth defects in industrial area was significantly higher than the mean level in Changzhou city. Among the perinatal infants with birth defects, the indexes including floating population, gestational smoking or passive smoking, drinking during pregnancy, engaging in high risk works were higher than those of normal control group; the rate of medical examination before marriage and the regular examination rate during gestational period were lower than those in normal control group. Conclusion: Premarital check - up and pregestational health care should be enhanced, the management of reproductive health of the floating population should be improved, and the prenatal examination rate of birth defects should be strengthened, the measures above - mentioned can be conducted to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:了解常州市2010年出生缺陷发生情况以及城市功能区出生缺陷状况,探讨常州市出生缺陷发生的相关因素.方法:收集2010

  7. 奉贤区13266例围产儿出生缺陷分析%Analysis on 13 266 perinatal infants with birth defects in Fengxian district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾维红

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解奉贤区出生缺陷发生情况、分布特征、影响因素,为降低出生缺陷发生制定干预措施提供依据.方法:采用回顾性方法对2008年1月1日~2009年12月31日奉贤区13 266例监测围产儿进行分析.结果:①奉贤区两年间出生缺陷儿188例,出生缺陷率为14.17%;②出生缺陷前5位分别是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、总唇裂、血管瘤和神经管畸形;③出生缺陷发生在男女性别、户籍、出生时间方面差异无统计学意义,但与孕妇年龄有关(x2=7.517,P<0.05);④出生缺陷儿死亡与非出生缺陷儿死亡差异有统计学意义(x2=1 345.85,P<0.001);⑤产前诊断及治疗性终止妊娠可降低活产婴儿的出生缺陷发生率,并使出生缺陷顺位发生改变.结论:出生缺陷发生与孕妇年龄有关,与性别、受孕时间、户籍无关;出生缺陷儿死亡是围产儿死亡的主要原因;做好三级预防是降低出生缺陷发生,降低围产儿死亡率的重要措施.%Objective: To understand the occurrence, distribution characteristics and effect factors of birth defects in Fengxian distriet, provide a basis for making intervention measures to reduce the occurrence of birth defects. Methods: A retrospective method was adopted to analyze 13 266 perinatal infants in Fengxian district from January 1,2008 to December 31,2009. Results: From 2008 to 2009,188 perinatal infants with birth defects were born in Fengxian district, the incidence of birth defects was 14. 17‰; the first five birth defects were congenital heart disease, polydaetylism, total cleft lip, hemangioma and neural tube defect; there was no significant difference in incidences of birth defects between the perinatal infants with different genders, census registers and times of birth, but the incidences of birth defects were related to maternal age (x2 = 7. 517, P < 0. 05 ); there was significant difference in perinatal mortality between the perinatal infants with birth

  8. Prevention of birth defects in the pre-conception period: knowledge and practice of health care professionals (nurses and doctors in a city of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Romariz Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2 test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85. Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.

  9. Health Care for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Certain Korea Veterans--Covered Birth Defects and Spina Bifida. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This rule adopts as final a proposed rule of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to amend its regulations concerning the provision of health care to birth children of Vietnam veterans and veterans of covered service in Korea diagnosed with spina bifida, except for spina bifida occulta, and certain other birth defects. In the proposed rule published on May 15, 2015, VA proposed changes to more clearly define the types of health care VA provides, including day health care and health-related services, which we defined as homemaker or home health aide services that provide assistance with Activities of Daily Living or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living that have therapeutic value. We also proposed changes to the list of health care services that require preauthorization by VA. This final rule addresses comments received from the public and adopts as final the proposed rule, without change. PMID:27051894

  10. Complete Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta and a Ventricular Septal Defect in a 1,480 g Low Birth Weight Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hongkyu; Cho, Joon-Yong; Kim, Gun-Jik

    2011-01-01

    Although outcomes of neonatal cardiac surgery have dramatically improved in the last two decades, low body weight still constitutes an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. In particular, cardiac surgery in neonates with very low birth weight (≤1.5 kg) is carried out with greater risk because most organ systems are immature. We report here on a successful case of early one-stage total repair of coarctation of the aorta and a ventricular septal defect in a 1,480 gram neonate.

  11. Avaliação das declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre defeitos congênitos Evaluation of the birth certificates as source of information on birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lívia Geremias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos congênitos (DC em uma coorte de nascidos vivos (NV vinculando-se os bancos de dados do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM e do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo para avaliar as declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre DC. A população de estudo é uma coorte de NV hospitalares do 1º semestre de 2006 de mães residentes e ocorridos no Município de São Paulo no período de 01/01/2006 a 30/06/2006, obtida por meio da vinculação dos bancos de dados das declarações de nascido vivo e óbitos neonatais provenientes da coorte. RESULTADOS: Os DC mais prevalentes segundo o SINASC foram: malformações congênitas (MC e deformidades do aparelho osteomuscular (44,7%, MC do sistema nervoso (10,0% e anomalias cromossômicas (8,6%. Após a vinculação, houve uma recuperação de 80,0% de indivíduos portadores de DC do aparelho circulatório, 73,3% de DC do aparelho respiratório e 62,5% de DC do aparelho digestivo. O SINASC fez 55,2% das notificações de DC e o SIM notificou 44,8%, mostrando-se importante para a recuperação de informações de DC. Segundo o SINASC, a taxa de prevalência de DC na coorte foi de 75,4%00 NV; com os dados vinculados com o SIM, essa taxa passou para 86,2%00 NV. CONCLUSÕES: A complementação de dados obtida pela vinculação SIM/SINASC fornece um perfil mais real da prevalência de DC do que aquele registrado pelo SINASC, que identifica os DC mais visíveis, enquanto o SIM identifica os mais letais, mostrando a importância do uso conjunto das duas fontes de dados.OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of birth defects in a live birth cohort, linking the live birth information system (SINASC and the mortality information system (SIM databases. METHODS: Descriptive study to assess linked databases of hospital live births (LB and neonatal deaths of resident mothers that occurred in the city of S

  12. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  13. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  14. 黄山市2006~2010年出生缺陷调查结果分析%The analysis of birth defects prevalence of Huangshan from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章世妹; 盛玮; 吉次秋; 胡红喜; 曾令芳; 冯建华; 汪丽霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological features of birth defects in Huangshan in order to determine the high - risk population and areas. Methods The birth defect condition was household surveyed among perinatal infants, including dead fetus stillbirths and therapeutic abortion ), and children aged 0 to 5 with their mothers underwent in - depth personal interviews and cluster sampling retrospective study on January f, 2006 to December 3f , 20f0 in 7 prefectures( counties ) covering f Of towns and 6 streets. The confirmation of the birth defects was based on clinical diagnosis. The categories were defined with National Birth Defect Monitoring Program. Results There were 981 birth defects diagnosed in 5 years. The incidence rate of birth defects was 158. 69 per 10000 infants. The incidence in male infants was 82. 82 per 10000 infants and 63. 57 per 10000 infants in female infants. The top birth defects were congenital heart disease, total cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, congenred hydrocephaly, urogenital abnormality and neural tube defects. Conclusion The current situation of birth defects among children aged 0 to 5 in Huangshan has been evaluated, which shows an upward trend year by year. The incidence is higher in country than that in city and higher in male infants than females, but the difference between them has no statistical significance. So the key point of the birth defect prevention should be put in country areas. The hygienic knowledge of pregnant woman should be enhanced, especially in the top 6 birth defects mentioned above. Additionally, we should explore the reason of the high incidence of birth defects in order to provide basis for further birth defect prevention.%目的 了解黄山市0~5岁儿童出生缺陷的发生率、种类及顺位,确定重点预防人群和区域.方法 采用个人访谈、整群回顾性调查的方法对黄山市三区四县101个乡镇和6个街道在2006年1月1日至2010年12月31日期间出生的围生

  15. Research on the secondary intervention mode of birth defects in Chengdu%成都市出生缺陷二级干预模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 冉隆蓉; 赵顺霞; 陈硕

    2011-01-01

    目的:积极建立出生缺陷二级干预网络,有效提高产前筛查率和诊断率,以降低成都市出生缺陷率.方法:自2009年起,成都市通过原有妇幼保健网络,采取依托产前诊断中心和分中心力量,发展产前筛查采血点和产前筛查机构的模式,初步建立起产前筛查网络,对辖区孕妇进行产前筛查和产前诊断.结果:通过积极发展产前筛查采血点和产前筛查机构,产前筛查工作迅速覆盖到所有区市县.与此同时,成都市政府出台出生缺陷干预规划,将产前筛奁率纳入卫生部门年度目标管理,极大地促进了产前筛查和诊断工作的开展.成都市产前筛查率从2008年的22.99%,提高到2009年的42.77%.结论:发展产前筛查采血点和产前筛查机构对建立产前筛查网络有积极作用,能迅速及持续实现筛查人群最大化,达到降低成都地区出生缺陷,提高人口素质的目的,值得推广应用.%Objective: To establish the secondary intervention network of birth defects actively, increase the prenatal screening rate and diagnosis rate effectively, in order to reduce the incidence of birth defects in Chengdu.Methods: Since 2009, based on the previous maternity and child care network, relying on prenatal diagnosis centers and sub - centers, the mode of blood collection points and institutions of prenatal screening was developed, prenatal screening network was established preliminarily, then prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis were conducted among the pregnant women.Results: The prenatal screening work covered all the cities and counties by developing blood collection points and institutions of prenatal screening actively.At the same time, Chengdu municipal government issued birth defect intervention planning, prenatal screening rate was included into annual target management of health department, which promoted the development of prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis works greatly.The prenatal screening

  16. 围产儿出生缺陷的相关危险因素分析%Analysis of Risk Factors of Perinatal Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the incidence of birth defects(BD)in eight hospitals of Erqi district in Zhengzhou,to explore correlation factors of BD,and to provide scientific basis for developing appropriate intervention strategies and measures for BD. Method:All new born were monitored and a 1:2 case-control study for BD was performed in 117 babies with BD in eight hospitals of Erqi district in Zhengzhou during one year. Simple and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the correlates of BD. Result:The incidence of birth defects was 183.41 per 10 000 live births. In multiple factors analysis,backward stepwise regression was used to fit the main effects of equation. The experience without progestational examination,partiality for a particular kind of food during early pregnancy, contacted chemical agent,maternal history of birth defects,unhealthy emotion,diseases history during pregnancy were risk factors of BD. Conclusion:We should propagandize health knowledge widely in the crowd to avoid risk factors of BD, and do well in health care of perinatal period to prevent and reduce the incidence of birth defects,so as to improve the quality of the population born in China.%目的:了解郑州市二七区内8家医院的出生缺陷发生率,分析其影响因素,为制定适宜的干预策略和措施提供科学依据。方法:对郑州市二七区内8家医院1年内分娩的围产儿进行监测,并对其中117例出生缺陷儿进行1:2病例对照,采用单因素、多因素logistic回归模型分析出生缺陷的影响因素。结果:出生缺陷的发生率为183.41/万。多因素logistic逐步回归分析结果显示:无孕前检查、孕早期偏食、孕期接触化学制剂、既往分娩缺陷儿史、孕期不良情绪、孕期患病史是发生出生缺陷的危险因素。结论:要普遍宣传健康知识,避免出生缺陷的危险因素,作好围产期保健工作,预防和减少出生缺陷的发生,提高我国出生人口素质。

  17. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children: what do experts in the field say?

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, A.J.; Rodrigues, Catarina; Verkerk, M A; van den Berg, P. P.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women and fetuses, and (3) research with neonates. Because of the overlap of these three areas in this project, we can expect to be confronted with new ethical challenges. To be able to respond adequately...

  18. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, ...

  19. Defeitos congênitos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: uma avaliação através do SINASC (2000-2004 Birth defects in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an evaluation through birth certificates (2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Ramos Guerra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de defeitos congênitos em nascidos vivos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, com base no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2004. Através de um estudo seccional e descritivo, estudaram-se as variáveis relativas aos defeitos congênitos (presença e aparelho ou sistema acometido, aos serviços de saúde, às mães, às gestações, aos recém-natos e aos partos. Constatou-se uma prevalência de defeitos congênitos de 83/10 mil nascidos vivos. Os sistemas orgânicos mais afetados foram o osteomuscular, nervoso central, genital, as fendas lábio-palatinas e as anomalias cromossômicas. A maioria dos casos nasceu nas maternidades municipais e na rede privada, e maior prevalência de defeitos congênitos ocorreu no Instituto Fernandes Figueira da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Os defeitos congênitos foram mais prevalentes entre os filhos de mulheres mais velhas e menos instruídas. O percentual de casos ignorados foi alto, chegando a 21% em algumas maternidades. Uma maior divulgação das informações do SINASC sobre defeitos congênitos deveria ser estimulada. Estudos de confiabilidade são recomendados para melhor aproveitamento das informações.To evaluate the occurrence of birth defects in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Live Birth Information System (SINASC, we performed a cross-sectional study on all live newborns with birth defects from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004. The variables referred to birth defects (presence and system affected, type of health service, mothers, gestations, live births, and deliveries. Prevalence of birth defects was 83/10,000 live births. The most frequent birth defects involved the musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, cleft lip and palate, and chromosomal anomalies. The majority of cases were born in public (municipal and private maternity hospitals, with the highest prevalence

  20. 2007-2012年围产儿出生缺陷人群监测结果分析%Analysis of the monitoring results of perinatal birth defects in the crowd from 2007 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑荣; 袁燕; 陆晓莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the monitoring data of population birth defect,to understand its prevalence and related factors,in order to provide evidence for the intervention measures.Methods:We analyzed the birth data of 23686 perinatal borned in 2007-2012,observed the structure and demographic characteristics of perinatal with birth defects,and found out the related influencing factors.Results:The average incidence of perinatal birth defects in 2007-2012 was 84.58/million.The top five occurrence of major birth defects were total cleft lip,multi finger(toe),neural tube defects,hydrocephalus,congenital heart disease and limb shortening,and the incidence were 18.94/million,11.78/million,7.15/million,6.31/million,5.05/million respectively. Maternal age and the incidence of birth defects linked.Conclusion:Prevention and cure of birth defects is a system engineering.It requires multi sectoral participation,and takes effective measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:通过分析出生缺陷人群监测资料,了解其发生率及相关因素,为制定干预措施提供依据。方法:对2007-2012年出生的23686例围生儿的出生资料进行分析,观察围产儿出生缺陷的构成及人口学特征,找出相关影响因素。结果:2007-2012年围产儿出生缺陷平均发生率84.58/万,其中总唇裂、多指(趾)、神经管缺陷、脑积水和先天性心脏病、肢体短缩位居发生主要出生缺陷的前5位,其发生率分别为18.94/万、11.78/万、7.15/万、6.31/万、5.05/万;产妇年龄与出生缺陷的发生有关。结论:出生缺陷的防治是一项系统工程,需要多部门共同参与、采取有效的措施才能降低出生缺陷的发生。

  1. Who Should Be Targeted for the Prevention of Birth Defects? A Latent Class Analysis Based on a Large, Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study in Shaanxi Province, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenfang; Li, Danyang; Yang, Xue; Liu, Danli; Zhang, Min; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide range and complex combinations of factors that cause birth defects impede the development of primary prevention strategies targeted at high-risk subpopulations. Methods Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify mutually exclusive profiles of factors associated with birth defects among women between 15 and 49 years of age using data from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in Shaanxi Province, western China, between August and October, 2013. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of associated factors and the latent profiles of indicators of birth defects and congenital heart defects were computed using a logistic regression model. Results Five discrete subpopulations of participants were identified as follows: No folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period (reference class, 21.37%); low maternal education level + unhealthy lifestyle (class 2, 39.75%); low maternal education level + unhealthy lifestyle + disease (class 3, 23.71%); unhealthy maternal lifestyle + advanced age (class 4, 4.71%); and multi-risk factor exposure (class 5, 10.45%). Compared with the reference subgroup, the other subgroups consistently had a significantly increased risk of birth defects (ORs and 95% CIs: class 2, 1.75 and 1.21–2.54; class 3, 3.13 and 2.17–4.52; class 4, 5.02 and 3.20–7.88; and class 5, 12.25 and 8.61–17.42, respectively). For congenital heart defects, the ORs and 95% CIs were all higher, and the magnitude of OR differences ranged from 1.59 to 16.15. Conclusions A comprehensive intervention strategy targeting maternal exposure to multiple risk factors is expected to show the strongest results in preventing birth defects. PMID:27183231

  2. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  3. Environmental pollution by depleted uranium in Iraq with special reference to Mosul and possible effects on cancer and birth defect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Riyad Abdullah; Matti, Lilyan Yaqup; Al-Salih, Hana Said; Godbold, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Iraq is suffering from depleted uranium (DU) pollution in many regions and the effects of this may harm public health through poisoning and increased incidence of various cancers and birth defects. DU is a known carcinogenic agent. About 1200 tonnes of ammunition were dropped on Iraq during the Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003. As a result, contamination occurred in more than 350 sites in Iraq. Currently, Iraqis are facing about 140,000 cases of cancer, with 7000 to 8000 new ones registered each year. In Baghdad cancer incidences per 100,000 population have increased, just as they have also increased in Basra. The overall incidence of breast and lung cancer, Leukaemia and Lymphoma, has doubled even tripled. The situation in Mosul city is similar to other regions. Before the Gulf Wars Mosul had a higher rate of cancer, but the rate of cancer has further increased since the Gulf Wars. PMID:23729095

  4. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T. (Medical Birth Registry of Norway, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-08-15

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed.

  5. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed

  6. The App-Runx1 region is critical for birth defects and electrocardiographic dysfunctions observed in a Down syndrome mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Raveau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS leads to complex phenotypes and is the main genetic cause of birth defects and heart diseases. The Ts65Dn DS mouse model is trisomic for the distal part of mouse chromosome 16 and displays similar features with post-natal lethality and cardiovascular defects. In order to better understand these defects, we defined electrocardiogram (ECG with a precordial set-up, and we found conduction defects and modifications in wave shape, amplitudes, and durations in Ts65Dn mice. By using a genetic approach consisting of crossing Ts65Dn mice with Ms5Yah mice monosomic for the App-Runx1 genetic interval, we showed that the Ts65Dn viability and ECG were improved by this reduction of gene copy number. Whole-genome expression studies confirmed gene dosage effect in Ts65Dn, Ms5Yah, and Ts65Dn/Ms5Yah hearts and showed an overall perturbation of pathways connected to post-natal lethality (Coq7, Dyrk1a, F5, Gabpa, Hmgn1, Pde10a, Morc3, Slc5a3, and Vwf and heart function (Tfb1m, Adam19, Slc8a1/Ncx1, and Rcan1. In addition cardiac connexins (Cx40, Cx43 and sodium channel sub-units (Scn5a, Scn1b, Scn10a were found down-regulated in Ts65Dn atria with additional down-regulation of Cx40 in Ts65Dn ventricles and were likely contributing to conduction defects. All these data pinpoint new cardiac phenotypes in the Ts65Dn, mimicking aspects of human DS features and pathways altered in the mouse model. In addition they highlight the role of the App-Runx1 interval, including Sod1 and Tiam1, in the induction of post-natal lethality and of the cardiac conduction defects in Ts65Dn. These results might lead to new therapeutic strategies to improve the care of DS people.

  7. Related factors of birth defects%保定地区出生缺陷相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余瑞欣; 侯雯莅; 王建

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To 80 261 cases of perinatal analysis of 889 cases of defective children, most of unknown causes, of which 183 cases had a number of reasons, through the analysis to understand the defects caused by a common cause of children. Methods; The case study method, one by one asked about the history. Results: A number of reasons, such as high fever, contact with a number of chemical raw materials, indiscriminate use of drugs during pregnancy, social factors are all caused by defects. Conclusion; The prevention of pregnancy cold, away from toxic substances, rational drug use and change the bad ideas in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of defects in children.%目的 通过80 261例围产儿分析,缺陷儿889例,大部分不明原因,其中183例有一些明确原因,通过对这些因素分析,了解引起缺陷儿的常见原因.方法 采用个案调查方法,逐一询问病史.结果 一些原因如高烧、接触一些化工原料、孕期乱用药物、社会因素等都是引起缺陷的原因.结论 预防孕期感冒、远离有毒物质、合理用药,改变不良观念从而有效预防缺陷儿的发生.

  8. "Cutis tricolor": congenital hyper- and hypopigmented macules associated with a sporadic multisystem birth defect: an unusual example of twin spotting?

    OpenAIRE

    Happle, R; Barbi, G; Eckert, D.; Kennerknecht, I.

    1997-01-01

    An uncommon coexistence of circumscribed hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, in close proximity to each other, is described in a 17 years old patient with various other cogenital defects, such as dysmorphic facial appearance, severe kyphoscoliosis, delayed motor development, epileptic seizures, and mental retardation. We suggest the combination of hyper- and hypopigmented cutaneous lesions is an example of allelic twin spotting. Because the skin of this patient showed three different degr...

  9. Analysis of birth defect in Zhongshan city from 2008 to 2010%中山地区2008年-2010年出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 万波; 李莉敏; 胡朝霞; 彭学鸣; 曾冠

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解中山市出生缺陷的发生及分布情况,及时发现影响出生缺陷的可疑因素,协助指导制定相应的干预措施,做好今后出生缺陷监控工作提供科学依据.方法 对2008年-2010年中山市各医院分娩的孕满28周~产后7天内出生的所有围产儿(包括活产、死胎、死产)进行出生缺陷监测,并对其发生率、顺位及诊断依据进行分析.结果 三年内中山市出生缺陷发生率为260.05/万,排位前五位分别是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、马蹄内翻足、地中海贫血、总唇腭裂.中山市户籍人口和农村、流动人口的顺位和发生率有明显差异.结论 加强流动人口孕产妇的孕期保健管理,普及孕期产前筛查意识,提高出生缺陷产前筛查和产前诊断的准确性,早期发现,早期诊断,早期干预,预防性用药等可减少出生缺陷的发生%Objective: To understand the prevalence of birth defects in Zhongshan, to detect the suspicious factors of influencing birth defects, to divide to provide scientific basis for making countermeasures to prevent and control birth defects. Method; Connecting the all perinatal birth defects data, including fetal deaths, stillbirths, live births, which detected during the second pregnancy over 28 weeks to postnatal day 7, analyzing the incidence rate, the sequence and the basis diagnosis on of birth defects. Results: The incidence of birth defect is 260. 05 per ten thousand in recent three years. The first five birth defect were: congenital heart disease, combined or excessive fingers or toes ( polydactyly) , clubfoot, a- Mediterranean-anaemia, cleft lip and palate. The sequence and the incidence rate of birth defect were significant difference, between Registered population and floating population. Registered population and population in rural areas. Conclusion; In order to depress perinatal birth defect rate, we should pay more attention in not only to the work of education of the

  10. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming;

    2002-01-01

    oxidation, exogenous glucose storage, and nonoxidative glucose metabolism were similar in the two groups. Insulin secretion was reduced by 30% in the LBW group, when expressed relative to insulin sensitivity (disposition index = insulin secretion x insulin action). We propose that reduced insulin......Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two...... physiological insulin levels (10 and 40 mU/m(2) per min), indirect calorimetry, and [3-(3)H]glucose. Insulin secretion was examined during an oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fasting p-glucose was higher in the LBW group (5.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.1; P < 0.05). Basal plasma glycerol concentrations...

  11. 中国30个县(市)1993~2000年神经管畸形在出生人群中的患病率及变动趋势分析%Prevalence of neural tube defects at birth in 30 counties and cities of China, 1993-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶荣伟; 李松; 郑俊池; 洪世欣; 陈新; 王太梅; 任爱国; 王丽娜; 李竹

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To describe the prevalence rates of neural tube defects (NTD) and yearly trends (1993-2000) in China. Methods: All the data were obtained from the Birth Defects Surveillance System in thirty counties/cities of China. The calculation of NTD prevalence rates and time trend analyses were based on the data for live (L) and stillbirths (S) only, the denominator used was total births (L+S). Linear regression analysis of the prevalence rate over years has been used to measure time trends. Results: In the period of 1993-2000, there were 1 264 neural tube defects among 1 189 126 total births in 30 counties/cities in China. The overall neural tube defects rate was 10.63 per 10000 births, and rates were higher (18.99 per 10 000 births) in the year 1993, lower (6.05 per 10 000 births) in 1998. The prevalence rates of anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele were 4.71,4.39 and 1.53 per 10 000 births respectively. Of all index NTD cases, anencephaly and spina bifida were most frequent, making up 44.3% and 41.3%, and encephalocele represented 14.4%. The stillbirth proportion was 69.3% over all index NTD cases, 95.4% in anencephaly cases, 43.7% in spina bifida, and 62.6% in encephalocele cases. Linear trend analysis indicated a significant decline for NTD rate (F=11.818, β=-0.814,P=0.014). Analysis by specific defect showed significant declines for the rates of anencephaly (P=0.004) and spina bifida (P=0.026), but no significant annual variation of encephalocele (P=0.227). Results of comparing with data reported from other surveillance systems (1994-1999) showed that the highest NTD rate (9.41 per 10000 births) was seen in China, nearly7 times the lowest rate (1.44 per 10000 births) in England and Wales. Conclusion: The overall neural tube defects rate in 30 counties/cities of China presented a significant downward trend between 1993 and 2000, and China still had the higher neural tube defects prevalence. %目的:描述中国30个县(市)1993

  12. Assessing the Risk of Birth Defects Associated with Exposure to Fixed-Dose Combined Antituberculous Agents during Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Awodele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (≤0.05 low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (≤0.05 elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents

  13. Assessing the risk of birth defects associated with exposure to fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents during pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Patrick, E B; Oluwatoyin Agbaje, Esther; Oremosu, A A; Gbotolorun, S C

    2012-01-01

    Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg) orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day) orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (P ≤ 0.05) low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents significantly

  14. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children--what do experts in the field say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, Anke J M; Rodrigues, Catarina H C M L; Verkerk, Marian A; van den Berg, Paul P; Dekkers, Wim J M

    2010-08-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women and fetuses, and (3) research with neonates. Because of the overlap of these three areas in this project, we can expect to be confronted with new ethical challenges. To be able to respond adequately and timely to current and possible future ethical issues, a prospective and anticipatory ethical analysis is essential. To obtain a first survey of ethical issues that might arise during the different phases of the project, the Delphi method was used. The professionals directly involved in the EuroSTEC project were questioned about their views on possible ethical issues. The first round yielded 27 ethical issues, which the respondents were asked to prioritize in the second round. For the fundamental research phase, issues deemed most important were privacy and informed consent of the tissue donor. For the animal experimentation phase, three issues were mentioned (in order of decreasing priority): the suffering of animals, the use of animals as means to an end, and the limited adequacy of the animal models. Issues that were deemed most important during the clinical (trial) phase pertained to the problem of weighing risks and benefits for the fetus/child and the pregnant woman. PMID:20163208

  15. 早产对脑性瘫痪儿童乳牙釉质发育的影响%The developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小波; 张笋; 吴卫红; 吴志文

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究早产因素对脑瘫儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的影响.方法 选择135名脑瘫患儿,与62名正常儿童对比,进行乳牙釉质发育缺陷状况的统计调查.同时比较脑瘫儿童中早产与乳牙釉质发育缺陷发生的关系.结果 脑瘫儿童组中早产儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的患病率明显高于足月组,有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 早产的脑瘫儿童更容易发生乳牙釉质发育缺陷.%Objective To investigate the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth. Methods One hundred and thirty-five children with cerebral palsy were examined for the clinical manifestation of the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition. The relationship between the defects and cerebral palsied children's birth conditions were assessed. Results The prevalence of enamel defects in cerebral palsied children born premarurely was significantly higher than that in those with full term birth. Conclusion Enamel defects in the primary dentition are more likely to happen in cerebral palsied children with premature birth than those with full term birth.

  16. 0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey on 0-1 years old baby with birth defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪少义; 何洁壁; 陈少娜; 吴翔; 蔡幸生; 黄伟鹏; 王榕生; 洪艳苹; 倪少英; 卢晓航

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of birth defect in 0-1 years old baby in some regions of Jieyang, then to determine the focus groups for prevention. So that it can provide a foundation for birth defect prevention, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care. Methods Those babies, who were born in Jiedong County, Puning City and Rongcheng District from March 3, 2011 to May 2, 2012 were surveyed by general investigation. Birth defect based on clinical diagnosis, its entity and statistical standard referred to the regulations of International Centre on Birth Defects and Prematurity. Results 238 cases of birth defect babies were found out of 10 773 cases of monitored new babies. The top five diseases of baby birth defects were congenital heart disease, talipes equinovarus, polydactyly, cleft lip and palate and fetal-edematous-syndrome. Some babies had higher incidence of birth defects, such as baby boy, low birth weight baby, and those babies whose mother did not take folic acid, vitamin and trace elements during pregnancy and whose family members smoking and excessive drinking (P < 0.05). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects in 0-1 years old baby is 220.92 per ten thousand in some regions of Jieyang City. It is slightly higher than the national average, so it needs attention from each side. Strengthening propaganda and education, screening and preventing birth defects are matters of great urgency.%目的 了解揭阳部分地区0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的发病情况,确定预防的重点人群,为出生缺陷的预防和孕前、孕期保健提供依据.方法 采用普查的方式,对揭东县、普宁市、榕城区三地2011年3月3日~2012年5月2日出生的婴儿进行调查.出生缺陷以临床诊断为依据,病种及统计标准参照国际出生缺陷监测情报交换所的规定.结果 共监测10 773名婴儿,发现出生缺陷238例;婴儿出生缺陷排名前5位的疾病分别是先天性心脏病、马蹄内翻足、多指(趾)、唇(腭)裂

  17. Relationship of Birth Defects with Electromagnetic Radiation and Food Chain%出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏花莉; 夏红卫; 韦红卫; 黄卫民; 孔琳; 黄琳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链的关系。方法选择195例出生缺陷患儿母亲作为研究组,195例健康儿母亲为对照组,对两组孕期居住环境及使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉频率和饮食习惯等进行调查,并检测分娩时母血雌激素、孕酮、睾酮水平。结果研究组居住靠近变压器、电视塔、通讯转播塔比例高于对照组(P均<0.05),孕期食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼等的频率高于对照组(P均<0.05);研究组孕期使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉、观看电视的频率高于对照组( P均<0.05)。结论电磁辐射和食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼类等肉食对出生缺陷可能有影响。%Objective To investigate the relationship of birth defects with electromagnetic radiation and food chain.Methods One hundred and ninety-five mothers who had infants with birth defects were selected as study group ,and 195 mothers who had healthy infants were selected as control group .An investigation was conducted on the aspects of living environment ,the frequency of using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven or microwave oven , and diet habit during pregnant period .The levels of estrogen ,gestagen and testosterone in maternal blood were detected after delivery .Results The mothers in the study group living near the electric transformer ,TV tower or communication transmission tower were more than those in the control group (all P<0.05),the frequencies of mothers′eating artificial feeding fowl,livestock or fish during pregnant period of study group were higher those of control group (all P<0.05). The frequencies of mothers′using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven ,microwave oven or watching TV during pregnant period of study group were higher than those of control group (all P<0.05).Conclusion Electromagnetic radiation and eating artificial feeding fowl ,livestock and

  18. 孝感市2007~2011年围产儿出生缺陷流行病学调查%Study on perinatal birth defects from 2007 to 2011 in Xiaogan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱越; 陆敏; 杨树杰; 刘景丽; 付汉东; 彭红华; 李君; 罗红英; 余小艳

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To master the epidemiology of birth defect in Xiaogan City,analysis the dynamic trends and try to find out the main factors that may affect birth defects so as to develop effective preventive measures to improve the quality of newborn births.METHODS All the perinatal birth defects monitoring data of year 2007-2011 that in all the midwifery unit of Xiaogan were collected by child birth defects registration card and analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS Five-year birth defects incidence was 4.26‰ and the rates among the 5 years had no statistic difference (P> 0.05).The common birth defects in the top five were multi-finger polydactyly (0.61‰),external ear malformation (0.47‰),cleft lip with cleft palate (0.45‰),cleft lip (0.39‰) and congenital heart disease (0.32‰).Prenatal diagnosis rate was 21.08%,of which B-ultrasound diagnosis was 14.46%.Age of the maternal was a factor to birth defects that when the mother was older than 35 or younger than 20 the incidence of birth defects was obviously higher than other age group.Male birth defects rate were higher than females.The defects rate in countries was higher than that in towns.There was a positive relationship between the maternal education level or lower household income and rate of perinatal birth defects.CONCLUSION The main birth defects in Xiaogan of the last five years are the surface defects and the high risk factor of the birth defects are mother age,education level,economic level and place of residence.The rural areas are the focus to make prevention.So we should strengthen promotion of marriage and pregnancy health and improve prenatal diagnostic techniques so as to reduce the incidence of birth defects effectively.%目的 掌握孝感市围产儿出生缺陷的流行病学特征,分析主要出生缺陷的高危因素,制定有效的预防措施,提高出生人口的素质.方法 采用《出生缺陷儿登记卡》收集孝感市所有助产技术单位2007~2011年围产儿出生

  19. The etiology of congenital cardiovascular malformations: observations on genetic risks with implications for further birth defects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, C

    1985-01-01

    The previously reported hypothesis of an etiologic association of heart and blood abnormalities was further investigated in a population based study of congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVM). Three presumed genetic risk factors (CCVM in parents and siblings, heritable blood disorders and maternal mitral valve prolapse) were found to occur significantly more often in cases than in normal controls, irrespective of the presence in the proband of chromosomal or Mendelian lesions. This suggests a specific etiologic origin of the CCVM; the excess of maternal risk components raises the possibility of X-linked inheritance. Observed constellations of heart, blood, and connective tissue disorders within members of a nuclear family may indicate variability of phenotypic expression of a similar biosynthetic defect. A schematic model of abnormal cardiogenesis is presented which supports the above observations with the results of biochemical studies on endothelium, platelets and collagen disorders. It is suggested that teratogenesis results from subtle interactions of genetic sequelae with extrinsic metabolic and xenobiotic effects. This conclusion harmonizes with those derived from experimental animal studies. PMID:2937867

  20. 肇庆市2001-2010年围产儿出生缺陷监测资料分析%Data analysis of perinatal and infants with birth defects from 2001 to 2010 in Zhaoqing county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志玮; 刘楚芹; 梁云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the incidence of birth defects and its variation in four hospitals of Zhaoqing, and to investigate the risk factors that causing birth defects, in order to provide references for formulating intervention measures. Methods According to the requirements of "Monitoring planning of birth defects in hospitals of Guangdong province", four hospitals in Zhaoqing were chosen for this investigation, and statistical analysis methods were used to analyze the birth defects data from 2001 to 2010 in Zhaoqing. Results 63 476 perinatal and infants were observed from 2001 to 2010, and 1 043 infants were found to have birth defects, and the incidence was 162.9 per ten thousand. There was an upward trend in general, and the incidence in 2010 was significantly higher than that in 2001 (χ2=21.635,P<0.001). The top three types of birth defects were congenital heart disease, fetal edema syndrome, and polydactyly malformation. Incidence of birth defect was associated with the sex, maternal age, and fetus number. Conclusion Birth defects have a great impact on the quality of the population, and the third class preventive measure should be continually strengthened to reduce the birth defects.%目的 了解肇庆市4家监测医院出生缺陷儿的发生率及其变化情况,研究出生缺陷发生的相关因素,为制定出生缺陷干预措施提供依据.方法 按照《广东省出生缺陷医院监测方案》的要求,以市内4家医院作为监测医院,对肇庆市2001-2010年的出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析.结果 2001-2010年共监测围产儿63476名,其中出生缺陷儿1 034名,发生率为162.90/万,总体呈上升趋势,2010年的发生率比2001年高,差异有统计学意义(x2=21.635,P<0.001).前3位出生缺陷类型依次为先天性心脏病、胎儿水肿综合征、多指(趾)畸形.出生缺陷发生率与围产儿性别、孕母年龄、胎数有关.结论 出生缺陷严重影响出生人口的素质,应继续加强三

  1. 不同户籍类型出生缺陷监测分析与干预措施的研究%The analysis and interventions research for different census types of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马健; 朱丹玲; 何慧芳; 张清; 王莉平

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To know different types of prenatal incidence of birth defects in children and their tendency, and to realize outcome of children with birth defects, common types of birth defects and changes in Futian District, Shenzhen, which would provide the basis for developing interventions. Metheds: Birth defects and prenatal child death observation data from 2003 to 2007 were analyzed in retrospectively. Results; The incidence of birth defects is on an upward trend (x2 = 23. 52, P = 0. 001) , for the most part, incidence of birth defects came from the floating population (x2 = 23. 70, P = 0. 001). The average birth defect rate in the 7 years was 21. 74 ‰, the residence rate was 20. 80 ‰, temporary rate was 20. 50 ‰, floating population rate was 23. 38 ‰, residence and temporary residents of birth defects rate was significantly lower than the floating population, the difference was significant (x2 = 11.91, P= 0.003). Residence, temporary, and floating population, compose the birth defect death rate of 2. 95‰, 3. 74‰, 6.42‰; the difference was significant (x2 = 69. 35, P<0. 001). The top six of birth defects is; congenital heart disease, multiple fingers (toes) , total cleft lip and palate, ear deformities, clubfoot, and hypospadias. These account for 59. 07% of the birth defects. Conclusion; The floating population in maternal health care system for the management of pregnant women in Shenzhen City, which is a bottleneck problem; the proposed solution for maternal and child health services is to make it equal, by establishing "to introduction the free prenatal care and postpartum visits project in Futian District, Shenzhen" , to improve the creating card rate of early pregnancy women in floating population and the rate of system management, in order to promote detection of birth defects, particularly to improve the pregnancy early and mid - term detection rate of birth defects and diagnosis rates. To reduce birth defects and prenatal child

  2. Qualidade da notificação de anomalias congênitas pelo Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC: estudo comparativo nos anos 2004 e 2007 Quality of birth defect reporting in the Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC: a comparative study of 2004 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Varela Luquetti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou a validade dos diagnósticos de anomalias congênitas do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, em oito hospitais distribuídos em sete municípios do Brasil, totalizando 27.945 nascidos vivos em 2004 e 25.905 em 2007. Além disso, descreveu ações específicas realizadas para o aprimoramento da qualidade dos dados desse campo. Para a análise da validade, foi utilizado o Estudo Colaborativo Latino-Americano de Malformações Congênitas (ECLAMC como padrão-ouro. Em 2004, pelo menos 40% dos casos de anomalias congênitas eram subnotificados, situação que não foi modificada em 2007. Observou-se aumento significativo na sensibilidade somente em um hospital, de 56,9% para 96,8%. Em dois hospitais, houve diminuição significativa na sensibilidade, de 62,7% para 41,7% e de 66,5% para 32,2%. Os valores preditivos positivo e negativo e especificidade permaneceram acima de 80%. Apenas duas secretarias municipais de saúde e quatro hospitais fizeram algum tipo de ação específica para a melhoria do campo 34. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de se investir na qualidade da informação sobre anomalias congênitas no SINASC.This study compared the validity of birth defect cases reported in the Brazilian Information System on Live Births in 2004 and 2007 in seven municipalities, out of a total of 27,945 live births in 2004 and 25,905 in 2007. The study also describes quality improvement measures in this area. The Latin American Collaborative Study on Congenital Malformations was used as the gold standard for analyzing the validity of birth defect diagnoses. In 2004, at least 40% of birth defects went unreported, and this situation persisted in 2007. Only one hospital showed a significant increase in reporting sensitivity, from 56.9% to 96.8%. Sensitivity decreased significantly in two hospitals (from 62.7% to 41.75% and from 66.5% to 32.2%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values and

  3. Mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento en menores de 5 años de edad en México de 1998 a 2006 Birth defects mortality in five-year-old minors of age, Mexico, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdés-Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar la mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento (DAN entre 1998 y 2006. Seleccionar los municipios con alta mortalidad en OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to birth defects from 1998-2006. To select municipalities with high mortality among children under 5 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The source of information was mortality records from vital statistics collected by SSA/INEGI. We used the 2005 Municipal Geostatistical Framework by INEGI and SIGEPI for the spatial analysis. The selection criteria were municipalities with 80% and over of deaths due to birth defects. RESULTS: Deaths diminished 8% during 1998-2006 and rates decreased 20%. A total of 42.57% - 48% of deaths are due to circulatory system defects and 13.69% - 19.39% are due to the nervous system; the former rose 4% and the latter fell 32%. Eighty percent or more occur in children under 5 years and the rate in this group fell 8.63%. A total of 1 025 (41.82% municipalities are priorities, 104 (10.14% are high and 102 (9.95% are very high priorities, where 66% of deaths occur among children under 5 years old. DISCUSSION: The interventions to decrease mortality due to birth defects should be directed towards one-year-old children (75% and towards 8.4% of the municipalities that are a very high priority, since they represent 66% of the deaths.

  4. A STUDY ON PREVAL E NCE OF BIRTH DEFECTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH RISK FACTORS IN FAKHRUDHIN ALI AH MED MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Congenital anomalies or Birth Defects are a global problem. It is the most common cause of disability in developed and developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the overall prevalence of clinically detectable congenital anomalies in newborns along with the different forms of congenital anomalies and associated risk factors if any over a period of one year. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: I t’s an observational analytical cross sectional type of study. Seven thousand seven hundred and ninety eight babies born during the period from 1 st Nov, 2013 to 31 st Oct, 2014 were analyzed. Details of cases were recorded after parent’s interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. RESULTS: In our study, we have found that out of the total no. of 7798 babies born during the said period, the total number of congenital anomalies found were 53 0.7%. Cleft lip and palate was the most common anomaly followed by clubfoot. System wise, congenital anomaly of the musculoskeletal system was the highest (45.3%. A male preponderance is seen with M:F = 4:3. Maximum number of anomalies was found in the 20 - 25 y rs of age group. Moreover, anomalies were found more in primi gravida. Various risk factors were associated in 9 numbers of cases out of 53. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of congenital anomaly was found to be 0.7% and therefore awareness about preventable risk f actors should be created and early prenatal diagnosis and management of anomalies is recommended.

  5. 宁波市2010年度出生缺陷危险因素调查及干预效果评价%Risk Factors of Birth Defects and Evaluation of Effect of Intervention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹鸣飞; 孙跃宏; 屈煜; 钱莹莹; 蒋燕萍; 舒立波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the birth defect monitoring of residents of Ningbo in 2010 and to analyze the birth defects incidence, risk factors, intervention measures and its effect in order to seek effective measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects. Methods 693 birth defects cases who were 28 weeks after pregnancy to 1 week after delivery from all levels hospital in Ningbo were selected as observation group, and 585 subjects without birth defects were selected as control group. Risk factors of birth defects and intervention measures were compared between the two groups. Results There were 211 cases having risk factors in birth defect group, accounting for 30. 45% . There were 142 cases having risk factors in control group, accounting for 24. 27%. Exposing rate of risk factors like chemical risk factors and physical risk factors showed statistically significant differences between the two groups ( P 0. 05 ) . While participation of premarital physical examination, TORCH testing, intake of folic acid three months before pregnancy and three months after the pregnancy showed statistically significant difference ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion A-voidance of chemical or physical risk factors, participation of premarital physical examination, TORCH testing and intake of folic acid three months before pregnancy and three months after the pregnancy can effectively reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的 调查宁波市2010年度出生缺陷监测实况,分析宁波市出生缺陷发生情况、危险因素与干预措施及其效果,寻求降低出生缺陷发生率的有效措施.方法 随机抽取2010年度宁波市在各级各类医疗保健机构内住院分娩的妊娠满28周至产后1周的出生缺陷围生儿693例为观察组,同期随机抽取无出生缺陷围生儿585例为对照组,对两组进行致出生缺陷危险因素及干预措施比较分析.结果 出生缺陷组有危险因素的围生儿211例,占30.45%;对照

  6. The relationship between folate metabolism Related Gene and Birth Defects, Poor Pregnancy%叶酸代谢基因与出生缺陷和不良妊娠的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英华; 陈瑛

    2012-01-01

    More and more study shown that folate had important role in the birth defects such as congenital heart disease and neural tube defects, adverse pregnancy such as premature birth and abortion. However, promotion " folic acid fortification" will artificially lead to future population dependent on a large number of vitamin, lead to the overall gene composition changed, the crowd will become very fragile to a fatal disease, folate level in whose is lower than that in normal persons. Maternal folate deficiency may result in general impairment of fetal growth, which is reflected in low birth weight. Such women also have a high incidence of abortion, ab-ruptio placentae and fetal malformation. Folate supplemented in pregnant women with the appropriate dose can reduce the risk of diseases such as birth defects and adverse pregnancy. In this article, we discussed the relationship between polymorphisms of enzyme genes involving folate metabolism and risk of birth defects such as congenital heart disease and neural tube defects, adverse pregnancy such as premature birth and abortion.%叶酸在先天性心脏病、神经管畸形等出生缺陷和早产、流产等不良妊娠中的作用越来越受到关注.然而,研究表明推广“叶酸强化”将人为地导致未来的人口对于大量的维生素产生依赖性,导致人口整体的基因组发生变化,这种人群对于某种致命的疾病将变得十分脆弱,患者体内的叶酸水平低于正常个体,产妇叶酸缺乏会因产生低出生体重的胎儿而损害胎儿的生长,另外还有流产、胎儿畸形和胎盘早剥等高发病率的风险.孕妇在妊娠前和妊娠期补充适量的叶酸可降低出生缺陷、不良妊娠等疾病的发生概率.因此,本研究就近几年国内外关于叶酸代谢相关酶基因多态性和先天性心脏病、神经管畸形等出生缺陷和早产、流产等不良妊娠关系进行简要综述.

  7. Analysis of birth defects supervision in obstetrical hospitals in Beijing Haidian District%北京市海淀区产科医院出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟赋真; 张雪峰; 周钰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of birth defects in hospitals in Haidian District during recent years so as to provide management clue for supervision in the future. Methods From October 1 of 2006 to September 30 of 2010, fetus and newborns between 13 gestational weeks and 7d after delivery were supervised for birth defects in hospitals of Haidian district, and the supervision results were analyzed in terms of rate and cis position. Results There were 3 776 defected cases including 2 861 cases in perinatal period ( the incidence rate of birth defects in perinatal period was 17. 98‰ ) and 906 cases induced to abortion in second trimester. In floating population the incidence rate of birth defects showed a rising trend in perinatal period during these years( x2 =52. 250, P = 0. 000 ). The first five highest rates of birth defects were congenital heart disease, deformity of external ear, multi finger ( toe ), merged finger ( toe ) and hypospadias in order. The trend of neural tube defects rate was stable and the incidence of cleft lip dropped obviously. But the incidence of Trisomy 21 rose gradually, and there was no significant difference (x2 =6. 906, P =0. 075 ). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects is 17. 98‰ in hospitals of Haidian district, and the trend of birth defects rate is rising during 2006-2010 year especially in floating population. The primary prevention of folic acid supplement should be strengthened.%目的 了解近年来北京市海淀区医院出生缺陷的发生情况,为今后监测工作的管理重点提供依据.方法 对2006年10月1日至2010年9月30日期间北京市海淀区产科医院孕13周~产后7天的胎儿及新生儿进行出生缺陷监测,并对监测结果进行率及顺位等分析.结果 ①监测到出生缺陷儿3 776例,其中围产期2 861例(围产期出生缺陷儿发生率为17.98‰),中孕引产906例;②2006至2010年,外地户籍围产期出生缺陷发生率呈逐年上升的趋势(χ2

  8. 昌吉州2005至2010年486例出生缺陷分析%Analysis of birth defects of 486 cases in 2005-2010 in Changji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筱萍; 李冬梅; 马彦华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of birth defects and related factors in Changji so as to provide some basis for working out preventive measures for birth defects. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the data of 486 cases of birth defects collected from each hospital in Changji from 2005 to 2010. Results The incidence of birth defects increased year by year from 2005 to 2010, and it increased in 2010 ( 10. 67‰ ) by 5. 61% compared with that in 2005 ( 5. 06 ‰). The incidence of birth defects when pregnant women were over 35 years and over 40 years was 8. 28% ‰ and 10. 67‰ respectively. The sequence of birth defects was neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, congenital hydrocephalus, congenital heart disease and talipes equinovarus in order. Conclusion The advanced ages and rural areas are the focus of prevention work. Strengthening propaganda on prenatal and postnatal care, enhancing system management during pregnancy, taking low-dose folic acid tablets before pregnancy and at early pregnancy and improving prenatal diagnostic technique are the effective measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的 了解昌吉州出生缺陷发生情况及相关因素,为制订预防出生缺陷的措施提供依据.方法 收集昌吉州辖区内各家医院2005至2010年间出生的486例缺陷儿的资料,进行回顾性分析.结果 2005至2010年出生缺陷发生率呈逐年上升趋势,2005年(5.06‰)与2010年(10.67‰)相比上升了5.61‰;年龄大于35、40岁以上妊娠者缺陷发生率分别为8.28‰、10.67‰;出生缺陷的顺位依次为神经管畸形、唇腭裂、多指趾、先天性脑积水、先心病、马蹄内翻.结论 高龄孕妇、农村地区是出生缺陷工作预防的重点,加强优生优育宣传,加强孕期系统管理,在孕前、孕早期服用小剂量叶酸片,提高产前诊断技术,是降低出生缺陷发生率的有效措施.

  9. 2010-2014年勐腊县出生缺陷发生现状及结果分析%The status of birth defects and result analysis in mengla county from 2010 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兰英; 依彦光; 胡亚君

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查2010-2014年勐腊县出生缺陷的发生情况,探讨出生缺陷发生的相关因素,提出干预措施。方法:监测勐腊县6家医院住院分娩情况。孕28周至产后7 d内围产儿逐一筛查,并填写出生缺陷儿登记卡。结果:11442例围产儿中,出生缺陷38例(3.32‰)。出生缺陷死亡16例(421.05‰),其中农村4.67‰,城市1.59‰(χ2=1.92,P<0.05)。出生缺陷前5位是多、并指(趾),先心病,α-地中海贫血,唐氏综合症,神经管畸形。结论:勐腊县是少数民族居住地区,经济、文化、医疗技术落后,为此应加强健康教育、婚前检查、孕前保健、产前检查和产前诊断,降低出生缺陷,提高人口素质。%Objective:To investigate the occurrence of birth defects in mengla county from 2010 to 2014,to explore the factors related to the incidence of birth defects,and to propose interventions.Methods:Labor conditions were monitored in 6 hospitals of mengla county.We made detailed screening for perinatal fetus from 28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after postpartum,and filled in birth defects registration card.Results:In 11 442 cases of perinatal fetus,38 cases(3.32‰) had birth defects,16 cases died because of birth defects(421.05‰ ),the rural was 4.67‰ ,the city was 1.59‰ ( χ 2=1.92, P<0.05).The top 5 birth defects were more finger(toe) or syndactyly,congenital heart disease,alpha thalassemia,Down's syndrome,neural tube defects.Conclusion:Mengla county was the region of ethnic minorities living,the economic,cultural,medical technology were backward,therefore,we should strengthen the health education,premarital examination,prenatal care,prenatal care and prenatal diagnosis,in order to reduce birth defects and improve the quality of the population.

  10. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number of cases, the infection can cause intellectual disability, hearing loss, and vision problems. CMV can be spread ... woman becomes infected during pregnancy. It can cause hearing loss, intellectual disability, and vision problems in infected infants. Diabetes Mellitus: ...

  11. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  12. 已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的调查%Survey of knowledge, attitudes and practice of preventing birth defects in married reproduction women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪己东; 翁彦云; 徐沛金; 戴黎玫; 武英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of health education on preventing birth defects in community in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) for married women in reproductive age. Method A self-designed general information form and a questionnaire on KAP of married women′s preventing birth defects were used to investigate the KAP among 300 married nulliparous women. Result The average rate of cognitive knowledge of birth defects was 60.8%, the average rate of cognitive behaviors was 59.2%, and the average rate of cognitive attitude was 67.4%. Conclusion In order to reduce the rate of birth defects and improve the quality of births, we should implement three-level prevention education system, enrich the health education methods to enhance the knowledge, attitude and behavior of married women.%目的:了解已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为情况,为制订相关的护理对策提供依据。方法采用自行设计的一般资料调查表和预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为调查表对300名已婚育龄妇女进行调查。结果已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识平均认知率为60.8%,行为平均认知率为59.2%,态度平均认知率为67.4%。结论实施三级预防,采取多种形式的健康教育方法以提高已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为水平,从而降低出生缺陷率,提高出生人口的素质。

  13. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard; Olsen, Else Marie; Landorph, Susanne Lassen; Lichtenberg, Anne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome.......Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome....

  14. Maternal factors, medications, and drug exposure in congenital limb reduction defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Froster, U G; Baird, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study on all limb reduction defects occurring among 1,213,913 consecutive live births in the province of British Columbia, Canada, during 1952-1984, cases with documented maternal drug exposure and chronic maternal diseases were analyzed separately. This population-based study was made possible through the existence of an ongoing Health Surveillance Registry, which documents all infants born with congenital, genetic, or chronically handicapping conditions in the province...

  15. 宜昌市城区2008~2010年医院出生缺陷补漏调查%Investigation on the mend Leakage on the birth defects in Yichang between 2008 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小葵

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the omissions and quality of report card on the birth defects in Yichang city between 2008 and 2010. METHODS We investigated the omissions and quality of report card on the birth defects in midwifery agency of Yichang city on the basis of the National monitoring project of health of mothers and children. RESULTS The leakage rate was 7.49%, and the mistaking rate was 1.26% in the tables and cards. The two rates decreased year by year. CONCLUSION The fundamental guarantee of improving the quality of monitoring in the birth defects was the strengthening of management and supervision , and the raising responsibility of medical staff.%目的 了解宜昌市城区2008~2010年医院出生缺陷漏报及报告卡质量情况.方法 根据《全国妇幼卫生监测方案》对出生缺陷监测质量的要求,对城区各助产机构出生缺陷漏报及报告卡质量情况进行调查.结果 2008~2010年宜昌市城区医院出生缺陷漏报率平均达7.49%;表、卡填写差错率平均达1.26%.漏报率和差错率都有逐年下降趋势.结论 加强管理,坚持督导,提高医务人员责任心,是提高出生缺陷监测质量的根本保证.

  16. 南京市六合区2007-2011年出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis on the monitoring results of birth defect in Luhe district in 2007-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈寿花

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解本地区围产儿出生缺陷的发生情况,及时发现影响出生缺陷的可疑因素,为制定干预措施提供依据。方法按照国家出生缺陷监测方案的要求,对2006年10月1日~2011年9月30日在六合区有产科的医院出生的、孕满28周至产后7天内的32562例围产儿进行监测。结果出生缺陷儿171例,出生缺陷儿发生率为5.25‰;出生缺陷的发生与环境因素、孕母年龄、出生性别等有关。结论进行优生优育宣传指导,为孕妇创造优良的生育环境及合理的均衡饮食,提高产前诊断技术,适时终止妊娠,可有效降低出生缺陷发生率。%Objective :in this study, we monitored and analyzed the perinatal birth defect in Luhe district, Nanjing in order to promptly establish proper measures to control this disease.Methods: According to the national birth defect monitoring protocol, 32562 perinatal samples during 28 weeks after pregnancy and 7 days after born were monitored. The term was from October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2011. The data were colected from al the hospitals or centers in Luhe district.Results: the monitoring results showed that 171 cases were diagnosed birth defect. The ratio was 5.25‰. It related to multi-influence factors including environment, maternal’s age on perinatal outcomes and baby gender etc.Conclusions:The perinatal birth defect could be controled efficiently by several ways, such as folowing the pregnant quality guideline, providing good environments to pregnant women, and improving the pre-pregnant diagnosis in terminal pregnancy.

  17. Analysis on Related Factors of Newborn Birth-defects in 36 Hospitalized Childbirth%36例住院分娩围生儿出生缺陷的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧丽莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解盐城地区住院分娩围生儿出生缺陷状况,探索引起出生缺陷的相关因素方法对2010年10月—2014年5月盐城市第一人民医院住院分娩的4347新生儿进行监测,标准为孕满28周~产后7d的围生儿结果检出出生缺陷儿36例,出生缺陷发生率为8.28‰,在不同新生儿性别、产母职业之间差异无统计学意义。但产妇年龄35-39、40岁及以上年龄组(13.33‰,45.46‰),多胎多产(GnPn,n≥3,为51.55‰)及经产者(17.96‰),发生率显著升高(P28 gestational weeks within the 7 days perineonata period were monitored in hospital of 180 of Quanzhou.Results: There were 36 out of 4347 newborns with various types of birth-defect and the birth-defect rate was 8.28‰. There was no statistically signiifcant difference in the occurrence of birth-defect from the neonatal genders and occupationsof pregnant women. But the rates were signiifcantly higher when the pregnant women were 35-39 and 40 years old,multi-pregnancies and multi-labors(51.55‰)and multiparas(17.96‰),and there was statistical signiifcant difference(P<0.05,P<0.01).Conclusions: Birth-defects are related to the maternal age,numbers of pregnancies and labors,but not related to the sex of neonates and occupations of pregnant women.

  18. Study on 204 birth defects of the prenatal in the city of Taiyuan from 1997 to 2008%1997年-2008年太原地区204例出生缺陷回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫惠娜; 张月莲; 郑梅玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解1997年-2008年间太原市出生缺陷发生情况,为进一步制定干预措施提供依据.方法 将1997年-2008年12年中在我院妇产科终止妊娠的出生缺陷忠儿按年限分为1997年-2002年(前六年)组和2003年-2008年(后六年),并对其种类、发生率及城乡分布进行回顾性分析.结果 (1) 12年中神经管畸形的发生率为56.11/万,居于首位,占全部出生缺陷的32.35%,虽然后六年的神经管畸形的发生率低于前6年,但无统计学差异(x2=3.70,P>0.05).(2)后6年中28W前B超诊断率(1.12%)比前六年(0.41%)显著提高(x2=7.49,P<0.05).(3)前6年中城市与农村出生缺陷发生率分别为133.94/万、545.45/万,后6年城市与农村出生缺陷发生率分别为129.64/万、436.50/万,(x2=42.27,P<0.05; x2 =44.47,P<0.05)农村的平均发生率为城市的3.7倍,明显高于城市.结论 神经管畸形的发生在我省仍较为突出,只有加强对神经管畸形的预防,加强优生优育知识的宣传,改善农村生活环境,提高产前诊断率水平,才有可能有效性地降低出生缺陷的发生.%Objective: In order to formulate for further interventions, investigated the types, time of making a definite diagnosis, incidence of prenatal death defects in the city of Taiyuan, from 1997 to 2008. Methods; made two different groups, the first group form the year of 1997 to 2002 and the second group form the year of 2003 to 2008. Results: (1) The most of birth defects were Neural Tube defects and the percentage was 32. 35. (2) Morbidity by B ultrasound before 28w compare to after 28w were different between 1997 - 2002 and 2003 - 2008. (x2 = 7.49, P < 0.05 ) , the later six years' diagnostic rate of type - B ultrasonic before 28w was higher than the one of former six years. (3) Incidence of death defects were relate to the gravidas's place of residence, the gravidas' s birth defect rate form countries was higher than who form the cities whatever the first group or

  19. Analysis of influencing factors of birth defect based on health education%基于健康教育的出生缺陷影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月芬; 李佳樾

    2012-01-01

    Teratogenic factors are closely related with living environment and human production and life, but are ignored easily. Therefore, the key link of reducing birth defect is to highlight public awareness effectively. This article indicated potential high-risk teratogenic factors in people' s life from the point of view of physics and chemistry so as to strengthen the concept of mass prevention and treatment and improve the effectiveness of preventing birth defects.%致畸因子与生存环境息息相关,其与人类生产生活密不可分,但却易被忽视.因此,降低出生缺陷至关重要的环节是有效地提高防范意识.该文从物理、化学等角度指出人们生活中潜在的高危致畸因素,强化群防群治理念,提高防范出生缺陷的效力.

  20. 广西不同民族新生儿出生情况及出生缺陷分析%The analysis of the birth condition and defects of different ethnic of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继昌; 林墨菊; 邱萍; 罗琳琳; 王麟; 农铮

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article was to analyze the situation of newborns at Liuzhou ,Guangxi,in 2012,and understand the newborns’ information in order to pro-vide a theoretical basis for the development of maternal and child health interventions .Method We used statistics to analyze the 46877 cases of different ethnical newbo-rns in 2012 at Liuzhou city,Guangxi.Results The sex ratio of newborns in 2012 was lower than that of the national average;the incidence rate of premature and low birth weight newborns were higher than other regions;cesarean section rate was lower than that of the national average;the incidence of birth defects close to the national aver-age.Conclusion We should accordingly strength the propagation of relative knowledge about the pregnant period health .Provide guidance to the nutrition of pregnant women,promote fetal development and reduce the incidence of premature birth and low birth weight infants and birth defects ,which is the prior task to the maternal health care.%目的分析广西柳州市2012年出生新生儿情况及出生缺陷,了解不同民族新生儿出生的基本资料及出生缺陷情况,为制定孕产期保健和儿童保健干预措施提供理论依据。方法统计分析2011年广西柳州市46877例不同民族新生儿出生资料。结果2012年柳州市出生新生儿性别比低于全国平均水平;早产儿发生率和低出生体重发生率高于其他地区水平;剖宫产率低于全国平均水平;出生缺陷发生率接近国内平均水平。结论加强孕产期保健等相关知识宣教,进行孕妇营养指导,促进胎儿发育,减少早产和低体重儿的发生,减少出生缺陷的发生是孕产期保健的重点工作。

  1. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... in which they give birth. Do you want music and low lighting? How about the freedom to ...

  2. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  3. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A. (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory)

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  4. Analysis of the report of perinatal birth defects monitoring in fengtai district of beijing from 2006 to 2010%北京市丰台区2006-2010年出生缺陷监测数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳; 张静; 房春玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: By understanding the incidence of perinatal birth defect in Fengtai district of Beijing, in order to explore the influencing factors and develop interventions to reduce the incidence of birth defect. Methods; The data of perinatal birth defects from 2006 to 2010 were gathered from monitoring hospitals in Fengtai district. Results: The incidence of birth defect in Fengtai district was 110.5/10000 and there was a upward trend during 5 years. The perinatal birth defects stood on the first 3 rank of incidence list followed by Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of auricle, Congenital heart defects. There were certain correlation among birth defects, the mother's residence geography, gestational age, birth weight, gestational age of birth. Conclusion: It is valuable to reduce the incidence by a well - planned birth defects monitoring and preventive health care program.%目的 分析丰台区出生缺陷的发生情况及相关因素,探索降低出生缺陷发生的干预措施.方法 对2006~2010年北京市丰台区出生缺陷监测资料进行统计分析.结果 2006~2010年出生缺陷总发生率为110.5/万,各年的出生缺陷发生率呈上升趋势;按照出生缺陷病种分类,位于前3位的为多指(趾)、外耳畸形、先天性心脏病;男婴与女婴出生缺陷发生率比较具有显著性差异;母亲户籍、分娩年龄、婴儿出生体重、孕周等是出生缺陷发生的影响因素.结论 做好出生缺陷监测工作,加强出生缺陷三级预防,是降低出生缺陷发生的必要措施.

  5. The Analysis of Birth Defects of Newborns During the Past Six Years in a District of Chengdu%成都市某区六年来新生儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅; 周礼英; 吴怀勇; 张志华; 张倩; 李青林; 汪渝; 杜彪; 王园

    2015-01-01

    目的:对成都市某区2007年至2013年在我区建卡、分娩或引产孕产妇,调查其中具有缺陷新生儿及死胎的产妇相关信息,总结近年来出生缺陷的产妇因素、检查手段、出生缺陷的发展变化情况,分析围产儿出生缺陷情况,了解其动态变化,以为进一步做好出生缺陷防控工作提供理论依据。方法通过儿科、产科、保健科的登记手册,对成都市某区2007年至2013年建卡、分娩或引产的孕产妇,查找其中具有出生缺陷病例,根据其预产期,分为甲乙两组。通过设计调整表,对具有出生缺陷病例进行回顾性问卷调查,并复习病历资料,记录其中具有缺陷新生儿及死胎的产妇相关信息、新生儿或引产儿及死胎的出生缺陷情况等信息。统计并分析两组计数资料。结果近年孕产妇的保健意识可能已经得到一定提高,乙组孕妇婚前体检、孕期定期体检、孕期补充叶酸方面均优于甲组,差异有统计学意义( P>0.05)。出生缺陷筛查方法主要依靠唐氏筛查、胎儿彩超检查。出生缺陷仍以眼耳面颈部畸形和隐睾、四肢指趾畸形为主。结论近3年来染色体畸形发现更多,提示可能与高危因素接触有关。%Objective We studied puerperae from one district in Chengdu who registered, gave birth or had induced la-bor in our district during 2007 and 2013. For our sample,we investigated on subjects who had newborns with defects,or stillbirths. We summarized the factors on puerperae to have newborns with defects. We also summarized the examination methods and the de-velopment of newborn defects. We investigated newborns’ defects and the dynamic changes so that we can have a theoretical basis in preventing newborn defects. Methods We included puerperae from one district in Chengdu who registered,gave birth or had induced labor in our district during 2007 and 2013. All subjects were founded by using the

  6. 北京平谷区三年出生缺陷产前超声筛查分析%Prenatal Ultrasound Screening Analysis for the Birth Defects within 3 Years in Pinggu District in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大平

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ultrasonography in prenatal screening for birth defects diagnosis,understanding of the region the incidence of birth defects,in order to reduce the occurrence of congenital malformation.Methods In 2007,2008,my area,2009 (statistical time for every year from October 1st to next September 30th) delivery within seven days after the diagnosis of birth defects and ultrasound examination results were analyzed.Results In three years the region a total of 162 infants with birth defects,a total of 60 cases of prenatal ultrasound screening detected fetal malformation,and confirmed after birth ultrasound diagnosis correctly,ultrasound screening for the detection rate for 37 %.Missed diagnosis of malformations mainly for cardiac malformation in 45 cases,means (toe) abnormalities in 26 cases,lip,palate 8 cases.Conclusions Ultrasound examination can be detected in the vast majority of congenital fetal malformations,at present this area for gastroschisis,anencephaly and other obvious fetal malformation high detection rate,on minor malformations such as finger (toe) abnormalities in three years has never been detected,on fetal cardiac abnormalities by ultrasonography technology needs to be further improved.%目的 探讨超声产前筛查对出生缺陷的诊断价值,了解本地区出生缺陷的发生动态,为减少先天畸形的发生提供依据.方法 将平谷区2007-2009年(统计时间为每年10月1日至次年9月30日)分娩后7d内诊断的出生缺陷儿与超声检查结果,进行对比分析.结果 3年全区共分娩畸形儿162例,产前超声共筛查出60例畸形胎儿,且出生后证实超声诊断正确,超声筛查的检出率为37%.漏诊心脏畸形45例,指(趾)异常26例,唇、腭裂8例等.结论 超声检查可以检出绝大多数的胎儿先天畸形,目前平谷区对腹裂、无脑儿等明显的胎儿畸形检出率高,对微小畸形如指(趾)异常3年从未检出过,对胎儿心脏异常的超声检查技术有待进一步提高.

  7. The genetics of folate metabolism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome and associated congenital heart defects

    OpenAIRE

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Almost 15 years ago it was hypothesized that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in folate metabolism could lead to aberrant methylation of peri-centromeric regions of chromosome 21, favoring its abnormal segregation during maternal meiosis. Subsequently, more than 50 small case-control studies investigated whether or not maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes could be risk factors for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS), yielding conflicting and inconclusive res...

  8. The effect of health education on preventing birth defects in a community of Nanjing City%南京市社区预防出生缺陷健康教育的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许碧云; 胡娅莉; 崔晓宁; 姚敬; 洪红

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价南京市鼓楼区预防出生缺陷健康教育的效果,为以社区为基础的出生缺陷一级预防提供科学依据.方法 选择2008年3月~2009年7月在南京市鼓楼区建围产期保健小卡的孕妇作为调查对象并进行出生缺陷相关知识宣传教育,采用问卷调查早孕人群干预前后出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的变化,分析其影响因素.结果 干预后早孕人群对预防出生缺陷相关知识的总得分(34.43±3.10)高于干预前(29.56±4.77) (t=58.50,P<0.001).干预后21道题目回答正确率均高于干预前,其中仅1道题干预前后正确率的差异无统计学意义(P=0.458).年龄、文化程度、职业和家庭人均月收入对干预效果都有明显的影响(均有P<0.05).年龄大者比年龄小者,本科及以上文化程度比初中及以下者,医护人员比工人,家庭人均月收入1 001 ~元、2 001~元、3 001~元、4 001~元、≥5 001元比≤1 000元者对知识的掌握明显增多.结论 利用健康教育的模式对早孕人群进行干预,能提高其预防出生缺陷的能力.应对文化程度偏低、家庭收入较少的育龄妇女进行预防出生缺陷知识的普及.%Objective To evaluate the effect of health education on preventing birth defects in Gulou District of Nanjing City, in order to provide scientific evidence for the first-level prevention of the birth defect based on community. Methods Health education was conducted among the pregnant women who build card of perinatal health during March 2008 to July 2009 in Gulou District of Nanjing City. The questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of birth defect prevention among the early pregnant women. The results were analyzed to find the changes of knowledge , attitude and practice of birth defect prevention before- and after- intervention, and to find the influencing factors of intervention effect. Results There was significant promotion (i = 58. 50

  9. Defect-mediated relaxation in the random tiling phase of a binary mixture: Birth, death and mobility of an atomic zipper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the mechanism of defect-mediated relaxation in a dodecagonal square-triangle random tiling phase exhibited by a simulated binary mixture of soft discs in 2D. We examine the internal transitions within the elementary mobile defect (christened the “zipper”) that allow it to move, as well as the mechanisms by which the zipper is created and annihilated. The structural relaxation of the random tiling phase is quantified and we show that this relaxation is well described by a model based on the distribution of waiting times for each atom to be visited by the diffusing zipper. This system, representing one of the few instances where a well defined mobile defect is capable of structural relaxation, can provide a valuable test case for general theories of relaxation in complex and disordered materials

  10. Defect-mediated relaxation in the random tiling phase of a binary mixture: Birth, death and mobility of an atomic zipper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondl, Elisabeth; Ramsay, Malcolm; Harrowell, Peter; Widmer-Cooper, Asaph [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-03-14

    This paper describes the mechanism of defect-mediated relaxation in a dodecagonal square-triangle random tiling phase exhibited by a simulated binary mixture of soft discs in 2D. We examine the internal transitions within the elementary mobile defect (christened the “zipper”) that allow it to move, as well as the mechanisms by which the zipper is created and annihilated. The structural relaxation of the random tiling phase is quantified and we show that this relaxation is well described by a model based on the distribution of waiting times for each atom to be visited by the diffusing zipper. This system, representing one of the few instances where a well defined mobile defect is capable of structural relaxation, can provide a valuable test case for general theories of relaxation in complex and disordered materials.

  11. Defect-mediated relaxation in the random tiling phase of a binary mixture: Birth, death and mobility of an atomic zipper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondl, Elisabeth; Ramsay, Malcolm; Harrowell, Peter; Widmer-Cooper, Asaph

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the mechanism of defect-mediated relaxation in a dodecagonal square-triangle random tiling phase exhibited by a simulated binary mixture of soft discs in 2D. We examine the internal transitions within the elementary mobile defect (christened the "zipper") that allow it to move, as well as the mechanisms by which the zipper is created and annihilated. The structural relaxation of the random tiling phase is quantified and we show that this relaxation is well described by a model based on the distribution of waiting times for each atom to be visited by the diffusing zipper. This system, representing one of the few instances where a well defined mobile defect is capable of structural relaxation, can provide a valuable test case for general theories of relaxation in complex and disordered materials.

  12. 出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例原因分析及干预措施%Experience of reasons and intervention measures of 7 cases of birth defects of multi finger(toe)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呙明蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨出生缺陷多指(趾)儿的原因及干预措施。方法:2009年10月-2013年9月收治出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例,针对其发生率、孕周、胎儿性别、孕妇的年龄、文化程度、孕早期情况、出生缺陷、转归等7个方面进行统计及分析。结果:发生率:出生缺陷儿的发生率70.63‰,围产儿的死亡率32.60‰;多指(趾)儿发生率26.92%,围产儿存活率100%。孕周:37周1例,38周3例,39周2例,40周1例,7例均为足月产。胎儿性别:男4例,女3例,性别没有差异。孕妇年龄:26岁1例,27岁1例,28岁2例,29岁2例,30岁1例,孕妇年龄没有差别。文化程度:小学1例,初中3例,大专3例。孕早期情况:感冒1例,发热1例,无异常5例。畸形部位:多指5例,多趾1例,右足并趾1例。转归:活产7例,均为活产。结论;对7例出生缺陷儿的原因分析,加强对优生优育的宣教,避免不良生活习惯,避免孕早期病毒感染和孕期的保健,提高生存质量的重要措施。%Objective:To explore the reasons and intervention measures of birth defects of multi finger(toe).Methods:7 cases with birth defects of multi finger(toe) were selected from October 2009 to September 2013.We analyzed the incidence,gestational weeks,fetus gender,maternal age,culture degree,early pregnancy,birth defects and prognosis.Results:The incidence rate of birth defects in children was 70.63‰,and perinatal mortality was 32.60‰.Multi finger(toe) rate was 26.92%,and the perinatal survival rate was 100%.Gestational age:1 case was 37 weeks,3 cases were 38 weeks,2 cases were 39 weeks,1 case were 40 weeks,7 cases were all full-term birth.The sex of the fetus:4 cases were male,3 cases were female,there was no gender differences.Age of pregnant women:1 case was 26 years old,1 case was 27 years old,2 cases were 28 years old,2 cases were 29 years old,1 case was 30 years old,there was no difference in

  13. Congenital malformations in multiple births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done to know and compare the incidence of congenital malformations in singleton and multiple births in our hospital & compare with other studies. Methods: A retrospective study done by collecting the data from parturition register from Jan 2008 to Dec 2011 (4yrs from Cheluvamba Hospital attached to Mysore Medical College and Research Institute. Total number of the live births, still births, and abortions> 20 wks were collected. Details of multiple births such as maternal age, gestational age, sex & birth weight of the babies, U/S reports and congenital anomalies (CA were noted. Results: The total number of singleton births were 48700 and number of babies who had congenital malformations were 235 (48.25/10,000 births.Total number of multiple births were 579 including 10 triplets and number of babies who had CA were 11 (189.98/10,000 births, P<0.0001. In the present study sex of the babies were noted in all multiple births and zygosity could not be recorded. Among 579 multiple births 404 were of the Same Sex (SS and 165 were of Opposite Sex (OS in twins and 6 were of the same sex and 4 were of opposite sex in triplets. According to Weinberg formula 50% of same sex (SS twins are monozygotic and 50% are dizygotic twins. Among the 11 babies with CA, 4 monozygotic twins had anomalies related to twinning such as Acardia with TRAP sequence (3 twins, and Thoracophagus (1 twin.5 babies had CNS anomalies, 1 with cystic hygroma, 1 baby with multiple system affected. Conclusion: The incidence of birth defects is more in multiple births and especially in monozygotic twins. In the present days increase in twinning rate due to advanced maternal age, hereditary factors and use of ovulation inducing drugs, which results in premature and low birth wt babies associated with poor lung maturity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 216-221

  14. Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic Acid fortification - United States, 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer; Mai, Cara T; Mulinare, Joe; Isenburg, Jennifer; Flood, Timothy J; Ethen, Mary; Frohnert, Barbara; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-01-16

    In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs are major birth defects of the brain and spine that occur early in pregnancy as a result of improper closure of the embryonic neural tube, which can lead to death or varying degrees of disability. The two most common NTDs are anencephaly and spina bifida. Beginning in 1998, the United States mandated fortification of enriched cereal grain products with 140 µg of folic acid per 100 g. Immediately after mandatory fortification, the birth prevalence of NTD cases declined. Fortification was estimated to avert approximately 1,000 NTD-affected pregnancies annually. To provide updated estimates of the birth prevalence of NTDs in the period after introduction of mandatory folic acid fortification (i.e., the post-fortification period), data from 19 population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States, covering the years 1999-2011, were examined. After the initial decrease, NTD birth prevalence during the post-fortification period has remained relatively stable. The number of births occurring annually without NTDs that would otherwise have been affected is approximately 1,326 (95% confidence interval = 1,122-1,531). Mandatory folic acid fortification remains an effective public health intervention. There remain opportunities for prevention among women with lower folic acid intakes, especially among Hispanic women, to further reduce the prevalence of NTDs in the United States. PMID:25590678

  15. Nutritional surveillance*

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for i...

  16. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  17. Birth, Simply

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this column, a mother describes the home birth of her fourth child, which included the supportive presence of her husband, young children, and other family members, along with the help of a midwife. The mother's experience demonstrates the advantages of normal birth and its benefits to the entire family.

  18. Redemptive birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Many of us are in the business of improving birth. Some of us are decades into our journeys of midwifery, whilst others are fresh students aspiring to give our best in this new profession. This article looks at ways to redeem birth from two aspects: for the mother; and for the midwife. I work in an international community in a developing country, in a privatised system. Although different from the UK, birth is birth. Women, their families and midwives will be able to relate to similar experiences. Ultimately my goals are likely to be the same as those in other parts of the world. I address issues of the workplaces in which we operate, the role of midwives in redeeming birth outcomes, and how we may better serve women and each other. PMID:27295755

  19. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  20. Analysis of 1540 neonates with birth defects related to different assisted reproductive technique%不同辅助生殖技术妊娠分娩的1 540例新生儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 孙莹璞; 孔慧娟; 苏迎春; 郭艺红; 梁菊艳; 李朋粉

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨不同辅助生殖技术妊娠分娩的新生儿出生缺陷的发生情况及影响因素.方法 对1998年10月至2006年12月在郑州大学第一附属医院生殖医学中心接受体外受精(IVF)助孕[IVF、卵母细胞胞质内单精子注射(ICSI)、冻融胚胎移植(Thaw-ET)]妊娠的孕妇分娩的1271例新生儿(体外受精组)及同期接受人工授精妊娠的孕妇所分娩的269例新生儿(人工授精组)的临床资料进行分析,比较两组及不同辅助生殖技术后出生的新生儿情况、出生缺陷及出生缺陷受累系统.结果 体外受精组中,IVF、ICSI、Thaw-ET后出生的低体重(LBW)儿分别为20.0%(134/671)、22.4%(92/410)、18.9%(36/190),也均高于人工授精组的11.5%(31/269),差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 不同体外受精助孕后多胎率明显升高,由此造成的相关风险也随之增加,但新生儿的出生缺陷并没有明显增加;减少多胎妊娠是保护出生新生儿健康的关键.%Objective To investigate the incidence of and clinical factors influencing neonatal birth defects from different assisted reproductive technology. Methods Between October 1998 and December 2006,1271 newborns from mothers treated by in vitro fertilization techniques [ including in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (1CSI) and thaw embryo transfer (Thaw-ET) ] matched with 269 newborns from mothers treated by artificial insemination were enrolled in Reproductive Medicine Center in First Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University. Their medical information was analyzed retrospectively to compared neonatal characteristics, the incidence of birth defect and anomalous organs involved between in vitro fertilization group and artificial insemination group. Results In group of in vitro fertilization, those newborns with low birth weight from IVF, ICSI and Thaw-ET were 20. 0% ( 134/671 ), 22. 4% (92/410), 18.9% (36/190)respectively, which were more than 11.5% (31/269) cases

  1. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as...

  2. 2009-2010年北京市西城区德胜社区出生缺陷监测情况%Monitoring and analysis on birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng district of Beijing 2009-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚喆萍; 薄新生; 纪晋文

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市西城区德胜社区出生缺陷发生特点,为干预措施提供科学依据.方法 对2009-2010年北京市西城区德胜社区的人群出生缺陷监测结果进行分析.结果 2009、2010年德胜社区出生缺陷发生率分别为25.91%、22.58%,出生缺陷发生顺位前3位的分别是先天性心脏病(52.50%)、外耳其他畸形(15.00%)、并指(趾)(10.00%),出生缺陷发生与孕周、孕妇年龄有关(P<0.05),出生缺陷的诊断手段主要为B超和临床.结论 要关注高龄孕妇围生期保健,做好孕产妇系统管理,规范产前检查和预防,降低出生缺陷发生率.%[Objective]To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng District of Beijing, provide the scientific basis for intervention measures. [Methods] The monitoring results of birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng District of Beijing during 2009-2010 were analyzed. [Results] The incidence rate of birth defects in Desheng community in 2009 and 2010 was 25. 91‰ and 22. 58‰ respectively. The top three birth defects were congenital heart disease (52.50% ), congenital external ear malformations (15.00% ) and syndactyly (10.00% ). The birth defects were related to gesta-tional age and maternal age (P <0. 05). The main diagnostic methods of birth defects were B-ultrasound and clinical diagnosis. [Conclusion] It is necessary to pay attention to perinatal health care among senile gravida, carry out the system management among pregnant women, and improve the prenatal examination and prevention, in order to reduce the incidence rate of birth defects.

  3. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors, and social, personal, and economic characteristics. Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing ... My last baby was born early. Is there anything I can do in this pregnancy to keep ...

  4. Surveillance Angels

    OpenAIRE

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data. Human operators are supposed to give a semantic interpretation of the observed data. They are searching for suspicious or unwanted behaviour. The increase of surveillance sensors in the military ...

  5. Knowledge, attitude and behavior investigation on the early pregnant couples about birth defects in Sanlin area%三林地区育龄夫妇预防出生缺陷知识态度行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪天英; 曲毅; 施榕; 胡国华; 王赟; 庄康璐; 宋徽江

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the current status of the knowledge,attitude and behavior of birth defect prevention among the early pregnant couples in Sanlin area of Pudong New District in order to provide the support for the community-based first level prevention of the birth defect,and provide reference for the publicity of prenatal and postnatal care.Methods:A questionnaire survey was made among the early pregnant couples who had established maternal Manual during the year of 2012 from April to September in Sanlin Community Health Service Center.Results:Among the 403 collected questionnaires,391 were valid with an effective rate of 97.02%.The survey results indicated the awareness rate towards the eugenic related knowledge was range from 42.20% to 97.95% among the couples of childbearing age in Sanlin area.The percentages of sources of the Eugenic knowledge obtained from were internet (73.91%),medical staffs (71.61%),books and newspaper (63.43 %),and TV broadcasting (50.13 %).The rates for premarital medical examination,pre-pregnancy medical examination,medical prenatal examination and planned pregnancy were 55.50%,42.97%,98.50% and 68.29%.Conclusion:Couples of childbearing age widely know the basics of preventing birth defects but not in a comprehensive degree.Majority of the couples have the positive attitude and action towards the promotion of eugenics.The critical time period of preventing birth defects is before the pregnancy and during the early stage of pregnancy.It is necessary to broaden the preconception and periconceptional care range in order to locate the entry points of level-one intervention and health education accurately.%目的:了解浦东新区三林地区育龄夫妇掌握出生缺陷知识的水平及其对此的态度及相关行为,为以社区为基础的出生缺陷一级提供依据,为做好优生优育预防知识的宣传提供参考.方法:用问卷调查方式,对2012年4月至9月在上海浦东新区三林社区卫

  6. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  7. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  8. Neural Tube Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are severe birth defects of the central nervous system that originate during embryonic development when the neural tube fails to close completely. Human NTDs are multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic basis is not yet well understood, but several nongenetic risk factors have been identified as have possibilities for prevention by maternal folic acid supplementation. Mechani...

  9. Birth outcomes of patients with isolated anorectal malformations: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, Gabor; László, Daniel; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor

    2016-01-01

    In most patients affected by isolated anorectal malformation (IARM) the etiology is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of our project was to analyze possible risk factors for IARM. In the first step, birth outcomes of cases with IARM were analyzed on the basis of maternal socio-demographic variables, and these data are presented in this paper. Gestational age at delivery, birthweight, preterm birth, low birthweight and small for gestational age of cases with IARM were evaluated in the function of maternal age, birth/pregnancy order, marital and employment status of mothers in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The study samples included 231 live-born cases with IARM, 361 matched and 38 151 population controls without any defect. IARMs are more frequent in males, twins and newborn infants with low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age, the latter being the consequence of intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, mothers of cases were younger but with higher birth order, and had lower socio-economic status. These maternal variables are characteristic for the gypsy population in Hungary. The higher proportion of gypsy women among the mothers of cases with IARM was confirmed during the home visits of the study. Male sex and intrauterine growth restriction of cases, in addition to low socioeconomic status and gypsy origin of mothers may have a role in the risk of IARMs. PMID:26259501

  10. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP ... Birth control pills are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe birth ...

  11. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Akbar Derakhshan; Farhat Ahmadshah; Rana Amiri; Habiballah Esmaeli

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all chil...

  12. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  13. Study on birth defects in the perinatal in Haizhu District of Guangzhou from 2004 to 2008%广州市海珠区2004-2008年围产儿死亡出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洁玲; 刘传勇; 袁瑷芹

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解广州市海珠区围产儿死亡病例中发生出生缺陷的种类及分布情况,探讨出生缺陷对围产儿死亡的影响.方法 数据来源于广州市各医院逐季上报的及汇总至省妇幼保健院的,本研究监测了2004年第四季度-2008年第三季度海珠区各所医院住院分娩孕28-w产后7d的围产儿死亡率和死亡围产儿中出生缺陷发生率.结果 监测广州市海珠区5年中围产儿48268例,围产儿死亡病例555例,围产儿死亡率为11.5‰,围产儿死亡中发生出生缺陷的220例,出生缺陷发生率为36.64%,其中胎儿水肿综合征、唇腭裂、脑积水、先天性心脏病和四肢畸形排在死亡围产儿出生缺陷发生的前5位.结论 出生缺陷是导致围产儿死亡的重要原因之一,应加强婚前生殖健康教育和医学检查,做好婚前保健,优生及孕产期保健,尽可能减少出生缺陷的发生.%Objective To investigate the types and distribution of perinatal death defects in Haizhu District of Guangzhou and look for of related factors birth defects.Methods The cases of perinatal were studied from the third quarter of 2004 to the third quarter of 2008 in most of hospitals in Haizhu District.The datas were from birth defects registration cards of Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangdong Province,which included the perinatal birth informations of every quarters from all hospitals.Results 48248 cases of perinatal of Haizhu District were monitored in this study.There are 555 cases of perinatal death and the perinatal mortality rate was 11.5‰.There were222 cases of perinatal birth defects of all perinatal deaths and the birth defect rate of perinatal death was 36.64%.Hydrops fetalis syndrome,cleft lip and palate,hydrocephalus,congenital heart disease and limb deformities are the top five defects in a variety of cases.Conclusion Birth defects is one of the major causes of perinatal death.It is important for us to promote reproduetive health

  14. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  15. Influenza surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: collection of influenza virus isolates and analysis of their antigenic characteristics so that the most appropriate virus variants can be recommended as constituents of influenza vaccines for use during the next epidemiological season; collection and analysis of information on influenza morbidity and mortality; and earliest possible detection of influenza epidemics. Exact estimates of the specific morbidity and mortality due to influenza are ...

  16. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  17. Observing and analyzing of perinatal birth defect in Zhongshan city in decade%中山地区2000年~2008年围产儿出生缺陷监测分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 袁春雷; 杨孜; 彭学鸣; 张翠梅; 王冬娥

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To Evaluate the occurrence status of birth defects from 2000 to 2008 in Zhongshan city, Guangdong province by means of reviewing and analyzing some of the cases. Provide bases for service of health to draw up intervention measures.Methods: Analyzing the perinatal birth defect data from 2000 to 2008 in Zhongshan city, Guangdong province by means of reviewing.Results: From 2000 to 2008, the mean ratio of perinatal birth defect is 189. 7 per ten thousand. This presents an upward trend. The first five birth defect were: congenital heart disease, neural tube malformation, combined or excessive fingers or toes (polydactyly),α - Mediterranean - anaemia. Conclusion: In order to depress perinatal birth defect rate, we should pay more attention in not only to the work of education of the knowledge of health care before marriage or pregnancy, but also to the work of examination and diagnosis before delivery.%目的 通过回顾性分析中山市围产儿出生缺陷水平变化情况,探讨其影响因素,为卫生行政部门制订决策提供依据.方法 对2000年至2008年中山市国产儿出生缺陷资料进行分析.结果 2000年至2008年国产儿平均出生缺陷发生率为102/万,呈上升趋势.出生缺陷发生前5位的是:先天性心脏病、唇腭裂、神经管畸形、并多指(趾)、α-地中海贫血.结论 应进一步加强宣教、加强提高产前筛查水平及产前诊断,降低围产儿出生缺陷发生率.

  18. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... These are abnormalities of structure, function, or body chemistry that will require medical or surgical care or ...

  19. What Are the Types of Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fee-nill-key-toe-NURR-ee-uh ) and hypothyroidism ( hahy-puh-THAHY-roi-diz-uhm ). Degenerative disorders. ... 30/2012 Related A-Z Topics Cerebral Palsy Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Down Syndrome All related topics ...

  20. National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not know whether the amounts of pollution women are exposed to can affect their unborn babies. NBDPS researchers found that higher exposure to air pollutants related to car traffic, specifically nitrogen dioxide, was more common among mothers ...

  1. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  2. 青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况现状及影响因素分析%Analysis of status and influence factors of women of childbearing age be-ing aware of birth defects knowledge in Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王民

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况现状及影响因素,以便有针对性地开展出生缺陷预防工作,降低出生缺陷发生率. 方法 随机抽取青龙满族自治县2014年1月~2015年7月符合生育政策、计划怀孕并参加免费孕前优生健康检查的1200名育龄妇女,使用自行设计的统一调查问卷,进行预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况自填式问卷调查. 结果 育龄妇女获取预防出生缺陷知识的途径形式单一,依次为书籍杂志、医院、网络等,预防出生缺陷知识的总知晓率仅为68%;影响育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况的因素为年龄、文化水平、职业、经济条件等.其中20~32岁年龄段的人群高于33~39岁;大专及以上文化程度的人群高于其他文化长度的人群; 有固定工作的人群高于无固定工作的人群; 经济收入较高的人群高于经济收入较低的人群(P<0.01). 结论 青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓率较低,应引起有关部门重视,应根据影响育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况的因素,认真开展多种渠道的健康教育宣传,提高育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识的知晓率,有效降低出生缺陷发生的风险.%Objective To know the status and influence factors of women of childbearing age being aware of birth de-fect knowledge in Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County to carry out targetedly the prevention work of birth defect and reduce the incidence rate of birth defect. Methods 1200 women of childbearing age who had met the requirement for pregnancy and were planning to have a baby and had participated in the free pre-pregnancy health examination for eu-genics from January 2014 to July 2015 were randomly selected.Self-designed and self-administrated unified question-naire was adopted to investigate the status of awareness of birth defect prevention knowledge. Results Women of child-bearing age got to

  3. Risk indicators of reduction limb defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Aro, T.; Heinonen, O P; Saxén, L

    1983-01-01

    The birth of a child with a reduction limb defect (RLD) was evaluated in relation to vaginal bleeding, threatened abortion, and other complications of pregnancy, placental weight, birth weight, family history, parental age, and the outcome of previous pregnancies. The material consisted of 453 cases of reduction limb defect and an equal number of non-malformed controls matched for time and place. The children were born in Finland during 1964-77. The cases with reduction limb defect without ad...

  4. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002), data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01) increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The bin...

  5. Information surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; McQuerry, Dennis; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  6. 武昌地区13家助产机构2006至2009年围生儿出生缺陷分析%Birth Defects from 13 Midwifery Institution During the Year of 2006-2009 in Wuchang Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢媛; 李莹; 刘婷婷

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the situation , influencing factors, prognosis and diagnosis of the birth default in Wuchang region. Methods The results from 13 hospital studies on 28 542 births were analyzed by retrospective and statistics study from 2006 to 2009. Results 316 birth defects in a total of 28 542 births were monitored from 2006 to 2009, the birth defects rate was 1. 11 % (316/28 542). The first four leading diseases were congenital heart disease, anomaly of locomotor, digestive system and neurocanal.The influence factors of parturients' social relation on the birth default were family income, parturients' age and educational background. Compare to family monthly income less than 4000 yuan group, birth defects rate in family monthly income more than 8000 Renming bi yuan group was decreased (x2 = 10. 91, P<0.01). There had statistical significant difference of birth defects rate between the age from 25 to 35 group and the rest age group(P<0. 05). Also there had significant difference of birth defects rate between high school/college group and other educational background group(P<0. 05). The death rates of birth default (43.3%) was 101 times higher than non birth default 0. 43% (123/28 542). 37. 0% (117/316) cases were confirmed in prenatal diagnosis, which was the mainly method to diagnose of birth default. Conclusion The birth default has high death rates and influence by parturients. In order to increase the prenatal diagnosis of birth default and decrease the birth defaults rate, we should take measures to educate the parturients and avoid the high risk factors.%目的 探讨武昌地区助产机构围生儿出生缺陷发生状况、影响因素、确诊手段及预后.方法 按照对武昌地区13家助产机构2006年10月1日至2009年09月31日分娩的28 542例围生儿中316例(单胎)出生缺陷围生儿监测资料进行回顾性分析,对可能导致围生儿出生缺陷的相关因素包括家庭收入、产妇年龄、产妇学

  7. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  8. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  9. A Wondrous Birth

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the author describes tending to a mother who displayed a quiet confidence throughout her pregnancy and birth experience. This birth story provides powerful support for women's inherent ability to give birth. Women already know what they need to give birth simply and easily.

  10. Gastroschisis and associated defects: an international study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2007-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency and type of malformations associated with gastroschisis in a large pool of international data, to identify malformation patterns, and to evaluate the role of maternal age in non-isolated cases. Case-by-case information from 24 registries, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR), were evaluated. After the exclusion of other abdominal wall defects cases were classified as: (a) isolated; (b) recognizable syndrome, chromosomal or not; (c) multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Our results showed that out of 3,322 total cases 469 non-isolated cases were registered (14.1%): 41 chromosomal syndromes, 24 other syndromes, and 404 MCA. Among MCA four groups of anomalies were most frequent: CNS (4.5%), cardio-vascular (2.5%), limb (2.2%), and kidney anomalies (1.9%). No similar patterns emerged except two patterns resembling limb-body wall complex and OEIS. In both of them the gastroschisis could be however misclassified. Chromosomal trisomies and possibly non-syndromic MCA are associated with an older maternal age more than isolated cases. On consideration of our data and the most valid studies published in the literature, the best estimate of the proportion of gastroschisis associated with major unrelated defects is about 10%, with a few cases associated to recognizable syndromes. Recognized syndromes with gastroschisis seem to be so exceptional that the well documented and validated cases are worth being published as interesting case report. An appropriate case definition in etiological studies should include only isolated gastroschisis after an appropriate definition of isolated and non-isolated cases and a thorough case-by-case review.

  11. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad.Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS.Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P< 0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children.Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.

  12. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Amiri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS. Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P<0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children. Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.

  13. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: características do atendimento e propostas para formulação de políticas públicas em genética clínica Birth defects in Brazil and health care: proposals for public policies in clinical genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O impacto dos defeitos congênitos no Brasil vem aumentando, apontando para a necessidade de estratégias específicas na política de saúde. Apesar da íntima ligação da genética clínica com a atenção aos defeitos congênitos, menos de 30% da demanda vem sendo absorvida pelos serviços do país. São problemas na atenção aos defeitos congênitos: dificuldades de acesso aos serviços de genética com concentração destes no Sul/Sudeste e suporte laboratorial insuficiente. Para melhor abordagem aos defeitos congênitos, ações para o estabelecimento de política em genética clínica deveriam ser deflagradas, preferencialmente sob coordenação de grupo técnico vinculado ao Ministério da Saúde, tendo como objetivo organizar rede clínico-laboratorial na especialidade. Ações visando à otimização de recursos e ao aumento da cobertura deverão ser consideradas. Para suporte laboratorial são prementes arranjos visando o fluxo de exames e criação de mecanismos de financiamento. Ações complementares de prevenção e registro epidemiológico dos defeitos congênitos, educação médica e do usuário são recomendadas. Com tais propostas contempladas, será possível a estruturação de uma rede regionalizada, hierarquizada e funcional, além de mais justa e mais democrática, voltada à atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil.The impact of birth defects in Brazil has increased steadily, indicating the need for specific health policy strategies. Despite the close relationship between clinical genetics and management of birth defects, less than 30% of the total demand is currently met by existing genetic services. The main problems are: difficult access to genetic services, services highly concentrated in the South and Southeast regions of the country, and insufficient laboratory support. With the aim of improving management of birth defects, a specific national policy coordinated by the Ministry of Health needs to be

  14. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  15. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  16. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  17. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  18. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Wilcox

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addressing a broad range of questions in perinatal epidemiology. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway has been a pioneer in answering such questions.

  19. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    well as maternal habits, the quality of nutrition and health care for mother and child, and other "culture factors." The following seem important facets of the management of low birth weight children: optimal obstetric and perinatal care; "bonding" by parents visiting the intensive care nursery and handling the infant; anticipatory guidance; regular pediatric follow-up for at-risk infants; infant stimulation; early correction of refractive errors, strabismus, other visual defects, hearing defects and orthopedic deformities; and developmental assessments and school readiness tests. PMID:6713335

  20. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  1. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most effective ... periods Treat acne Prevent ovarian cancer Combination birth control pills contain both estrogen and progestin. Some combination ...

  2. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... 100% effective method of birth control. LEARN MORE IUD An IUD is a T-shaped device that ...

  3. Secondary Surveillance Radar Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Schejbal, Vladimír; Bezoušek, Pavel; Pidanič, Jan; Chyba, Milan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a secondary surveillance radar (SSR) array antenna, which is intended for a system combining the secondary surveillance radar antenna and the primary surveillance radar antenna. It describes the patch array elements and the synthesis for the secondary surveillance radar array, considering both elevation and azimuth patterns for sum, difference, and sidelobe-suppression beams, and suspended stripline couplers. The utilization of multilayer techniques allows the connection...

  4. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A Text Size What's ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  5. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A Text Size What's ... Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  6. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A Text Size What's ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  7. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A Text Size What's ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  8. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity in...

  9. Determinants and consequences of short birth interval in rural Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); K. Azad (Kishwar); N. Seward (Nadine); A. Kuddus (Abdul); S. Shaha (Sanjit); J. Beard (James); A. Costello (Anthony); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); E. Fottrell (Edward)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Short birth intervals are known to have negative effects on pregnancy outcomes. We analysed data from a large population surveillance system in rural Bangladesh to identify predictors of short birth interval and determine consequences of short intervals on pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Regular surveillance for Li-fraumeni syndrome: advice, adherence and perceived benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.M. Lammens; E.M.A. Bleiker; N.K. Aaronson; A. Wagner; R.H. Sijmons; M.G.E.M. Ausems; A.H.J.T. Vriends; M.W.G. Ruijs; T.A.M. van Os; L. Spruijt; E.B. Gómez García; A. Cats; T. Nagtegaal; S. Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    Li Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome characterized by a high risk of developing various types of cancer from birth through late adulthood. Clinical benefits of surveillance for LFS are limited. The aim of this study is to investigate which advice for regular surveillance, if an

  11. Regular surveillance for Li-fraumeni syndrome: advice, adherence and perceived benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.M. Lammens (Chantal); E.M.A. Bleiker (Eveline); N.K. Aaronson (Neil); A. Wagner (Anja); R.H. Sijmons (Rolf); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); A.H.J.T. Vriends (Anette); M.W.G. Ruijs (Marielle); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); L. Spruijt (Liesbeth); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); A. Cats (Annemieke); T. Nagtegaal; S. Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLi Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome characterized by a high risk of developing various types of cancer from birth through late adulthood. Clinical benefits of surveillance for LFS are limited. The aim of this study is to investigate which advice for regular surveil

  12. Iodide-trapping defect of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a grossly hypothyroid 50-year-old woman, mentally retarded since birth. On the basis of her history of recurrent goitre, absence of 131I neck uptake and a low saliva/plasma 131I ratio, congenital hypothyroidism due to a defect of the iodide-trapping mechanism was diagnosed. Other family members studied did not have the defect

  13. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  14. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by...... peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. CONCLUSION: The studied obstetric complications...

  15. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance of...... activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor...... visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  16. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS).

    OpenAIRE

    Kishamawe, C; Isingo, R; Mtenga, B; Zaba, B; Todd, J.; Clark, B.; Changalucha, J.; Urassa, M

    2015-01-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2-3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HI...

  17. Banking of human tissue for biomonitoring and exposure assessment: utility for environmental epidemiology and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L R; Anton-Culver, H; Kharrazi, M; Blake, E

    1995-01-01

    Human tissue banking could provide a tool to address a number of public health concerns. We can potentially use it to monitor trends in human exposures, serve as an early warning system for new environmental exposures, assess low-level exposures around hazardous waste and other point sources of pollutants, evaluate the effectiveness of regulatory programs, and study etiologies of diseases (e.g., childhood cancer and birth defects) that are likely to be related to the environment. This article discusses opportunities to establish human tissue banks in connection with pre-existing public health surveillance programs for cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes. This is a cost-effective way to conduct surveillance and enhances the ability to carry out epidemiologic studies. The article also discusses ethical issues that are particularly important for public health practice. One is the issue of risk communication and the need to explain risks in a way that provides people with the information they need to determine appropriate action on the individual and community levels. Second is the issue of environmental justice. We recommend early involvement of communities that are likely to be involved in tissue-banking projects and full explanation of individual and group social risks from their participation. PMID:7635109

  18. Maternal factors, medications, and drug exposure in congenital limb reduction defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froster, U G; Baird, P A

    1993-10-01

    As part of an ongoing study on all limb reduction defects occurring among 1,213,913 consecutive live births in the province of British Columbia, Canada, during 1952-1984, cases with documented maternal drug exposure and chronic maternal diseases were analyzed separately. This population-based study was made possible through the existence of an ongoing Health Surveillance Registry, which documents all infants born with congenital, genetic, or chronically handicapping conditions in the province of British Columbia. Strict rules of confidentiality are obeyed. For this part of the analysis of limb reduction defects, cases with documented maternal illness, drug abuse, and exposure to environmental hazards early in pregnancy were analyzed as a separate group to identify specific, recurring patterns of anomalies. A total of 51 cases with possibly related maternal factors were identified. Among them were five cases with maternal epilepsy, four cases with documented maternal diabetes, and three cases with uterine anomalies. Three infants, all born in 1962, had documented thalidomide exposure. It is rarely possible to identify particular teratogenic factors or specific maternal factors as etiologically related to the pattern of limb reduction defects or a spectrum of congenital malformations. Exposure to environmental factors during pregnancy is not reliably registered and can thus only occasionally be ascertained in retrospective studies. This means that very large numbers of cases and cross-referencing to other family members are required to assess whether a potential teratogen is related to limb defects or not. PMID:8143629

  19. Prevalence of neural tube defects in South Australia, 1966-91: effectiveness and impact of prenatal diagnosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, A.; Robertson, E F; Haan, E. A.; Keane, R J; De Ranieri, E.; Carney, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine trends in total prevalence of neural tube defects in South Australia during 1966-91, the impact of prenatal diagnosis on birth prevalence, and the effectiveness of prenatal screening for neural tube defects in 1986-91. DESIGN--All births and terminations of pregnancy affected by neural tube defects and information on prenatal screening were ascertained from multiple sources including the South Australian perinatal and abortion statistics collections, birth defects regi...

  20. Defect modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  1. Jonah’s Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Rachel Goldstein shares her experience of exploring options related to care provider and place of birth early in her pregnancy. Goldstein and her husband, Marc, after reading and research, chose midwifery care and a home birth. She shares the story of a long labor at home supported by her husband, her doula, and her midwife. Her positive attitude, her ability to use various comfort strategies, and the support she received throughout labor contributed to being able to give birth naturally and ...

  2. Containment and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of containment and surveillance measures in complementing nuclear materials accountancy to achieve safeguards objectives is discussed. The variety of techniques used, particularly optical surveillance and sealing systems, is described. Containment and surveillance reduce the cost of IAEA inspections and reduce the intrusiveness of the IAEA into normal plant operations by reducing the frequency of physical inventory measurements. 10 refs., 12 figs., poster presentations included

  3. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  4. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  5. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  6. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  7. Birth control failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocles, A M

    1986-10-01

    Birth control failure usually results from the incorrect or inconsistent use of contraceptives. By providing anticipatory counseling, based on an understanding of the reasons for birth control failure, family physicians can help curtail the current epidemic of unwanted pregnancies. PMID:3766356

  8. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  9. A Season for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education reflects on changing seasons and how birth remains a constant wonder. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  10. Safely Giving Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the growing challenge of assuring a safe birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect normal birth.

  11. 南宁市江南区孕妇出生缺陷预防知识态度行为调查%Investigation on attitude and behavior of pregnant women on birth defect prevention knowledge in Jiangnan District of Nanning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾江辉; 李建民; 梁秀云; 卢庆; 潘革; 梁少林; 杨兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解南宁市江南区孕妇对出生缺陷相关知识的知晓情况、获得途径和态度行为,为出生缺陷干预工作的服务方式和途径拓展思路。方法对2014年6~12月到该院产科初次建立围生期保健手册的孕妇进行问卷调查。结果共收回问卷1408份,其中有效问卷1362份,有效应答率96.73%。调查结果显示,孕妇对预防出生缺陷相关知识知晓率为2.94%~98.24%。除5项外(共计20项),其他项的知晓率均随着文化程度的增高而提高( P<0.05)。对预防出生缺陷相关知识获得途径主要是网络、手机(62.70%)和书刊、报纸(57.64%)。婚前医学检查率为96.77%,孕前医学检查率为33.26%,产前医学检查率为96.99%,计划妊娠率为61.82%。结论孕妇普遍知晓预防出生缺陷的基本知识,但不全面,大多数孕妇对优生有积极的态度和行为。依托网络和手机平台可扩大孕妇健康教育的广度和深度,提供更便捷、更有效的途径服务于大众。%Objective To understand the awareness situation ,acquiring route ,attitude and behaviors of birth defect related knowledge among the pregnant women in Jiangnan District of Nanning City in order to expand the thinking for the service mode and route of birth defect intervention work .Methods A questionnaire survey was per‐formed among the pregnant women with establishment of the perinatal health care manual in the obstetric department of the hospital from June to December 2014 .Results 1 408 questionnaires were recovered ,in which 1362 question‐naires were valid with the effective response rate of 96 .73% .The survey results indicated the awareness rate towards the birth defect prevention related knowledge ranged 2 .94% -96 .73% .Except for 5 items(sum to 20 items) ,the awareness rates of other items were increased with their education level (P<0 .05) .The acquiring routes of preven

  12. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  13. Adolescent Births 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — http://tinyurl.com/AdolescentBirthRatesMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfRepeatBirthsMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfBirthsInHighPoverty. This dataset contains...

  14. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  15. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Allen J.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addr...

  16. Scans Show Range of Zika-Linked Infant Brain Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most closely linked to a birth defect called microcephaly -- an abnormally small head and an underdeveloped brain, ... of a new study said. But along with microcephaly, other brain abnormalities can also occur in fetuses ...

  17. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after they're born. We also give a shot of vitamin K. That helps control bleeding. There's ... born. Parents can elect to have their hepatitis shot also given at birth or they can elect ...

  18. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... births can also take a heavy emotional and economic toll on families. 5 American College of Obstetricians ... Dimes. (2012). The March of Dimes Foundation Data Book for Policy Makers: Maternal, Infant, and Child Health ...

  19. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ...

  20. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ... birth versus a repeat cesarean delivery. There's an issue called placenta accreta, which if you have multiple ...

  1. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... later if you prefer. Now let me turn things over to the obstetrician performing the delivery to ...

  2. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 717-933-9743 Accredited since January 2016 100 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ...

  3. Emmetropisation following preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K J; McCulloch, D L; Shepherd, A.J.; Wilkinson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Even in the absence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), premature birth signals increased risk for abnormal refractive development. The present study examined the relation between clinical risk factors and refractive development among preterm infants without ROP.

  4. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I know that we have a very formal process in our office for patients with a prior ... with a vaginal birth, we have a formalized process where we go through an information sheet that ...

  5. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to be able to schedule the birth. Some women have a preference for a cesarean delivery because ... subject doesn't really come up. But in women with a prior uterine incision that's compatible with ...

  6. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  7. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... to learn more. Just click on the "request information" button on your webcast screen and open the ...

  8. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  9. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after delivery. And that's over here so that mom can hear the baby and the baby will ... So we don't encourage elective first-time moms having a cesarean birth. 00:09:12 LEAH ...

  10. Prevalence at birth of congenital malformations in communities near the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examined the prevalence of congenital malformations among births in Benton and Franklin counties, in southeastern Washington State, from 1968 through 1980. The Hanford Site is in this area and serves as a major employer. In addition, various agriculturally and chemically related activities are in the area. Hospital and vital records were used to identify 454 malformation cases among 23,319 births; this yielded a malformation rate of 19.6 per 1000 births, a rate similar to those reported in other studies. The rates of specific malformations ascertained during the first year of life were compared with combined rates from the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho from the Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Among defects that would be expected to be comparably ascertained, a statistically significant elevated rate of neural tube defects was observed (1.72 per 1000 births vs. 0.99 per 1000). Rates of cleft lip were significantly lower in Benton and Franklin counties than in the Birth Defects Monitoring Program (0.59 per 1,000 vs. 1.17 per 1000). For congenital heart defects, pyloric stenosis, and Down syndrome, which are often not diagnosed in the newborn period, Birth Defects Monitoring Program data did not offer appropriate comparisons. The rates of these defects did not appear to be elevated in relation to rates found in other relevant populations. When rates of neural tube defects were compared with those in populations other than the Birth Defects Monitoring Program, the Benton and Franklin county rates were still considered to be elevated. The increased bicounty rate cannot be explained by employment of the parents at Hanford or by the impact of plant emissions on the local population

  11. The range of neural tube defects in southern India.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, M L; Mathew, M A; Reddy, V

    1989-01-01

    During a prospective study of 3500 consecutive births from November 1985 to January 1987 at three hospitals, 40 babies were found to have neural tube defects, an extremely high incidence (11.4/1000 births). The defects comprised anencephaly (n = 18), meningomyelocele (n = 11), Arnold-Chiari deformity (n = 3), encephalocele (n = 3), iniencephaly (n = 2), and one each of occipital meningocele, spina bifida occulta, and anencephaly with rachischisis. There were significant differences in inciden...

  12. Congenital cardiac defect in a pygmy goat (Capra hircus)

    OpenAIRE

    Laus, Fulvio; COPPONI, Ilenia; Cerquetella, Matteo; FRUGANTI, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Congenital cardiac defects are anatomic conditions present at birth. Few references to such conditions in goats are available in the current scientific literature. This report describes, for the first time, a congenital cardiac disease clinically characterized by polypnea from birth and exercise intolerance in a 2-month-old pygmy goat. An atrioventricular dysplasia known as Ebstein's anomaly, an atrial septal defect, and a mild subaortic stenosis were ultrasonographically diagnosed.

  13. Changing trend of neural tube defects in eastern Turkey.

    OpenAIRE

    Güvenc, H; Uslu, M A; Güvenc, M; Ozekici, U; Kocabay, K.; Bektaş, S

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study the relationship between birth prevalence of neural tube defect (including anencephaly) in Eastern Turkey before and after the Chernobyl disaster. DESIGN--This was a prospective study of time trends in live births and stillbirths over the years 1985-1990. Medical and sociodemographic data were recorded for the mothers. SETTING--Elazig, Eastern Turkey. SUBJECTS--There were 5240 live births and stillbirths during the study period, 24 of whom had neural tube...

  14. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  15. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...

  16. DIALYSIS SURVEILLANCE NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    A voluntary national surveillance system monitoring bloodstream and vascular infections. This is a yearly survey, done in collaboration with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) that collects data on infection control practices, and the frequency of certain dialys...

  17. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  18. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Zajko

    2015-01-01

    Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital "content" through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the inte...

  19. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Indraveer Singh; Harshawardhan Patil

    2010-01-01

    Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up grada...

  20. The defect

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Franz-Viktor

    2010-01-01

    We give an introduction to the valuation theoretical phenomenon of "defect", also known as "ramification deficiency". We describe the role it plays in deep open problems in positive characteristic: local uniformization (the local form of resolution of singularities), the model theory of valued fields, the structure theory of valued function fields. We give several examples of algebraic extensions with non-trivial defect. We indicate why Artin-Schreier defect extensions play a central role and describe a way to classify them. Further, we give an overview of various results about the defect that help to tame or avoid it, in particular "stability" theorems and theorems on "henselian rationality", and show how they are applied. Finally, we include a list of open problems.

  1. Periviable birth: Interim update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  2. #3: Periviable birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  3. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Malak Hamdan; Entesar Ariabi; Chris Busby

    2010-01-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulti...

  4. Twin births: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivani Anil Wanjari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal, foetal and obstetric parameters surrounding twin pregnancies. An attempt was made to find out the perinatal mortality and morbidity rates of twin births and to determine the underlying factors responsible for the increase in these rates. Methods: A one year observational study was done at Daga hospital Nagpur, which is a referral maternity hospital receiving a large number of antenatal patients daily. Perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, route of delivery, and caesarean section rates were analysed. Results: The commonest presentation in our study vertex/vertex presentation (62%. A large percentage of twins in our study had a normal delivery. 37% women had caesarean section. In our study nearly 17% of the neonates had birth weights <1.5 kg. In 51 % women the first baby had more birth weight than the second twin. Among the 95 twin births (190 twins studied, we had one discordant twins and one conjoined twins. Conclusions: Twin pregnancies are high risk pregnancies with more obstetrical complications compared to singleton pregnancies. Twin pregnancies have higher perinatal mortality and morbidity rates especially before 34 weeks of gestation. Hence deliveries should be performed in referral centres with competent NICUs. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 995-997

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal aortopulmonary septal defect with ventricular septal defect by two-dimension echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fetal aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD) is an extremely rare condition, accounting for 0.1%-0.2% of all cardiac defects in live births world wide.1 Hospital mortality is 13% and 33% for simple and complex APSD, respectively.2 This rare cardiac defect refers to a congenital malformation in the development of the arteriosus truncus septum, and is usually associated with a wide variety of other structural cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary valve stegnosis and so on.3 Prenatal diagnosis of an APSD is possible by echocardiography.

  6. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  7. Some suggestions on reforming the security control and surveillance of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some suggestions are given on reforming the security control and surveillance of sealed radioactive sources: (1) carrying out 'birth to death' notification and check for sources; (2) urging and encouraging to return spent sources to their manufacturers or export countries; (3) classifying sources according to their potential hazards and carrying out classification control and surveillance; (4) developing Chinese safety and security regulations for radioactive sources as soon as possible. Reasons and considerations for these suggestions are also presented

  8. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas. PMID:12291551

  9. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraveer Singh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up gradation. Thus in this paper we have come up with efficient proposals to upgrade the approach for Camera based Surveillance Architecture for security and Administration. This renewed approach is essentially based upon RFID technology where we are utilizing RFID tags and their readers as basic components. Unlike Camera-based surveillance, RFID-based approach can monitor and administer a quarter not only within some region of visibility but can efficiently do the same for locating the individuality (through Dynamic Surveillance as explained further. This approach emphasizes not only on overcoming the demerits of observation-based supervision, but it presents easier and effective monitoring methodologies using radio waves and their usable features in security and administration for areas with consumer pour out.

  10. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE...... INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  11. Sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics of stillbirths in China: a census of nearly 4 million health facility births between 2012 and 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Jun Zhu, MD; Prof. Juan Liang; Yi Mu, MPH; Xiaohong Li, MS; Sufang Guo, MD; Robert Scherpbier, MD; Prof. Yanping Wang; Li Dai, PhD; Zheng Liu, MSE; Mingrong Li, MD; Chunhua He, MD; Changfei Deng, MPH; Ling Yi, MPH; Kui Deng, MPH; Qi Li, MSE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very little is known about the burden and determinants of stillbirths in China. We used data from a national surveillance system for health facility births to compute a stillbirth rate representative of all facility births in China and to explore sociodemographic and obstetric factors associated with variation in the stillbirth rate. Methods: We used data from China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2014, which covers 441 hospita...

  12. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A.; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The ...

  13. Births: Final Data for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Osterman, Michelle J K; Curtin, Sally C; Matthews, T J

    2015-12-01

    This report presents 2014 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence and birth rates by age and race of father also are shown. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. PMID:26727629

  14. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish ( en español ) Recovering from birth Related information Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet When to call the baby's doctor – ... Get more details on postpartum depression in our Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet . Emerging research suggests that 1 in ...

  15. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  16. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available CESAREAN SECTION SHAWNEE MISSION MEDICAL CENTER MERRIAM, KANSAS March 13, 2008 00:00:09 ANNOUNCER: Tonight you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. Over the next hour, ...

  17. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  18. Long term trends in prevalence of neural tube defects in Europe: population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loane, Maria; de Walle, Hermien; Arriola, Larraitz; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Klungsoyr, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Bob; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Rounding, Catherine; Sipek, Antonin; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Study question What are the long term trends in the total (live births, fetal deaths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly) and live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in Europe, where many countries have issued recommendations for folic acid supplementation but a policy for mandatory folic acid fortification of food does not exist? Methods This was a population based, observational study using data on 11 353 cases of NTD not associated with chromosomal anomalies, including 4162 cases of anencephaly and 5776 cases of spina bifida from 28 EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries covering approximately 12.5 million births in 19 countries between 1991 and 2011. The main outcome measures were total and live birth prevalence of NTD, as well as anencephaly and spina bifida, with time trends analysed using random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneities across registries and splines to model non-linear time trends. Summary answer and limitations Overall, the pooled total prevalence of NTD during the study period was 9.1 per 10 000 births. Prevalence of NTD fluctuated slightly but without an obvious downward trend, with the final estimate of the pooled total prevalence of NTD in 2011 similar to that in 1991. Estimates from Poisson models that took registry heterogeneities into account showed an annual increase of 4% (prevalence ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07) in 1995-99 and a decrease of 3% per year in 1999-2003 (0.97, 0.95 to 0.99), with stable rates thereafter. The trend patterns for anencephaly and spina bifida were similar, but neither anomaly decreased substantially over time. The live birth prevalence of NTD generally decreased, especially for anencephaly. Registration problems or other data artefacts cannot be excluded as a partial explanation of the observed trends (or lack thereof) in the prevalence of NTD. What this study adds In the absence of mandatory fortification

  19. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  20. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 11 (ASR-11) is a short-range digital, integrated primary and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) radar system with a 60 nautical...

  1. Relationship between GDM maternal advanced glycation end products level and fetal birth defects and it's clinical significance%GDM孕妇血清晚期糖基化终产物水平与其胎儿出生缺陷的关系及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤栩文; 林斯; 谢晓斌

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇血清及脐血血清中晚期糖基化终产物(AGE)的水平,并观察胎盘组织中AGE受体(RAGE)的表达,探讨AGE与胎儿出生缺陷的关系及其在产前筛查中的临床意义.方法:选择经产前筛查诊断为胎儿畸形或胎死宫内的GDM孕妇作为病例组(42例),随机选择GDM无胎儿异常孕妇作为GDM组(30例),无妊娠合并症的健康孕妇作为健康对照组(30例).采用酶联免疫法检测孕妇血清及脐血血清AGE水平;采用免疫组化方法检测胎盘组织中RAGE蛋白的表达.结果:病例组、GDM组、健康对照组脐血血清AGE水平分别为(223.9±54.6),(160.7±37.2),(108.3+15.8) μg/L,三组差异显著(P<0.05);病例组、GDM组、健康对照组孕妇血清AGE水平分别为(169.1±14.3),(105.4±17.2),(80.6±11.4) μg/L,三组亦有显著差异(P<0.05);病例组孕妇血清与脐血血清中AGE水平呈正相关(r=0.863,P<0.01);病例组、GDM组及健康对照组胎盘组织中RAGE的阳性表达率分别为87.5%、53.1%、29.6%,三组差异显著(P<0.05).结论:GDM孕妇高AGE血症是导致出生缺陷的危险因素,孕妇血清AGE水平可作为GDM出生缺陷的产前筛查指标.%Objective:To detect serum advanced glycation end products(AGE) level in gestation diabetic mother( GDM) gestational period and fetal cord blood, and observe the RAGE protein expression in placenta. To explore the clinical significance of relationship be-tween fetal birth defects and AGE levels in prenatal screening. Methods: Gestational diabetes pregnant woman confirmed fetalmalformation or fetal death by prenatal diagnosis were enrolled as the study group, total of 42 cases; Randomly selected the GDM fetal normalities pregnant women,as the GDM group,30 cases;another 30 cases of the normal pregnant women wre select-ed randomly as healthy control group. Maternal peripheral blood and the specimens of fetal cord blood specimens were collected to detect AGE

  2. Surveillance-Based Program Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Sanusi, Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Objective to analyze the Integrated Behavioral & Biological Surveillance (IBBS) 2011 data for designing a condom utilization program. Introduction The IBBS is part of the Indonesian MoH HIV Surveillance System, which include Serological Surveillance, Behavioral Surveillance, Reproductive Tract Infection Survey, and monthly HIV/AIDS facility-based (hospitals, HCs, VCT Sites) monthly reports. The IBBS 2011 was conducted in 11 provinces (22 districts/municipalities) encompassing eight Most At Ri...

  3. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  4. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS wil

  5. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  6. The Evaluation of 208 Ventricular Septal Defect Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, F. Ayşenur; EGE, Erdal; Paç, Mustafa; Battaloğlu, Bektaş; Emmiler, Mustafa; Akpınar, Beşir; Sarı, Süleyman; Pelik, Fatma

    2001-01-01

    Venticular septal defect is the most common congenital heart defect except bicüspit aortic valve. The first description of ventricular septal defect as a clinical entity was credited to Roger in 1879. It occurs in 1.5-2 in 1000 alive birth. We studied retrospectively 208 cases of VSD seen in our medical center. The patients were evaluated according to the especially clinical data, types of VSD, closure rates, complications (AVP, AY, VSD aneurysm), and surgical therapies. Key words: Ventri...

  7. DEFECT-MEDIATED TURBULENCE : AN EXAMPLE IN WAVE PATTERNS

    OpenAIRE

    Lega, J.

    1989-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations of two dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equations describing the bifurcation toward a wave pattern in an anisotropic medium, it is shown that phase instability leads to spontaneous nucleation of dislocations. The birth of a pair of such defects is detailed. Once created, defects move away through the system and break the order induced by the wave pattern. The complex spatio-temporal resulting behaviour has been termed defect-mediated turbulence.

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project

  9. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari...

  10. Immune surveillance for ERAAP dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Niranjana A; Shastri, Nilabh

    2013-09-01

    The ER aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing, ERAAP (or ERAP1), is essential for trimming peptides that are presented by MHC class I molecules. ERAP1 is inhibited by human cytomegalovirus, and ERAP1 polymorphisms are associated with autoimmune diseases. How the immune system detects ERAAP dysfunction, however, is unknown. We have shown previously that ERAAP-deficient cells present an immunogenic pMHC I repertoire, that elicits CD8+ T cell response in WT mice. Additionally, we discovered that the WT CD8+ T cells recognized novel peptides presented by non-classical, or MHC class Ib, molecules on ERAAP-deficient cells. The MHC Ib restricted WT CD8 T cells eliminated ERAAP-deficient cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified the FL9 peptide, presented by Qa-1(b), a MHC class Ib molecule exclusively on ERAAP-deficient cells. Remarkably, T cells specific for the FL9-Qa-1(b) complex were frequent in naïve WT mice, and had an antigen-experienced phenotype. Thus, novel non-classical pQa-1(b) complexes direct cytotoxic T cells to target cells with defective peptide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings, and the possible roles of pMHC Ib-specific T cells in immune surveillance for ERAAP dysfunction. PMID:23433779

  11. MedlinePlus: Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Start Here Birth Control Methods (Department of Health and Human Services, Office ... Male Contraception? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Patient ... Birth control - slow release methods Also in Spanish Birth control ...

  12. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amniocentesis are Down syndrome and certain types of muscular dystrophy . Because amniocentesis can cause a miscarriage in about 1 out of 200 cases, it is usually only recommended for pregnancies in which the risk of genetic disorders or other problems is high. Chorionic Villus ...

  13. CDC Concludes Zika Causes Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means that a woman who is infected with Zika during pregnancy has an increased risk of having a baby ... not mean, however, that all women who have Zika virus infection during pregnancy will have babies with problems. As has been ...

  14. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Sachan; V. Suresh; D Rajasekhar; V. Vanaja; Harinarayan, C. V.; Rajagopal, G.; P Amaresh Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59...

  15. Birth defects after early pregnancy use of antithyroid drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be adequately treated to prevent maternal and fetal complications, but teratogenic effects of antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment have been described. Evidence is still lacking in regard to the safety and choice of ATD in early pregnancy.......0%; MMI/CMZ, 9.1%; MMI/CMZ and PTU, 10.1%; no ATD, 5.4%; nonexposed, 5.7%; P < .001). Both maternal use of MMI/CMZ (adjusted OR = 1.66 [95% CI 1.35-2.04]) and PTU (1.41 [1.03-1.92]) and maternal shift between MMI/CMZ and PTU in early pregnancy (1.82 [1.08-3.07]) were associated with an increased OR of...

  16. Birth Defects: What They Are and How They Happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sickle cell disease and your baby Spina bifida Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases Thalassemia Treatment of amino acid ... Sickle cell disease and your baby Spina bifida Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases Thalassemia Treatment of amino acid ...

  17. Girl with Zika Birth Defect Born At New Jersey Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health officials have said they expect to see Zika infections in Gulf Coast states such as Florida, Louisiana and Texas as mosquito season picks up. Mosquito bites remain the most common source of infection of the Zika virus. But transmission of the virus through sex ...

  18. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  19. Navajo birth outcomes in the Shiprock uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of environmental radiation in the etiology of birth defects, stillbirths, and other adverse outcomes of pregnancy was evaluated for 13,329 Navajos born at the Public Health Service/Indian Health Service Hospital in the Shiprock, NM, uranium mining area (1964-1981). More than 320 kinds of defective congenital conditions were abstracted from hospital records. Using a nested case-control design, families of 266 pairs of index and control births were interviewed. The only statistically significant association between uranium operations and unfavorable birth outcome was identified with the mother living near tailings or mine dumps. Among the fathers who worked in the mines, those of the index cases had histories of more years of work exposure but not necessarily greater gonadal dosage of radiation. Also, birth defects increased significantly when either parent worked in the Shiprock electronics assembly plant. Overall, the associations between adverse pregnancy outcome and exposure to radiation were weak and must be interpreted with caution with respect to implying a biogenetic basis

  20. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  1. Teen Smoking and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    MaryBeth Walker; Erdal Tekin; Sally Wallace

    2007-01-01

    In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimat...

  2. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  3. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  4. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  5. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  6. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  7. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  8. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Marangoni; Alessandra Moroni; Elisabetta Tridapalli; Maria Grazia Capretti; Antonietta D’Antuono; Marina Biagi; Sanzio Ruscello; Franca Savioli; Roberto Cevenini

    2011-01-01

    Congenital syphilis (CS) is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was...

  9. Birth Muse: The Birth Story of Eliza Michelle

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Maria J

    2009-01-01

    The author, a birth doula and Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, agreed to attend the birth of a second child to a mother whose military husband was serving overseas. Because labor seemed to be progressing slowly, they waited at a hotel near the birth center. A very quick labor progression led to a rapid birth in the hotel, with the midwife still on her way. The author shares how learning to trust the power of natural childbirth helped her to remain calm and present for the mother for a on...

  10. 血清学、系统超声及其联合应用在产前三种出生缺陷筛查中的效能比较研究%A comparative study of serological effectiveness,system of ultrasonic and combined screening in prenatal screening of three kinds of ;birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丹琳; 王英兰; 郑静; 熊奕; 霍梅

    2016-01-01

    形,筛查以唐氏综合征、18-三体综合征为主的染色体疾病的有效方法之一。系统超声筛查效能高于单一血清学筛查,联合筛查效能高于单一血清学筛查,以血清学筛查为基础,联合超声筛查,可以提高产前筛查准确率。中孕期系统超声筛查能诊断大部分胎儿结构畸形,降低出生缺陷。同时超声筛查发现的一些结构异常可以提示胎儿染色体异常,中孕期超声筛查对于18-三体有较高的提示作用。%Objective To compare the efficiency of serum screening,ultrasound screening and the combination of both in the screening of chromosomal disorders including Down syndrome and trisomy 18,in order to reduce the incidence of birth defects,as well as to provide a scientific foundation for the effective implementation of prenatal screening. Methods 38 165 singleton pregnancies between 15 and 20 weeksˊgestation who carried out prenatal screening during November 2013 to November 2014 were retrospectively studied. 2 ml of venous blood were used to detect the concentration of freeβ-human chorionic gonadotropin(fHCG),α-fetoprotein(AFP)and /or estriol(uE3). The risk value of Downˊs syn-drome,trisomy 18 syndrome and neural tube defects were caculated by using algorithms,and Pregnancies with high risk of Downˊs syndrome or tri-somy 18 who signed informed consent would underwent karyotypeanalysis. 10 727 cases who performed ultrasound screening between 15 and 28weeksˊgestation were included in the study. Fetuses who were detected with abnormal ultrasound findings were considered screening positive. All utrasonography screening positive women who signed informed would underwent prenatal diagnose. Results There were 1 708 women accepted prenatal diagnose who were Down syndrome and trisomy 18 screen-positive,69 cases with abnormal fetal karyotype were found with the abnormal rate of 4. 0%,among which there were 38 cases with aneuploid,including 25 cases of 21 trisomy

  11. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  12. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  13. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  14. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  15. Left behind by birth month

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  16. Brain birth and personal identity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of brain birth has assumed a position of some significance in discussions on the status of the human embryo and on the point in embryonic development prior to which experimental procedures may be undertaken on human embryos. This paper reviews previous discussions of this concept, which have placed brain birth at various points between 12 days' and 20 weeks' gestation and which have emphasised the symmetry of brain birth and brain death. Major developmental features of brain devel...

  17. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada B. Menasinkai; Mahantappa A. Chiniwar; Saraswathi, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ul...

  18. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  19. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  20. Methods for surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome: The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II (FASSNetII) - Arizona, Colorado, New York, 2009 - 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Leslie A; Ortiz, Linnette; Montgomery, April; Fox, Deborah J; Cunniff, Christopher; Ruttenber, Margaret; Breen, April; Pettygrove, Sydney; Klumb, Don; Druschel, Charlotte; Frías, Jaime L; Robinson, Luther K; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Ferrara, Kelly; Kelly, Maureen; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney, F John

    2015-03-01

    Surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is important for monitoring the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and describing the public health burden of this preventable disorder. Building on the infrastructure of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet, 1997-2002), in 2009 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded 5-year cooperative agreements to three states, Arizona, Colorado, and New York, to conduct population-based surveillance of FAS. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II (FASSNetII, 2009-2014) developed a surveillance case definition based on three clinical criteria: characteristic facial features, central nervous system abnormalities, and growth deficiency. FASSNetII modified the FASSNet methods in three important ways: (1) estimation of a period prevalence rather than birth prevalence; (2) surveillance of FAS among school-age children (ages 7-9 years) to better document the central nervous system abnormalities that are not apparent at birth or during infancy; and (3) implementation of an expert clinical review of abstracted data for probable and confirmed cases classified through a computerized algorithm. FASSNetII abstracted data from multiple sources including birth records, medical records from child development centers or other specialty clinics, and administrative databases such as hospital discharge and Medicaid. One challenge of FASSNetII was its limited access to non-medical records. The FAS prevalence that could be estimated was that of the population identified through an encounter with the healthcare system. Clinical and public health programs that identify children affected by FAS provide critical information for targeting preventive, medical and educational services in this vulnerable population. PMID:25761572

  1. Self-Surveillance Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jerry; Shilton, Katie; Estrin, D; Burke, Jeffrey A; Hansen, Mark,

    2011-01-01

    It has become cliché to observe that new information technologies endanger privacy. Typically, the threat is viewed as coming from Big Brother (the government) or Company Man (the firm). But for a nascent data practice we call “self-surveillance,” the threat may actually come from ourselves. Using various existing and emerging technologies, such as GPS-enabled smartphones, we are beginning to measure ourselves in granular detail – how long we sleep, where we drive, what we breathe, what w...

  2. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  3. Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Jeyamani

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dreaded complication of cirrhosis as it is the commonest cause of mortality in these patients. The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement in the management of this tumor as nearly 50–70% of selected patients with early HCC survive for a median period of up to 5 years after liver transplantation, resection or local ablation. Surveillance has been found to be an effective tool to detect early tumors and expand the applicability of these curative trea...

  4. Loss-of-Function Mutations in Growth Differentiation Factor-1 (GDF1) Are Associated with Congenital Heart Defects in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Karkera, J. D. ; Lee, J. S. ; Roessler, E. ; Banerjee-Basu, S. ; Ouspenskaia, M. V. ; Mez, J. ; Goldmuntz, E. ; Bowers, P. ; Towbin, J. ; Belmont, J. W. ; Baxevanis, A. D. ; Schier, A. F. ; Muenke, M. 

    2007-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans (incidence 8–10 per 1,000 live births). Although their etiology is often poorly understood, most are considered to arise from multifactorial influences, including environmental and genetic components, as well as from less common syndromic forms. We hypothesized that disturbances in left-right patterning could contribute to the pathogenesis of selected cardiac defects by interfering with the extrinsic cues leadin...

  5. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  6. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  7. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using…

  8. Prevalence of congenital heart defects associated with Down syndrome in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-A; Lee, You Sun; Yee, Nan Hee; Choi, Jeong Soo; Choi, Jung Yun; Seo, Kyung

    2014-11-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is common in infants with Down syndrome (DS), which is the principle cause of mortality. However, there is no data available for the frequency and types of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. We investigated the frequency of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was conducted throughout the country, the prevalence of CHD in DS in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was conducted based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of total births in Korea was 888,263 in 2005-2006; of them, 25,975 cases of birth defects were identified. The prevalence of DS was 4.4 per 10,000 total births, accounting for 1.5% of all birth defects. Of the 394 infants with DS, 224 (56.9%) had a CHD. Atrial septal defect was the most common defect accounting for 30.5% of DS followed by ventricular septal defect (19.3%), patent duct arteriosus (17.5%), and atrioventricular septal defect (9.4%). Our study will be helpful to demonstrate the current status of DS and to identify the distribution of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. PMID:25408587

  9. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-14

    Multiple reports of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the UKFirst cases of dourine in Botswana and equine infectious anaemia in GreeceSummary of UK surveillance testing, October to December 2015These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27179087

  10. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    National and international disease outbreaksAfrican horse sickness in South AfricaRising EHV-1 abortion cases in the UKSummary of surveillance testing, January to March 2016 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27474057

  11. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  12. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  13. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  14. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  15. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes among Women with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Wyszynski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine pregnancy and birth outcomes among women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP or chronic ITP (cITP diagnosed before or during pregnancy. Methods. A linkage of mothers and babies within a large US health insurance database that combines enrollment data, pharmacy claims, and medical claims was carried out to identify pregnancies in women with ITP or cITP. Outcomes included preterm birth, elective and spontaneous loss, and major congenital anomalies. Results. Results suggest that women diagnosed with ITP or cITP prior to their estimated date of conception may be at higher risk for stillbirth, fetal loss, and premature delivery. Among 446 pregnancies in women with ITP, 346 resulted in live births. Women with cITP experienced more adverse outcomes than those with a pregnancy-related diagnosis of ITP. Although 7.8% of all live births had major congenital anomalies, the majority were isolated heart defects. Among deliveries in women with cITP, 15.2% of live births were preterm. Conclusions. The results of this study provide further evidence that cause and duration of maternal ITP are important determinants of the outcomes of pregnancy.

  16. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  17. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked...... technologies can be found across many domains, including culture, food, learning, work and general living. Individuals use tools and techniques to track themselves, thereby translating their own habits, bodies, moods, and thoughts into objects to scrutinize and transform. In addition, self-tracking is often...... coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...

  18. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  19. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > ... Before Birth Print A A A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  1. Risk Factors for Birth Defects:A Conditional Logistic Regression Analysis of a Case-Control Study in Guang-dong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志瑾; 穆荔

    1999-01-01

    In order to study risk factors and their association with birth defects,data were collected from 329 cases and 329 controls in 38 hospitals in Guangdong Province of China in 1988.Information was obtained from the same questionnaire(23 risk factors listed)of cases and controls.We used a multivariate logistic model,which described variables significantly increased risk of birth defects.The risk factors included maternal educa-tional levels,medicine taken during pregnancy and antenatal care.It was suggested to strengthen antenatal care was the main preventive measure against birth defects.

  2. Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Fletcher, Erin K

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. Methods A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. Results In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant. PMID:26515472

  3. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo Leal Maria; da Silva Antônio Augusto; Dias Marcos Augusto; da Gama Silvana Granado; Rattner Daphne; Moreira Maria; Filha Mariza Miranda; Domingues RosaMariaSoaresMadeira; Pereira Ana Paula; Torres Jacqueline; Bittencourt Sonia Duarte; D’orsi Eleonora; Cunha Antonio JLA; Leite Alvaro Jorge; Cavalcante Rejane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods ...

  4. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  5. Birth Order and Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1973-01-01

    Investigated birth order differences and the vocational interests of 150 male college students, making use of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Sibling sex and interaction effects were also investigated. (DP)

  6. Birth and death of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars is summarized, giving emphasis to the phenomena related with their formation (birth) and their late stages (death). We also remark the basic physical concepts that regulate stellar evolution

  7. Research Summaries for Normal Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Amy M.; Goer, Henci

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the authors summarize four research studies relevant to normal birth. Topics of the studies summarized include the harms of screening for macrosomia late in pregnancy, the risk factors for and impact of postpartum pain in childbearing women, the effects of a breastfeeding approach called “biological nurturing” on reflexive behavior in newborns, and the effects of prenatal yoga on labor and birth outcomes.

  8. Cerebral palsy and multiple births.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P. O.; Cooke, T

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins, and 44.8 in triplets. The prevalence of cerebral palsy rose with decreasing birthweight. The birthweight sp...

  9. Birth in an Ordinary Instant

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Our daily lives are a series of ordinary moments and unnoticed thresholds—times that define us in ways we often do not give much attention. While we consider childbirth to be one of life's extra-ordinary events, the hours of labor and birth need not be dramatic (or traumatic) ones. I describe a quiet, well-supported birth in the Netherlands that is cause for celebration of the beauty of an ordinary instant that can define and enrich the human experience.

  10. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  11. Turning the Tide for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the escalating cesarean surgery rate and the need for evidence-based practice changes that support vaginal birth after cesarean. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth practices.

  12. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  13. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  14. Zika Virus Surveillance and Preparedness - New York City, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher T; Vora, Neil M; Bajwa, Waheed; Boyd, Lorraine; Harper, Scott; Kass, Daniel; Langston, Aileen; McGibbon, Emily; Merlino, Mario; Rakeman, Jennifer L; Raphael, Marisa; Slavinski, Sally; Tran, Anthony; Wong, Ricky; Varma, Jay K

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus has rapidly spread through the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas since being identified in Brazil in early 2015. Transmitted primarily through the bite of infected Aedes species mosquitoes, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and birth defects, including microcephaly (1,2). New York City (NYC) is home to a large number of persons who travel frequently to areas with active Zika virus transmission, including immigrants from these areas. In November 2015, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) began developing and implementing plans for managing Zika virus and on February 1, 2016, activated its Incident Command System. During January 1-June 17, 2016, DOHMH coordinated diagnostic laboratory testing for 3,605 persons with travel-associated exposure, 182 (5.0%) of whom had confirmed Zika virus infection. Twenty (11.0%) confirmed patients were pregnant at the time of diagnosis. In addition, two cases of Zika virus-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome were diagnosed. DOHMH's response has focused on 1) identifying and diagnosing suspected cases; 2) educating the public and medical providers about Zika virus risks, transmission, and prevention strategies, particularly in areas with large populations of immigrants from areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission; 3) monitoring pregnant women with Zika virus infection and their fetuses and infants; 4) detecting local mosquito-borne transmission through both human and mosquito surveillance; and 5) modifying existing Culex mosquito control measures by targeting Aedes species of mosquitoes through the use of larvicides and adulticides. PMID:27337505

  15. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  16. Total process surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the current operating behaviour of a process or power plant is the key to maximizing the efficiency and safety of operation and the quality of the product. Early detection of plant component or sensor degradation and failure improves operating safety, product quality and plant availability. This paper describes the design and development of a Total Process Surveillance system which assimilates all the sensor information available on a plant to provide the operators with a succinct report on the status of the plant behaviour. The heart of the system is a robust model-based observer which can estimate internal plant states, and provides a residual signal with powerful fault detection and isolation features. Several results are presented which illustrate the performance of the system in detecting and isolating multiple fault scenarios in a fast reactor plant. A structure for the practical implementation of the system is described, and comments are given on its contribution to the final experimental work planned for AEA Technology's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). (Author)

  17. 78 FR 49758 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... birth defect ] surveillance registries (including MACDP) to identify cases and study birth defects... technology. Written comments should be received within 60 days of this notice. Proposed Project Birth Defects Study To Evaluate Pregnancy exposureS (BD-STEPS) (formerly titled The National Birth Defects...

  18. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay Victoria C; Smith Rachel A; Findeis Jill L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimi...

  19. The Effectiveness of IMF Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Biagio Bossone

    2008-01-01

    IMF surveillance of the international monetary and financial system is a global public good. Its effectiveness depends critically on the dynamics that underpin the mechanisms governing the IMF and global finance. These dynamics, in turn, reflect the interests and power of influence of countries (especially the largest), their cooperative attitude and international relations. Assessing the effectiveness of IMF surveillance, therefore, demands a clear understanding of the IMF and global financi...

  20. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.