WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth defects registries

  1. Under-reporting of major birth defects in Northwest Russia: a registry-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Anton A.; Brenn, Tormod; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Nieboer, Evert; Krettek, Alexandra; Anda, Erik Eik

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective was to assess the prevalence of selected major birth defects, based on data from two medical registries in Murmansk County, and compare the observed rates with those available for Norway and Arkhangelsk County, Northwest Russia. It included all newborns (≥22 completed weeks of gestation) registered in the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) and born between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009 (n=35,417). The infants were followed-up post-partum for 2 years through direct linkage to the Murmansk Regional Congenital Defects Registry (MRCDR). Birth defects identified and confirmed in both registries constituted the “cases” and corresponded to one or more of the 21 birth defect types reportable to health authorities in Moscow. The overall prevalence of major birth defects recorded in the MRCDR was 50/10,000 before linkage and 77/10,000 after linkage with the MCBR. Routine under-reporting to the MRCDR of 40% cases was evident. This study demonstrates that birth registry data improved case ascertainment and official prevalence assessments and reduced the potential of under-reporting by physicians. The direct linkage of the two registries revealed that hypospadias cases were the most prevalent among the major birth defects in Murmansk County. A bbreviations: ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision; MCBR, Murmansk County Birth Registry; MRCDR, Murmansk Regional Congenital Defects Registry; MGC, Murmansk Genetics Center PMID:28853333

  2. Follow-up studies of children with birth defects in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolv T. Lie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In two studies published from data in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we described the survival, tendency to reproduce and subsequent recurrence of birth defects in offspring for children with a range of categories of birth defects. The studies were done separately for girls and boys. The current review summarizes data from these reports and makes some comparisons between boys and girls. More boys than girls are born with birth defects. The survival and tendency to reproduce showed great variation from milder to more serious types of defects, and this pattern was relatively consistent for boys and girls. The recurrence of birth defects in the offspring was almost entirely for a similar type of birth defect. For boys with birth defects, however, there was also a tendency to have offspring with other types of birth defects. A total of 0.5% of birth defects in the next generation was attributable to mothers who themselves had birth defects. For fathers with birth defects this number was higher (1.6% both because more boys were born with birth defects in the previous generation, but also because fathers pass on more birth defects to the next generation

  3. Analytic Methods for Evaluating Patterns of Multiple Congenital Anomalies in Birth Defect Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Evans, Jane A; Lupo, Philip J

    2018-01-15

    It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs. This article reviews the literature with regard to analytic methods that have been used to evaluate patterns of MCAs, in particular those using birth defect registry data. A popular method for MCA assessment involves a comparison of the observed to expected ratio for a given combination of MCAs, or one of several modified versions of this comparison. Other methods include use of numerical taxonomy or other clustering techniques, multiple regression analysis, and log-linear analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, as well as specific applications, were outlined. Despite the availability of multiple analytic approaches, relatively few MCA combinations have been assessed. The availability of large birth defects registries and computing resources that allow for automated, big data strategies for prioritizing MCA patterns may provide for new avenues for better understanding co-occurrence of birth defects. Thus, the selection of an analytic approach may depend on several considerations. Birth Defects Research 110:5-11, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  5. Strategies to achieve sustainability and quality in birth defects registries: the experience of the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Boris; Bidondo, Maria Paz; Gili, Juan Antonio; Barbero, Pablo; Liascovich, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    In many low-and middle-income countries, birth defects are not considered a public health priority and are perceived by the medical community as rare, unpreventable events. In this context, a registry of birth defects should address not only the collection, analysis, and dissemination of information but also contribute to local interventions like prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. We describe the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC) in terms of case definition, data collection, quality assurance, and data sending, coding, analysis, and information dissemination and we present the strategies used to ensure its sustainability. We emphasize strategies for motivating the people collecting data, such as training activities, participation in research projects, returning the processed data, making useful clinical information available, giving non-monetary rewards, and linking cases to genetic services.

  6. Should aggregate US Census data be used as a proxy for individual household income in a birth defects registry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Lisa; Ramadhani, Tunu; Farag, Noha H; Canfield, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Birth Defects Registries do not have access to income data and low household income is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes of stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth defects. We compared 1999 income data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with 2000 Census block group income data for the residence location of these same mothers. We geocoded 339 case mothers and 121 control mothers and assessed household income among case and control mothers by using NBDPS and census block group data. Correlation and concordance were assessed between the 2 data sources' household income data. The household income distribution was similar between case and control mothers within each data source. Both case and control mothers in the NBDPS's lowest household income category (income than was documented in their census block group's median household income (p-valueincome data (control mothers, rs=0.53; case mothers, rs=0.32). There was also poor to fair concordance between the 2 data sources (control mothers, kw=0.28; 95% CI=0.19-0.37 and case mothers, kw=0.18; 95% CI=0.13-0.24). These findings demonstrate dissimilar household incomes between NBDPS and census block group data. Caution should be used if block-level data is used as a proxy for individual-level household incomes in population-based birth defects surveillance and research.

  7. Organizing population data into complex family pedigrees: application of a second-order data linkage to state birth defects registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shihfen; Mason, Craig A

    2004-09-01

    Researchers and health officials are increasingly using electronic linkage of large-scale health data systems as a tool for assembling a comprehensive picture of birth defects at a population level. Current linkage and database techniques are limited to first-order linkage--linking information on a single individual in one database with information on that same individual in another database. For example, while current strategies may indicate whether a child with a certain birth defect also has a specific metabolic disorder or risk factor, they are unable to readily determine whether he or she also has any siblings or other relatives with the same pattern. In contrast, the current manuscript proposes a second-order linkage--one that organizes data so that individual-level data can readily be organized into families or extended family pedigrees across an entire population. The ability to link and organize population data into family pedigrees can have significant, broad impact upon health research and service delivery. This can lead to large-scale analysis of genetic factors and, with the linking of environmental data, the potential for large-scale studies of gene-environment interactions. In addition, it expands the potential for epidemiological research by readily allowing the examination of familial effects upon population rates of birth defects, and provides valuable information that can assist in applied public health. An example of a second order database incorporating an electronic birth defects registry is presented. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  9. A population-based analysis of mortality in patients with Turner syndrome and hypoplastic left heart syndrome using the Texas Birth Defects Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diego A; Ethen, Mary K; Canfield, Mark A; Nembhard, Wendy N; Morris, Shaine A

    2017-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is strongly associated with Turner syndrome (TS); outcome data when these conditions coexist is sparse. We aimed to investigate long-term survival and causes of death in this population. The Texas Birth Defects Registry was queried for all live born infants with HLHS during 1999-2007. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses to compare survival among patients with HLHS with TS (HLHS/TS+) to patients who had HLHS without genetic disorders or extracardiac birth defects (HLHS/TS-). Of the 542 patients with HLHS, 11 had TS (2.0%), 71 had other extracardiac birth defects or genetic disorders, and 463 had neither. The median follow-up time was 4.2 y (interquartile range [IQR] 2.1-6.5). Comparing those with HLHS/TS+ to HLHS/TS-, 100% versus 35% were female (P < .001), and median birth weight was 2140 g (IQR 1809-2650) versus 3196 g (IQR 2807-3540, P < .001). Neonatal mortality was 36% in HLHS/TS+ versus 27% in HLHS/TS- (log rank = 0.431). Ten of the 11 TS+ patients died during the study period for cumulative mortality of 91% versus 50% (hazard ratio (HR) for TS+: 2.90, 95% CI 1.53-5.48). Six patients died prior to surgery, 5 underwent Stage 1 palliation (S1P), 3 died after S1P, 2 survived past S2P, and one of these died at age 19 mo. The underlying cause of death was listed as congenital heart disease on all the death certificates of HLHS/TS+ patients. In multivariable analysis controlling for low birth weight (<2500 g), TS remained associated with significantly increased cumulative mortality, although females without TS had higher mortality than males (HR for TS+ versus males: 2.42, 95% CI 1.24-4.73; HR for TS- females versus males: 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.83). TS with HLHS is associated with significant mortality. The increased mortality in females without documented TS calls to question if TS is undetected in a portion of females with HLHS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Wilcox

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addressing a broad range of questions in perinatal epidemiology. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway has been a pioneer in answering such questions.

  11. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Wilcox

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addressing a broad range of questions in perinatal epidemiology. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway has been a pioneer in answering such questions

  12. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  13. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  14. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...

  15. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  16. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental public health tracking is the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data on environmental ... 2016) Key Findings: Gastroschisis – a Serious Birth Defect – Continues to Increase New CDC research shows that the ...

  17. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Quality of reporting on birth defects in birth certificates: case study from a Brazilian reference hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquetti, Daniela Varela; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the coverage, validity and reliability of Brazil's Information System on Live Births (SINASC) for birth defects in a hospital in the city of Campinas (São Paulo State). The study population consisted of 2,823 newborn infants delivered in 2004 at the Women's Integrated Health Care Center (CAISM). A birth defect registry (ECLAMC) was used as the gold-standard. All birth defect cases reported at CAISM in 2004 (92 cases) were selected from SINASC data files. All 168 birth defect cases from the same city and year registered at ECLAMC were also retrieved. An underreporting of 46.8% was observed for all birth defects, and 36.4% when considering only the major birth defects. The ascertained sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 54.2% and 99.8%. The reliability of three and four-digit ICD-10 coding for birth defects was 0.77 and 0.55 respectively (kappa statistic). These results suggest that information provided by birth certificates in Campinas still presents limitations when seeking to ascertain accurate estimates of the prevalence of birth defects, hence indicating the need for improvements in the SINASC database to enable it to portray birth defect prevalence at birth in this city.

  19. Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry: Annual Report on Birth Defects Among Infants Born to U.S. Military Families, January 1, 2000 Through December 31, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    atresia, stenosis 746.1 Tricuspid valve atresia, stenosis 746.2 Ebstein’s anomaly 746.3 Aortic valve stenosis 746.7 Hypoplastic...International Classification of Diseases , 9th 4 Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) system.10 The Standard Ambulatory Data Record system...Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the National Birth Defects Prevention Network; and the Henry M

  20. Fluoxetine and infantile hypertrophic pylorus stenosis : a signal from a birth defects drug exposure surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    Purpose We report an association found in a surveillance study which systematically evaluated combinations of specific birth defects and drugs used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Method The database of a population-based birth defects registry (birth years 1997-2007) was systematically

  1. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan R.; Jones, Abbey M.; Petersen, Emily E.; Lee, Ellen H.; Rice, Marion E.; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R.; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M.; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer; Gould, Carolyn; Fine, Anne D.; Polen, Kara D.; Lake-Burger, Heather; Hillard, Christina L.; Hall, Noemi; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Slaughter, Karnesha; Sommer, Jamie N.; Adamski, Alys; Raycraft, Meghan; Fleck-Derderian, Shannon; Gupta, Jyoti; Newsome, Kimberly; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.; Petersen, Lyle; Boyle, Coleen; Jamieson, Denise J.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Adair, Jennifer; Ruberto, Irene; Haselow, Dirk T.; Im, Lucille; Jilek, Wendy; Lehmann, Monica S.; Olney, Richard; Porse, Charsey Cole; Ramstrom, Karen C.; Sowunmi, Similoluwa; Marzec, Natalie S.; Davis, Karin; Esponda-Morrison, Brenda; Fraser, M. Zachariah; O'Connor, Colleen Ann; Chung, Wendy; Richardson, Folasuyi; Sexton, Taylor; Stocks, Meredith E.; Woldai, Senait; Bundek, Amanda M.; Zambri, Jennifer; Goldberg, Cynthia; Eisenstein, Leah; Jackson, Jennifer; Kopit, Russell; Logue, Teresa; Mendoza, Raphael; Feldpausch, Amanda; Graham, Teri; Mann, Sylvia; Park, Sarah Y.; Carter, Kris Kelly; Potts, Emily J.; Stevens, Taryn; Simonson, Sean; Tonzel, Julius L.; Davis, Shari; Robinson, Sara; Hyun, Judie K.; Jenkins, Erin M.; Piccardi, Monika; Reid, Lawrence D.; Dunn, Julie E.; Higgins, Cathleen A.; Lin, Angela E.; Munshi, Gerlinde S.; Sandhu, Kayleigh; Scotland, Sarah J.; Soliva, Susan; Copeland, Glenn; Signs, Kimberly A.; Schiffman, Elizabeth; Byers, Paul; Hand, Sheryl; Mulgrew, Christine L.; Hamik, Jeff; Koirala, Samir; Ludwig, Lisa A.; Fredette, Carolyn Rose; Garafalo, Kristin; Worthington, Karen; Ropri, Abubakar; Ade, Julius Nchangtachi; Alaali, Zahra S.; Blog, Debra; Brunt, Scott J.; Bryant, Patrick; Burns, Amy E.; Bush, Steven; Carson, Kyle; Dean, Amy B.; Demarest, Valerie; Dufort, Elizabeth M.; Dupuis II, Alan P.; Sullivan-Frohm, Ann; Furuya, Andrea Marias; Fuschino, Meghan; Glaze, Viola H.; Griffin, Jacquelin; Hidalgo, Christina; Kulas, Karen E.; Lamson, Daryl M.; Lance, Lou Ann; Lee, William T.; Limberger, Ronald; Many, Patricia S.; Marchewka, Mary J.; Naizby, Brenda Elizabeth; Polfleit, MaryJo; Popowich, Michael; Rahman, Tabassum; Rem, Timothy; Robbins, Amy E.; Rowlands, Jemma V.; Seaver, Chantelle; Seward, Kimberley A.; Smith, Lou; Sohi, Inderbir; St. George, Kirsten; Souto, Maria I.; Wester, Rachel Elizabeth; Wong, Susan J.; Zeng, Li; Ackelsberg, Joel; Alex, Byron; Ballen, Vennus; Baumgartner, Jennifer; Bloch, Danielle; Clark, Sandhya; Conners, Erin; Cooper, Hannah; Davidson, Alexander; Dentinger, Catherine; Deocharan, Bisram; DeVito, Andrea; Fu, Jie; Hrusa, Gili; Iqbal, Maryam; Iwamoto, Martha; Jones, Lucretia; Kubinson, Hannah; Lash, Maura; Layton, Marcelle; Lee, Christopher T.; Liu, Dakai; McGibbon, Emily; Moy, Morgan; Ngai, Stephanie; Parton, Hilary B.; Peterson, Eric; Poy, Jose; Rakeman, Jennifer; Stoute, Alaina; Thompson, Corinne; Weiss, Don; Westheimer, Emily; Winters, Ann; Younis, Mohammad; Chan, Ronna L.; Cronquist, Laura Jean; Caton, Lisa; Lind, Leah; Nalluswami, Kumar; Perella, Dana; Brady, Diane S.; Gosciminski, Michael; McAuley, Patricia; Drociuk, Daniel; Leedom, Vinita; Witrick, Brian; Bollock, Jan; Hartel, Marie Bottomley; Lucinski, Loraine Swanson; McDonald, Morgan; Miller, Angela M.; Ponson, Tori Armand; Price, Laura; Nance, Amy E.; Peterson, Dallin; Cook, Sally; Martin, Brennan; Oltean, Hanna; Neary, Jillian; Baker, Melissa A.; Cummons, Kathy; Bryan, Katie; Arnold, Kathryn E.; Arth, Annelise C.; Bollweg, Brigid C.; Cragan, Janet D.; Dawson, April L.; Denison, Amy M.; Dziuban, Eric J.; Estetter, Lindsey; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Free, Rebecca J.; Galang, Romeo R.; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Green, Caitlin; Hale, Gillian L.; Hayes, Heather M.; Igbinosa, Irogue; Keating, M. Kelly; Khan, Sumaiya; Kim, Shin Y.; Lampe, Margaret; Lewis, Amanda; Mai, Cara; Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Miers, Brooke; Moore, Jazmyn; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Nahabedian, John; Panella, Amanda; Parihar, Vaunita; Patel, Mitesh M.; Rabeneck, D. Brett; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Ritter, Jana M.; Rollin, Dominique C.; Sanders, Jeanine H.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Simeone, Regina M.; Simon, Elizabeth L.; Sims, John R.; Spivey, Pamela J.; Talley-McRae, Helen; Tshiwala, Alphonse K.; VanMaldeghem, Kelley; Viens, Laura; Wainscott-Sargent, Anne; Williams, Tonya; Zaki, Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Background In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. Methods This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016. Birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy include brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly, eye abnormalities, other consequences of central nervous system dysfunction, and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations. Results During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 states were reported to the USZPR. Zika virus–associated birth defects were reported for 51 (5%) of the 972 fetuses/infants from completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4%–7%); the proportion was higher when restricted to pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection (24/250 completed pregnancies [10%, 95% CI = 7%–14%]). Birth defects were reported in 15% (95% CI = 8%–26%) of fetuses/infants of completed pregnancies with confirmed Zika virus infection in the first trimester. Among 895 liveborn infants from pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection, postnatal neuroimaging was reported for 221 (25%), and Zika virus testing of at least one infant specimen was reported for 585 (65%). Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice These findings highlight why pregnant women should avoid Zika virus exposure. Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory

  2. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus-Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure - U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan R; Jones, Abbey M; Petersen, Emily E; Lee, Ellen H; Rice, Marion E; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer; Gould, Carolyn; Fine, Anne D; Polen, Kara D; Lake-Burger, Heather; Hillard, Christina L; Hall, Noemi; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Slaughter, Karnesha; Sommer, Jamie N; Adamski, Alys; Raycraft, Meghan; Fleck-Derderian, Shannon; Gupta, Jyoti; Newsome, Kimberly; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L; Moore, Cynthia A; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Petersen, Lyle; Boyle, Coleen; Jamieson, Denise J; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-04-07

    In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016. Birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy include brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly, eye abnormalities, other consequences of central nervous system dysfunction, and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations. During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 states were reported to the USZPR. Zika virus-associated birth defects were reported for 51 (5%) of the 972 fetuses/infants from completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4%-7%); the proportion was higher when restricted to pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection (24/250 completed pregnancies [10%, 95% CI = 7%-14%]). Birth defects were reported in 15% (95% CI = 8%-26%) of fetuses/infants of completed pregnancies with confirmed Zika virus infection in the first trimester. Among 895 liveborn infants from pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection, postnatal neuroimaging was reported for 221 (25%), and Zika virus testing of at least one infant specimen was reported for 585 (65%). These findings highlight why pregnant women should avoid Zika virus exposure. Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection during pregnancy should receive postnatal

  3. RESIDENTIAL RADON AND BIRTH DEFECTS: A POPULATION-BASED ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter H; Lee, MinJae; Lupo, Philip J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cortez, Ruben K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Associations have been reported between maternal radiation exposure and birth defects. No such studies were found on radon. Our objective was to determine if there is an association between living in areas with higher radon levels and birth defects. METHODS The Texas Birth Defects Registry provided data on all birth defects from 1999–2009 from the entire state. Mean radon levels by geologic region came from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey. The association between radon and birth defects was estimated using multilevel mixed effect Poisson regression. RESULTS Birth defects overall were not associated with residential radon levels. Of the 100 other birth defect groups with at least 500 cases, 14 were significantly elevated in areas with high mean radon level in crude analyses, and 9 after adjustment for confounders. Cleft lip with/without cleft palate had an adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of 1.16 per 1 picoCurie/liter (pCi/l) increase in exposure to region mean radon, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.26. Cystic hygroma / lymphangioma had an aPR of 1.22 per 1 pCi/l increase, 95% CI 1.02, 1.46. Other associations were suggested but not as consistent: three skeletal defects, Down syndrome, other specified anomalies of the brain, and other specified anomalies of the bladder and urethra. CONCLUSIONS In the first study of residential radon and birth defects, we found associations with cleft lip w/wo cleft palate and cystic hygroma / lymphangioma. Other associations were suggested. The ecological nature of this study and multiple comparisons suggest that our results be interpreted with caution. PMID:25846606

  4. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  5. Fluoxetine and infantile hypertrophic pylorus stenosis : A signal from a birth defects - Drug exposure surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Marian K.; De Walle, Hermien E.K.; Wilffert, Bob; De Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T.W.

    Background: One of the objectives of a birth defects registry is to detect possible new teratogens at an early stage. A surveillance study in which combinations of specific birth defects and drugs used in the first trimester of pregnancy are systematically evaluated is one of the methods to identify

  6. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  7. Birth defects and genetic disorders among Arab Americans--Michigan, 1992-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Copeland, Glenn; Olney, Richard S

    2010-06-01

    Birth defects and genetic disorders are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in many countries. Population-based data on birth defects among Arab-American children have not been documented previously. Michigan has the second largest Arab-American community in the United States after California. Using data from the Michigan Birth Defects Registry (MBDR), which includes information on parents' country of birth and ancestry, birth prevalences were estimated in offspring of Michigan women of Arab ancestry for 21 major categories of birth defects and 12 congenital endocrine, metabolic, and hereditary disorders. Compared with other non-Hispanic white children in Michigan, Arab-American children had similar or lower birth prevalences of the selected types of structural birth defects, with higher rates of certain hereditary blood disorders and three categories of metabolic disorders. These estimates are important for planning preconception and antenatal health care, genetic counseling, and clinical care for Arab Americans.

  8. Limb defects associated with major congenital anomalies : Clinical and epidemiological study from the international clearinghouse for birth defects monitoring systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosano, A; Botto, LD; Olney, RS; Khoury, MJ; Ritvanen, A; Goujard, J; Stoll, C; Cocchi, G; Merlob, P; Mutchinick, O; Cornel, MC; Castilla, EE; Martinez-Frias, ML; Zampino, G; Erickson, JD; Mastroiacovo, P

    2000-01-01

    Although limb defects associated with other congenital anomalies are rarely studied, they may provide insights into limb development that may be useful for etiologic studies and public health monitoring, me pooled data from II birth defect registries that are part of the International Clearinghouse

  9. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  10. Acardia : Epidemiologic Findings and Literature Review From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Carey, John C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Halliday, Jane; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Luna Munoz, Leonora; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2011-01-01

    Acardia is a severe, complex malformation of monozygotic twinning, but beyond clinical case series, very few epidemiologic data are available. The goals of this study were to assess the epidemiologic characteristics of acardia from birth defect registries in the International Clearinghouse for Birth

  11. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print How do health care providers diagnose birth defects? Diagnosis of birth defects depends on the specific problem and parts ... a physical examination of the baby immediately after birth. For other conditions, newborn screening or prenatal testing ...

  12. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal autoimmune disease and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Meredith M; Browne, Marilyn L; Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Richardson, Sandra D; Blossom, Sarah J; Broussard, Cheryl S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the association between maternal autoimmune disease or its treatment and the risk of birth defects. We examined these associations using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Analyses included 25,116 case and 9897 unaffected control infants with estimated delivery dates between 1997 and 2009. Information on autoimmune disease, medication use, and other pregnancy exposures was collected by means of telephone interview. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for birth defects with five or more exposed cases; crude ORs and exact 95% CIs were estimated for birth defects with three to four exposed cases. Autoimmune disease was reported by 373 mothers (279 case and 94 control mothers). The majority of birth defects evaluated were not associated with autoimmune disease; however, a statistically significant association between maternal autoimmune disease and encephalocele was observed (OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.95-11.04). Eighty-two mothers with autoimmune disease used an immune modifying/suppressing medication during pregnancy; this was associated with encephalocele (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.37-24.61) and atrial septal defects (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.16-7.80). Our findings suggest maternal autoimmune disease and treatment are not associated with the majority of birth defects, but may be associated with some defects, particularly encephalocele. Given the low prevalence of individual autoimmune diseases and the rare use of specific medications, we were unable to examine associations of specific autoimmune diseases and medications with birth defects. Other studies are needed to confirm these findings. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:950-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Are Children Born with Birth Defects at Increased Risk of Injuries in Early Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Rachel E; Salemi, Jason L; Tanner, Jean Paul; Anjohrin, Suzanne; Cavicchia, Philip; Lake-Burger, Heather; Kirby, Russell S

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the extent to which children with birth defects experience differential likelihood of various injuries and injury-related hospitalizations in early childhood. The Florida Birth Defects Registry was used to identify infants born 2006-2010 with select birth defects. Injury matrices were used to detect injuries in inpatient, ambulatory, and emergency department admissions for each infant up to their third birthday. χ 2 tests were used to compare sociodemographic and perinatal characteristics of children, by presence of an injury-related hospital admission. Adjusted multivariable logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to investigate birth defect and injury associations and related hospital use. We observed a 21% (99% CI: 1.16-1.27) increased odds of injury in children with birth defects. All birth defect subgroups had a statistically significantly increased odds of injury (excluding chromosomal defects), with adjusted ORs ranging from 1.19 to 1.40. The combination of birth defects and injuries resulted in 40% (99% CI: 1.36-1.44) more frequent injury-related hospital visits and a 3-fold (99% CI: 2.76-2.96) increase in time spent receiving inpatient medical care. Over 30% of children with critical congenital heart defects had an injury-related hospital admission. Children born with specific birth defects are at increased likelihood of various injuries during early life. Although the magnitude of this increased likelihood varied by the mechanism by which the injury occurred, the location of the injury, and the type of birth defect, our study findings support a direct association between birth defects and injuries in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth

  16. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  17. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs.

  18. Neural Tube Defects in Costa Rica, 1987–2012: Origins and Development of Birth Defect Surveillance and Folic Acid Fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz Barboza-Argüello, María; Umaña-Solís, Lila M.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L.; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica—through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas—CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987–2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992–1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987–1991; 1996–1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999–2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003–2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1–10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3–5.3) for the post–fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P Costa Rica. Costa Rica’s experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs. PMID:24952876

  19. Data available from birth and death registries and cancer registries in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, B.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Chicago Medical School, IL (United States); Houser, A.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences

    1994-01-01

    In the United States, cancer registries have been compiling data for decades, and state vital statistics offices have been compiling birth and death data for nearly a century. Although this information has been well used for disease surveillance and various studies, it could be better exploited by making it more readily available, reducing the duplication of effort that occurs when researchers at the private, city, county, state, and federal levels work separately on their data collection and disease investigations. This report summarizes the nationwide availability of birth and death records and cancer registry data, with particular emphasis on subcounty geographic detail, such as zip code and census tract. Birth and death data are available at the county level for the entire United States from the National Center for Health Statistics. However, county level data are inadequate for small area studies of potential environmental hazards. Hazards of current interest to the Department of Energy (DOE) include DOE facilities, nuclear power plants, and sources of electromagnetic radiation such as broadcasting towers and power lines.

  20. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-17

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  1. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Birth Defects: Effects of Subfertility and Multiple Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Rebecca F; Getz, Kelly D; Heinke, Dominique; Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Declercq, Eugene R; Chen, Xiaoli; Lin, Angela E; Anderka, Marlene

    2017-08-15

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with birth defects, but the contributions of multiple births and underlying subfertility remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of subfertility and mediation by multiple births on associations between ART and nonchromosomal birth defects. We identified a retrospective cohort of Massachusetts live births and stillbirths from 2004 to 2010 among ART-exposed, ART-unexposed subfertile, and fertile mothers using linked information from fertility clinics, vital records, hospital discharges, and birth defects surveillance. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mediation analyses were performed to deconstruct the ART-birth defects association into the direct effect of ART, the indirect effect of multiple births, and the effect of ART-multiples interaction. Of 17,829 ART-exposed births, 355 had a birth defect, compared with 162 of 9431 births to subfertile mothers and 6183 of 445,080 births to fertile mothers. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6) for ART and 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) in subfertile compared with fertile deliveries. We observed elevated rates of several birth defects with ART, including tetralogy of Fallot and hypospadias. Subfertility and multiple births affect these associations, with multiple births explaining 36% of the relative effect of ART on nonchromosomal birth defects. Although the risk of birth defects with ART is small, a substantial portion of the relative effect is mediated through multiple births, with subfertility contributing an important role. Future research is needed to determine the impact of newer techniques, such as single embryo transfer, on these risks. Birth Defects Research 109:1144-1153, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. STUDY OF BIRTH DEFECTS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Birth defects are responsible for increased perinatal mortality and long-term morbidities. To reduce its incidence, which is the need of the hour we should know more about them and possible risk factors, which can be prevented. The aim of the study is to study the overall frequency of birth defects in a tertiary hospital and search for association with certain risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS All newborns/stillborns with birth defects during one year were enrolled for the study. Similar number of newborns without birth defect during this period was taken as control. Relevant information was documented in both the groups and analysed. RESULTS Out of 11,008 births, congenital anomaly was found in 130 cases. The prevalence of birth defects was 1.18 percent. Association of occurrence of birth defects with increased paternal age, consanguinity, fever and drug intake in first trimester was found. 57.6% of the newborns with birth defects were stillborn, born at an earlier gestational age (33.6 week v/s. 37.5 weeks. Commonest system to be affected was CNS (49.2%. CONCLUSION Screening for aneuploidy and birth defects should be universal. Routine folic acid supplementation and pregnancy termination of malformed babies will reduce the incidences.

  3. Evaluating alcohol related birth defects in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuler, Kristrina A.; Schroeder, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are yet undocumented among past communities, although alcohol is the leading cause of non-heritable birth defects in the US today. We evaluate potential ARBD at Newton Plantation, Barbados (ca. 1660-1820), where earlier studies suggest frequent, community-wide...

  4. Birth Defects in the Newborn Population: Race and Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Egbe

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This is a comprehensive description of racial differences in the risk of birth defects in the United States. Observed racial differences in the risk of birth defects may be related to genetic susceptibilities, to cultural or social differences that could modify exposures, or to the many potential combinations between susceptibilities and exposures.

  5. Knowledge of birth defects among nursing mothers in a developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the absence of established guidelines, where formal screening is unavailable for birth defects, a lot of responsibility is placed on parents in the recognition of these defects. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the awareness of mothers about birth effects in a developing country and assess what ...

  6. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  7. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle

  8. Birth Defects in India: Magnitude, Public Health Impact and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects refer to a group of diverse congenital conditions, which are responsible for stillbirths, neonatal deaths, chronic medical conditions and disability. Due to their low prevalence and high mortality, birth defects are not considered to be a significant health problem in India. Various data however identify that India may harbour a significant burden of birth defects, and that these conditions may be responsible for a considerable proportion of neonatal deaths in India. Although it is widely assumed that survival of patients with birth defects is low, data suggests that in 2002, there were nearly six million Indians living with impairments arising at birth. These data urge the need for implementation of a national birth defects programme in India, with a strong component of prevention. The need for significant research investments to understand the epidemiology and public health impact of birth defects in India is identified. Translation research, transcending the disciplines of medicine, public health and genetics is required to develop a low cost birth defects service as a component of the existing maternal and child health programme.

  9. Magnitude of Birth Defects in Central and Northwest Ethiopia from 2010-2014: A Descriptive Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla Taye

    birth defects and 5,801 (95.5% isolated (single birth defects. Out of the total birth defects, 6,018 (99% were major and 58 (1% minor.The magnitude of birth defects increased from 2010-2014. Orofacial and neural tube defects contributed about two thirds of the birth defects. There is an urgent need for registry and surveillance system strategies for intervention and control of birth defects in Ethiopia.

  10. Ambient air pollution and birth defects in brisbane, australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998-2004. METHODS: Ambient air pollution levels were averaged over weeks 3-8 of pregnancy among 150,308 births. Using a case-control design, we used conditional logistic regression and matched cases to 5 controls. Analyses were conducted using all births, and then births where the mother resided within 6 and 12 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor. FINDINGS: When analyzing all births there was no indication that ambient air pollution in Brisbane was associated with a higher risk of cardiac defects. Among births where the mother resided within 6 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor, a 5 ppb increase in O(3 was associated with an increased risk of pulmonary artery and valve defects (OR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.34, 7.52 while a 0.6 ppb increase in SO(2 was associated with an increased risk of aortic artery and valve defects (OR 10.76, 95% CI: 1.50, 179.8. For oral cleft defects among all births, the only adverse association was between SO(2 and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.62. However, various significant inverse associations were also found between air pollutants and birth defects. CONCLUSIONS: This study found mixed results and it is difficult to conclude whether ambient air pollution in Brisbane has an adverse association with the birth defects examined. Studies using more detailed estimates of air pollution exposure are needed.

  11. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection

  12. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

  13. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control group was randomly selected from the cases with normal live births. Blood tests were performed for children suspected to suffer from genetic blood disorders. The principal BD as per the ...

  14. Is Maternal Parity an Independent Risk Factor for Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hao T.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Case, Amy; McNeese, Melanie L.; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although associations between maternal parity and birth defects have been observed previously, few studies have focused on the possibility that parity is an independent risk factor for birth defects. We investigated the relation between levels of parity and a range of birth defects, adjusting each defect group for the same covariates. METHODS We included infants who had an estimated delivery date between 1997 and 2007 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite case-control study. Cases included infants or fetuses belonging to 38 phenotypes of birth defects (n = 17,908), and controls included infants who were unaffected by a major birth defect (n = 7173). Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 12 covariates using logistic regression. RESULTS Compared with primiparous mothers, nulliparous mothers were more likely to have infants with amniotic band sequence, hydrocephaly, esophageal atresia, hypospadias, limb reduction deficiencies, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, gastroschisis, tetralogy of Fallot, and septal cardiac defects, with significant ORs (1.2 to 2.3). Compared with primiparous mothers, multiparous mothers had a significantly increased risk of omphalocele, with an OR of 1.5, but had significantly decreased risk of hypospadias and limb reduction deficiencies, with ORs of 0.77 and 0.77. CONCLUSIONS Nulliparity was associated with an increased risk of specific phenotypes of birth defects. Most of the phenotypes associated with nulliparity in this study were consistent with those identified by previous studies. Research into biologic or environmental factors that are associated with nulliparity may be helpful in explaining some or all of these associations. PMID:22371332

  15. Assisted reproductive technology and major birth defects in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michele; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; de Klerk, Nicholas; Burton, Peter; Bower, Carol

    2012-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects diagnosed by 6 years of age in all births and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly conceived by assisted reproductive technology (when this included intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in vitro fertilization [IVF]) and the remainder of nonassisted reproductive technology-conceived children born in Western Australia from 1994 to 2002. This retrospective cohort study used data linkage between three population-based registers (Reproductive Technology Register, Western Australian Register of Developmental Anomalies, and Midwives' Notification of Birth System) to identify all assisted reproductive technology (n=2,911) and nonassisted reproductive technology (n=210,997) births with and without birth defects diagnosed by age 6 and all terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. A major birth defect was diagnosed in 8.7% of assisted reproductive technology and 5.4% of nonassisted reproductive technology singletons (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.79), as well as 7.1% of assisted reproductive technology twins and 5.9% of nonassisted reproductive technology twins of unlike sex (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.77-1.51). The prevalence of birth defects in assisted reproductive technology singletons and twins decreased markedly over the study period. This change was evident across all three clinics contributing data over the whole study and was particularly marked for children conceived as a result of IVF. There has been a decrease in the prevalence of birth defects over time in children born as a result of assisted reproductive technology in Western Australia; however, the prevalence of major birth defects in assisted reproductive technology singletons remains increased compared with nonassisted reproductive technology singletons. II.

  16. Defining smallness for gestational age in the early years of the Danish Medical Birth Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Rogvi, Rasmus; Mathiasen, Rene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased blood pressure in childhood, but the association with clinical disease in early adulthood is less certain. The Danish Medical Birth Registry has registered all births in Denmark since 1973, b...

  17. Public health approach to birth defects: the Argentine experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, María Paz; Groisman, Boris; Barbero, Pablo; Liascovich, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Birth defects are a global problem, but their impact is particularly severe in low and middle income countries, where the conditions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation are more critical. The epidemiological transition in the infant mortality causes, and the concern of the community and the mass media about the teratogenic risk of environmental pollutants, has made health authorities aware of the importance of birth defects in Argentina. The objective of this paper is to outline those actions specifically taken in Argentina aimed at the prevention of birth defects at a national level. Firstly, we focus on birth defects in Argentina on a general basis, and then we present different laws and actions taken in terms of surveillance and public health programs, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Finally, we present the Teratology Information Service "Fetal Health Line", and the genetic services organization and health professionals training by the National Center of Medical Genetics and the National Program of Genetics Network. In conclusion, in the country, several programs focus on different approaches to the problem, and the challenge is to coordinate the teamwork between them. Finally, we list tips to address birth defects from the public health perspective.

  18. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  19. Birth Defects Among Fetuses and Infants of US Women With Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein, Margaret A; Dawson, April L; Petersen, Emily E; Jones, Abbey M; Lee, Ellen H; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Ahmad, Nina; Macdonald, Jennifer; Evert, Nicole; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Oduyebo, Titilope; Fine, Anne D; Brown, Catherine M; Sommer, Jamie N; Gupta, Jyoti; Cavicchia, Philip; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L; Owen, S Michele; Petersen, Lyle R; Boyle, Coleen; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-01-03

    Understanding the risk of birth defects associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy may help guide communication, prevention, and planning efforts. In the absence of Zika virus, microcephaly occurs in approximately 7 per 10 000 live births. To estimate the preliminary proportion of fetuses or infants with birth defects after maternal Zika virus infection by trimester of infection and maternal symptoms. Completed pregnancies with maternal, fetal, or infant laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and outcomes reported in the continental United States and Hawaii from January 15 to September 22, 2016, in the US Zika Pregnancy Registry, a collaboration between the CDC and state and local health departments. Laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection in a maternal, placental, fetal, or infant sample. Birth defects potentially Zika associated: brain abnormalities with or without microcephaly, neural tube defects and other early brain malformations, eye abnormalities, and other central nervous system consequences. Among 442 completed pregnancies in women (median age, 28 years; range, 15-50 years) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection, birth defects potentially related to Zika virus were identified in 26 (6%; 95% CI, 4%-8%) fetuses or infants. There were 21 infants with birth defects among 395 live births and 5 fetuses with birth defects among 47 pregnancy losses. Birth defects were reported for 16 of 271 (6%; 95% CI, 4%-9%) pregnant asymptomatic women and 10 of 167 (6%; 95% CI, 3%-11%) symptomatic pregnant women. Of the 26 affected fetuses or infants, 4 had microcephaly and no reported neuroimaging, 14 had microcephaly and brain abnormalities, and 4 had brain abnormalities without microcephaly; reported brain abnormalities included intracranial calcifications, corpus callosum abnormalities, abnormal cortical formation, cerebral atrophy, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephaly, and cerebellar abnormalities

  20. What Are the Types of Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Counselors (BSC) National Advisory Child Health and Human Development (NACHHD) Council Council Archive National Advisory Board on ... defects, such as missing or misshaped valves Abnormal limbs, such as a ... to the growth and development of the brain and spinal cord Functional or ...

  1. Preventive program of birth defects: incidence of anencephaly in Maracaibo, Venezuela. 1993-1996 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Fuenmayor, H; Valera, V; Socorro Candanoza, L; Bracho, A; Herrera, M; Rodriguez, Z; Concho, E

    1996-01-01

    Incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia, and specifically in the Eastern Coast of Lake Maracaibo, an oil exploitation area, has been declared high since the beginning of the 80's, coincident with the generalized use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for fetal evaluation. Through the Birth Defects Preventive Program, established at the Hospital Chiquinquira in Maracaibo, we have developed a fourfold strategy for the study of birth defects: i) analysis of more than 32,332 ultrasound evaluations within the Ultrasound Service, between 1993 and 1996, ii) a case-control malformation registry beginning in 1995, iii) a study of malformed stillbirths at the Pathology Service, observed after 4232 deliveries within this hospital, and iv) a registry of over 638 mothers with high risk pregnancy for fetal defects detected at the prenatal clinic and carried out at the Perinatal Medical Genetics Service. As a reference population we study 345 medical histories obtained from the Medical Genetics and Prenatal Diagnostic Service at Hospital Coromoto, and oil companies related medical facility. This approach has led us to conclude that the incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia is 0.75/1000, significantly similar to that expected for most populations

  2. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract: A murmansk county birth registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postoev, Vitaly A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Kovalenko, Anton A; Anda, Erik Eik; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-03-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUTs) are relatively common birth defects. The combined prevalence in Europe was 3.3 per 1000 in 2012. The risk factors for these anomalies are not clearly identified. The aims of our study were to calculate the birth prevalences of urinary malformations in Murmansk County during 2006 to 2011 and to investigate related prenatal risk factors. The Murmansk County Birth Registry was the primary source of information and our study included 50,936 singletons in the examination of structure, prevalence and proportional distribution of CAKUTs. The multivariate analyses of risk factors involved 39,322 newborns. The prevalence of CAKUTs was 4.0 per 1000 newborns (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4-4.5) and did not change during the study period. The most prevalent malformation was congenital hydronephrosis (14.2% of all cases). Diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 4.77; 95% CI, 1.16-19.65), acute infections while pregnant (OR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.14-2.94), the use of medication during pregnancy (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.44-2.82), and conception during the summer (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.15-2.66) were significantly associated with higher risk of CAKUTs. The overall fourfold enhancement of the occurrence of urinary malformations in Murmansk County for the 2006 to 2011 period showed little annual dependence. During pregnancy, use of medications, infections, pre-existing diabetes mellitus, or gestational diabetes were associated with increased risk of these anomalies, as was conception during summer. Our findings have direct applications in improving prenatal care in Murmansk County and establishing targets for prenatal screening and women's consultations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Vascular disruption birth defects are not associated to chromosomal alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachajoa, Harry; Ariza, Yoseth; Isaza, Carolina; Méndez, Fabián

    2015-11-01

    It is estimated that 2 to 35 of newborns present a congenital malformation. Some publications suggest that vascular disruption birth defects are not associated with chromosomal alterations detected by conventional karyotype. to determine the frequency of chromosomal alterations detected by high resolution G banded karyotype in patients with vascular disruption birth defects in a Colombian population (South America). transversal study. Population: a sample of patients identified by an epidemiological surveillance system of congenital malformations in a reference hospital in Cali, Colombia. 41 cases of vascular disruption birth defects were identified during a 36 month period; in a descending order those were: transverse reduction defects, hydranencephaly and gastroschisis. Two expert cytogenetists performed independent evaluation of the genetic material of the patients, and no chromosomal alterations detectable by G banded karyotype were identified. It is recommended that genetic counseling in cases of defects by vascular disruption is carried out taking into account the empirical recurrence risks reported for each one the types of defects by vascular disruption and the use of karyotype should be limited to cases with other malformations or chromosomal abnormality suspected by phenotype.

  4. Birth defects and congenital health risks in children conceived through assisted reproduction technology (ART): a meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Assisted Reproduction Treatment (ART) is here to stay. This review addresses the parental background of birth defects, before, during and after conception and focuses both on the underlying subfertility and on the question whether ART as a treatment is an additional contributing factor. Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. Summaries were discussed in a Delphi panel set-up by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Several birth defects and adult diseases arise during the earliest stages of ovarian development and oocyte differentiation: this is the case of cleft palate disorders in offspring from female rat exposed to Dioxin during fetal life or the polycystic ovary diseases in female offspring (primates) exposed to elevated androgen concentration during fetal life. Human oocytes and embryos often fail to stop the propagation of aneuploid cells but maintain their ability to repair DNA damages including those introduced by the fertilizing sperm. There is a 29 % increased risk of birth defects in the newborns spontaneously conceived by subfertile couples and the risk is further increased (34 %) when conception is achieved by treating infertlity with ART (Danish IVF Registry). Periconceptional conditions are critical for ART babies: their birth weight is in general smaller (Norvegian Registry) but a more prolonged culture time doubled the number of large babies (Finnish Registry). The long-term developmental effects of ART on child and subsequent health as an adult remains a subject worthy of futher monitoring and investigation.

  5. Birth Defects in Infants Born in 1998-2004 to Men and Women Serving in the US Military During the 1990-1991 Gulf War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    pregnancy during the Persian Gulf War: the risk to women veterans. Ann Epide- miol 14:109–116. Araneta MR, Moore CA, Olney RS, et al. 1997. Goldenhar...Reefhuis J, Honein MA. 2004. Maternal age and non-chromosomal birth defects, Atlanta–1968–2000: teenager or thirty-something, who is at risk ? Birth...Team. 2008. Pregnancy , birth, and infant health outcomes from the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry, 2003–2006. Clin Infect Dis 46 Suppl

  6. Attaining human dignity for people with birth defects: A historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People with birth defects have been stigmatised, marginalised and discriminated against for millennia, diminishing their human dignity and abrogating their human rights. Beginning with the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, promulgated in 1947, the circumstances in which human dignity in healthcare ...

  7. Knowledge of birth defects among nursing mothers in a developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Ibadan, Department of Surgery; University College Hospital, Department of Surgery. 2. ... degree of responsibility in the detection of babies with .... Awareness of birth defects. Socio-demographic variable. Age (years). Aware. No (%). Not aware. No (%). Total. No (%) χ2 p value. ≤ 30. 95 (21.3). 350 (78.7).

  8. Antihistamines and birth defects: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Rai, Ramona P; Anderson, Jaynia A; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 10 - 15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: i) selection of appropriate study population; ii) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and iii) ascertainment of birth defect outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well studied (e.g., loratadine); others, especially H2-receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defect risk could be made.

  9. Epidemiology of external birth defects in neonates in Southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is paucity of information on the prevalence of birth defects in Nigeria, particularly in our setting. This study determined the epidemiology of external congenital anomalies in Southwest Nigerian children. Patients and Methods: This was a stratifi ed, randomized study of neonates presenting with external ...

  10. Maternal exposure to radiographic exams and major structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyeyeun; Beasley, Charles W; Whitehead, Lawrence W; Emery, Robert J; Agopian, A J; Langlois, Peter H; Waller, Dorothy K

    2016-07-01

    An increasing number of radiologic exams are performed in the United States, but very few studies have examined the effects of maternal exposure to radiologic exams during the periconceptional period and birth defects. To assess the association between maternal exposure to radiologic exams during the periconceptional period and 19 categories of birth defects using a large population-based study of birth defects. We studied 27,809 case mothers and 10,200 control mothers who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and delivered between 1997 and 2009. Maternal exposure to radiologic exams that delivered ionizing radiation to the urinary tract, lumbar spine, abdomen, or pelvis were identified based on the mother's report of type of radiologic exams, organ or body part scanned and the month during which the exam occurred Overall, 0.9% of mothers reported exposure to one of these types of radiographic exams during the periconceptional period. We observed significant associations between maternal exposure during the first trimester and isolated Dandy-Walker malformation (odds ratio = 7.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-33) and isolated d-transposition of the great arteries (odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-10.3). However, the result for isolated Dandy-Walker malformation was based on only two exposed cases. These results should be interpreted cautiously because multiple statistical tests were conducted and measurements of exposure were based on maternal report. However, our results may be useful for generating hypotheses for future studies. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:563-572, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Baseline Prevalence of Birth Defects Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection - Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, Janet D; Mai, Cara T; Petersen, Emily E; Liberman, Rebecca F; Forestieri, Nina E; Stevens, Alissa C; Delaney, Augustina; Dawson, April L; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Dunn, Julie E; Higgins, Cathleen A; Meyer, Robert E; Williams, Tonya; Polen, Kara N D; Newsome, Kim; Reynolds, Megan; Isenburg, Jennifer; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney-Delman, Dana M; Moore, Cynthia A; Boyle, Coleen A; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-03-03

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations † (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15-September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.

  12. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, L.K.; Buck, G.M.; Druschel, C.M.; Fitzgerald, E.F.; Sever, L.E.; Vena, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ≤1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ≥2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ≥2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

  13. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C.; Stewart, Thomas G.; Luben, Thomas J.; Davis, J. Allen; Langlois, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    We performed an exploratory analysis of ozone (O 3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Data on births were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) in Texas. Air pollution concentrations were previously determined by combining modeled air pollution concentrations with air monitoring data. The analysis generated hypotheses for future, confirmatory studies; although many of the observed associations were null. The hypotheses are provided by an observed association between O 3 and craniosynostosis and inverse associations between PM 2.5 and septal and obstructive heart defects in the TBDR. Associations with PM 2.5 for septal heart defects and ventricular outflow tract obstructions were null using the NBDPS. Both the TBDR and the NBPDS had inverse associations between O 3 and septal heart defects. Further research to confirm the observed associations is warranted. - Highlights: • Air pollution concentrations combined modeled air data and air monitoring data. • No associations were observed between the majority of birth defects and PM 2.5 and O 3 . • Estimated associations between PM 2.5 and certain heart defects varied by dataset. • Results were suggestive of an inverse association between O 3 and septal heart defects. • Higher O 3 concentrations may be associated with increased odds of craniosynostosis. - Although most observed associations between ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations and birth defects were null, some were present and warrant further consideration

  14. Traffic jam in the primitive streak: the role of defective mesoderm migration in birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herion, Nils J; Salbaum, J Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    Gastrulation is the process in which the three germ layers are formed that contribute to the formation of all major tissues in the developing embryo. We here review mouse genetic models in which defective gastrulation leads to mesoderm insufficiencies in the embryo. Depending on severity of the abnormalities, the outcomes range from incompatible with embryonic survival to structural birth defects, such as heart defects, spina bifida, or caudal dysgenesis. The combined evidence from the mutant models supports the notion that these congenital anomalies can originate from perturbations of mesoderm specification, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and mesodermal cell migration. Knowledge about the molecular pathways involved may help to improve strategies for the prevention of major structural birth defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  16. Methods for developing useful estimates of the costs associated with birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amy P; Canfield, Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Cost estimates for birth defects are useful to policy makers in deciding the best use of resources to prevent these conditions. Much of the effort in this area has focused on spina bifida, in part because cost savings can be estimated from folic acid-preventable cases. However, comprehensive cost-of-illness estimates for this condition may be too outdated, too general, or not applicable to individual states' environments. Using the live birth prevalence for spina bifida in Texas, we applied recent spina bifida cost estimates to approximate total lifetime medical and other costs for an average live birth cohort of spina bifida cases in Texas. In addition, we queried various government programs that provide services for persons with spina bifida to provide program-specific annual costs for this condition. Applying a recently published average lifetime medical cost of $635,000 per case of spina bifida to the average annual birth cohort of 120 Texas cases, an estimated $76 million in direct and indirect medical and other costs will be incurred in Texas over the life span of that cohort. Examples of estimated medical costs for one year are $5 million for infants using actual employer-paid insurance claims data and $6 million combined for children in two public sector programs. Stakeholders and state policy makers may look to state birth defects registries for useful cost data. Although comprehensive state-specific figures are not available, applying prevalence data to existing estimates and obtaining actual claims and program expenditures may help close this information gap.

  17. Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Shinde, Mayura U; Zhan, F Benjamin; Gong, Xi; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-11-19

    Some studies have noted an association between maternal occupational exposures to chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring, but data are lacking on the potential impact of industrial air emissions of these solvents on birth defects. With data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for births occurring in 1996-2008, we examined the relation between maternal residential proximity to industrial air releases of chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring of 60,613 case-mothers and 244,927 control-mothers. Maternal residential exposures to solvent emissions were estimated with metrics that took into account residential distances to industrial sources and annual amounts of chemicals released. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between residential proximity to emissions of 14 chlorinated solvents and selected birth defects, including neural tube, oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. All risk estimates were adjusted for year of delivery and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence. Relative to exposure risk values of 0, neural tube defects were associated with maternal residential exposures (exposure risk values >0) to several types of chlorinated solvents, most notably carbon tetrachloride (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.86); chloroform (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04, 1.87); ethyl chloride (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08, 1.79); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11, 2.18); and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08, 2.06). Significant associations were also noted between a few chlorinated solvents and oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. We observed stronger associations between some emissions and neural tube, oral cleft, and heart defects in offspring of mothers 35 years or older, such as spina bifida with carbon tetrachloride (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.09, 5.72), cleft palate

  18. Design and development of an Internet registry for congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Wajeeh; Sandridge, Amy L; Subhani, Shazia; Greer, William

    2002-02-01

    Congenital Heart Defects (CHD) are conditions that encompass more than 50 diagnoses and are due to developmental abnormalities early in fetal life. The King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia treats approximately 100 new cases per month. We recently developed a new CHD Registry that captures, stores and processes our data via the Internet. The Registry was developed using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Microsoft Active Server Pages and Microsoft Structured Query Language (SQL). Details of CHD cases are captured in a World Wide Web (WWW) Registry, permitting any browser-enabled PC or Mac to participate fully in all registry functions, including data-entry, viewing, editing, searching, reporting, validating, charting, and exporting data subsets to statistics packages. It includes "administrative" features and an active security system. The paper forms have been designed to reflect the "look and feel" of the Web pages. Automatic validation procedures are also included. Our Registry has been in operation for 3 years. It serves 10 PCs and contains more than 3,000 registered cases of CHD. It is the first CHD Registry to be fully functional on the Internet. It is also the first dedicated CHD registry, and the first to routinely report on the full spectrum of CHD diagnoses. The WWW offers several logistical advantages to disease registries, especially those that represent large regions. It also offers the possibility of sharing resources between registries, facilitating the aggregation and analysis of disease data on a world-wide scale. This is useful for rare diseases such as CHD (see http://rc.kfshrc.edu.sa/chdr/demo/). Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Implementation, quality control and selected pregnancy outcomes of the Murmansk County Birth Registry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Erik Eik; Nieboer, Evert; Voitov, Alexander Valentinovitch; Kovalenko, Anton Alexandrovich; Lapina, Yana Mikhailovna; Voitova, Elena Alexandrovna; Kovalenko, Liudmila Fedorovna; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2008-09-01

    To describe the essential features of the newly established Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR); make some preliminary comparisons of selected variables related to pregnancy and delivery in northern counties of the Nordic countries and in cities and towns of Murmansk County [Murmanskaja Oblast (MO)] and explore some research possibilities. A registry-based cohort study. The MCBR was established in 2005 and registration began on 1 January 2006. A registry form draws upon both hospital files and information from the mother. There are 54 major fields consisting primarily of tick-off boxes and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes. A quality control exercise was conducted in both 2006 and 2007. During 2006, 8,468 births were registered in the MO (coverage = 98.9%). The proportion of errors was below 1% in both years. Limiting the descriptive statistics to 2006, compared to counties of the Nordic counties in the Barents Region, the delivering women in the MO were younger and had fewer and lighter (mean of 200 g) babies. The gestational age was somewhat shorter in the MO than in the Nordic counties and fewer babies had a birthweight above 4,500 g. The perinatal mortality corresponding to a gestational age (GA) of either 22 or 28 completed weeks was higher (p < 0.02) in the MO than the Nordic counties in this study. In the MO, the birth rate does not balance the reported increase in death rate. Our study concludes that a medical birth registry of satisfactory quality has been established for the world's largest arctic population.

  20. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  1. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  2. Exposure to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs during Pregnancy and the Risk of Selected Birth Defects: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Marleen M. H. J.; Roeleveld, Nel; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2011-01-01

    Background Since use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during pregnancy is common, small increases in the risk of birth defects may have significant implications for public health. Results of human studies on the teratogenic risks of NSAIDs are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of selected birth defects after prenatal exposure to prescribed and over-the-counter NSAIDs. Methods and Findings We used data on 69,929 women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 1999 and 2006. Data on NSAID exposure were available from a self-administered questionnaire completed around gestational week 17. Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Only birth defects suspected to be associated with NSAID exposure based upon proposed teratogenic mechanisms and previous studies were included in the multivariable logistic regression analyses. A total of 3,023 women used NSAIDs in gestational weeks 0–12 and 64,074 women did not report NSAID use in early pregnancy. No associations were observed between overall exposure to NSAIDs during pregnancy and the selected birth defects separately or as a group (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.4–1.1). Associations between maternal use of specific types of NSAIDs and the selected birth defects were not found either, although an increased risk was seen for septal defects and exposure to multiple NSAIDs based on small numbers (2 exposed cases; crude odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 0.9–15.7). Conclusions Exposure to NSAIDs during the first 12 weeks of gestation does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of the selected birth defects. However, due to the small numbers of NSAID-exposed infants for the individual birth defect categories, increases in the risks of specific birth defects could not be excluded. PMID:21789231

  3. Maternal Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in Murmansk County, Russia: A Registry-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usynina, Anna A; Postoev, Vitaly A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Krettek, Alexandra; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Anda, Erik Eik

    2016-09-01

    Globally, about 11% of all liveborn infants are preterm. To date, data on prevalence and risk factors of preterm birth (PTB) in Russia are limited. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County, Northwestern Russia and to investigate associations between PTB and selected maternal factors using the Murmansk County Birth Registry. We conducted a registry-based study of 52 806 births (2006-2011). In total, 51 156 births were included in the prevalence analysis, of which 3546 were PTBs. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals of moderate-to-late PTB, very PTB and extremely PTB for a range of maternal characteristics were estimated using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The overall prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County was 6.9%. Unmarried status, prior PTBs, spontaneous and induced abortions were strongly associated with PTB at any gestational age. Maternal low educational level increased the risk of extremely and moderate-to-late PTB. Young (Murmansk County, Russia was comparable with data on live PTB from European countries. Adverse prior pregnancy outcomes, maternal low educational level, unmarried status, alcohol abuse, and diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes were the most common risk factors for PTB. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bager Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of folic acid use in pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. We studied 243 women with pregnancies complicated by some forms of birth defect(s. These patients were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies. The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7 percent. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome, and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with the folic acid use. Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy.

  5. Insights from Parents about Caring for a Child with Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemacks, Jodi; Fowles, Kristin; Mateus, Amanda; Thomas, Kayte

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects affect 1 in 33 babies. Having a child with a birth defect impacts the whole family. Parents of children who have birth defects face unique challenges and desire to make life better for their kids. They also want to help to prevent birth defects in the future. Some of the challenges parents face involve communication with healthcare professionals, quality of life issues, creating awareness and advocating for research and funding, finding resources and support, and helping teens transition to appropriate, specialized adult care. This paper addresses these issues and their sub-issues, provides examples, and makes suggestions for improvement and research. PMID:23965922

  6. Insights from Parents about Caring for a Child with Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mateus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects affect 1 in 33 babies. Having a child with a birth defect impacts the whole family. Parents of children who have birth defects face unique challenges and desire to make life better for their kids. They also want to help to prevent birth defects in the future. Some of the challenges parents face involve communication with healthcare professionals, quality of life issues, creating awareness and advocating for research and funding, finding resources and support, and helping teens transition to appropriate, specialized adult care. This paper addresses these issues and their sub-issues, provides examples, and makes suggestions for improvement and research.

  7. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes : A registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. E. H.; Otten, E.; Verheij, J. B. G. M.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs

  8. Clinical and risk factor analysis of cloacal defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Conway, Kristin M; Shen, Dereck; Rhoads, Anthony J; Carey, John C; Romitti, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Cloacal exstrophy (CE) and persistent cloaca (PC) (alternatively termed urorectal septum malformation sequence [URSMS]), represent two major cloacal defects (CDs). Clinical characteristics and risk factors often are studied for both defects combined, rather than exploring if these defects have different etiologies. We enumerated clinical features for 47 CE and 54 PC (inclusive of URSMS) cases from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Thirty-three CE cases were classified as isolated and 14 as multiple (presence of unassociated major defects); respective totals for PC cases were 26 and 28. We compared selected child and maternal characteristics between 11,829 non-malformed controls and CE and PC cases using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Compared to controls, CE and PC cases were statistically more likely (p < 0.05) to be preterm; CE cases were more likely to be multiple births. We conducted logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for any CD, CE, and PC with selected self-reported maternal prepregnancy and periconceptional (one month prior to 3 months following conception) exposures. In crude and adjusted analyses, we observed significant positive associations for any CD, CE, and PC with use of any fertility medication or assisted reproductive technology procedure. Significant positive associations observed only in crude analyses were any CD with maternal obesity or use of progesterone, any CD and CE with any x-ray, and any CD and PC with use of folate antagonist medications. Our findings provide some of the first insights into potential differing etiologies for CE and PC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.

  10. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Phase 1, Technical progress report: Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Year 04 began the second three-year grant period, the overall goals of which were to consolidate and continue the aims of the first period, with the important exception that a great deal more effort would be expended on promoting community awareness and knowledge, as these characteristics relate to the residents' perceptions of major potential health effects. It was anticipated that more time would be available during the second period to accomplish this aim because the difficult early work of gaining hospital and community acceptance would have been done. Specifically, the goals were to: Maintain and refine the cancer registry; Inaugurate the birth defects registry if it were funded; and Enhance community involvement and education

  11. Birth defects surveillance· A pilot system in the Cape Peninsula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other population- based, utilising ...

  12. Factors associated with birth defects in the region of Corpus Christi, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance Branch of the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) has documented a high prevalence of certain birth defects in the Corpus Christi, TX region. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations...

  13. The association between use of spermicides or male condoms and major structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, M Shayne; Waller, D Kim; Canfield, Mark A; Scheuerle, Angela

    2009-11-01

    Women may become pregnant while using contraceptives. Commonly used contraceptives containing spermicides may or may not be associated with an increased occurrence of structural birth defects. Utilizing data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we assessed maternal reports of spermicide and male condom use 1 to 3 months following conception among case (n=11,050) and control (n=4723) mothers. We assessed the association between spermicide use and 27 types of birth defects and that between condom use and 32 types of birth defects. Maternal spermicide use during the first 3 months following conception was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of only 1 of 27 birth defects, perimembranous ventricular septal defects (adjusted odds ratio=2.40, 95% confidence interval=1.25-4.62). There was no significant association between maternal use of male condoms during the first 3 months following conception and any of 32 types of birth defects. The increased occurrence of perimembranous ventricular septal defects among spermicide users may be real or may be a chance finding. Overall, the findings are consistent with those of most previous studies that observed no increased risk for birth defects among spermicide users.

  14. Feasibility of Investigating Whether There is a Relationship Between Birth Defects and Services in the Gulf War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, John

    2000-01-01

    The California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP) completed its study on the "Feasibility of Investigating Whether There is a Relationship Between Birth Defects and Service in the Gulf War" under contract...

  15. The effect of assisted reproductive technology on the incidence of birth defects among livebirths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter-Maor, Gil; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Spence, Andrea R; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2018-02-15

    Our study objective is to examine the association between births conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) and birth defects using a large database from the United States. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Period-linked birth-infant death data files and fetal death database for 2011-2013, we conducted a retrospective cohort study comprised of live births that occurred in the USA during that time. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between ART and birth defects, both overall and by specific defects. There were 11,862,780 live births between 2011 and 2013. Of these births, 11,791,730 were spontaneous pregnancies and 71,050 were conceived by ART, with an increasing trend in incidence of ART during the study period and an overall increasing trend of birth defects. Overall, infants conceived by ART had a greater risk of having birth defects than did infants conceived spontaneously (77/10,000 vs 25/10,000, respectively, OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.94-2.35). The malformations most commonly associated with ART were cyanotic heart defects (OR 2.74, 95% CI 2.42-3.09), cleft lip and/or palate (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14-1.89), and hypospadias (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.42-2.19). There were no differences in risk of omphalocele or neural tube defects between the two groups. There is an overall and type-specific increased risk of birth defects in the ART population. Appropriate counseling and specialized ultrasound evaluations should be considered in pregnancies conceived by ART.

  16. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haiying; Zhang Keli

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: → Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. → An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. → Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  17. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an, Sichuan 625014 (China); Zhang Keli, E-mail: keli@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. {yields} An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. {yields} Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  18. A case-control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Waller, D Kim; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-10-16

    Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ≥15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ≥15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15-19, 20-29, and ≥ 30 minutes) were similar. Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ≥15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile.

  19. Mothers' beliefs as to causation and prevention of birth defects in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Elegbe, I

    1984-06-01

    The type of birth defects ever seen or heard of and beliefs as to the causation and means of preventing the defects were investigated among 225 newly deliverd and nursing mothers through interviews. The majority were between the ages of 20 to 29 years; 9.3% were between 35 and 40 years. The bulk of the respondents are illiterates. More than 75% of the mothers had 2 or more children. The most common birth defects seen were amputated leg; dislocated hips; lamed hand or funny elbows or ankles; extra digits; and missing digits. Common perceptions of the causes were God's will (32.9%) and evil doers or evil powers due to witchcraft or sorcery (40.9%). Poor nutrition or poor antenatal care was reported by only 2.2%; while 1.3% attributed the cause to an excessive combination of native and modern drugs. The majority believed that avoidance of walking at night and midafternoon during pregnancy would prevent birth defects. 10.2% and 5.3% were of the opinion that praying to God and going to the herbalist respectively would prevent birth defects. Prevention of birth defects is an essential task for all health workers in Nigeria. The causes of birth defects should be brodcast on radio and television and published in national dialects in the newspapers. 83.6% claimed that they were not informed of various means of preventing birth defects during prenatal clinic visits. The schools should include prevention and causation of birth defects in a health education curriculum.

  20. External birth defects in Southern Vietnam: a population-based study at the grassroots level of health care in Binh Thuan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Truong; Nguyen, Dung The; Nguyen, Phuong Van Ngoc; Tran, Dong A; Gillerot, Yves; Reding, Raymond; Robert, Annie

    2013-04-30

    There currently exists no data on birth defects from population-based studies in Vietnam. Our study's aim was to assess external birth defect (EBD) prevalence among live newborns in Binh Thuan Province in Vietnam with the help of health workers at all levels of the health system. A 2-month training session for 452 health professionals (HP) practicing delivery care in 127 Commune Health Stations (CHS) and in 12 provincial or district hospitals (DH) was setup in 2006. After a successful 6-month pilot study, a one-year registry of EBDs was established in 2008. All live newborns were screened for EBDs within 24 hours after birth in all DH obstetric departments and in all CHSs. Trained local HPs collected information by filling out a predesigned form and by photographing the affected newborn. EBDs were coded using the International Classification of Diseases system-10, Clinical Modification. The study was repeated in 2010. Throughout 2010, out of a total of 13,954 newborns, 84 cases with one or more EBDs were reported, representing an overall prevalence rate of 60.2 per 10,000 live births. The most common groups of EBDs were limbs (27.2/10,000), orofacial clefts (20.1/10,000) and the central nervous system (7.9/10,000). This first population-based study in Vietnam, which required coordination efforts at the local level, provides baseline prevalences of external birth defects. Data on EBDs from this study in southern Vietnam may be useful for setting up a regional population-based registry of birth defects in Vietnam.

  1. International adoption of children with birth defects: current knowledge and areas for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Meagan E; Nelson, Katherine R; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2014-12-01

    To summarize the existing literature on the international adoption of children with birth defects and identify areas for further research. International adoption brings thousands of children to the United States each year, and children with birth defects are overrepresented in this population. Studies have demonstrated disparities in the health of children adopted from different countries as well as the complexity of medical care needed after adoption. Although the health of children involved in international adoption has been well studied, there is a lack of information about the experiences of the adoptive parents of children with birth defects. We discuss a pilot study conducted on adoptive parents of children with a specific birth defect, orofacial clefting, and discuss areas for future research.

  2. Associations between maternal periconceptional exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and major birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Botto, Lorenzo D; Anderka, Marlene T; Krikov, Sergey V; Tarpey, Morgan K; Feldkamp, Marcia L

    2016-11-01

    While associations between secondhand smoke and a few birth defects (namely, oral clefts and neural tube defects) have been noted in the scientific literature, to our knowledge, there is no single or comprehensive source of population-based information on its associations with a range of birth defects among nonsmoking mothers. We utilized data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based multisite case-control study, to examine associations between maternal reports of periconceptional exposure to secondhand smoke in the household or workplace/school and major birth defects. The multisite National Birth Defects Prevention Study is the largest case-control study of birth defects to date in the United States. We selected cases from birth defect groups having >100 total cases, as well as all nonmalformed controls (10,200), from delivery years 1997 through 2009; 44 birth defects were examined. After excluding cases and controls from multiple births and whose mothers reported active smoking or pregestational diabetes, we analyzed data on periconceptional secondhand smoke exposure-encompassing the period 1 month prior to conception through the first trimester. For the birth defect craniosynostosis, we additionally examined the effect of exposure in the second and third trimesters as well due to the potential sensitivity to teratogens for this defect throughout pregnancy. Covariates included in all final models of birth defects with ≥5 exposed mothers were study site, previous live births, time between estimated date of delivery and interview date, maternal age at estimated date of delivery, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, nativity, household income divided by number of people supported by this income, periconceptional alcohol consumption, and folic acid supplementation. For each birth defect examined, we used logistic regression analyses to estimate both crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for both

  3. Epidemiology of birth defects, perinatal mortality and thyroid cancer before and after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Scherb, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal trends of birth defects and perinatal mortality in Germany and Europe as well as in least and most contaminated regions have been compared and investigated by trends. In numerous data sets, especially from northern and eastern Europe, positive and significant trend variations with upward 'disturbances' in temporal relation associated with the Chernobyl accident 1986 have been identified and spatial associations with regional fallout have been found. A surprisingly consistent picture evolves of significantly raised stillbirth rates after Chernobyl of ca. 5 % in Poland, ca. 10 % in parts of Germany and Sweden, ca. 20 % in Denmark and Finland, and up to ca. 30% in Iceland and Hungary. Low as compared to higher contaminated regions show weaker or stronger effects, respectively. The additional relative risks for birth defects are in the same order of magnitude as the additional relative risks for stillbirth, namely 0,5%-20 %/kBq·m 2 . Using well-known conversion coefficients, the excess relative risk of 1 %/kBq·m 2 translates theoretically to a preliminary relative risk of 1,6/mSv/a. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma among children affected by Chernobyl fallout has increased dramatically in certain parts of Europe. Less evidence exists for a similar effect among adolescents and adults. The cancer registry of the Czech Republic provides an opportunity to study various determinants of the occurrence of thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl accident, the thyroid cancer incidence of the Czech Republic reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender. The additional increases of thyroid cancer in the whole population of the Czech Republic are consistent with reports from other countries. To investigate trends in the sex distribution of newborns before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden

  4. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xinming

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD occurrences worldwide to identify the scale of environmental risk factors for birth defects using exploratory spatial data analysis methods. Methods By birth defect registers based on hospital records and investigation in villages, the number of birth defects cases within a four-year period was acquired and classified by organ system. The neural-tube birth defect ratio was calculated according to the number of births planned for each village in the study area, as the family planning policy is strictly adhered to in China. The Bayesian modeling method was used to estimate the ratio in order to remove the dependence of variance caused by different populations in each village. A recently developed statistical spatial method for detecting hotspots, Getis's 7, was used to detect the high-risk regions for neural-tube birth defects in the study area. Results After the Bayesian modeling method was used to calculate the ratio of neural-tube birth defects occurrences, Getis's statistics method was used in different distance scales. Two typical clustering phenomena were present in the study area. One was related to socioeconomic activities, and the other was related to soil type distributions. Conclusion The fact that there were two typical hotspot clustering phenomena provides evidence that the risk for neural-tube birth defect exists on two different scales (a socioeconomic scale at 6.84 km and a soil type scale at 22.8 km for the area studied. Although our study has limited

  5. Effects and safety of periconceptional oral folate supplementation for preventing birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana C; Rayco-Solon, Pura

    2015-12-14

    It has been reported that neural tube defects (NTD) can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear. This review aims to examine whether periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube and other congenital anomalies (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes in mothers or babies. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane review on this topic. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2015). Additionally, we searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 August 2015) and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies, checked data entry for accuracy and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. Five trials involving 7391 women (2033 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 5358 with no history of NTDs) were included. Four comparisons were made: 1) supplementation with any folate versus no intervention, placebo or other micronutrients without folate (five trials); 2) supplementation with folic acid alone versus no treatment or placebo (one trial); 3) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus other micronutrients without folate (four trials); and 4) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus the same other micronutrients without

  6. Control selection and participation in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Anderka, Marlene; Caton, Alissa R; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Hockett Sherlock, Stacey M; Meyer, Robert E; Ramadhani, Tunu; Robbins, James M; Shaw, Gary M; Mathews, T J; Royle, Marjorie; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the representativeness of controls in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects in 10 centers across the United States, researchers compared 1997-2003 birth certificate data linked to selected controls (n = 6,681) and control participants (n = 4,395) with those from their base populations (n = 2,468,697). Researchers analyzed differences in population characteristics (e.g., percentage of births at > or =2,500 g) for each group. Compared with their base populations, control participants did not differ in distributions of maternal or paternal age, previous livebirths, maternal smoking, or diabetes, but they did differ in other maternal (i.e., race/ethnicity, education, entry into prenatal care) and infant (i.e., birth weight, gestational age, and plurality) characteristics. Differences in distributions of maternal, but not infant, characteristics were associated with participation by selected controls. Absolute differences in infant characteristics for the base population versus control participants were controls from hospitals compared with centers that selected controls from electronic birth certificates. These findings suggest that control participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study generally are representative of their base populations. Hospital-based control selection may slightly underascertain infants affected by certain adverse birth outcomes.

  7. Using bayesian models to assess the effects of under-reporting of cannabis use on the association with birth defects, national birth defects prevention study, 1997-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Devine, O.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on associations between periconceptional cannabis exposure and birth defects have mainly relied on self-reported exposure. Therefore, the results may be biased due to under-reporting of the exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential effects of this form of

  8. Epigenetic Alterations of H19 and LIT1 Distinguish Patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome with Cancer and Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Michael R.; Niemitz, Emily L.; McNeil, D. Elizabeth; Brandenburg, Sheri A.; Lee, Maxwell P.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital cancer-predisposition syndrome associated with embryonal cancers, macroglossia, macrosomia, ear pits or ear creases, and midline abdominal-wall defects. The most common constitutional abnormalities in BWS are epigenetic, involving abnormal methylation of either H19 or LIT1, which encode untranslated RNAs on 11p15. We hypothesized that different epigenetic alterations would be associated with specific phenotypes in BWS. To test this hypothesis, we performed a case-cohort study, using the BWS Registry. The cohort consisted of 92 patients with BWS and molecular analysis of both H19 and LIT1, and these patients showed the same frequency of clinical phenotypes as those patients in the Registry from whom biological samples were not available. The frequency of altered DNA methylation of H19 in patients with cancer was significantly higher, 56% (9/16), than the frequency in patients without cancer, 17% (13/76; P=.002), and cancer was not associated with LIT1 alterations. Furthermore, the frequency of altered DNA methylation of LIT1 in patients with midline abdominal-wall defects and macrosomia was significantly higher, 65% (41/63) and 60% (46/77), respectively, than in patients without such defects, 34% (10/29) and 18% (2/11), respectively (P=.012 and P=.02, respectively). Additionally, paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of 11p15 was associated with hemihypertrophy (P=.003), cancer (P=.03), and hypoglycemia (P=.05). These results define an epigenotype-phenotype relationship in BWS, in which aberrant methylation of H19 and LIT1 and UPD are strongly associated with cancer risk and specific birth defects. PMID:11813134

  9. Folic acid sensitive birth defects in association with intrauterine exposure to folic acid antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.M.; Walle, H.E.K.de; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2005-01-01

    Since the protective effect of folic acid (FA) on birth defects is well known, it is reasonable to assume intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists increases the risk on these defects. We have therefore performed case-control analyses to investigate the risk of intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists,

  10. Maternal occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and major structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyeyeun; Agopian, A J; Whitehead, Lawrence W; Beasley, Charles W; Langlois, Peter H; Emery, Robert J; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-04-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is known to be carcinogenic and mutagenic, but little is known about the association between maternal occupational exposure to IR and birth defects. We studied 38,009 mothers who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and delivered between 1997 and 2009. We assessed odds ratios [ORs] for the association between maternal occupations with potential exposure to IR and 39 birth defects. We observed significant odds ratios (ORs) for isolated hydrocephaly (adjusted OR [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-4.2), isolated anotia/microtia (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-4.0), isolated colonic atresia (crude OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.5-22.3), isolated omphalocele (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6) and isolated anencephaly (crude OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.94). We also observed a nonsignificant OR for birth defects in aggregate (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.9-4.6) among mothers with potential occupational exposure to fluoroscopy. We assessed 39 birth defects, observing that maternal occupations with potential exposure to IR were associated with a significantly increased risk for 4 birth defects and a significantly protected risk for 1 birth defect. These results should be interpreted cautiously because our measurement of exposure is qualitative, some of these associations may be due to occupational exposures that are correlated with IR and some may be due to chance. However, these findings serve as the first evaluation of these relationships in a large study and may be useful for generating hypotheses for future studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Maternal hypertensive disorders, antihypertensive medication use, and the risk of birth defects: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Bennekom, C.M. Van; Louik, C.; Werler, M.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Mitchell, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study previously identified associations between specific maternal hypertensive disorders and/or prenatal exposure to antihypertensive medication and birth defects. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Slone Birth Defects Study, 1998-2010. POPULATION: A total of 5568 cases with birth

  12. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooki, Syuichi

    2013-01-01

    Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART. Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities) in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25-29, 30-34 (reference), 35-39, and 40+ years). Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25-29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30-35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed. Maternal age is associated with several birth defects; however, older maternal age in itself does not produce noticeable extra risk for nonchromosomal birth defects overall.

  13. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  14. Hyperemesis gravidarum in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway – a validity study

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    Vikanes Åse

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valid registration of medical information is essential for the quality of registry-based research. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting, weight loss and electrolyte imbalance starting before 22nd gestational week. Given the fact that HG is a generally understudied disease which might have short- and long- term health consequences for mother and child, it is of importance to know whether potential misclassification bias influences the results of future studies. We therefore assessed the validity of the HG-registration in the in Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN using hospital records. Methods The sample comprised all women registered in MBRN with HG and who delivered at Ullevål and Akershus hospitals in 1.1.-31.3.1970, 1.4.-30.6.1986, 1.7.-30.9.1997 and 1.10.-31.12.2001. A random sample of 10 women per HG case, without HG according to MBRN, but who delivered during the same time periods at the same hospitals was also collected. The final sample included 551 women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV were estimated using strict and less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, indicating severe and mild HG, respectively. Hospital journals were used as gold standard. Results Using less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 83.9% (95% CI: 67.4-92.9, 96.0% (95% CI: 93.9-97.3, 55.3% (95% CI: 41.2-68.6 and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6, respectively. For strict diagnostic criteria, being hospitalised due to HG the corresponding values were 64% (95% CI: 38.8-87.2, 92% (95% CI: 90.2-94.6, 18.6% (95% CI: 10.2-31.9 and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6. Conclusions The results from our study are comparable to previous research on disease registration in MBRN, and show that MBRN can be considered valid for mild HG but not for severe HG.

  15. Hyperemesis gravidarum in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway – a validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Valid registration of medical information is essential for the quality of registry-based research. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting, weight loss and electrolyte imbalance starting before 22nd gestational week. Given the fact that HG is a generally understudied disease which might have short- and long- term health consequences for mother and child, it is of importance to know whether potential misclassification bias influences the results of future studies. We therefore assessed the validity of the HG-registration in the in Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) using hospital records. Methods The sample comprised all women registered in MBRN with HG and who delivered at Ullevål and Akershus hospitals in 1.1.-31.3.1970, 1.4.-30.6.1986, 1.7.-30.9.1997 and 1.10.-31.12.2001. A random sample of 10 women per HG case, without HG according to MBRN, but who delivered during the same time periods at the same hospitals was also collected. The final sample included 551 women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were estimated using strict and less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, indicating severe and mild HG, respectively. Hospital journals were used as gold standard. Results Using less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 83.9% (95% CI: 67.4-92.9), 96.0% (95% CI: 93.9-97.3), 55.3% (95% CI: 41.2-68.6) and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6), respectively. For strict diagnostic criteria, being hospitalised due to HG the corresponding values were 64% (95% CI: 38.8-87.2), 92% (95% CI: 90.2-94.6), 18.6% (95% CI: 10.2-31.9) and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6). Conclusions The results from our study are comparable to previous research on disease registration in MBRN, and show that MBRN can be considered valid for mild HG but not for severe HG. PMID:23095718

  16. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  17. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

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    Alok Sachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  18. Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jilei; Zhang, Chaosheng; Pei, Lijun; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    The risk of birth defects is generally accredited with genetic factors, environmental causes, but the contribution of environmental factors to birth defects is still inconclusive. With the hypothesis of associations of geochemical features distribution and birth defects risk, we collected birth records and measured the chemical components in soil samples from a high prevalence area of birth defects in Shanxi province, China. The relative risk levels among villages were estimated with conditional spatial autoregressive model and the relationships between the risk levels of the villages and the 15 types of chemical elements concentration in the cropland and woodland soils were explored. The results revealed that the arsenic levels in cropland soil showed a significant association with birth defects occurring risk in this area, which is consistent with existing evidences of arsenic as a teratogen and warrants further investigation on arsenic exposure routine to birth defect occurring risk. - Highlights: • Association between soil geochemical components and birth defects risk was proposed. • The relative risk difference among villages were estimated with CAR model. • Arsenic levels in cropland showed a significant association to birth defect risk. • The finding warrants further investigation on arsenic as a teratogen. - The difference of risk levels estimate by spatial statistics to birth defect significantly associated with arsenic levels in cropland soils warrants further investigation

  19. Selected birth defects among males following the United States terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parvati; Yang, Wei; Shaw, Gary M; Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A

    2017-10-02

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) preceded an increase in male fetal deaths and reduced male live births among exposed gestational cohorts across several geographic locations in the United States, including California. We analyze whether the extreme stressor of 9/11 may have selected against frail males in utero by testing if the prevalence of male births with selected defects in California fell among cohorts exposed to the stressor during gestation. We used data from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program from July 1985 to January 2004 (223 conception cohorts). We included six birth defects that as a group of phenotypes disproportionately affect males. We applied time-series methods and defined as "exposed to 9/11" the cohorts conceived in February, March, April, May, June, July, and August 2001. Three of the seven monthly conception cohorts exposed to 9/11 in utero show lower than expected odds of live born males with the studied defects: February 2001 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.71), May 2001 (OR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.81), and August 2001 (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.93). The population-wide stressor of 9/11 precedes a reduction in the risk of live born males with selected birth defects. Our analysis contributes to the understanding of adaptation to stress among pregnant women exposed to large and unexpected ambient stressors. Results further support the notion that the prevalence of live born defects may reflect temporal variation in cohort selection in utero against frail males. Birth Defects Research 109:1277-1283, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of Smoking Behavior before and during Pregnancy on Selected Birth Outcomes among Singleton Full-Term Pregnancy: A Murmansk County Birth Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkova, Olga A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Krettek, Alexandra; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Ø

    2017-08-02

    The aim of our study was to assess associations between smoking behavior before and during pregnancy and selected adverse birth outcomes. This study is based on the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). Our study includes women who delivered a singleton pregnancy after 37 weeks of gestation (N = 44,486). Smoking information was self-reported and assessed at the first antenatal visit during pregnancy. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression. The highest proportion of infants with low values of birth weight, birth length, head circumference, ponderal index and of the Apgar score at 5 min was observed for women who smoked both before and during pregnancy. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy and the odds of the aforementioned adverse birth outcomes; neither were there significant differences in their occurrences among non-smokers and those who smoked before but not during pregnancy. Moreover, smoking reduction during pregnancy relative to its pre-gestation level did not influence the odds of the adverse birth outcomes. Our findings emphasize a continued need for action against tobacco smoking during pregnancy.

  1. Birth defects in newborns and stillborns: an example of the Brazilian reality

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    Fett-Conte Agnes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study constitutes a clinical and genetic study of all newborn and stillborn infants with birth defects seen in a period of one year in a medical school hospital located in Brazil. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence, causes and consequences of the defects. Methods For all infants we carried out physical assessment, photographic records, analysis of medical records and collection of additional information with the family, besides the karyotypic analysis or molecular tests in indicated cases. Result The incidence of birth defects was 2.8%. Among them, the etiology was identified in 73.6% (ci95%: 64.4-81.6%. Etiology involving the participation of genetic factors single or associated with environmental factors was more frequent 94.5%, ci95%: 88.5-98.0% than those caused exclusively by environmental factors (alcohol in and gestational diabetes mellitus. The conclusive or presumed diagnosis was possible in 85% of the cases. Among them, the isolated congenital heart disease (9.5% and Down syndrome (9.5% were the most common, followed by gastroschisis (8.4%, neural tube defects (7.4% and clubfoot (5.3%. Maternal age, parental consanguinity, exposure to teratogenic agents and family susceptibility were some of the identified risk factors. The most common observed consequences were prolonged hospital stays and death. Conclusions The current incidence of birth defects among newborns and stillbirths of in our population is similar to those obtained by other studies performed in Brazil and in other underdeveloped countries. Birth defects are one of the major causes leading to lost years of potential life. The study of birth defects in underdeveloped countries should continue. The identification of incidence, risk factors and consequences are essential for planning preventive measures and effective treatments.

  2. Maternal Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Bertke, Stephen J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Romitti, Paul A.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Malik, Sadia; Lupo, Philip J.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Bell, Erin; Druschel, Charlotte; Correa, Adolfo; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects, affecting approximately 1% of live births. Pesticide exposure has been suggested as an etiologic factor for CHDs, but previous results were inconsistent. METHODS We examined maternal occupational exposure to fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides for 3328 infants with CHDs and 2988 unaffected control infants of employed mothers using data for 1997 through 2002 births from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based multisite case-control study. Potential pesticide exposure from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy was assigned by an expert-guided task-exposure matrix and job history details self-reported by mothers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS Maternal occupational exposure to pesticides was not associated with CHDs overall. In examining specific CHD subtypes compared with controls, some novel associations were observed with higher estimated pesticide exposure: insecticides only and secundum atrial septal defect (OR =1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.7, 40 exposed cases); both insecticides and herbicides and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (OR =5.1; 95% CI, 1.7–15.3, 4 exposed cases), as well as pulmonary valve stenosis (OR =3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.1, 5 exposed cases); and insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (OR =2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–4.0, 13 exposed cases). CONCLUSION Broad pesticide exposure categories were not associated with CHDs overall, but examining specific CHD subtypes revealed some increased odds ratios. These results highlight the importance of examining specific CHDs separately. Because of multiple comparisons, additional work is needed to verify these associations. PMID:26033688

  3. Birth defects in perinatal infants in areas contiguous to Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant before its normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ling; Yin Zhihua; Han Zhonghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the status of birth defects among the perinatal infants in the areas contiguous to Hongyanhe nuclear power plant before its normal operation, so as to provide background information for the evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plant on birth defects. Methods: From 1 October 1995 to 30 September 2009 the midwifery units at second class and above of Wafangdian City were asked to be in charge of recording the birth defects among the perinatal infants born during this period within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. Results: The total number of birth defects was 697, and the maternal number Was 83779. The average defect rate Was 83.20/10 4 . There were significant differences in the birth defect rate among different years (χ 2 =39.54, P<0.05), however, without linear trend therein,and among the survey areas (χ 2 =15.36, P<0.05) as well. The top five birth defects were congenital heart disease (148 cases), cleft lip with cleft palate (67 cases), congenital hydrocephalus (63 cases), and spina bifida (37 cases) and cleft lip (36 cases). Conclusions: The birth defect rate within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant is lower than that of the region of Liaoning Province and the national rate of birth defects. (authors)

  4. Proceedings of the Conference on Birth Defects for Educators (May 4, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael S., Ed.; Davidson, Mary W., Ed.

    Six papers from a 1978 conference on birth defects focus on prevention. G. Stickle ("The Health of America's Babies: How Do We Stack Up?'" reviews risk in pregnancy, cites inadequate prenatal care and maternal nutrition, and discusses examples of how the United States is not applying its knowledge of how to improve pregnancy outcome. In "Genetic…

  5. Overview of Epidemiology, Genetics, Birth Defects, and Chromosome Abnormalities Associated With CDH

    OpenAIRE

    Pober, Barbara R.

    2007-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations.

  6. A study of handling cytotoxic drugs and risk of birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirangi, Adeleh; Bower, Carol; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Preen, David B; Bruce, Neville

    2014-06-12

    We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies) who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05-4.15)). Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03) and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00-3.48) and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18-5.42). This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs.

  7. AGORA, a data- and biobank for birth defects and childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Iris A. L. M.; van der Zanden, Loes F. M.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Wijers, Charlotte H. W.; Thonissen, Michelle; Dokter, Elisabeth M. J.; Marcelis, Carlo L. M.; de Blaauw, Ivo; Wijnen, Marc H. W. A.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Bokkerink, Jos P. M.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; Koster-Kamphuis, Linda; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A. M.; Kapusta, Livia; van Heijst, Arno F. J.; Liem, Kian D.; de Gier, Robert P. E.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Bergé, Stefaan J.; van der Biezen, Jan Jaap; Verdonck, An; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Hens, Greet; Roosenboom, Jasmien; Lilien, Marc R.; de Jong, Tom P.; Broens, Paul; Wijnen, Rene; Brooks, Alice; Franke, Barbara; Brunner, Han G.; Carels, Carine E. L.; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Feitz, Wout F. J.; Roeleveld, Nel

    2016-01-01

    Research regarding the etiology of birth defects and childhood cancer is essential to develop preventive measures, but often requires large study populations. Therefore, we established the AGORA data- and biobank in the Netherlands. In this study, we describe its rationale, design, and ongoing data

  8. AGORA, a data- and biobank for birth defects and childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Iris A. L. M.; van der Zanden, Loes F. M.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Wijers, Charlotte H. W.; Thonissen, Michelle; Dokter, Elisabeth M. J.; Marcelis, Carlo L. M.; de Blaauw, Ivo; Wijnen, Marc H. W. A.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Bokkerink, Jos P. M.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; Koster-Kamphuis, Linda; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A. M.; Kapusta, Livia; van Heijst, Arno F. J.; Liem, Kian D.; de Gier, Robert P. E.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Berge, Stefaan J.; van der Biezen, Jan Jaap; Verdonck, An; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Hens, Greet; Roosenboom, Jasmien; Lilien, Marc R.; de Jong, Tom P.; Broens, Paul; Wijnen, Rene; Brooks, Alice; Franke, Barbara; Brunner, Han G.; Carels, Carine E. L.; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Feitz, Wout F. J.; Roeleveld, Nel

    BACKGROUNDResearch regarding the etiology of birth defects and childhood cancer is essential to develop preventive measures, but often requires large study populations. Therefore, we established the AGORA data- and biobank in the Netherlands. In this study, we describe its rationale, design, and

  9. Differences in risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias in the national birth defects prevention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, S.G.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Olney, R.S.; Carmichael, S.L.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. METHODS: A wide variety of data

  10. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dastgiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using folic acid during pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. Material and Methods : In this study, 243 pregnant women that were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies were evaluated. They were referred to Legal Medicine Organization of East Azarbaijan province to get permission for therapeutic termination of pregnancy. Results : The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7%. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79% (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94% (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with use folic acid. Conclusion : Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy for maternal and child health promotion. ​

  11. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-02-23

    Feb 23, 2011 ... errors of metabolism (IEM) comprise a large class of genetic diseases involving disorders of metabolism. The majority are due to defects of single genes that code for enzymes that facilitate conversion of various substances (substrates) into others (products). In a Western study, the overall incidence of the ...

  12. Cloacal exstrophy: an epidemiologic study from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Botto, Lorenzo D; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canfield, Mark A; Castilla, Eduardo E; Clementi, Maurizio; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Siffel, Csaba; Carey, John C

    2011-11-15

    Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex). Historically, the prevalence ranges from 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 births, with higher rates in females. Cloacal exstrophy is likely etiologically heterogeneous as suggested by its recurrence in families and occurrence in monozygotic twins. The defect has been described in infants with limb-body wall, with trisomy 18, and in one pregnancy exposed to Dilantin and diazepam. Due to its rarity, the use of a nonspecific diagnostic code for case identification, and lack of validation of the clinical findings, cloacal exstrophy remains an epidemiologic challenge. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, associated anomalies and maternal characteristics among infants born with cloacal exstrophy. We used data from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research submitted from 18 birth defect surveillance programs representing 24 countries. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally by two authors. Cases of persistent cloaca were excluded. A total of 186 cases of cloacal exstrophy were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 131,579 births: ranging from 1 in 44,444 births in Wales to 1 in 269,464 births in South America. Live birth prevalence was 1 in 184,195 births. Prevalence ratios did not vary by maternal age. Forty-two (22.6%) cases met the criteria for the OEIS complex, whereas 60 (32.3%) were classified as OEI and 18 (9.7%) as EIS (one with suspected VATER (0.5%)). Other findings included two cases with trisomy 13 (one without a karyotype confirmation), one with mosaic trisomy 12 (0.5%), one with mosaic 45,X (0.5%) and one classified as having amnion band sequence (0.5%). Twenty-seven (14.5%) infants had other

  13. [Prevalence of birth defects according to the level of care in two hospitals, Cali, Colombia, 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachajoa, Harry; Villota, Vania A; Cruz, Luz Marina; Ariza, Yoseth

    2015-01-01

    Birth defects are morphologic alterations diagnosed prenatal or postnatally. Surveillance systems have been used to estimate the prevalence in high complexity care centers; however, the variation of the prevalence among different complexity care centers remains unknown. To compare the prevalence of birth defects among two different complexity care centers in Cali, Colombia. A descriptive hospital-based study following the methodology of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations was conducted during 20 months in a medium complexity hospital and a high complexity hospital. During the study period, 7,140 births were attended of which 225 had at least one birth defect. The prevalence of these was of 1.7% (IC95% 1.3-2.0) and 7.4% (IC95% 6.2-8.7) for the medium complexity hospital and the high complexity hospital, respectively. The highest frequencies for the high complexity care center were: ventricular septal defect, 10%; congenital hydronephrosis, 7%; abdominal wall defects, 6%, and hydrocephalus, 5%, while for the medium complexity were: polydactyly, 15%; preauricular skin tags, 8%; congenital talipes equino varus, 7%, and hemangioma, 6%. The prevalence of birth defects among different complexity care centers varies in quantity, type and severity of the anomaly diagnosed. The surveillance of birth defects is a useful tool for any level of care. It allows estimating more accurately the prevalence of the city, as well being a base for the planning and targeting of resources according to the prevalence of different congenital defects.

  14. Birth defects after assisted reproductive technology according to the method of treatment in Japan: nationwide data between 2004 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooki, Syuichi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze birth defects (congenital anomalies) after assisted reproductive technology (ART) according to the method of treatment, namely in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). Individual lists of all ART pregnancies resulting in birth defects from birth year 2004 to 2012 presented in the annual reports by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology were used as the initial sources of information. Relative risks (RRs) with the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with IVF as the reference group when calculating RR of ICSI for IVF, and with FET as the reference group when calculating the RR of fresh embryo transfer for FET. In total, 2725 stillbirths or live births with birth defects were analyzed. The prevalence of birth defects was slightly yet significantly higher in ICSI compared with IVF throughout the study period (RR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.02-1.29) and in the 2004-2006 period (RR = 1.26, 95 % CI 1.00-1.58). The prevalence of birth defects was significantly higher for fresh embryo transfer compared with FET in the 2004-2006 period (RR = 1.39, 95 % CI 1.12-1.72). The prevalence of birth defects in multiple births was significantly lower in fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (RR = 0.70, 95 % CI 0.55-0.90, live births of 2007-2012). The present descriptive epidemiological study suggests that the impacts of different ART methods on birth defects might differ.

  15. A Study of Handling Cytotoxic Drugs and Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Female Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleh Shirangi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05–4.15. Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03 and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00–3.48 and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18–5.42. This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs.

  16. Overview of Epidemiology, Genetics, Birth Defects, and Chromosome Abnormalities Associated With CDH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations. PMID:17436298

  17. Overview of epidemiology, genetics, birth defects, and chromosome abnormalities associated with CDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Barbara R

    2007-05-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A Study of Handling Cytotoxic Drugs and Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Female Veterinarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirangi, Adeleh; Bower, Carol; Holman, C. D’Arcy J.; Preen, David B.; Bruce, Neville

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies) who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05–4.15)). Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03) and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00–3.48) and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18–5.42). This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs. PMID:24927037

  19. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth defects in children: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilvania Nicoletti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth defects in children. We performed an electronic search of observational studies in the databases ovid MEDLINE (1950 to April 2010, LILACS and SciELO. We included 188 studies with a total of 13,564,914 participants (192,655 cases. Significant positive associations were found between maternal smoking and birth defects in the following body systems: cardiovascular (OR: 1.11; 95%CI: 1.03-1.19, digestive (OR: 1.18; 95%CI: 1.07-1.30, musculoskeletal (OR: 1.27; 95%CI: 1.16-1.39 and face and neck (OR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.19-1.37. The strength of association between maternal smoking and birth defects measured by the OR (95%CI is significantly related to the amount of cigarettes smoked daily (χ2 = 12.1; df = 2; p = 0.002. In conclusion, maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with congenital malformations in children and this association is dose-dependent.

  20. Effect of Concomitant Birth Defects and Genetic Anomalies on Infant Mortality in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Eric G; Strassle, Paula D; Stebbins, Rebecca C; Meyer, Robert E; Nelson, Jennifer S

    2017-08-15

    A substantial proportion of infants born with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) die in infancy. A better understanding of the heterogeneity associated with TOF, including extracardiac malformations and chromosomal anomalies is vital to stratifying risk and optimizing outcomes during infancy. Using the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program, infants diagnosed with TOF and born between 2003 and 2012 were included. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative 1-year mortality, stratified by the presence of concomitant birth defects (BDs) and chromosomal anomalies. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the direct effect of each concomitant BD, after adjusting for all others. A total of 496 infants with TOF were included, and 15% (n = 76) died. The number of concomitant BD systems was significantly associated with the risk of death at 1-year, p < 0.0001. Specifically, the risk of mortality was 8% among infants with TOF with or without additional cardiac defects, 16% among infants with TOF and 1 extracardiac BD system, 19% among infants with 2 extracardiac BD systems, and 39% among infants with ≥ 3 extracardiac BD systems. After adjustment, concomitant eye and gastrointestinal defects were significantly associated increased with 1-year mortality, odds ratio 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-7.32) and odds ratio 4.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.57, 12.45), respectively. Infants with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18 were also significantly more likely to die, p < 0.0001. Both concomitant BDs and genetic anomalies increase the risk of mortality among infants with TOF. Future studies are needed to identify the underlying genetic and socioeconomic risk factors for high-risk TOF infants. Birth Defects Research 109:1154-1165, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands : A 30-year population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Essen, Anthonie J; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964-1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964-1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other

  2. Prevalence of Birth Defects Among Infants of Gulf War Veterans in Arkansas, Arizona, California, Georgia, Hawaii, and Iowa, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    unilateral absence/agenesis/dysplasia/hypoplasia of kidneys (right), polycystic kidneys (left, infantile type), congenital hydronephrosis (left...categories, and expected 1.2 of 24 birth defects cat - Araneta MRG, Destiche DA, Schlangen KM, et al. 2000. Birth defects prev- alence among infants of Persian ...San Diego, California ’Birth Defects and Pediatric Genetics Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia ’Hawaii Birth

  3. Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Preet Allagh

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India. Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement.The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9. The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5. Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn.The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.

  4. Birth Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts in India: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagh, Komal Preet; Shamanna, B. R.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V. S.; Ness, Andy R.; Doyle, Pat; Neogi, Sutapa B.; Pant, Hira B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Methods A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India). Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement. Results The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9). The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn. Conclusion The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India. PMID:25768737

  5. Racial/ethnic differences in survival of United States children with birth defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Gang; Canfield, Mark A; Mai, Cara T; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meyer, Robert E; Anderka, Marlene; Copeland, Glenn E; Kucik, James E; Nembhard, Wendy N; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-04-01

    To examine racial/ethnic-specific survival of children with major birth defects in the US. We pooled data on live births delivered during 1999-2007 with any of 21 birth defects from 12 population-based birth defects surveillance programs. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to calculate cumulative survival probabilities and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality risk. For most birth defects, there were small-to-moderate differences in neonatal (<28 days) survival among racial/ethnic groups. However, compared with children born to non-Hispanic white mothers, postneonatal infant (28 days to <1 year) mortality risk was significantly greater among children born to non-Hispanic black mothers for 13 of 21 defects (hazard ratios [HRs] 1.3-2.8) and among children born to Hispanic mothers for 10 of 21 defects (HRs 1.3-1.7). Compared with children born to non-Hispanic white mothers, a significantly increased childhood (≤ 8 years) mortality risk was found among children born to Asian/Pacific Islander mothers for encephalocele (HR 2.6), tetralogy of Fallot, and atrioventricular septal defect (HRs 1.6-1.8) and among children born to American Indian/Alaska Native mothers for encephalocele (HR 2.8), whereas a significantly decreased childhood mortality risk was found among children born to Asian/Pacific Islander mothers for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (HR 0.6). Children with birth defects born to non-Hispanic black and Hispanic mothers carry a greater risk of mortality well into childhood, especially children with congenital heart defect. Understanding survival differences among racial/ethnic groups provides important information for policy development and service planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes and obesity-related genes and the risk of neural tube defects in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Waller, D Kim; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-12-15

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999-2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy.

  7. The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2 assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3 provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects. METHODS: We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ≥ 28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59, exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30, maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33, drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95, maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57, and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53. Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary

  8. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  9. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS......: This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins...

  10. Committee Opinion No. 717 Summary: Sulfonamides, Nitrofurantoin, and Risk of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The evidence regarding an association between the nitrofuran and sulfonamide classes of antibiotics and birth defects is mixed. As with all patients, antibiotics should be prescribed for pregnant women only for appropriate indications and for the shortest effective duration. During the second and third trimesters, sulfonamides and nitrofurantoins may continue to be used as first-line agents for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and other infections caused by susceptible organisms. Prescribing sulfonamides or nitrofurantoin in the first trimester is still considered appropriate when no other suitable alternative antibiotics are available. Pregnant women should not be denied appropriate treatment for infections because untreated infections can commonly lead to serious maternal and fetal complications.

  11. Committee Opinion No. 717: Sulfonamides, Nitrofurantoin, and Risk of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The evidence regarding an association between the nitrofuran and sulfonamide classes of antibiotics and birth defects is mixed. As with all patients, antibiotics should be prescribed for pregnant women only for appropriate indications and for the shortest effective duration. During the second and third trimesters, sulfonamides and nitrofurantoins may continue to be used as first-line agents for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and other infections caused by susceptible organisms. Prescribing sulfonamides or nitrofurantoin in the first trimester is still considered appropriate when no other suitable alternative antibiotics are available. Pregnant women should not be denied appropriate treatment for infections because untreated infections can commonly lead to serious maternal and fetal complications.

  12. Preterm birth and congenital heart defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, Enora; Lelong, Nathalie; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Houyel, Lucile; Bonnet, Damien; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Kayem, Gilles; Goffinet, François; Khoshnood, Babak

    2012-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) and congenital heart defect (CHD) are 2 major causes of mortality and disability of perinatal origin. There are limited data on the relation between CHD and PTB. Our objective was to use population-based data to estimate the risk of PTB in newborns with CHD and to study specific associations between categories of CHD and PTB. We used data from a population-based cohort study of CHD (EPIdémiologique sur le devenir des enfants porteurs de CARDiopathies congénitales study), including 2189 live births with CHD (excluding isolated atrial septal defects) born between 2005 and 2008. We categorized CHD by using an anatomic and clinical classification. Data from the French National Perinatal Survey of 2003 were used to compare PTB in the EPIdémiologique sur le devenir des enfants porteurs de CARDiopathies congénitales study to that of the general population. Of the newborns with CHD, 13.5% were preterm. The odds of PTB were twofold higher than for the general population (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.6-2.5), essentially due to an increase in spontaneous PTB for newborns with CHD. The risk of PTB associated with CHD persisted after exclusion of chromosomal or other anomalies. There were significant variations in risk of PTB across the categories of CHD after adjustment for known risk factors of PTB and factors related to medical management of pregnancy and delivery. We found a higher risk of PTB in newborns with CHD, which was essentially due to spontaneous PTB. Risk of PTB varied for categories of CHD. Our finding may be helpful for generating hypotheses about the developmental links between CHD and PTB.

  13. Central Nervous System Birth Defects in Surgically Treated Infants in Sarajevo Region of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aličelebić

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system (CNS are common. The prevalence of these anomalies shows considerable geographical variation and female predominance. The aim of this work was to obtain the frequency of different CNS congenital anomalies types and their sex distribution among cases hospitalized in a Department of Neurosurgery, University of Sarajevo Clinics Center, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the period January 2001 to December 2004. Retrospective study was carried out on the basis of the clinical records. Standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for the data analysis. A total of 103 cases were surgically treated in the period from 2001 through 2004. Out of that number 56 (54,4% were female patients, while 47 (46,6% were male patients. Seven different CNS birth defect types were found in this investigation. These were: spina bifida (42 cases or 40,78%, congenital hydrocephalus (35 cases or 33,98%, arachnoid cyst (15 cases or 14,56%, Dandy-Walker syndrome (5 cases or 4,85%, dermoid cyst (4 cases or 3,88%, one of Arnold-Chiari syndrome (0,98% and one of encefalocele (0,98%. According to this investigation, CNS congenital birth defects were slightly higher in females (54,4%. The most frequent types were spina bifida (40,78% both in females (22,33% and in males (18,45%, hydrocephalus (33,98% and arachnoid cyst (14,56%. The anomalies of the other organ systems, associated with CNS anomalies obtained in this investigation, were pes equinovarus, cheiloshisis, cardiomegalia and palatoshisis. They were found in six cases (5,82%, equal in both sexes.

  14. Birth defects in juvenile Wistar rats after exposure to immunosuppressive drugs during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Pilutin, Anna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Kędzierska, Karolina; Domański, Leszek; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and their active metabolites can cross the placental barrier and enter fetal circulation. The adverse effects on the fetus include chromosomal aberrations, structural malformations, organ-specific toxicity and intrauterine growth retardation. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of "safe" and "contraindicated" immunosuppressive drugs on birth defects in juvenile Wistar rats after exposure of pregnant female rats to these drugs. The study was conducted on 32 female Wistar rats, subjected to immunosuppressive regimens most commonly used in therapy of human kidney transplant recipients. The animals received drugs by oral gavage 2 weeks before pregnancy and during 3 weeks of pregnancy. Treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and everolimus turned out to be toxic. We have noticed a significantly reduced number of live births in all pregnant rats exposed to these drugs in combination with calcineurin inhibitors and prednisone. Malformations and histological changes of fetal organs were confirmed after mycophenolate mofetil exposure during pregnancy. Mycophenolate mofetil turned out to be more toxic when used with tacrolimus than with cyclosporin (delivery of live offspring was possible only in the latter group). Everolimus in combination with cyclosporin effectively suppressed the fetal maturation in utero, but did not contribute to the development of malformations.

  15. Birth outcomes of cases with isolated atrial septal defect type II--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-07-01

    In general, epidemiological studies have evaluated cases with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities together. The aim of this study is to describe the birth outcomes of cases with isolated/single atrial septal defect type II (ASD-II, i.e. only a fossa ovalis defect) after surgical correction or lethal outcome in the light of maternal sociodemographic data. Comparison of birth outcomes and maternal characteristics of cases with ASD-II and controls without defect. The population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Hungarian newborn infants with or without ASD-II. Medically recorded birth outcomes, maternal age and birth order were evaluated. Marital and employment status was based on maternal information. The lifestyle factors were analyzed in a subsample of mothers visited at home based on a personal interview with mothers and their close relatives, and the family consensus was accepted. Mean gestational age at delivery and birthweight, rate of preterm birth and low birthweight, maternal age, birth order, marital and employment status. The evaluation of 471 cases with ASD-II and 38,151 controls without any defects showed a female excess in cases with ASD-II, having shorter gestational age and lower mean birthweight, and thus a higher rate of preterm births and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction and shorter gestational age were found in cases with ASD-II, particularly in female children. These factors may have a general developmental process in which there was not closure of the foramen ovale, thus echocardiographic screening of these babies might be of value. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  17. Preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Lupo, Philip J; Agopian, A J; Canfield, Mark A; Case, Amy P; Carmichael, Suzan L; Mitchell, Laura E

    2014-06-01

    Despite public health campaigns encouraging women to take a daily folic acid supplement, the proportion of reproductive age women, in the United States, who comply with this recommendation is less than optimal. The objective of this analysis was to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use to define subgroups of women who may benefit from targeted folic acid campaigns. This study included 6570 mothers of live born infants from the control population of National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2005). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to define subgroups of women with different patterns of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. Race/ethnicity, education, age at delivery, nativity, employment, income, number of dependents, smoking, and birth control use were significantly associated with preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use. Based on a CART analysis, education, race/ethnicity, and age were the most distinguishing factors between women with different preconceptional supplementation patterns. Non-white women with <4 years of a college education were the least likely to use folic acid-containing supplements (11%). However, even in the most compliant subgroup (women with ≥4 years of college), only 60% of women supplemented with folic acid. These results demonstrate the need for continued efforts to increase folic acid supplementation among all reproductive aged women. However, the success of such efforts may be improved if maternal characteristics such as education, race/ethnicity, and age, are considered in the development of future interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hypospadias and maternal exposure to atrazine via drinking water in the National Birth Defects Prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer J; Emch, Michael; Meyer, Robert E; Langlois, Peter; Weyer, Peter; Mosley, Bridget; Olshan, Andrew F; Band, Lawrence E; Luben, Thomas J

    2016-07-15

    Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals might increase the risk of hypospadias by interrupting normal urethral development. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study, we considered the role of maternal exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide and potential endocrine disruptor, via drinking water in the etiology of 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias. We used data on 343 hypospadias cases and 1,422 male controls in North Carolina, Arkansas, Iowa, and Texas from 1998-2005. Using catchment level stream and groundwater contaminant models from the US Geological Survey, we estimated atrazine concentrations in public water supplies and in private wells. We assigned case and control mothers to public water supplies based on geocoded maternal address during the critical window of exposure for hypospadias (i.e., gestational weeks 6-16). Using maternal questionnaire data about water consumption and drinking water, we estimated a surrogate for total maternal consumption of atrazine via drinking water. We then included additional maternal covariates, including age, race/ethnicity, parity, and plurality, in logistic regression analyses to consider an association between atrazine and hypospadias. When controlling for maternal characteristics, any association between hypospadias and daily maternal atrazine exposure during the critical window of genitourinary development was found to be weak or null (odds ratio for atrazine in drinking water = 1. 00, 95 % CI = 0.97 to 1.03 per 0.04 μg/day increase; odds ratio for maternal consumption = 1.02, 95 % CI = 0.99 to 1.05; per 0.05 μg/day increase). While the association that we observed was weak, our results suggest that additional research into a possible association between atrazine and hypospadias occurrence, using a more sensitive exposure metric

  19. Quality of reporting on birth defects in birth certificates: case study from a Brazilian reference hospital Qualidade da notificação de defeitos congênitos nas declarações de nascido vivo: estudo de caso em hospital de referência no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Varela Luquetti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the coverage, validity and reliability of Brazil's Information System on Live Births (SINASC for birth defects in a hospital in the city of Campinas (São Paulo State. The study population consisted of 2,823 newborn infants delivered in 2004 at the Women's Integrated Health Care Center (CAISM. A birth defect registry (ECLAMC was used as the gold-standard. All birth defect cases reported at CAISM in 2004 (92 cases were selected from SINASC data files. All 168 birth defect cases from the same city and year registered at ECLAMC were also retrieved. An underreporting of 46.8% was observed for all birth defects, and 36.4% when considering only the major birth defects. The ascertained sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 54.2% and 99.8%. The reliability of three and four-digit ICD-10 coding for birth defects was 0.77 and 0.55 respectively (kappa statistic. These results suggest that information provided by birth certificates in Campinas still presents limitations when seeking to ascertain accurate estimates of the prevalence of birth defects, hence indicating the need for improvements in the SINASC database to enable it to portray birth defect prevalence at birth in this city.O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a cobertura, validade e confiabilidade do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC para anomalias congênitas, em hospital de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. A população de estudo consistiu nos 2.843 nascidos vivos do Centro de Atenção Integrada à Saúde da Mulher (CAISM, em 2004. Na base de dados SINASC, foram selecionados os 92 casos com diagnóstico de anomalia congênita no CAISM. Para o mesmo período, na base de dados ECLAMC, foram selecionados os 168 registros de nascidos vivos com anomalia congênita considerados como padrão-ouro, também no CAISM. Observou-se subnotificação de 46,8% para o conjunto dos casos de anomalias congênitas e de 36,4% quando a análise foi

  20. Notes from the Field: Zika Virus-Associated Neonatal Birth Defects Surveillance - Texas, January 2016-July 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Noemi Borsay; Broussard, Kelly; Evert, Nicole; Canfield, Mark

    2017-08-11

    On November 28, 2016, the Texas Department of State Health Services (Texas DSHS) reported its first confirmed case of local mosquitoborne Zika virus transmission in the city of Brownsville, located in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico border. Zika virus infection during pregnancy has been linked to adverse congenital outcomes including microcephaly, neural tube defects, early brain malformations, structural eye abnormalities, congenital deafness, and limb contractures (1). On January 1, 2016, Texas DSHS established enhanced surveillance to identify women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy and suspected cases of Zika virus-associated birth defects among completed pregnancies.

  1. Population-Based Surveillance of Birth Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus Infection - 15 States and U.S. Territories, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Augustina; Mai, Cara; Smoots, Ashley; Cragan, Janet; Ellington, Sascha; Langlois, Peter; Breidenbach, Rebecca; Fornoff, Jane; Dunn, Julie; Yazdy, Mahsa; Scotto-Rosato, Nancy; Sweatlock, Joseph; Fox, Deborah; Palacios, Jessica; Forestieri, Nina; Leedom, Vinita; Smiley, Mary; Nance, Amy; Lake-Burger, Heather; Romitti, Paul; Fall, Carrie; Prado, Miguel Valencia; Barton, Jerusha; Bryan, J Michael; Arias, William; Brown, Samara Viner; Kimura, Jonathan; Mann, Sylvia; Martin, Brennan; Orantes, Lucia; Taylor, Amber; Nahabedian, John; Akosa, Amanda; Song, Ziwei; Martin, Stacey; Ramlal, Roshan; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Isenburg, Jennifer; Moore, Cynthia A; Gilboa, Suzanne; Honein, Margaret A

    2018-01-26

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1). Population-based birth defects surveillance systems are critical to monitor all infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of known exposure or laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. CDC analyzed data from 15 U.S. jurisdictions conducting population-based surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.* Jurisdictions were stratified into the following three groups: those with 1) documented local transmission of Zika virus during 2016; 2) one or more cases of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents; and 3) less than one case of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents. A total of 2,962 infants and fetuses (3.0 per 1,000 live births; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-3.2) (2) met the case definition. † In areas with local transmission there was a non-statistically significant increase in total birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection from 2.8 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 3.0 cases in the second half (p = 0.10). However, when neural tube defects and other early brain malformations (NTDs) § were excluded, the prevalence of birth defects strongly linked to congenital Zika virus infection increased significantly, from 2.0 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 2.4 cases in the second half, an increase of 29 more cases than expected (p = 0.009). These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection and the need for continued monitoring in areas at risk for Zika.

  2. Suspected Spontaneous Reports of Birth Defects in the UK Associated with the Use of Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Pamela; Vaidya, Bijay

    2011-01-01

    The concept of a carbimazole embryopathy underlies current Endocrine Society advice to avoid this drug in early pregnancy, favouring propylthiouracil as an alternative for the treatment of maternal hyperthyroidism. We aimed to establish whether suspected spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions in the UK via the Yellow Card Scheme supports a carbimazole embryopathy and the lack of association between propylthiouracil and congenital anomalies. All birth defects related to maternal treat...

  3. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  4. Development and validation of a national data registry for midwife-led births: the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2.0 dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa; Bovbjerg, Marit; Everson, Courtney; Gordon, Wendy; Hannibal, Darcy; Vedam, Saraswathi

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Midwives Alliance of North America's (MANA's) Division of Research developed a Web-based data collection system to gather information on the practices and outcomes associated with midwife-led births in the United States. This system, called the MANA Statistics Project (MANA Stats), grew out of a widely acknowledged need for more reliable data on outcomes by intended place of birth. This article describes the history and development of the MANA Stats birth registry and provides an analysis of the 2.0 dataset's content, strengths, and limitations. Data collection and review procedures for the MANA Stats 2.0 dataset are described, along with methods for the assessment of data accuracy. We calculated descriptive statistics for client demographics and contributing midwife credentials, and assessed the quality of data by calculating point estimates, 95% confidence intervals, and kappa statistics for key outcomes on pre- and postreview samples of records. The MANA Stats 2.0 dataset (2004-2009) contains 24,848 courses of care, 20,893 of which are for women who planned a home or birth center birth at the onset of labor. The majority of these records were planned home births (81%). Births were attended primarily by certified professional midwives (73%), and clients were largely white (92%), married (87%), and college-educated (49%). Data quality analyses of 9932 records revealed no differences between pre- and postreviewed samples for 7 key benchmarking variables (kappa, 0.98-1.00). The MANA Stats 2.0 data were accurately entered by participants; any errors in this dataset are likely random and not systematic. The primary limitation of the 2.0 dataset is that the sample was captured through voluntary participation; thus, it may not accurately reflect population-based outcomes. The dataset's primary strength is that it will allow for the examination of research questions on normal physiologic birth and midwife-led birth outcomes by intended place of birth.

  5. Low birth weight and zygosity status is associated with defective muscle glycogen and glycogen synthase regulation in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An adverse intrauterine environment indicated by both low birth weight and monozygosity is associated with an age- or time-dependent reduction in glucose disposal and nonoxidative glucose metabolism in twins, suggesting impaired regulation of muscle glycogen synthesis. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: We measured the activities of glycogen synthase (GS), GS kinase (GSK)3 alpha, GS phosphorylation, and glycogen levels in muscle biopsies obtained from 184 young and elderly twins before and after a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. RESULTS: Elderly monozygotic twins had significantly lower...... fractional GS activity amidst higher glycogen and GS protein levels compared with dizygotic twins. In addition, we demonstrated strong nongenetic associations between birth weight and defect muscle glycogen metabolism in elderly--but not in younger--twins. Thus, for every 100 g increase in birth weight...

  6. Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and birth defects and infant mortality in nearby communities 1971-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.C.; Rouleau, J.

    1991-10-01

    This study was commissioned to examine whether there were elevated rates of stillbirth, birth defects, or death in the first year of life between 1971 and 1988 among offspring of residents of communities within a 25-kilometre radius of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The study was also to investigate whether there were any statistical associations between the monthly airborne or waterborne tritium emissions from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and the rates of these reproductive outcomes. Overall analysis did not support a hypothesis of increased rates of stillbirths, neonatal mortality or infant mortality near the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, or a hypothesis of increased birth prevalence of birth defects for 21 of 22 diagnostic categories. The prevalence of Down Syndrome was elevated in both Pickering and Ajax; however, there was no consistent pattern between tritium release levels and Down Syndrome prevalence, chance could not be ruled out for the associations between Down Syndrome and tritium releases or ground-monitored concentrations, the association was detected in an analysis where multiple testing was done which may turn up significant associations by change, and maternal residence at birth and early in pregnancy needs to be verified. The association between Down Syndrome and low-level radiation remains indeterminate when existing evidence from epidemiological studies is summed. The estimated radiation exposure from the nuclear plant for residents of Pickering and Ajax is lower by a factor of 100 than the normal natural background radiation. Further study is recommended. (21 tabs., 29 figs., 5 maps, 37 refs.)

  7. Cloacal Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Siffel, Csaba; Carey, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex).

  8. First-trimester exposure to metformin and risk of birth defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassina, Matteo; Donà, Marta; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Litta, Pietro; Clementi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is generally considered a non-teratogenic drug; however, only a few studies specifically designed to assess the rate of congenital anomalies after metformin use have been published in the literature. The objects of the present study were to review all of the prospective and retrospective studies reporting on women treated with metformin at least during the first trimester of their pregnancy and to estimate the overall rate of major birth defects. Databases were searched for English language articles until December 2013. Inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis were: a case group of women with PCOS or pre-pregnancy type 2 diabetes and first-trimester exposure to metformin; a disease-matched control group which was not exposed to metformin or other oral anti-diabetic agents; and a list of the major anomalies in both the study and the control groups. A random effects model was used for the meta-analysis of data, using odds ratios. Studies not fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis but reporting relevant data on major malformations in women diagnosed with PCOS were then used to estimate the overall birth defects rate. Meta-analysis of nine controlled studies with women affected by PCOS detected that the rate of major birth defects in the metformin-exposed group was not statistically increased compared with the disease-matched control group and that there was no significant heterogeneity among the studies. The metformin-exposed sample was composed of 351 pregnancies and the OR of major birth defects was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.18-4.08; Pheterogeneity = 0.71). By evaluating all of the non-overlapping PCOS studies reported in the literature, even those without an appropriate control group, the overall rate of major anomalies was 0.6% in the sample of 517 women who discontinued the therapy upon conception or confirmation of pregnancy and 0.5% in the sample of 634 women who were treated with metformin throughout the first trimester of

  9. Prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and changes in this habit during pregnancy in Northwest Russia: a Murmansk county birth registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkova, Olga A; Krettek, Alexandra; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-03-08

    Smoking during pregnancy leads to adverse maternal and birth outcomes. However, the prevalence of smoking among women in Russia has increased from  20% in the 2000s. We conducted a registry-based study in Murmansk County, Northwest Russia. Our aims were twofold: (i) assess the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy; and (ii) examine the socio-demographic factors associated with giving up smoking or reducing the number of cigarettes smoked once pregnancy was established. This study employs data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) collected during 2006-2011. We used logistic regression to investigate associations between women's socio-demographic characteristics and changes in smoking habit during pregnancy. To avoid departure from uniform risk within specific delivery departments, we employed clustered robust standard errors. Of all births registered in the MCBR, 25.2% of the mothers were smokers before pregnancy and 18.9% continued smoking during pregnancy. Cessation of smoking during pregnancy was associated with education, marital status and parity but not with maternal age, place of residence, and ethnicity. Women aged ≤ 20-24 years had higher odds of reducing the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy than those aged ≥ 30-34 years. Moreover, smoking nulliparae and pregnant women who had one child were more likely to reduce the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day compared to women having ≥ 2 children. About 25.0% of smoking women in the Murmansk County in Northwest Russia quit smoking after awareness of the pregnancy, and one-third of them reduced the number cigarettes smoked during pregnancy. Our study demonstrates that women who have a higher education, husband, and are primiparous are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Maternal age and number of children are indicators that influence reduction in smoking during pregnancy. Our findings are useful in

  10. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  11. Genetic Mutations, Birth Lengths, Weights and Head Circumferences of Children with IGF-I Receptor Defects. Comparison with other Congenital Defects in the GH/IGF-I axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essakow, Jenna Lee; Lauterpacht, Aharon; Lilos, Pearl; Kauli, Rivka; Laron, Zvi

    2016-09-01

    In recent years more and more genetic defects along the GHRH-GH-IGF-I axis have been reported. Mutations of the IGF-I receptor (R) are a rare abnormality of whom only the heterozygote progenies survive. To summarize, from the literature, data on birth length, weight and head circumference of neonates with IGF-I-R mutations, and to correlate the data with that of other types of mutations in the GH/IGF-I axis. Sixty seven neonates from 24 published articles were included and forty seven different mutations of the IGF-I (R) located on chromosome 15 have been identified. Mean (±SD) birth length (BL), available for 26, (10 M, 16F) neonates with a gestational age of 34-41weeks, was 44.2±4cm; one was premature (30cm at 31 weeks). There was a significant correlation between birth length and gestational age (GA) r=0.71 (p>.001). Mean birth weight (BW) of 41 neonates (18M, 23F) was 2388±743gr. Two premature neonates weighed 650gr and 950gr respectively. The BW correlated significantly with gestational age, (males: r=0.68; p=0.007, females: r=0.49; p=0.024). The BMI of 25 neonates ranged from 6 to 13. In 22 records marked microcephaly was ascertained or stated. Nine of 16 mothers were short (133 -148cm), m±SD = 150.5±7.3cm. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  12. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and craniosynostosis among offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jacqueline L; Langlois, Peter H; Lawson, Christina C; Scheuerle, Angela; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Waters, Martha A; Symanski, Elaine; Romitti, Paul A; Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Evidence in animal models and humans suggests that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may lead to birth defects. To our knowledge, this relationship has not been evaluated for craniosynostosis, a birth defect characterized by the premature closure of sutures in the skull. We conducted a case-control study to examine associations between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. We used data from craniosynostosis cases and control infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with estimated delivery dates from 1997 to 2002. Industrial hygienists reviewed occupational data from the computer-assisted telephone interview and assigned a yes/no rating of probable occupational PAH exposure for each job from 1 month before conception through delivery. We used logistic regression to assess the association between occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. The prevalence of exposure was 5.3% in case mothers (16/300) and 3.7% in control mothers (107/2,886). We observed a positive association between exposure to PAHs during the 1 month before conception through the third month of pregnancy and craniosynostosis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-3.05) after adjusting for maternal age and maternal education. The number of cases for each craniosynostosis subtype limited subtype analyses to sagittal craniosynostosis; the odds ratio remained similar (OR = 1.76, 95% CI, 0.82-3.75), but was not significant. Our findings support a moderate association between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. Additional work is needed to better characterize susceptibility and the role PAHs may play on specific craniosynostosis subtypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Vaginal birth after two previous caesarean deliveries in a patient with uterus didelphys and an interuterine septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ang'a, Njoki; Ratzersdorfer, Jonathan; Abdelhak, Yaakov

    2017-06-05

    Uterus didelphys is a congenital abnormality characterised by double uteri, double cervices and a double or single vagina that affects 0.3% to 11% of the general female population. A 23-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 3003, with uterus didelphys, acquired an iatrogenic interuterine septal defect during an otherwise routine primary caesarean delivery for fetal malpresentation. The defect was repaired but noted to have dehisced during her second pregnancy. A repeat caesarean section was performed due to fetal malpresentation after an unsuccessful external cephalic version. The dehisced defect was left unrepaired. During her third pregnancy, the placenta implanted in the right uterus, but the fetus migrated to the left uterus at approximately 28 weeks gestation. The umbilical cord traversed the interuterine septal defect. With the fetus in the vertex presentation at term gestation, the patient underwent a vaginal birth after two previous caesarean deliveries without any major perinatal complications. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed

  15. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T. (Medical Birth Registry of Norway, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-08-15

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed.

  16. Suspected Spontaneous Reports of Birth Defects in the UK Associated with the Use of Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Bowman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a carbimazole embryopathy underlies current Endocrine Society advice to avoid this drug in early pregnancy, favouring propylthiouracil as an alternative for the treatment of maternal hyperthyroidism. We aimed to establish whether suspected spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions in the UK via the Yellow Card Scheme supports a carbimazole embryopathy and the lack of association between propylthiouracil and congenital anomalies. All birth defects related to maternal treatment with carbimazole or propylthiouracil reported over a 47-year period via the Yellow Card Scheme were analysed. 57 cases with 97 anomalies were reported following in utero exposure to carbimazole. These anomalies included aplasia cutis, choanal atresia, tracheo-oesophageal fistula, and patent vitellointestinal duct, which have previously been reported in association with carbimazole/methimazole exposure in utero. Only 6 cases with 11 anomalies were reported for propylthiouracil, all within the last 15 years. Therefore, these findings may support a carbimazole embryopathy. There are few birth defects associated with propylthiouracil, but this should be interpreted in the context of higher historical prescription rates for carbimazole.

  17. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric; Kegley, Susan E; Brown, Timothy J; English, Paul B; Lammer, Edward J; Shaw, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    We examined associations of birth defects with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications in California. Subjects included 367 cases representing five types of birth defects and 785 nonmalformed controls born 1997 to 2006. Associations with any versus no exposure to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Overall, 46% of cases and 38% of controls were classified as exposed to pesticides within a 500 m radius of mother's address during a 3-month periconceptional window. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for 85 groups and 95 chemicals with five or more exposed cases and control mothers. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) excluded 1.0 for 11 ORs for groups and 22 ORs for chemicals, ranging from 1.9 to 3.1 for groups and 1.8 to 4.9 for chemicals except for two that were oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups copper-containing compounds, 2,6-dinitroanilines, neonicotinoids, petroleum derivatives and polyalkyloxy compounds; craniosynostosis and 10 pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups alcohol/ethers, avermectins, n-methyl-carbamates, neonicotinoids, ogranophosphates (two chemicals), polyalkyloxy compounds (two chemicals), and pyrethroids; and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n = 62) and a copper-containing compound. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mapping Disease at an Approximated Individual Level Using Aggregate Data: A Case Study of Mapping New Hampshire Birth Defects

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    Eugene Demidenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited by data availability, most disease maps in the literature are for relatively large and subjectively-defined areal units, which are subject to problems associated with polygon maps. High resolution maps based on objective spatial units are needed to more precisely detect associations between disease and environmental factors. Method: We propose to use a Restricted and Controlled Monte Carlo (RCMC process to disaggregate polygon-level location data to achieve mapping aggregate data at an approximated individual level. RCMC assigns a random point location to a polygon-level location, in which the randomization is restricted by the polygon and controlled by the background (e.g., population at risk. RCMC allows analytical processes designed for individual data to be applied, and generates high-resolution raster maps. Results: We applied RCMC to the town-level birth defect data for New Hampshire and generated raster maps at the resolution of 100 m. Besides the map of significance of birth defect risk represented by p-value, the output also includes a map of spatial uncertainty and a map of hot spots. Conclusions: RCMC is an effective method to disaggregate aggregate data. An RCMC-based disease mapping maximizes the use of available spatial information, and explicitly estimates the spatial uncertainty resulting from aggregation.

  19. Cumulative costs for the prosthetic reconstructions and maintenance in young adult patients with birth defects affecting the formation of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incici, Erol; Matuliene, Giedre; Hüsler, Jürg; Salvi, Giovanni E; Pjetursson, Bjarni; Brägger, Urs

    2009-07-01

    To assess retrospectively the cumulative costs for the long-term oral rehabilitation of patients with birth defects affecting the development of teeth. Patients with birth defects who had received fixed reconstructions on teeth and/or implants > or =5 years ago were asked to participate in a comprehensive clinical, radiographic and economic evaluation. From the 45 patients included, 18 were cases with a cleft lip and palate, five had amelogenesis/dentinogenesis imperfecta and 22 were cases with hypodontia/oligodontia. The initial costs for the first oral rehabilitation (before the age of 20) had been covered by the Swiss Insurance for Disability. The costs for the initial rehabilitation of the 45 cases amounted to 407,584 CHF (39% for laboratory fees). Linear regression analyses for the initial treatment costs per replaced tooth revealed the formula 731 CHF+(811 CHF x units) on teeth and 3369 CHF+(1183 CHF x units) for reconstructions on implants (Phealthy teeth, fewer tooth units need to be replaced and the cumulative long-term costs seem to be similar compared with cases restored on teeth.

  20. Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

  1. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  2. Differences in risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Sander Groen In 't; van Rooij, Iris A L M; van Gelder, Marleen M H J; Olney, Richard S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2014-09-01

    Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between second and third degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Arsenic levels in the soil and risk of birth defects: a population-based case-control study using GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jilei; Chen, Gong; Liao, Yilan; Song, Xinming; Pei, Lijun; Wang, Jinfeng; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly dangerous metal that has been linked to a number of adverse health effects in both adults and children, including birth defects. Yet few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between arsenic levels in the soil and the risk of birth defects. The purpose of the authors' study was to examine this association among people exposed to environmental pollution in a developed area of China. The authors used global positioning system to locate the coordinates of 80 villages in 40 towns for soil sampling. Soil samples were analyzed for arsenic content. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to arsenic and birth defects, controlling for potentially confounding factors. The authors found that exposure to arsenic in any amount increased the risk of birth defects. The positive association found between arsenic exposure and birth defects warrants further study, and future large-scale population-based studies are needed with an emphasis on individual-level exposure and confounding variables.

  4. Atrioventricular septal defects among infants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolas; Andersen, Helle; Garne, Ester

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of chromosomal and non-chromosomal cases of atrioventricular septal defects in Europe. METHODS: Data were obtained from EUROCAT, a European network of population-based registries collecting data on congenital anomalies. Data from 13 registries for the period...... 2000-2008 were included. RESULTS: There was a total of 993 cases of atrioventricular septal defects, with a total prevalence of 5.3 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval 4.1 to 6.5). Of the total cases, 250 were isolated cardiac lesions, 583 were chromosomal cases, 79 had multiple anomalies, 58...... of pregnancy owing to foetal anomaly. Among the groups, additional associated cardiac anomalies were most frequent in heterotaxia cases (38%) and least frequent in chromosomal cases (8%). Coarctation of the aorta was the most common associated cardiac defect. The 1-week survival rate for live births was 94...

  5. Multivitamins, Folic Acid and Birth Defects: Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviors of Hispanic Women in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background: Consumption of folic acid prior to conception can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) issued a recommendation that all women of childbearing age capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 [mu]g of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for a NTD-affected…

  6. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

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    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  7. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  8. A Comparative Study of Computer-Aided Clinical Diagnosis of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-21

    Disease Frame in PIP FRAME NAME: ACHONDROPLASIA TYPE: SYNDROME FINDING: STATURE WITH LEVEL SHORT, TYPE DISPROPORTIONATE. AND ONSET AT-BIRTH FINDING...ready for use by the medical community. ---- _ ------ - M -1 n . .i -97. H.B. Sherman Appendix I - List of Syndromes ACHONDROPLASIA ACROFACIAL...Appendix 11 - List of Clinical Cases Case Number Case Name 1 SPONDYLOEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA CONGENITA 2 ACHONDROPLASIA 3 SPONDYLOEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA

  9. Spatial distribution of orofacial cleft defect births in Harris County, Texas, 1990 to 1994, and historical evidence for the presence of low-level radioactivity in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Irina; Burau, Keith D; Walston, Jane

    2007-06-01

    While both ionizing and nonionizing radiation are known to impair human reproductive capacity, the role of low-level domestic radiation continues to be an unsettled issue. We examined the geostatistical distribution (residential longitude and latitude) of orofacial cleft birth cases adjusted for the underlying population distribution. Furthermore, we examined the cleft birth rates enumerated by zip codes for possible associations with levels of radium and radon in drinking water. Cleft births and unaffected live births in Harris County, Texas, from 1990 to 1994, were geocoded by residential addresses and tested for spatial clusters using the space-time clustering program SaTScan. Historical sample data on local variations in water quality facilitated the assessment of the association of orofacial cleft defect births with low-level radiation exposure. A cluster of significantly greater than expected numbers of cleft defect births was identified in northwest Harris County, (relative risk = 3.0, P = 0.043), where the presence of elevated levels of radium (> 3 pCi/L) and radon (> 300 pCi/L) in the tap water has been known since the 1980s. Despite the ecological design of the study, lacking individual exposure measurements for cleft birth residences, there was strong suggestive evidence of an association between elevated radiation levels in tap water and elevated cleft birth prevalence rates by zip codes. Attention of physicians is invited to environmental causes as potential risk factors for orofacial cleft. This would aid in genetic counseling and the development of future preventive measures.

  10. Trends in cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects, metropolitan Atlanta, 1968-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jodi M; Crider, Krista S; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Cragan, Janet D; Olney, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the use of cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects. Utilizing data from 1968 to 2005 from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, we analyzed trends in the frequency and timing (prenatal or postnatal) of cytogenetic testing and the prevalence of recognized chromosome abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects (n = 51,424). Cytogenetic testing of pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 7.2% in 1968 to 25.0% in 2005, as did the identification of chromosomal abnormalities (2.2% in 1968 to 6.8% in 2005). The use of prenatal cytogenetic testing decreased from 1996 to 2005 among women aged ≥35 years. Identification of chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 1968 to 2005, possibly due to increased testing, improved diagnostic techniques, or increasing maternal age. The decline in prenatal cytogenetic testing observed among mothers aged ≥35 years may be related to the availability of improved prenatal screening techniques, resulting in a reduction in the utilization of invasive diagnostic tests. Published 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Making birth defects ‘preventable’: Pre-conceptional vitamin supplements and the politics of risk reduction☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gailani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, governments and health organizations around the world have adopted policies designed to increase women’s intake of the B-vitamin ‘folic acid’ before and during the first weeks of pregnancy. Building on initial clinical research in the United Kingdom, folic acid supplementation has been shown to lower the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Recent debate has focused principally on the need for mandatory fortification of grain products with this vitamin. This article takes a longer view, tracing the transformation of folic acid from a routine prenatal supplement to reduce the risk of anaemia to a routine ‘pre-conceptional’ supplement to ‘prevent’ birth defects. Understood in the 1950s in relation to social problems of poverty and malnutrition, NTDs were by the end of the century more likely to be attributed to individual failings. This transition was closely associated with a second. Folic acid supplements were initially prescribed to ‘high-risk’ women who had previously borne a child with a NTD. By the mid-1990s, they were recommended for all women of childbearing age. The acceptance of folic acid as a ‘risk-reducing drug’ both relied upon and helped to advance the development of preventive and clinical practices concerned with women’s health before pregnancy. PMID:24268931

  12. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter J

    2013-03-21

    Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. For this population-based case-control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (>30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]<1.12). Similar results were found for OCs and LDs with the exception of animal nitrites and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (aORs and CIs for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 =1.24; CI=1.05-1.48), animal nitrites and cleft lip (4th quartile aOR=1.32; CI=1.01-1.72), and total nitrite and intercalary LD (4th quartile aOR=4.70; CI=1.23-17.93). Overall, odds of NTDs, OCs or LDs did not appear to be significantly associated with estimated dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.

  13. Association between prenatal exposure to antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: an analysis of the French perinatal cohort study (ANRS CO1/CO11.

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    Jeanne Sibiude

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV drug used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388 were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%-4.7%, according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%. Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.8, p = 0

  14. Exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Roeleveld, N.; Nordeng, H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during pregnancy is common, small increases in the risk of birth defects may have significant implications for public health. Results of human studies on the teratogenic risks of NSAIDs are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated

  15. Urinary System Birth Defects in Surgically Treated Infants in Sarajevo Region of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aličelebić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the urinary system are relatively common anomalies. In Bosnia and Herzegovina there is no existent unique evidence of congenital anomalies and registries. The aim of this study was to obtain the frequency of different urinary tract anomalies types and their sex distribution among cases hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the period from January 2002 to December 2006. Retrospective study was carried out on the basis of clinical records. Standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for the data analysis. Among 289 patients that were surgically treated 62,37% of the patients were male patients, while 37,63% were female patients. Twenty nine different urinary system anomalies types were found in this study. These were: vesicoureteral reflux (99 cases or 30,75%, hypospadias (62 cases or 19,26%, pelviureteric junction obstruction (42 cases or 13,04%, megaureter (35 cases or 10,87%, duplex pelvis and ureter (16 cases or 4,97%, bladder diverticulum (8 cases or 2,48%, ureterocoele (7 cases or 2,17%, stenosis of the external urethral opening (6 cases or 1,86%, ectopic kidney, duplex kidney and pelvis (each 5 cases or 1,55%, polycystic kidneys and urethral stricture (each 4 cases or 1,24%, multicystic kidney (3 cases or 0,93%, kidney agenesis, ureter agenesis, urethral diverticulum, ectopic ureter, horseshoe kidney and fetal kidney (each 2 cases or 0,62%, renal aplasia, urethral atresia, renal cyst, urachal cyst, epispadias, bladder exstrophy, renal hypoplasia, renal malrotation and Prune-Belly syndrome (each 1 case or 0,31%. According to this study, urinary tract anomalies were more common in male than in female patients (62,37%, Generally, the most frequent anomaly type was vesicoureteral reflux in total number of 99 cases, and in females (66 cases, but hypospadias was the most common anomaly in males (62 cases. The anomalies

  16. Sperm-storage defects and live birth in Drosophila females lacking spermathecal secretory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Schnakenberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC: Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1, which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2, which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1 reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2 causes ovoviviparity--the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects.

  17. Sperm-storage defects and live birth in Drosophila females lacking spermathecal secretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakenberg, Sandra L; Matias, Wilfredo R; Siegal, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC): Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1), which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2), which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1) reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2) causes ovoviviparity--the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects.

  18. First-trimester smoking cessation in pregnancy did not increase the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia: A Murmansk County Birth Registry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Kharkova

    Full Text Available Although prior studies have shown that smoking reduces preeclampsia/eclampsia risk, the consequence of giving up this habit during pregnancy should be assessed. The aims of the current study were threefold: (i describe maternal characteristics of women with preeclampsia/eclampsia; (ii examine a possible association between the number of cigarettes smoked daily during pregnancy and the development of this affliction; and (iii determine if first-trimester discontinuation of smoking during pregnancy influences the risk.A registry-based study was conducted using data from the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR. It included women without pre-existing hypertension, who delivered a singleton infant during 2006-2011 and had attended the first antenatal visit before 12 week of gestation. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression.The prevalence of preeclampsia/eclampsia was 8.3% (95%CI: 8.0-8.6. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia (adjusted OR1-5 cig/day = 0.69 with 95%CI: 0.56-0.87; OR6-10 cig/day = 0.65 with 95%CI: 0.51-0.82; and OR≥11 cig/day = 0.49 with 95%CI: 0.30-0.81. There was no difference in this risk among women who smoked before and during pregnancy and those who did so before but not during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.10 with 95%CI: 0.91-1.32.Preeclampsia/eclampsia was associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain, and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a negative dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the odds of preeclampsia/eclampsia. However, women who gave up smoking during the first trimester of gestation had the same risk of

  19. First-trimester smoking cessation in pregnancy did not increase the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia: A Murmansk County Birth Registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkova, Olga A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Krettek, Alexandra; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Ø

    2017-01-01

    Although prior studies have shown that smoking reduces preeclampsia/eclampsia risk, the consequence of giving up this habit during pregnancy should be assessed. The aims of the current study were threefold: (i) describe maternal characteristics of women with preeclampsia/eclampsia; (ii) examine a possible association between the number of cigarettes smoked daily during pregnancy and the development of this affliction; and (iii) determine if first-trimester discontinuation of smoking during pregnancy influences the risk. A registry-based study was conducted using data from the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). It included women without pre-existing hypertension, who delivered a singleton infant during 2006-2011 and had attended the first antenatal visit before 12 week of gestation. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression. The prevalence of preeclampsia/eclampsia was 8.3% (95%CI: 8.0-8.6). Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia (adjusted OR1-5 cig/day = 0.69 with 95%CI: 0.56-0.87; OR6-10 cig/day = 0.65 with 95%CI: 0.51-0.82; and OR≥11 cig/day = 0.49 with 95%CI: 0.30-0.81). There was no difference in this risk among women who smoked before and during pregnancy and those who did so before but not during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.10 with 95%CI: 0.91-1.32). Preeclampsia/eclampsia was associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain, and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a negative dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the odds of preeclampsia/eclampsia. However, women who gave up smoking during the first trimester of gestation had the same risk of preeclampsia

  20. Triple surveillance: a proposal for an integrated strategy to support and accelerate birth defect prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) easily qualifies as a high‐value opportunity to improve childhood survival and health: the unmet need is significant (major preventable burden), the intervention is transformative (providing sufficient folic acid), and delivery strategies (e.g., fortification) are effective in low‐resource countries. Yet, NTD prevention is lagging. Can public health surveillance help fix this problem? Critics contend that surveillance is largely unnecessary, that limited resources are best spent on interventions, and that surveillance is unrealistic in developing countries. The counterargument is twofold: (1) in the absence of surveillance, interventions will provide fewer benefits and cost more and (2) effective surveillance is likely possible nearly everywhere, with appropriate strategies. As a base strategy, we propose “triple surveillance:” integrating surveillance of cause (folate insufficiency), of disease occurrence (NTD prevalence), and of health outcomes (morbidity, mortality, and disability). For better sustainability and usefulness, it is crucial to refocus and streamline surveillance activities (no recreational data collection), weave surveillance into clinical care (integrate in clinical workflow), and, later, work on including additional risk factors and pediatric outcomes (increase benefits at low marginal cost). By doing so, surveillance becomes not a roadblock but a preferential path to prevention and better care. PMID:29532515

  1. [Monitoring of pregnancies exposed to drugs in France: the experience of the registries of congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doray, Bérénice

    2014-01-01

    Registries of congenital malformations were implemented in many industrialized countries following the drama of thalidomide. In 2013, four French registries of congenital malformations in France provide the systematic epidemiological surveillance of birth defects. All are part of international networks of registries, especially European surveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT). If the development of prevention actions including prenatal diagnosis has gradually led the registries to play a key role of assessment on the impact of public health policies, one of the major roles of registries of congenital malformations remains early detection of clusters of malformations secondary to teratogenic effects. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. [Prevalence in birth defects diagnosed by ultrasound: three years experience in university maternal fetal medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Giraldo, Saulo; Alfonso-Ospina, Luis; Parra-Meza, Carolina; Lancheros-García, Eder Ariel; Rojas-Arias, José Luis; Acuña-Osorio, Edgar

    2015-11-01

    To establish the prevalence of congenital malformations diagnosed in Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit of Hospital de San José, Bogotá-Colombia and comparing them to national and international reports. Retrospective, descriptive observational where the quantification of all malformed fetuses diagnosed in Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit from June 2010 to June 2013 was performed. 236 malformed fetuses, a total of 11,914 births, for a prevalence of 1.98% were included at a mean gestational age at diagnosis of 26.7 weeks (SD 7.1 weeks). The most common congenital malformations were at the level of Central Nervous System (CNS) 88 (37%) in total and within them, the most prevalent was ventriculomegaly 16 (7%). Of the 236 malformed fetuses, 165 fetuses (70.2%) had only one affected system 29 (12.3%) 2 compromised systems and 42 (17.5%) over 3 affected systems. Karyotyping was offered to all antenatal patients, however, accepted only 63 (26.7%), and 39 (62%) with normal results and the other aneuploidies were found, having Trisomy 21 as the most common. It was possible to establish a concordance of 86% between the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis. The perinatal mortality found in this study was 34.7%, mainly in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia 16 cases (88.8%), fetal non-immune hydrops 8 cases (80%), cardiovascular abnormalities 31 cases (46.2%) genitourinary and 13 cases (24%), and fetuses with CNS malformations such as sequence acranea-anencefalia, holoprosencephaly and encephalocele mortality occurred in 100%. In this study the prevalence of congenital anomalies was found comparable to that reported at local and global levels, which were diagnosed and adequately characterized by more than two-thirds by obstetrical ultrasound performed by trained personnel in prenatal diagnosis. Perinatal morbidity and mortality remain high thoracic, cardiovascular, renal and non-immune hydrops congenital anomalies.

  3. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  4. Regional Variation in Prevalence of Oral Cleft Live Births in the Netherlands 1997-2007 : Time-Trend Analysis of Data from Three Dutch Registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, Anna M.; Mohangoo, Ashna D.; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M.; Buitendijk, Simone E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Vermeij-Keers, Christl

    The Eurocat registry Northern Netherlands (NNL) has been used in regional context, as well as in national/international context, to describe the epidemiology of oral clefts (OC). However, the region NNL seems to have prevalence data different fromDutch national registries and certain other European

  5. Regional variation in prevalence of oral cleft live births in the Netherlands 1997-2007: Time-trend analysis of data from three Dutch registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, A.M.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Bakker, M.K.; Vermeij-Keers, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Eurocat registry Northern Netherlands (NNL) has been used in regional context, as well as in national/international context, to describe the epidemiology of oral clefts (OC). However, the region NNL seems to have prevalence data different from Dutch national registries and certain other European

  6. The Danish Cerebral Palsy Registry. A registry on a specific impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, P; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Topp, M

    2001-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the commonest disabling impairment in childhood, with a prevalence of 2-3 per 1000 live births. The Danish Cerebral Palsy Registry is a research registry that contains cases of CP from birth year 1925 and has estimated the birth prevalence since 1950. Data on children with ...

  7. The Danish Cerebral Palsy Registry. A registry on a specific impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, P; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Topp, M

    2001-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the commonest disabling impairment in childhood, with a prevalence of 2-3 per 1000 live births. The Danish Cerebral Palsy Registry is a research registry that contains cases of CP from birth year 1925 and has estimated the birth prevalence since 1950. Data on children with CP...

  8. HETEROGENEITY OF NEURAL-TUBE DEFECTS IN EUROPE - THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SITE OF DEFECT AND PRESENCE OF OTHER MAJOR ANOMALIES IN RELATION TO GEOGRAPHIC DIFFERENCES IN PREVALENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOLK, H; DEWALS, P; GILLEROT, Y; LECHAT, MF; AYME, S; CORNEL, M; CUSCHIERI, A; GARNE, E; GOUJARD, J; LAURENCE, KM; LILLIS, D; LYS, F; NEVIN, N; OWENS, J; RADIC, A; STOLL, C; STONE, D; TENKATE, L

    1991-01-01

    In the period 1980-1987, neural tube defects were two to three times more prevalent in populations covered by EUROCAT registries in the United Kingdom and Ireland (UKI) than in Continental Europe and Malta (CEM). 1864 NTD cases in a total population of 580,000 births in UKI and 455 cases in a

  9. Environmental characteristics and prevalence of birth defects among children in post-war Iraq: implications for policies on rebuilding the Iraqi education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborz, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the prevalence of 'birth defects' and environmental characteristics, and considers implications for targeting resources to establish the educational inclusion of children affected. A household survey in four governorates across Iraq in 2010, conducted under the auspices of CARA, achieved interviews with 6032 households and collected data on more than 10,000 children and young people. Analyses suggested an association between reported presence of potential sources of contamination in local environments from human and domestic waste, and to some extent from naturally occurring contaminants and the detritus of warfare, with higher numbers of resident children having 'birth defects'. Children living in Basra were found to be most significantly impacted. This finding adds to a growing literature on associations between potential sources of environmental contaminants and impact on the health of children living in affected localities,

  10. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harmful substance, like mercury . During pregnancy, don’t eat fish with high levels of mercury, like swordfish, king mackerel, shark and tilefish. Your baby doesn't get enough oxygen in the womb . This can happen if the placenta isn't working properly ...

  12. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  13. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  14. Descriptive and risk factor analysis for choanal atresia: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Romitti, Paul A.; Sun, Lixian; Carey, John C.; Burns, Trudy L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Lin, Angela E.; Olney, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Choanal atresia causes serious posterior nasal obstruction. This defect is the leading cause of nasal surgery in newborns, although its etiology is largely unknown. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case–control study, were used to examine associations between maternal self-reports of exposures and occurrence of choanal atresia in their offspring. Overall, 117 case and 8350 control mothers with deliveries from 1997 through 2007 provided telephone interview reports of pre-pregnancy (one year before conception) and periconceptional (one month before through three months after conception) exposures. The exposures analyzed were pre-pregnancy dietary intake, pre-pregnancy and periconceptional caffeine consumption, and periconceptional cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and medication use. Independent associations between each exposure and all choanal atresia cases combined (n = 117) and isolated choanal atresia cases (those without additional unrelated major defects; n = 61) were examined. Odds ratios (ORs), both unadjusted (uORs) and adjusted (aORs) for potential confounders, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. For all choanal atresia cases combined, positive associations were observed with maternal pre-pregnancy intake in the highest quartile for vitamin B-12 (aOR = 1.9; CI = 1.1,3.1), zinc (aOR = 1.7; CI = 1.0,3.1), and niacin (aOR = 1.8; CI = 1.0,3.1), and intake in the lowest quartile for methionine (aOR = 1.6; CI = 1.0,2.6) and vitamin D (aOR = 1.6; CI = 1.0,2.4) compared to intake in the two intermediate quartiles combined. Further, a positive association was observed with periconceptional use of thyroid medications (uOR = 2.6; CI = 1.0,6.3) compared to no use of such medications. Among isolated choanal atresia cases, negative associations were observed for pantothenic acid (aOR = 0.4; CI = 0.2,0.9) and fat (aOR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2,1.0) intake in the lowest

  15. Surveillance of birth defects: Brazil and the US Vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas: Brasil e Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Varela Luquetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of birth defects in the society have substantially increased over the last decades in countries where the reduction of infant mortality by other causes has occurred. Birth defects surveillance represents an important source of information for planning X health policies and resource allocation. In this article, we discuss the potential utilizations, methodology options, limitations, and policy issues related to birth defects surveillance. Also, the birth defects surveillance programs from US and Brazil are described and compared as an illustration of the development of surveillance systems in two countries with clearly dissimilar health systems and resource allocation for birth defects programs. Finally, we propose measures for the improvement of the existing systems in both countries focusing at the utilization of preexisting resources.O impacto das anomalias congênitas na sociedade vem aumentando substancialmente nas últimas décadas nos países onde ocorreu a diminuição da mortalidade infantil por outras causas. A vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas representa uma importante fonte de informação para o planejamento de políticas de saúde e alocação de recursos. Neste artigo, os potenciais usos, opções de metodologia, limitações e questões de políticas de saúde relacionadas à vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas são abordados. Além disso, os programas dos Estados Unidos e Brasil são descritos e comparados para ilustrar sistemas em dois países com sistemas de saúde e alocação de recursos para as anomalias congênitas claramente diferentes. Finalmente, apresentamos propostas de medidas para melhorar os sistemas existentes em ambos os países, focalizando na utilização de recursos pré-existentes.

  16. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: panorama atual Birth defects and health strategies in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O impacto dos defeitos congênitos no Brasil vem aumentando progressivamente, tendo passado da quinta para a segunda causa dos óbitos em menores de um ano entre 1980 e 2000, apontando para a necessidade de estratégias específicas na política de saúde. Foram localizadas, no Brasil, direcionadas aos defeitos congênitos, ações governamentais e não-governamentais. Estas envolvem serviços de informação sobre agentes teratogênicos na gravidez e sobre doenças metabólicas geneticamente determinadas, monitorização de defeitos congênitos, programa de triagem neonatal e tratamento de algumas doenças genéticas, imunização contra rubéola, além da fortificação de farinhas com ácido fólico como ação preventiva de certos defeitos congênitos. Apesar da importância de tais iniciativas, é pouco provável que seja possível atender à questão dos defeitos congênitos de forma integrada. Para a efetivação de um sistema de atenção voltado aos defeitos congênitos, deverá ser formulada política específica, de âmbito nacional, com a participação ativa do Ministério da Saúde, utilizando, como espinha dorsal, os serviços de genética existentes. Só assim, será possível a estruturação de uma rede regionalizada, hierarquizada e funcional voltada à atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil.Birth defects have increased progressively in Brazil, shifting from the fifth to the second cause of infant mortality from 1980 to 2000, thus highlighting the need for specific health policy strategies. Some governmental and nongovernmental actions related to birth defects in Brazil include information services on teratogenic agents and inborn errors of metabolism, monitoring of birth defects, neonatal screening and treatment of some genetic diseases, and rubella immunization. In addition, flour fortification with folic acid for prevention of certain birth defects has begun recently. Despite the importance of such initiatives, it is

  17. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  18. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  19. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  20. Prevention of birth defects in the pre-conception period: knowledge and practice of health care professionals (nurses and doctors in a city of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Romariz Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2 test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85. Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.

  1. Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts - a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Holmboe, Stine; Jacobsen, R

    2012-01-01

    . The proportion of childless men at age 45 increased from 14.8% to 21.9% in the same birth cohorts. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) seemed to compensate partly for the lower fertility and to reduce the proportion of childless men. In contrast, recent reports on corresponding birth cohorts of Danish women...

  2. Health Care for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Certain Korea Veterans--Covered Birth Defects and Spina Bifida. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    This rule adopts as final a proposed rule of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to amend its regulations concerning the provision of health care to birth children of Vietnam veterans and veterans of covered service in Korea diagnosed with spina bifida, except for spina bifida occulta, and certain other birth defects. In the proposed rule published on May 15, 2015, VA proposed changes to more clearly define the types of health care VA provides, including day health care and health-related services, which we defined as homemaker or home health aide services that provide assistance with Activities of Daily Living or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living that have therapeutic value. We also proposed changes to the list of health care services that require preauthorization by VA. This final rule addresses comments received from the public and adopts as final the proposed rule, without change.

  3. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  4. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: A prospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Huan; Ma, Duan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. Material/Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20?45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the indepen...

  5. Descriptive Epidemiology of Nonsyndromic Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A. J.; Moulik, Mousumi; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Marengo, Lisa K.; Mitchell, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Complete atrioventricular canal defects (CAVC) are a common heart defect, but few epidemiologic studies have evaluated nonsyndromic CAVC. Risk factors for nonsyndromic CAVC have not been well established. Methods To assess the relationship between risk for nonsyndromic CAVC in offspring and several sociodemographic and reproductive parental factors, including maternal diabetes and obesity, we conducted Poisson regression analyses, using data ascertained through the Texas Birth Defects Registry, a large, population-based birth defects registry. Data were evaluated for 563 nonsyndromic cases with CAVC. Results Significant associations were observed between nonsyndromic CAVC in offspring and maternal pregestational diabetes (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 6.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.67–12.37), gestational diabetes [aPR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.79], and obesity [aPR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.30]. Comments Our findings add nonsyndromic CAVC to the growing list of birth defects that appear to be associated with maternal diabetes and obesity. PMID:23061687

  6. Descriptive epidemiology of non-syndromic complete atrioventricular canal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Moulik, Mousumi; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Marengo, Lisa K; Mitchell, Laura E

    2012-11-01

    Complete atrioventricular canal defects (CAVC) are a common heart defect, but few epidemiologic studies have evaluated non-syndromic CAVC. Risk factors for non-syndromic CAVC have not been well established. To assess the relationship between risk for non-syndromic CAVC in offspring and several sociodemographic and reproductive parental factors, including maternal diabetes and obesity, we conducted Poisson regression analyses, using data ascertained through the Texas Birth Defects Registry, a large, population-based birth defects registry. Data were evaluated for 563 non-syndromic cases with CAVC. Significant associations were observed between non-syndromic CAVC in offspring and maternal pregestational diabetes (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 6.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.67, 12.37), gestational diabetes (aPR 1.69; 95% CI 1.03, 2.79) and obesity (aPR 1.69; 95% CI 1.24, 2.30).  Our findings add non-syndromic CAVC to the growing list of birth defects that appear to be associated with maternal diabetes and obesity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Effects of folic acid awareness on knowledge and consumption for the prevention of birth defects among Hispanic women in several U.S. Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Christine E; Hamner, Heather C; Flores, Alina L

    2010-04-01

    The neural tube defects (NTDs) anencephaly and spina bifida, are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect about 3000 pregnancies per year in the United States. Research has found a strong link between periconceptional folic acid consumption and NTD prevention. Because Hispanic women have higher rates of NTD-affected births, targeted folic acid promotion efforts were conducted in several major cities from 1999 to 2002. Efforts included paid and unpaid placements of Spanish language public service announcements (PSAs) and community-level education through the use of promotoras. Analyses focused on whether or not women's reported awareness of folic acid, regardless of promotion type, impacted their knowledge or behavior. Women who reported awareness of folic acid had greater folic acid knowledge and use of vitamins containing folic acid than those not aware. Analyses also examined the use of vitamins containing folic acid by pregnancy intention among women who reported awareness of folic acid. The results were varied. Pregnancy wanters were most likely to use vitamins containing folic acid daily. For this group, however, awareness did not play as large a role in whether they reported consuming a vitamin containing folic acid or not, as it did for pregnancy waiters and avoiders.

  8. Avaliação das declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre defeitos congênitos Evaluation of the birth certificates as source of information on birth defects

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    Ana Lívia Geremias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos congênitos (DC em uma coorte de nascidos vivos (NV vinculando-se os bancos de dados do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM e do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo para avaliar as declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre DC. A população de estudo é uma coorte de NV hospitalares do 1º semestre de 2006 de mães residentes e ocorridos no Município de São Paulo no período de 01/01/2006 a 30/06/2006, obtida por meio da vinculação dos bancos de dados das declarações de nascido vivo e óbitos neonatais provenientes da coorte. RESULTADOS: Os DC mais prevalentes segundo o SINASC foram: malformações congênitas (MC e deformidades do aparelho osteomuscular (44,7%, MC do sistema nervoso (10,0% e anomalias cromossômicas (8,6%. Após a vinculação, houve uma recuperação de 80,0% de indivíduos portadores de DC do aparelho circulatório, 73,3% de DC do aparelho respiratório e 62,5% de DC do aparelho digestivo. O SINASC fez 55,2% das notificações de DC e o SIM notificou 44,8%, mostrando-se importante para a recuperação de informações de DC. Segundo o SINASC, a taxa de prevalência de DC na coorte foi de 75,4%00 NV; com os dados vinculados com o SIM, essa taxa passou para 86,2%00 NV. CONCLUSÕES: A complementação de dados obtida pela vinculação SIM/SINASC fornece um perfil mais real da prevalência de DC do que aquele registrado pelo SINASC, que identifica os DC mais visíveis, enquanto o SIM identifica os mais letais, mostrando a importância do uso conjunto das duas fontes de dados.OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of birth defects in a live birth cohort, linking the live birth information system (SINASC and the mortality information system (SIM databases. METHODS: Descriptive study to assess linked databases of hospital live births (LB and neonatal deaths of resident mothers that occurred in the city of S

  9. Birth outcomes of cases with left-sided obstructive defects of the heart in the function of maternal socio-demographic factors: a population-based case-control study.

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    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the birth outcomes and maternal variables of cases with different types of left-sided obstructive defects (LSOD) of the heart. Live-born infants were selected from the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, and 302 cases with LSOD, 469 matched controls and 38,151 all controls without any defect, and 20,750 malformed controls with other isolated defects were compared. The diagnosis of LSOD was based on autopsy report or the documents of surgical intervention. Four types of LSOD were differentiated: 56 cases with valvular aortic stenosis (VAS), 76 cases with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), 113 cases with coarctation of the aorta (COA) and 57 cases with other congenital abnormalities of aorta (OCA). Cases with LSOD had male excess (64.6%) with a higher rate of preterm birth (14.2 vs. 6.6%) and low birthweight (15.6 vs. 4.3%) compared to matched controls. The high rate of preterm birth was particularly characteristic for HLHS (17.1%) while intrauterine fetal growth restriction was found in cases OCA (22.8%) and COA (13.3%). The mothers of cases with LSOD had higher birth order and lower socio-economic status than controls without any defect. The general pattern of birth outcomes and maternal variables were similar in the types of LSOD cases, but the higher rate of preterm birth and low birthweight indicated some association with their adverse fetal development.

  10. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children : what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.; Rodrigues, Catarina; Verkerk, M.A.; van den Berg, P.P.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  11. Conjoined Twins : A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Luna-Munoz, Leonora; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Dutra, Maria da Graca; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Metneki, Julia; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Rissman, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin

    2011-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was

  12. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children - what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Rodrigues, C.H.; Verkerk, M.A.; Berg, P.P. van den; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  13. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  14. The App-Runx1 region is critical for birth defects and electrocardiographic dysfunctions observed in a Down syndrome mouse model.

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    Matthieu Raveau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS leads to complex phenotypes and is the main genetic cause of birth defects and heart diseases. The Ts65Dn DS mouse model is trisomic for the distal part of mouse chromosome 16 and displays similar features with post-natal lethality and cardiovascular defects. In order to better understand these defects, we defined electrocardiogram (ECG with a precordial set-up, and we found conduction defects and modifications in wave shape, amplitudes, and durations in Ts65Dn mice. By using a genetic approach consisting of crossing Ts65Dn mice with Ms5Yah mice monosomic for the App-Runx1 genetic interval, we showed that the Ts65Dn viability and ECG were improved by this reduction of gene copy number. Whole-genome expression studies confirmed gene dosage effect in Ts65Dn, Ms5Yah, and Ts65Dn/Ms5Yah hearts and showed an overall perturbation of pathways connected to post-natal lethality (Coq7, Dyrk1a, F5, Gabpa, Hmgn1, Pde10a, Morc3, Slc5a3, and Vwf and heart function (Tfb1m, Adam19, Slc8a1/Ncx1, and Rcan1. In addition cardiac connexins (Cx40, Cx43 and sodium channel sub-units (Scn5a, Scn1b, Scn10a were found down-regulated in Ts65Dn atria with additional down-regulation of Cx40 in Ts65Dn ventricles and were likely contributing to conduction defects. All these data pinpoint new cardiac phenotypes in the Ts65Dn, mimicking aspects of human DS features and pathways altered in the mouse model. In addition they highlight the role of the App-Runx1 interval, including Sod1 and Tiam1, in the induction of post-natal lethality and of the cardiac conduction defects in Ts65Dn. These results might lead to new therapeutic strategies to improve the care of DS people.

  15. Environmental pollution by depleted uranium in Iraq with special reference to Mosul and possible effects on cancer and birth defect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Riyad Abdullah; Matti, Lilyan Yaqup; Al-Salih, Hana Said; Godbold, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Iraq is suffering from depleted uranium (DU) pollution in many regions and the effects of this may harm public health through poisoning and increased incidence of various cancers and birth defects. DU is a known carcinogenic agent. About 1200 tonnes of ammunition were dropped on Iraq during the Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003. As a result, contamination occurred in more than 350 sites in Iraq. Currently, Iraqis are facing about 140,000 cases of cancer, with 7000 to 8000 new ones registered each year. In Baghdad cancer incidences per 100,000 population have increased, just as they have also increased in Basra. The overall incidence of breast and lung cancer, Leukaemia and Lymphoma, has doubled even tripled. The situation in Mosul city is similar to other regions. Before the Gulf Wars Mosul had a higher rate of cancer, but the rate of cancer has further increased since the Gulf Wars.

  16. Cross Talk between Cell Cell and Cell Matrix Adhesion Signaling Pathways during Heart Organogenesis: Implications for Cardiac Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linask, Kersti K.; Manisastry, Shyam; Han, Mingda

    2005-06-01

    The anterior posterior and dorsal ventral progression of heart organogenesis is well illustrated by the patterning and activity of two members of different families of cell adhesion molecules: the calcium-dependent cadherins, specifically N-cadherin, and the extracellular matrix glycoproteins, fibronectin. N-cadherin by its binding to the intracellular molecule [beta]-catenin and fibronectin by its binding to integrins at focal adhesion sites, are involved in regulation of gene expression by their association with the cytoskeleton and through signal transduction pathways. The ventral precardiac mesoderm cells epithelialize and become stably committed by the activation of these cell matrix and intracellular signaling transduction pathways. Cross talk between the adhesion signaling pathways initiates the characteristic phenotypic changes associated with cardiomyocyte differentiation: electrical activity and organization of myofibrils. The development of both organ form and function occurs within a short interval thereafter. Mutations in any of the interacting molecules, or environmental insults affecting either of these signaling pathways, can result in embryonic lethality or fetuses born with severe heart defects. As an example, we have defined that exposure of the embryo temporally to lithium during an early sensitive developmental period affects a canonical Wnt pathway leading to [beta]-catenin stabilization. Lithium exposure results in an anterior posterior progression of severe cardiac defects.

  17. Defeitos congênitos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: uma avaliação através do SINASC (2000-2004 Birth defects in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an evaluation through birth certificates (2000-2004

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    Fernando Antônio Ramos Guerra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de defeitos congênitos em nascidos vivos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, com base no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2004. Através de um estudo seccional e descritivo, estudaram-se as variáveis relativas aos defeitos congênitos (presença e aparelho ou sistema acometido, aos serviços de saúde, às mães, às gestações, aos recém-natos e aos partos. Constatou-se uma prevalência de defeitos congênitos de 83/10 mil nascidos vivos. Os sistemas orgânicos mais afetados foram o osteomuscular, nervoso central, genital, as fendas lábio-palatinas e as anomalias cromossômicas. A maioria dos casos nasceu nas maternidades municipais e na rede privada, e maior prevalência de defeitos congênitos ocorreu no Instituto Fernandes Figueira da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Os defeitos congênitos foram mais prevalentes entre os filhos de mulheres mais velhas e menos instruídas. O percentual de casos ignorados foi alto, chegando a 21% em algumas maternidades. Uma maior divulgação das informações do SINASC sobre defeitos congênitos deveria ser estimulada. Estudos de confiabilidade são recomendados para melhor aproveitamento das informações.To evaluate the occurrence of birth defects in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Live Birth Information System (SINASC, we performed a cross-sectional study on all live newborns with birth defects from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004. The variables referred to birth defects (presence and system affected, type of health service, mothers, gestations, live births, and deliveries. Prevalence of birth defects was 83/10,000 live births. The most frequent birth defects involved the musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, cleft lip and palate, and chromosomal anomalies. The majority of cases were born in public (municipal and private maternity hospitals, with the highest prevalence

  18. Validation of birth outcomes from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS): population-based analysis from the Massachusetts Outcome Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Gopal, Daksha; Liberman, Rebecca F; Anderka, Marlene; Kotelchuck, Milton; Luke, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    To assess the validity of outcome data reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) compared with data from vital records and the birth defects registry in Massachusetts. Longitudinal cohort. Not applicable. A total of 342,035 live births and fetal deaths from Massachusetts mothers giving birth in the state from July 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008; 9,092 births and fetal deaths were from mothers who had conceived with the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and whose cycle data had been reported to the SART CORS. Not applicable. Percentage agreement between maternal race and ethnicity, delivery outcome (live birth or fetal death), plurality (singleton, twin, or triplet+), delivery date, and singleton birth weight reported in the SART CORS versus vital records; sensitivity and specificity for birth defects among singletons as reported in the SART CORS versus the Massachusetts Birth Defects Monitoring Program (BDMP). There was >95% agreement between the SART CORS and vital records for fields of maternal race/ethnicity, live birth/fetal death, and plurality; birth outcome date was within 1 day with 94.9% agreement and birth weight was within 100 g with 89.6% agreement. In contrast, sensitivity for report of any birth defect was 38.6%, with a range of 18.4%-50.0%, for specific birth defect categories. Although most SART CORS outcome fields are accurately reported, birth defect variables showed poor sensitivity compared with the gold standard data from the BDMP. We suggest that reporting of birth defects be discontinued. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nationwide surveillance in uterine cancer: survival analysis and the importance of birth cohort: 30-year population-based registry in Taiwan.

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    Chia-Yen Huang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uterine cancer was the most rapidly increasing malignancy and the second most common gynecologic malignancy in Taiwan. METHODS: We analyzed the secular trend of uterine cancer incidence and compare the survival of women with uterine carcinomas and uterine sarcomas in Taiwan. Data on women diagnosed with uterine cancer between 1979 and 2008 were obtained from the Taiwan cancer registry. Survival data were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression methods. RESULTS: Records of 11,558 women with uterine carcinomas and 1,226 women with uterine sarcomas were analyzed. The age-adjusted incidence rate of endometrioid adenocarcinoma increased from 0.83 per 100,000 women per year between 1979 and 1983 to 7.50 per 100,000 women per year between 2004 and 2008. The 5-year survival rate of women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma (83.2% was higher than that for women with clear cell carcinoma (58.3%, serous carcinoma (54.4%, and carcinosarcoma (35.2% (p<0.0001, log-rank test. The 5-year survival rates of women with low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma (LMS, and adenosarcoma were 97.5%, 73.5%, 60.1%, and 77.2%, respectively (p<0.0001, log rank test. The histologic type of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, young age, and treatment period after 2000 were independent, favorable prognostic factors in women with uterine carcinomas by multivariate analysis. The histologic type of LMS, old age, and treatment period after 2000 were independent, poor prognostic factors in women with uterine sarcomas by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: An increase over time in the number of patients with endometrioid adenocarcinomas was noted in this 30-year, nationwide, population-based study. Histologic type, age and treatment period were survival factors for uterine cancers. A more comprehensive assessment of uterine cancers and patient care should be undertaken on this increasingly common type of

  20. Assessing the Risk of Birth Defects Associated with Exposure to Fixed-Dose Combined Antituberculous Agents during Pregnancy in Rats

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    O. Awodele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (≤0.05 low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (≤0.05 elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents

  1. Registry analysis supports different mechanisms for gastroschisis and omphalocele within shared developmental fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Bonna; Wilson, Golder N

    2015-11-01

    Nine thousand two hundred eighty abnormalities associated with 2,943 abdominal wall defects (AWD) encoded from 1999 to 2008 by the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) were classified and analyzed for mechanism, beginning with 1,831 gastroschisis cases, 774 (41%) with 2,368 associated anomalies (AA) and 814 of omphalocele, 727 (89%) with 4,092 AA. Typical AA profiles for Trisomy 18 (23% of omphalocele cases) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (15%) validated registry AA descriptors, chromosome disorders surprisingly accounting for 24% of known conditions with gastroschisis followed by expected amniotic band (ADAM) complex (23%) and amyoplasia/arthrogryposis (16%). Separation of known diagnoses, fetal-stillbirth cases, and transitional or secondary AA left 330 cases of gastroschisis with 594 AA (452 major, 142 minor) and 295 cases of omphalocele with 956 AA (683 major, 273 minor). Anomalies suggestive of vascular origin (intestinal atresias, amyoplasia, bands) were more frequent with gastroschisis and those of defective lateral folding (exstrophies, limb-body wall defects) with omphalocele. Most AA favoring omphalocele had parallel frequencies with gastroschisis, whether by system/region-for example, cardiac AA (10% of cases), contractures (4.7%), limb (3.7%), CNS (3.2%) for gastroschisis versus cardiac (35%), contractures (14%), digestive-excretory-trunk-axial (all ∼11%), CNS (9.9%) for omphalocele-or for particular minor/major AA-for example, micrognathia (0.72% versus 3.3%), spina bifida (0.59% versus 3.9%), anal atresia (0.73% versus 6.4%), two-vessel cord (0.22% versus 5.6%). Similar frequencies of many AA reflective of early patterning support common AWD origin within early developmental fields and reinforce the use of large birth defect numbers from suitably qualified registries to define anomaly mechanism as well as prevalence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and early adulthood: a birth cohort study using the Danish Registry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Christoffersen, Mogens; Murphy, Jamie

    2016-03-01

    A number of social, familial, and psychological factors have been identified to explain the onset of mood and anxiety disorders among adolescent and young adult populations. The purpose of this study is to identify the shared and unique predictors of anxiety and mood disorders by simultaneously testing a range of established psychosocial risk factors. A national birth cohort of the Danish population born in 1984 and tracked over the course of the first 21 years of their life was used in the current study (n = 54,458). Psychosocial risk factors including paternal and maternal history of any anxiety and mood disorder, parental history of self-harming behaviour, advanced paternal age, gender, urban dwelling, economic deprivation, family dissolution, and childhood adversity were used to predict diagnosis of both anxiety and mood disorders from ages 10 to 21 years. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that being female and a parental history of a mood or anxiety disorder are the strongest predictors of both disorders. Economic deprivation, and family dissolution also increase likelihood of both disorders. Urban dwelling and childhood adversity are predictors of anxiety disorders but not mood disorders. Between the ages of 10 and 21 years, anxiety and mood disorders share many common risk factors. However, urban dwelling and childhood adversity appear to be unique predictors of anxiety disorders. Results suggest there is no dominant factor in the prediction of either disorder, rather the accumulation of different risk factors is most deleterious.

  3. Mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento en menores de 5 años de edad en México de 1998 a 2006 Birth defects mortality in five-year-old minors of age, Mexico, 1998-2006

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    Javier Valdés-Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar la mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento (DAN entre 1998 y 2006. Seleccionar los municipios con alta mortalidad en OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to birth defects from 1998-2006. To select municipalities with high mortality among children under 5 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The source of information was mortality records from vital statistics collected by SSA/INEGI. We used the 2005 Municipal Geostatistical Framework by INEGI and SIGEPI for the spatial analysis. The selection criteria were municipalities with 80% and over of deaths due to birth defects. RESULTS: Deaths diminished 8% during 1998-2006 and rates decreased 20%. A total of 42.57% - 48% of deaths are due to circulatory system defects and 13.69% - 19.39% are due to the nervous system; the former rose 4% and the latter fell 32%. Eighty percent or more occur in children under 5 years and the rate in this group fell 8.63%. A total of 1 025 (41.82% municipalities are priorities, 104 (10.14% are high and 102 (9.95% are very high priorities, where 66% of deaths occur among children under 5 years old. DISCUSSION: The interventions to decrease mortality due to birth defects should be directed towards one-year-old children (75% and towards 8.4% of the municipalities that are a very high priority, since they represent 66% of the deaths.

  4. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Huan; Ma, Duan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20-45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the independent variables in multivariate logistic regression. 55.6% of the subjects took contraception at all times, and 33.9% had pregnancy planning in the next six months. 49.7% of the interviewed women knew the benefits of folic acid and 34.6% realized the correct time of folic acid intake; and 14.9% of these women actually took folic acid daily. Planning to be pregnant in the next six months was associated with knowledge of folic acid benefits, correct time of folic acid intake and actual intake. A higher education level was correlated with the knowledge of folic acid benefits and correct time of folic acid intake, but was not linked to actual intake of folic acid. The knowledge and use of folic acid were at low to moderate levels in women at childbearing age in Shanghai, China, and general knowledge of folic acid benefits and correct time of folic acid intake should be conveyed to these women.

  5. A STUDY ON PREVAL E NCE OF BIRTH DEFECTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH RISK FACTORS IN FAKHRUDHIN ALI AH MED MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Congenital anomalies or Birth Defects are a global problem. It is the most common cause of disability in developed and developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the overall prevalence of clinically detectable congenital anomalies in newborns along with the different forms of congenital anomalies and associated risk factors if any over a period of one year. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: I t’s an observational analytical cross sectional type of study. Seven thousand seven hundred and ninety eight babies born during the period from 1 st Nov, 2013 to 31 st Oct, 2014 were analyzed. Details of cases were recorded after parent’s interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. RESULTS: In our study, we have found that out of the total no. of 7798 babies born during the said period, the total number of congenital anomalies found were 53 0.7%. Cleft lip and palate was the most common anomaly followed by clubfoot. System wise, congenital anomaly of the musculoskeletal system was the highest (45.3%. A male preponderance is seen with M:F = 4:3. Maximum number of anomalies was found in the 20 - 25 y rs of age group. Moreover, anomalies were found more in primi gravida. Various risk factors were associated in 9 numbers of cases out of 53. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of congenital anomaly was found to be 0.7% and therefore awareness about preventable risk f actors should be created and early prenatal diagnosis and management of anomalies is recommended.

  6. Autosomal and X chromosome structural variants are associated with congenital heart defects in Turner syndrome: The NHLBI GenTAC registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Siddharth K; Bondy, Carolyn A; Maslen, Cheryl L; Silberbach, Michael; Lin, Angela E; Perrone, Laura; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Michelena, Hector I; Bossone, Eduardo; Citro, Rodolfo; Lemaire, Scott A; Body, Simon C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-12-01

    Turner Syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder caused by partial or complete loss of one sex chromosome. Bicuspid aortic valve and other left-sided congenital heart lesions (LSL), including thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections, are 30-50 times more frequent in TS than in the general population. In 454 TS subjects, we found that LSL are significantly associated with reduced dosage of Xp genes and increased dosage of Xq genes. We also showed that genome-wide copy number variation is increased in TS and identify a common copy number variant (CNV) in chromosome 12p13.31 that is associated with LSL with an odds ratio of 3.7. This CNV contains three protein-coding genes (SLC2A3, SLC2A14, and NANOGP1) and was previously implicated in congenital heart defects in the 22q11 deletion syndrome. In addition, we identified a subset of rare and recurrent CNVs that are also enriched in non-syndromic BAV cases. These observations support our hypothesis that X chromosome and autosomal variants affecting cardiac developmental genes may interact to cause the increased prevalence of LSL in TS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Rationale for the Cytogenomics of Cardiovascular Malformations Consortium: A Phenotype Intensive Registry Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Hinton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular malformations (CVMs are the most common birth defect, occurring in 1%–5% of all live births. Although the genetic contribution to CVMs is well recognized, the genetic causes of human CVMs are identified infrequently. In addition, a failure of systematic deep phenotyping of CVMs, resulting from the complexity and heterogeneity of malformations, has obscured genotype-phenotype correlations and contributed to a lack of understanding of disease mechanisms. To address these knowledge gaps, we have developed the Cytogenomics of Cardiovascular Malformations (CCVM Consortium, a multi-site alliance of geneticists and cardiologists, contributing to a database registry of submicroscopic genetic copy number variants (CNVs based on clinical chromosome microarray testing in individuals with CVMs using detailed classification schemes. Cardiac classification is performed using a modification to the National Birth Defects Prevention Study approach, and non-cardiac diagnoses are captured through ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. By combining a comprehensive approach to clinically relevant genetic analyses with precise phenotyping, the Consortium goal is to identify novel genomic regions that cause or increase susceptibility to CVMs and to correlate the findings with clinical phenotype. This registry will provide critical insights into genetic architecture, facilitate genotype-phenotype correlations, and provide a valuable resource for the medical community.

  8. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Age at Birth of First Child and Fecundity of Women Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (1987-2007): A Study of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region in France (ARCERRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freycon, Fernand; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Casagranda, Léonie; Berlier, Pascale; Bertrand, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Berger, Claire

    2015-05-01

    We studied the fecundity of 174 successive ALL (1987-2007) in females of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region (ARCERRA) with a median age at follow-up of 25.6 years (18.0-37.4). We distinguished five treatment groups: Group Ia, chemotherapy only (n = 130); Ib, chemotherapy with cranial radiotherapy (n = 10); II, TBI conditioning allograft (n = 27); III, chemotherapy conditioning allograft (n = 4); IV, TBI conditioning autograft (n = 3). Twenty-three women had their first child at the mean age of 25.8 ±3.0 years, i.e., 2.0 ±2.9 years earlier than the general population of the Rhône-Alpes region (P = 0.003). The standardized fertility ratio (SFR), expressed as the number of actual births observed (O) to the number that would be expected in women of the same age in the general population (E) (SFR = O/E) was decreased for Group Ia (0.62; 95%CI, 0.52-0.74) and collapsed in Group II (0.17; 0.11-0.25). In univariate analysis, TBI (P = 0.013) and alkylating agents (P = 0.01) were negatively correlated with fecundity, but not with the age at diagnosis or the anthracyclines doses. In multivariate analysis including TBI and alkylating agents, we still found a negative correlation between TBI (P = 0.035), as well as alkylating agents (P = 0.028), and fecundity. More precisely, fecundity was negatively correlated with cumulative cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (P = 0.001), with a fecundity decreased for ≥1g/m(2), but without any dose effect; results not found in the Group Ia. Age at first child seems younger but the young median age of the cohort not allows concluding; fecundity is collapsed after fractionated total body irradiation and decreased after chemotherapy without any demonstrable cause. A delay of fertility is not excluded.

  10. Estimated Maternal Pesticide Exposure from Drinking Water and Heart Defects in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Swartz, Michael D; Langlois, Peter H; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter; Mitchell, Laura E; Luben, Thomas J; Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Malik, Sadia; Lupo, Philip J; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Meyer, Robert E; Winston, Jennifer J; Reefhuis, Jennita; Blossom, Sarah J; Bell, Erin; Agopian, A J

    2017-08-08

    Our objective was to examine the relationship between estimated maternal exposure to pesticides in public drinking water and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD). We used mixed-effects logistic regression to analyze data from 18,291 nonsyndromic cases with heart defects from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and 4414 randomly-selected controls delivered in Texas from 1999 through 2005. Water district-level pesticide exposure was estimated by linking each maternal residential address to the corresponding public water supply district's measured atrazine levels. We repeated analyses among independent subjects from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (1620 nonsyndromic cases with heart defects and 1335 controls delivered from 1999 through 2005). No positive associations were observed between high versus low atrazine level and eight CHD subtypes or all included heart defects combined. These findings should be interpreted with caution, in light of potential misclassification and relatively large proportions of subjects with missing atrazine data. Thus, more consistent and complete monitoring and reporting of drinking water contaminants will aid in better understanding the relationships between pesticide water contaminants and birth defects.

  11. Clinical Case Registries (CCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Clinical Case Registries (CCR) replaced the former Immunology Case Registry and the Hepatitis C Case Registry with local and national databases. The CCR:HIV and...

  12. Stroke Trials Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions Sponsors ... a clinical trial near you Welcome to the Stroke Trials Registry Our registry of clinical trials in ...

  13. Embryos, genes, and birth defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferretti, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    ... Structural anomalies The genesis of chromosome abnormalities Embryo survival The cause of high levels of chromosome abnormality in human embryos Relative parental risks - age, translocations, inversions, gonadal and germinal mosaics 33 33 34 35 36 44 44 45 4 Identification and Analysis of Genes Involved in Congenital Malformation Syndromes Peter J. Scambler Ge...

  14. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cases, the infection can cause intellectual disability, hearing loss, and vision problems. CMV can be spread by contact with an infected child’s urine or other body fluids. Pregnant women who work with young children, such as day care workers or health care workers, should take steps to ...

  15. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  16. Sudden unexpected death in children with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jortveit, Jarle; Eskedal, Leif; Hirth, Asle; Fomina, Tatiana; Døhlen, Gaute; Hagemo, Petter; Tell, Grethe S; Birkeland, Sigurd; Øyen, Nina; Holmstrøm, Henrik

    2016-02-14

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defects and are an important cause of death in children. The fear of sudden unexpected death has led to restrictions of physical activity and competitive sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of sudden unexpected deaths unrelated to surgery in children 2-18 years old with CHDs and, secondarily, to determine whether these deaths were related to cardiac disease, comorbidity, or physical activity. To identify children with CHDs and to determine the number of deaths, data concerning all 9 43 871 live births in Norway in 1994-2009 were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway project, the Oslo University Hospital's Clinical Registry for Congenital Heart Defects and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Survivors were followed through 2012, and information for the deceased children was retrieved from medical records at Norwegian hospitals. Among 11 272 children with CHDs, we identified 19 (0.2%) children 2-18 years old who experienced sudden unexpected deaths unrelated to cardiac surgery. A cardiac cause of death was identified in seven of these cases. None of the children died during physical activity, whereas two children survived cardiac arrest during sports. Sudden unexpected death was infrequent among children with CHDs who survived 2 years of age. Comorbidity was common among the children who died. This study indicates that sudden unexpected death in children with CHDs rarely occurs during physical activity. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Converged Registries Solution (CRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Converged Registries platform is a hardware and software architecture designed to host individual patient registries and eliminate duplicative development effort...

  18. The influence of deficient retro-aortic rim on technical success and early adverse events following device closure of secundum atrial septal defects: An Analysis of the IMPACT Registry®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael L; Gillespie, Matthew J; Kennedy, Kevin F; Dori, Yoav; Rome, Jonathan J; Glatz, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    Concern regarding aortic erosion has focused attention on the retro-aortic rim in patients undergoing device closure of atrial septal defects (ASD), but its effect on early outcomes is not well studied. A multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing device occlusion of ASD between 1/2011-10/2014 was performed, using data from the IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment Registry. Subjects were divided between those with retro-aortic rim technical failure and major early adverse events. Case times were measured as surrogates of technical complexity. The effect of deficient retro-aortic rim on primary outcomes was assessed using hierarchical logistic regression, adjusting for other suspected covariates and assessing whether they represent independent risk factors RESULTS: 1,564 subjects (from 77 centers) were included, with deficient retro-aortic rim present in 40%. Technical failure occurred in 91 subjects (5.8%) and a major early adverse event in 64 subjects (4.1%). Adjusting for known covariates, the presence of a deficient retro-aortic rim was not significantly associated with technical failure (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1) or major early adverse event (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4-1. 2). Total case (P = 0.01) and fluoroscopy time (P = 0.02) were greater in subjects with deficient rim, but sheath time was not significantly different (P = 0.07). Additional covariates independently associated with these outcomes were identified. Deficient retro-aortic rim was highly prevalent but not associated with increased risk of technical failure or early adverse events. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to assess other outcomes, including device erosion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Long term trends in prevalence of neural tube defects in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnood, Babak; Loane, Maria; Walle, Hermien de

    2015-01-01

    for mandatory folic acid fortification of food does not exist? METHODS: This was a population based, observational study using data on 11 353 cases of NTD not associated with chromosomal anomalies, including 4162 cases of anencephaly and 5776 cases of spina bifida from 28 EUROCAT (European Surveillance......STUDY QUESTION: What are the long term trends in the total (live births, fetal deaths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly) and live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in Europe, where many countries have issued recommendations for folic acid supplementation but a policy...... of Congenital Anomalies) registries covering approximately 12.5 million births in 19 countries between 1991 and 2011. The main outcome measures were total and live birth prevalence of NTD, as well as anencephaly and spina bifida, with time trends analysed using random effects Poisson regression models...

  20. Changing trend in congenital abdominal wall defects in Eastern region of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2002-09-01

    In the past six years, there have been reports from abroad of an unexplained rise in the birth prevalence rate of the congenital abdominal wall defect gastroschisis, while rates for the macroscopically similar anomaly omphalocoele have remained stable. The Dublin EUROCAT Registry of congenital anomalies monitors trends in the birth prevalence of birth defects in the eastern region of Ireland. We analysed births of children with omphalocoele and gastroschisis born in the period 1981-2000, with comparisons of a number of demographic and obstetric variables. During the 20 year period the birth prevalence rate for omphalocoele remained stable at 2.5\\/10,000 births, whereas the rate for gastroschisis increased significantly during the 1990s from 1.0\\/10,000 in 1991 to 4.9\\/10,000 in 2000. Most of the increase occurred among mothers under 25 years of age. Omphalocoele was associated with a relatively high proportion of other major congenital anomalies. This study showed that there has been an unexpected rise in the birth prevalence of gastroschisis in the region, similar to that experienced in other countries in the same time period and likely to have common aetiological features.

  1. Urinary tract abnormalities (UTA) and associated malformations: data of the Emilia-Romagna Registry. IMER Group. Emilia-Romagna Registry on Congenital Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, G; Magnani, C; Morini, M S; Garani, G P; Milan, M; Calzolari, E

    1996-10-01

    An epidemiological study on the urinary tract anomalies (UTA) associated with other congenital malformations or syndromes ascertained by the Emilia-Romagna Registry on Congenital Malformations (IMER) among 209,882 consecutive births monitored during the period 1981-1990 is presented. UTA were ascertained in 349 infants for a rate at birth of 16.6 per 10,000 total births, or one case for every 600 births. The occurrence rate of UTA increased significantly during the ten years of monitoring passing from 6.1 per 10,000 in 1981-1982 to 25.1 in 1989-1990 (r = 0.85; p UTA, directly related to the impact of the prenatal diagnosis. Among the 349 cases, 106 (30.4%) were associated with other conditions, including 18 who had chromosomal aberrations (ChrA). The incidence in the total number of the ChrA registered was 43.6 per 1,000. Genetic syndromes (GS) in 33 cases with a specific rate of 150 per 1,000, and 55 cases of multiples with a specific rate of 205.2 per 1,000. In multiples we observed some preferential associations of UTA with intestinal defects and severe ear defects (p UTA are often associated with other extrarenal defects and sometimes are a component of syndromes that are difficult to identify and for which genetic implications are great and genetic counselling necessary. Pediatricians need to be aware of the possible involvement of the kidney in specific and rare syndromes, and pediatric nephrologists must recognize the association of renal diseases with abnormalities in other physiological systems.

  2. Long-term mortality in patients with atrial septal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Camilla; Karunanithi, Zarmiga; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2017-01-01

    Aims: In this nationwide cohort of atrial septal defect (ASD) patients, the largest to date, we report the longest follow-up time with and without closure in childhood and adulthood compared with a general population cohort. Methods and results: Using population-based registries, we included Danish...... individuals born before 1994 who received an ASD diagnosis between 1959 and 2013. All diagnoses were subsequently validated (n = 2277). Using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for sex, birth year, and a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, we compared the mortality...... of ASD patients with that of a birth year and sex matched general population cohort. The median follow-up from ASD diagnosis was 18.1 years (range 1-53 years). Patients with ASD had a higher mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-1.9] compared with the general...

  3. Maternal obesity and congenital heart defects: a population-based study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James L; Troendle, James; Conley, Mary R; Carter, Tonia; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects almost one-third of pregnant women and causes many complications, including neural tube defects. It is not clear whether the risk of congenital heart defects, the most common malformations, is also increased. Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether obesity is associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects. Design: A population-based, nested, case-control study was conducted in infants born with congenital heart defects and unaffected controls from the cohort of all births (n = 1,536,828) between 1993 and 2003 in New York State, excluding New York City. The type of congenital heart defect, maternal body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), and other risk factors were obtained from the Congenital Malformations Registry and vital records. Mothers of 7392 congenital heart defect cases and 56,304 unaffected controls were studied. Results: All obese women (BMI ≥ 30) were significantly more likely than normal-weight women (BMI: 19–24.9) to have children with a congenital heart defect [odds ratio (OR): 1.15; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.23; P congenital heart defects with increasing maternal obesity (P congenital heart defects, and the risk increases with increasing BMI. Weight reduction as a way to reduce risk should be investigated. PMID:20375192

  4. Population-based study to determine mortality in spina bifida: New York State Congenital Malformations Registry, 1983 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Druschel, Charlotte M; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2014-08-01

    The lifetime risk of death among individuals with spina bifida is 10-times higher compared with the general population. A population-based analysis on cause-specific mortality among individuals spina bifida is lacking. Using statewide, population-based New York Congenital Malformations Registry, we examined all births between years 1983 and 2006, and identified 1988 births with spina bifida and 10,951 births with congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (CHPS). We linked registry records to birth and death files from vital records, and determined age- and cause-specific mortality for isolated and multiple spina bifida, and compared the findings with the less fatal CHPS. Mortality in spina bifida is significantly high compared with CHPS (16.9% vs. 0.96%, respectively). The probability of survival in spina bifida was lower compared with CHPS. A majority of the deaths in spina bifida occurred in infants within the first year of birth; however, an increased risk of death persisted in young adulthood for both isolated and multiple cases of spina bifida. The common causes of death in children with spina bifida were hydrocephalus, infections, cardiac anomalies, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism; while infections, heart or kidney failure, injuries and neoplasms contributed to deaths in adults. We conclude that mortality in spina bifida is a large concern, and individuals living with the defect require improved clinical care for lethal medical complications. Primary prevention of spina bifida through mandatory folic acid fortification remains as the best strategy to reduce both disability and mortality associated with this defect across the world. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. How Suitable Are Registry Data for Recurrence Risk Calculations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina Gade; Jensen, Anders Boeck; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2016-01-01

    if registry data are used indiscriminately. Here, we investigated the consequences of misclassifications for the RRR using validated diagnoses on Danish patients with familial CHD. METHODS: Danish citizens are assigned a civil registration number (CPR number) at birth or immigration, which acts as a unique...... identifier in the Danish registries, thus enabling connection of information from several registries. Utilizing the CPR number, we identified Danish patients with familial CHD and reviewed each patient's file. We compared diagnoses from the registries with those manually assigned, which enabled calculation......BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) occurs in approximately 1% of all live births, and 3% to 8% of these have until now been considered familial cases, defined as the occurrence of two or more affected individuals in a family. The validity of CHD diagnoses in Danish administrative registry...

  6. The EpiCom Survey-Registries Across Europe, Epidemiological Research and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Hannah; Langholz, Ebbe

    2017-01-01

    The 2015 EpiCom survey evaluated population, patient, and research registries across Europe. Information was collected from 38 countries. The registries included those falling within the remit of national statistics, hospital databases, twin and multiplex registries, inflammatory bowel disease [IBD......] registries and biobanks, and cancer and surgical registries. The scale and nature of registries were investigated, and where possible a contact detail for each registry was obtained.The survey demonstrated 33 birth and death registers across Europe. It also highlighted ethical and legal challenges in linking...... information from health and social registries: 30 delegates reported that their home country has a hospital database; 21 have adverse events registers, although the majority only mandate reporting of events that occur during drug trials; 17 countries have twin registries; And IBD registries have been...

  7. Maternal occupation and the risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Langlois, Peter H; Mitchell, Laura E; Agopian, A J

    2017-07-19

    We evaluated the association between maternal occupation and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Data for 491 nonsyndromic cases were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for deliveries between 1999 and 2009. We randomly selected 2,291 controls among all live births in Texas during this time. Maternal occupations were classified using automated software and manual assignment. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between maternal occupation and risk for any NTD, adjusting for maternal race/ethnicity, any diabetes, and maternal body mass index. These analyses were repeated for spina bifida specifically. Some maternal occupations, particularly those related to business/finance, health care practice, and cleaning/maintenance, were significantly associated with increased risk of spina bifida and/or any NTD. Further research is needed to identify the specific occupational exposures related to NTD risk.

  8. Confiabilidade das informações das declarações de nascido vivo com registro de defeitos congênitos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 2004 Reliability of birth defect data on birth certificates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Ramos Guerra

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a confiabilidade das informações sobre defeitos congênitos contidas nas declarações de nascido vivo do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no ano de 2004 comparando-as com os prontuários hospitalares destas crianças e de suas mães na internação para o parto. Após a seleção de 24 maternidades do SUS, os tipos de defeitos congênitos constantes nos prontuários foram transcritos em formulários de coleta próprios, codificados com base na CID-10 e comparados com os arquivos do SINASC. Verificou-se uma maior freqüência de defeitos congênitos dos sistemas osteomuscular e nervoso central e percentual de concordância acima de 50% nos aparelhos digestivo, urinário e osteomuscular, órgãos genitais e de anomalias cromossômicas. O kappa ajustado pela prevalência variou conforme as análises para 2 ou 3 dígitos da CID-10, com melhores resultados nos aparelhos osteomuscular, genito-urinário, digestivo e as anomalias cromossômicas e os piores nos sistemas nervoso central e cárdio-circulatório, malformações congênitas da face, olhos pescoço e orelhas e fendas lábio-palatinas. Os resultados encontrados são insatisfatórios e apontam para a necessidade de qualificação do pessoal envolvido no preenchimento das declarações assim como a padronização da codificação dos defeitos congênitos.This study assessed the reliability of birth certificate data related to birth defects in Brazil's Live Birth Information System (SINASC. We selected 24 maternity hospitals in the Unified National Health System (SUS and compared the reports of birth defects from birth certificates with medical records of mothers and live born infants in the city of Rio de Janeiro for the year 2004. After transposing the data to a specific form, the birth defects were coded by types and organ systems and compared to the SINASC data. The most commonly affected organs involved the central

  9. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  10. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  11. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  12. Bladder Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siffel, Csaba; Correa, Adolfo; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We

  13. Estudo de prevalência de defeitos congênitos no Vale do Paraíba Paulista Prevalence study of birth defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilene Otaviano Pinto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de anomalias congênitas no Vale do Paraíba Paulista em 2002 e 2003. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados constantes na Declaração de Nascido Vivo (DNV, cujas informações estavam no portal da Secretaria da Saúde do Estado de São Paulo. As malformações foram descritas de acordo com o capítulo XVII do Código Internacional de Doenças (CID 10, referente a variáveis maternas e do recém-nascido. A variável desfecho (dependente foi a presença de anomalia congênita; as demais informações das mães e do recém-nascido constantes na DNV (variáveis independentes foram analisadas para estimar as associações entre elas e a variável desfecho. Utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info 6.04d para análise estatística e o teste do qui-quadrado, do qui-quadrado de tendência linear e o teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 41.838 dados com informações constantes nas DNVs, sendo identificados 618 (1,5% sem preenchimento do campo correspondente à anomalia congênita e 317 (0,76% nascidos com anomalia congênita. Houve associação positiva de anomalias congênitas com menor duração da gestação, maior número de filhos mortos, tipo de parto, baixo peso ao nascer e menor escore de Apgar. Os sistemas mais afetados foram o osteomuscular e o nervoso. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de malformações foi menor que a encontrada em outros estudos, possivelmente por sub-registro de informação.OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of birth defects in the Vale do Paraíba Paulista, São Paulo - Brazil, during the years of 2002 and 2003. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on Birth Certificates available in the São Paulo Health Secretary site. The abnormalities were described according to chapter XVII of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD 10 for variables related to mothers and infants born alive at birth. The dependent variable was the presence of abnormalities

  14. Facility Registry Service (FRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Facility Registry Service (FRS) provides an integrated source of comprehensive (air, water, and waste) environmental information about facilities across EPA,...

  15. Is the fertile window extended in women with polycystic ovary syndrome? Utilizing the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry to assess the impact of reproductive aging on live-birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Suleena Kansal; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Dokras, Anuja

    2013-07-01

    To assess whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) follow the same age-related decline in IVF outcomes as women with tubal factor infertility over the reproductive life span. PCOS is characterized by increased ovarian reserve as assessed by antral follicle counts and anti-Müllerian hormone levels. It is unclear whether these surrogate markers of ovarian reserve reflect a true lengthening of the reproductive window. Retrospective cohort. Not applicable. Women with PCOS and tubal factor infertility (42,286 cycles). IVF. Pregnancy and live-birth rates. The mean number of oocytes retrieved was higher in women with PCOS compared with in women with tubal factor (16.4 vs. 12.8; odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.29). The clinical pregnancy (42.5% vs. 35.8%; OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.27-1.38) and live-birth rates were also increased in women with PCOS (34.8% vs. 29.1%; OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24-1.35). A similar rate of decline in clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates was noted in both groups (20-44 years). The implantation, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live-birth rates were not significantly different for each year after age 40 in the two groups. Despite a higher oocyte yield in all age groups, women with PCOS over age 40 had similar clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates compared with women with tubal factor infertility. These findings suggest that the reproductive window may not be extended in PCOS and that patients with infertility should be treated in a timely manner despite indicators of high ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Danish HD Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, M.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.; Boonen, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Huntington's Disease Registry (DHR) is a nationwide family registry comprising 14 245 individuals from 445 Huntington's disease (HD) families of which the largest family includes 845 individuals in 8 generations. 1136 DNA and/or blood samples and 18 fibroblast cultures are stored...

  17. Quality assessment of home births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrina; Colmorn, Lotte B.; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The safety of home births has been widely debated. Observational studies examining maternal and neonatal outcomes of home births have become more frequent, and the quality of these studies has improved. The aim of the present study was to describe neonatal outcomes of home births...... compared with hospital births and to discuss which data are needed to evaluate the safety of home births. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. Data on all births in Denmark (2003-2013) were collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (DMBR). The cohort included healthy women...... with uncomplicated pregnancies and no medical interventions during delivery. A total of 6,395 home births and 266,604 hospital births were eligible for analysis. Comparative analyses were performed separately in nulliparous and multiparous women. The outcome measures were neonatal mortality and morbidity. RESULTS...

  18. Evaluating the completeness of the national ALS registry, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Wendy E; Wagner, Laurie; Wu, Ruoming; Mehta, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the completeness of the United States National ALS Registry (Registry). We compared persons with ALS who were passively identified by the Registry with those actively identified in the State and Metropolitan Area ALS Surveillance project. Cases in the two projects were matched using a combination of identifiers, including, partial social security number, name, date of birth, and sex. The distributions of cases from the two projects that matched/did not match were compared and Chi-square tests conducted to determine statistical significance. There were 5883 ALS cases identified by the surveillance project. Of these, 1116 died before the Registry started, leaving 4767 cases. We matched 2720 cases from the surveillance project to those in the Registry. The cases identified by the surveillance project that did not match cases in the Registry were more likely to be non-white, Hispanic, less than 65 years of age, and from western states. The methods used by the Registry to identify ALS cases, i.e. national administrative data and self-registration, worked well but missed cases. These findings suggest that developing strategies to identify and promote the Registry to those who were more likely to be missing, e.g. non-white and Hispanic, could be beneficial to improving the completeness of the Registry.

  19. Paper 6: EUROCAT member registries: organization and activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenlees, Ruth; Neville, Amanda; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2011-01-01

    EUROCAT is a network of population-based congenital anomaly registries providing standardized epidemiologic information on congenital anomalies in Europe. There are three types of EUROCAT membership: full, associate, or affiliate. Full member registries send individual records of all congenital a...... anomalies covered by their region. Associate members transmit aggregate case counts for each EUROCAT anomaly subgroup by year and by type of birth. This article describes the organization and activities of each of the current 29 full member and 6 associate member registries of EUROCAT....

  20. [Trauma registry and injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, S C

    2001-10-01

    The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers.

  1. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  2. 911 Master PSAP Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Updated as of 5Oct2017. The Registry lists PSAPs by an FCC assigned identification number, PSAP Name, State, County, City, and provides information on any type of...

  3. Birthing Healthy Babies (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-11

    Birth defects are common, costly, and critical. If you’re pregnant or planning to get pregnant, you can take steps to improve your chances of giving birth to a healthy child. This podcast discusses ways to prevent birth defects.  Created: 1/11/2018 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/11/2018.

  4. Evaluation of LexisNexis Batch Solutions in the New York State Cancer Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Eva; Boscoe, Francis P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Lexis Nexis Batch Solutions, the New York State Cancer Registry was able to identify substantial numbers of missing addresses, birth dates, and social security numbers, for persons diagnosed as far back as 1976.

  5. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  6. Epidemiology of hypospadias in Europe: a registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jorieke E H; Loane, Maria; Vrijheid, Martine; Pierini, Anna; Nijman, Rien J M; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Béres, Judit; Braz, Paula; Budd, Judith; Delaney, Virginia; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsøyr, Kari; Martos, Carmen; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalya; Bakker, Marian K; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2015-12-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. The prevalence of hypospadias has a large geographical variation, and recent studies have reported both increasing and decreasing temporal trends. It is unclear whether hypospadias prevalence is associated with maternal age. To analyze the prevalence and trends of total hypospadias, isolated hypospadias, hypospadias with multiple congenital anomalies, hypospadias with a known cause, and hypospadias severity subtypes in Europe over a 10-year period and to investigate whether maternal age is associated with hypospadias. We included all children with hypospadias born from 2001 to 2010 who were registered in 23 EUROCAT registries. Information on the total number of births and maternal age distribution for the registry population was also provided. We analyzed the total prevalence of hypospadias and relative risks by maternal age. From 2001 to 2010, 10,929 hypospadias cases were registered in 5,871,855 births, yielding a total prevalence of 18.61 per 10,000 births. Prevalence varied considerably between different registries, probably due to differences in ascertainment of hypospadias cases. No significant temporal trends were observed with the exceptions of an increasing trend for anterior and posterior hypospadias and a decreasing trend for unspecified hypospadias. After adjusting for registry effects, maternal age was not significantly associated with hypospadias. Total hypospadias prevalence was stable in 23 EUROCAT registries from 2001 to 2010 and was not significantly influenced by maternal age.

  7. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  8. Indian transplant registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Shroff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An ′Indian transplant registry′ has been established over the past two years due to the efforts of the Indian Society of Organ Transplantation. This society is about 20 years old with over 450 members who are doctors and basic scientist. The registry is currently in the first phase of its development and can be partly viewed at www.transplantindia.com. The endeavor has been undertaken with the objective of having a centralized repository of information of the various transplants that are being undertaken in India. In its first phase of the registry ′Fast Fact′ retrospective short datasets are being captured that include the essential details of the transplant programme. The fast fact data includes the number of transplant done yearly, the sex ratio and type of transplant. So far thirteen major institutional data has been entered in the registry. In the second phase of the registry, over twenty fields are likely to be captured and all member institutions would be encouraged to enter the data prospectively. In the third phase data would be derived with ongoing audit features.. The society and its members have supported the formation of the registry and are enthusiastic about its potential.

  9. Gastroschisis and associated defects: an international study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2007-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency and type of malformations associated with gastroschisis in a large pool of international data, to identify malformation patterns, and to evaluate the role of maternal age in non-isolated cases. Case-by-case information from 24 registries, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR), were evaluated. After the exclusion of other abdominal wall defects cases were classified as: (a) isolated; (b) recognizable syndrome, chromosomal or not; (c) multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Our results showed that out of 3,322 total cases 469 non-isolated cases were registered (14.1%): 41 chromosomal syndromes, 24 other syndromes, and 404 MCA. Among MCA four groups of anomalies were most frequent: CNS (4.5%), cardio-vascular (2.5%), limb (2.2%), and kidney anomalies (1.9%). No similar patterns emerged except two patterns resembling limb-body wall complex and OEIS. In both of them the gastroschisis could be however misclassified. Chromosomal trisomies and possibly non-syndromic MCA are associated with an older maternal age more than isolated cases. On consideration of our data and the most valid studies published in the literature, the best estimate of the proportion of gastroschisis associated with major unrelated defects is about 10%, with a few cases associated to recognizable syndromes. Recognized syndromes with gastroschisis seem to be so exceptional that the well documented and validated cases are worth being published as interesting case report. An appropriate case definition in etiological studies should include only isolated gastroschisis after an appropriate definition of isolated and non-isolated cases and a thorough case-by-case review.

  10. The Danish Stroke Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. STUDY POPULATION: All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated...... at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. MAIN VARIABLES: The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes...... of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients...

  11. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baandrup L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lone Baandrup,1 Charlotte Cerqueira,2 Lea Haller,3 Lene Korshøj,3 Inge Voldsgaard,4 Merete Nordentoft5 1Centre for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR and Centre for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup, 2Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 3The Danish Clinical Registries, Registry Support Centre for Health Quality and Informatics (KCKS-West, Aarhus, 4Psychosis Ward, Section P, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research.Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care in psychiatric hospitals or outpatient clinics. During the first year after the diagnosis, patients are classified as incident patients, and after this period as prevalent patients.Main variables: The registry currently contains 21 clinical quality measures in relation to the following domains: diagnostic evaluation, antipsychotic treatment including adverse reactions, cardiovascular risk factors including laboratory values, family intervention, psychoeducation, postdischarge mental health care, assessment of suicide risk in relation to discharge, and assessment of global functioning.Descriptive data: The recorded data are available electronically for the reporting clinicians and responsible administrative personnel, and they are updated monthly. The registry publishes the national and regional results of all included quality measures in the annual audit reports. External researchers may

  12. The Danish Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. STUDY POPULATION: All adult (≥15 years) patients...... undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. MAIN VARIABLES: The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR...

  13. The Qingdao Twin Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Haiping; Ning, Feng; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, the Qingdao Twin Registry was initiated as the main part of the Chinese National Twin Registry. By 2005, a total of 10,655 twin pairs had been recruited. Since then new twin cohorts have been sampled, with one longitudinal cohort of adolescent twins selected to explore determinants...... of metabolic disorders and health behaviors during puberty and young adulthood. Adult twins have been sampled for studying heritability of multiple phenotypes associated with metabolic disorders. In addition, an elderly twin cohort has been recruited with a focus on genetic studies of aging-related phenotypes...

  14. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  15. Possible Common Aetiology behind Maternal Preeclampsia and Congenital Heart Defects in the Child: a Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway Project Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodwall, Kristoffer; Leirgul, Elisabeth; Greve, Gottfried; Vollset, Stein Emil; Holmstrøm, Henrik; Tell, Grethe S; Øyen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital heart defects (CHD) is mostly unknown, but maternal factors may modify the infant risk of CHD. We investigated the association between maternal preeclampsia and offspring risk of severe CHD in a nation-wide cohort study. Information on all births registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1994-2009, was completed with information on CHD diagnoses from national health registries and the Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway Project (CVDNOR). Among 914 703 singleton births without chromosomal abnormalities, 32 864 (3.6%) were born after a pregnancy with preeclampsia. The preeclampsia was diagnosed before the 34th week of pregnancy (early-onset preeclampsia) in 2618 (8.0% of preeclamptic pregnancies). CHDs were diagnosed in 10 691 infants; of these, 2473 had severe CHD. The risk of severe CHD was compared between births with and without maternal preeclampsia and estimated with binomial log-linear regression. When adjusting for year of birth, maternal age, parity, and pregestational diabetes, the risk ratio (RR) for severe CHD in offspring of mothers with any preeclampsia was 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.5], and in pregnancies with early-onset preeclampsia, the RR was 2.8 (95% CI 1.8, 4.4). The association between early-onset preeclampsia and specific types of severe CHD was stronger for atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD), with adjusted RR 13.5 (95% CI 6.8, 26.8). Early-onset preeclampsia was strongly associated with infant risk of severe CHD, specifically; the risk of AVSD was 15-fold higher if the mother was diagnosed with early-onset preeclampsia, suggesting common aetiological factors for early-onset preeclampsia and erroneous fetal heart development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Danish Medical Birth Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    on all births in Denmark and comprises primarily of data from the Danish National Patient Registry supplemented with forms on home deliveries and stillbirths. It contains information on maternal age provided by the Civil Registration System. Information on pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking......The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used...

  17. US Transuranium Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenstein, B.D. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The US Transuranium Registry (USTR) is a nationwide autopsy research program conducted by Hanford Environmental Health Foundation since 1968. The USTR is designed to study the distribution, concentration, and possible tissue effects of transuranics in occupationally exposed workers who volunteer to participate in the study

  18. Cancer Registry Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-24

    Dr. Loria Pollack, a Senior Medical Epidemiologist, talks about the importance of cancer registry data to understanding how cancer affects the United States–now and in the future.  Created: 5/24/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/24/2017.

  19. The Danish Twin Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytthe, Axel; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Vilstrup Holm, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry is a unique source for studies of genetic, familial and environmental factors on life events, health conditions and diseases. Content: More than 85,000 twin pairs born 1870-2008 in Denmark. Validity and coverage: Four main ascertainment methods have been emp...

  20. Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.

  1. Estimates of global and regional prevalence of neural tube defects for 2015: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Hannah; Kancherla, Vijaya; Moorthie, Sowmiya; Darlison, Matthew W; Modell, Bernadette

    2018-02-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are associated with substantial mortality, morbidity, disability, and psychological and economic costs. Many are preventable with folic acid, and access to appropriate services for those affected can improve survival and quality of life. We used a compartmental model to estimate global and regional birth prevalence of NTDs (live births, stillbirths, and elective terminations of pregnancy) and subsequent under-5 mortality. Data were identified through web-based reviews of birth defect registry databases and systematic literature reviews. Meta-analyses were undertaken where appropriate. For 2015, our model estimated 260,100 (uncertainty interval (UI): 213,800-322,000) NTD-affected birth outcomes worldwide (prevalence 18.6 (15.3-23.0)/10,000 live births). Approximately 50% of cases were elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies (UI: 59,300 (47,900-74,500)) or stillbirths (57,800 (UI: 35,000-88,600)). Of NTD-affected live births, 117,900 (∼75%) (UI: 105,500-186,600) resulted in under-5 deaths. Our systematic review showed a paucity of high-quality data in the regions of the world with the highest burden. Despite knowledge about prevention, NTDs remain highly prevalent worldwide. Lack of surveillance and incomplete ascertainment of affected pregnancies make NTDs invisible to policy makers. Improved surveillance of all adverse outcomes is needed to improve the robustness of total NTD prevalence estimation, evaluate effectiveness of prevention through folic acid fortification, and improve outcomes through care and rehabilitation. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. The EuroMyositis registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleker, James B; Vencovsky, Jiri; Wang, Guochun

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The EuroMyositis Registry facilitates collaboration across the idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) research community. This inaugural report examines pooled Registry data. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of IIM cases from 11 countries was performed. Associations between clinical subtyp...

  3. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Research & Professionals Our research Research ...

  4. Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects: Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kit Prevent Mosquito Bites Controlling Mosquitoes at Home Sexual Transmission and Prevention Plan for Travel Zika & Blood Transfusion ... CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test ...

  5. National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  6. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  7. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...

  8. Association between thyroxine levels at birth and choanal atresia or stenosis among infants in Texas, 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Canfield, Mark A; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Moffitt, Karen B; Marengo, Lisa; Agopian, A J; Belmont, John W; Freedenberg, Debra; Tanksley, Susan M; Mitchell, Laura E; Lupo, Philip J

    2012-11-01

    The causes of choanal atresia or stenosis (CA) are largely unknown. Infant thyroxine (T(4) ) levels collected during newborn screening may be proxy measures for a risk factor present during the critical period of development. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to examine the association between newborn T(4) levels and CA. Data for cases with CA and controls were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for the period of 2004 to 2007. Information on infant T(4) levels at birth was obtained from the Texas Newborn Screening Program. Controls (n = 3570) were drawn from unaffected births in Texas for the same period and frequency matched to cases (n = 69) on year of birth, then linked to the newborn screening database. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between continuous and categorical infant T(4) levels and nonsyndromic CA. After adjustment for gestational age and year of birth, infant T(4) levels were inversely associated with CA (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-0.90). We observed a linear trend (p < 0.001) across quartiles of T(4) ; compared to infants with low levels, AORs for CA were 0.50 (95% CI, 0.28-0.91), 0.39 (95% CI, 0.20-0.75), and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.06-0.40) for infants with medium-to-low, medium, and high levels, respectively. Our findings suggest a role of low thyroid hormone levels in the development of CA, or that low newborn T(4) levels are potential proxy measures of a risk factor present during the critical period. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2012. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. REMOTE REGISTRY EDITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Kelana Simpony

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Permissions setting on a computer is necessary. This is an effort that is not easy to change the system configuration or settings changed by the user. With a network of computers, of course, permissions setting do not need to be done one by one manually. Because in a computer network course there are many collection of computers connected together. Permissions setting so that the system can use the client-server applications that access restrictions can be done effectively. As the implementation of client-server applications can be created using Visual Basic 6.0. This language has been able to access the socket on the Windows operating system, named Winsock API that supports TCP / IP. This protocol is widely used because of the reliability of client-server application programming. The application is divided into two main applications, namely the client and server program name with the name of the Receiver Sender program. Receiver function receives instructions restriction of access rights Sender and send reports to the Sender process execution. While Sender function to send instructions restrictions permissions via the Registry to the Receiver. And after the test, the application can block important features available in the Windows operating system. So it is expected that these applications can help in permissions setting on a computer network. Keywords: Registry, Winsock API, TCP/IP, Socket, Protocol, Networking Abstrak - Pengaturan hak akses di suatu komputer sangat diperlukan. Hal ini merupakan salah satu upaya agar konfigurasi sistem tidak mudah dirubah atau diganti pengaturannya oleh pengguna. Dengan adanya jaringan komputer, tentunya pengaturan hak akses tidak perlu dilakukan satu-satu secara manual. Karena dalam suatu jaringan komputer pastinya terdapat banyak kumpulan komputer yang saling terhubung. Sehingga pengaturan hak akses bisa menggunakan sistem aplikasi client-server agar pembatasan hak akses bisa dilakukan dengan

  10. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  11. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  12. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  13. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  14. Anal sphincter defects and faecal incontinence 15-24 years after first delivery: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Rojas, Rodrigo A; Salvesen, Kjell Å; Volløyhaug, Ingrid

    2017-08-06

    To establish the prevalence of external (EAS) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) defects 15-24 years after childbirth in association to mode of delivery and faecal incontinence (FI), and compare the proportion of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) reported at delivery with defects on ultrasound. This was a cross-sectional study including 563 women, who delivered their first child from 1990-97. Women responded to a validated questionnaire (PFDI) in 2013-14. The proportion of women with FI was recorded. Information about OASIS was obtained from the National Birth Registry. Study participants underwent 4D transperineal ultrasound examination. A defect of the EAS and IAS of ≥30° in ≥4/6 planes on tomographic ultrasound was registered. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for comparison of prevalence of EAS defects between different modes of delivery and in association to FI. Fisher's exact test was used for IAS defects. Defects of EAS and IAS were found after normal delivery (n = 201): 10% and 1%; forceps (n = 144): 32% and 7%; vacuum (n = 120): 15% and 4%, and no defects after caesarean section (n = 98). Forceps was associated with increased risk of EAS defects compared to normal delivery (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.2) and vacuum (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.6) and increased risk of IAS defects compared to normal delivery (cOR 7.4, 95% CI 1.5-70.5). The difference between vacuum and normal delivery was not significant. FI was indicated by 18% of women with EAS defects, 29% with IAS defects and 8% without sphincter defects. EAS and IAS defects were associated with increased risk of FI (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9; cOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.1-13.5). 80% of ultrasonographical sphincter defects were not reported as OASIS at first or subsequent deliveries. Anal sphincter defects visualized by transperineal ultrasound 15-24 years after delivery were associated with forceps and FI. Undetected OASIS was frequent. This article is

  15. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    -for-gestational-age (SGA), abdominal circumference, head circumference, and placental weight. METHODS: We analyzed birth size from the Danish Medical Birth Registry of 66 693 live-born children in the Danish National Birth Cohort according to the mother's self-reported information on occupational lifting from telephone...

  16. eRegistries: Electronic registries for maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøen, J Frederik; Myhre, Sonja L; Frost, Michael J; Chou, Doris; Mehl, Garrett; Say, Lale; Cheng, Socheat; Fjeldheim, Ingvild; Friberg, Ingrid K; French, Steve; Jani, Jagrati V; Kaye, Jane; Lewis, John; Lunde, Ane; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Nyanchoka, Linda; Stone, Hollie; Venkateswaran, Mahima; Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Temmerman, Marleen; Flenady, Vicki J

    2016-01-19

    The Global Roadmap for Health Measurement and Accountability sees integrated systems for health information as key to obtaining seamless, sustainable, and secure information exchanges at all levels of health systems. The Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescent's Health aims to achieve a continuum of quality of care with effective coverage of interventions. The WHO and World Bank recommend that countries focus on intervention coverage to monitor programs and progress for universal health coverage. Electronic health registries - eRegistries - represent integrated systems that secure a triple return on investments: First, effective single data collection for health workers to seamlessly follow individuals along the continuum of care and across disconnected cadres of care providers. Second, real-time public health surveillance and monitoring of intervention coverage, and third, feedback of information to individuals, care providers and the public for transparent accountability. This series on eRegistries presents frameworks and tools to facilitate the development and secure operation of eRegistries for maternal and child health. In this first paper of the eRegistries Series we have used WHO frameworks and taxonomy to map how eRegistries can support commonly used electronic and mobile applications to alleviate health systems constraints in maternal and child health. A web-based survey of public health officials in 64 low- and middle-income countries, and a systematic search of literature from 2005-2015, aimed to assess country capacities by the current status, quality and use of data in reproductive health registries. eRegistries can offer support for the 12 most commonly used electronic and mobile applications for health. Countries are implementing health registries in various forms, the majority in transition from paper-based data collection to electronic systems, but very few have eRegistries that can act as an integrating backbone for health

  17. The Danish Heart Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cengiz Özcan,1,2 Knud Juel,1 Jens Flensted Lassen,3 Lene Mia von Kappelgaard,1 Poul Erik Mortensen,4 Gunnar Gislason1,2 1The National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen K, Denmark; 2Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark; 3Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; 4Department of Thoracic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Odense C, Denmark Aim: The Danish Heart Registry (DHR seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. Study population: All adult ($15 years patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. Main variables: The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR and WDHR. For each type of procedure, up to 70 variables are registered in the DHR. Since 2010, the data quality protocol encompasses fulfillment of web-based validation rules of daily-submitted records and yearly approval of the data by the EDHR and WDHR. Descriptive data: The data collection on procedure has been complete for PCI and surgery since 2000, and for CAG as of 2006. From 2000 to 2014, the number of CAG, PCI, and surgical procedures changed by 231%, 193%, and 99%, respectively. Until the end of 2014, a total of 357,476 CAG, 131,309 PCI, and 60,831 surgical procedures had been performed, corresponding to 249,445, 100,609, and 55,539 first-time patients, respectively. The DHR generally has a high level of completeness (1–missing of each procedure (.90% when compared to the National Patient Registry. Variables important for assessing the quality of care have

  18. Pseudonyms for cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, K; Miller, M; Schmidtmann, I; Michaelis, J

    1996-06-01

    In order to conform to the rigid German legislation on data privacy and security we developed a new concept of data flow and data storage for population-based cancer registries. A special trusted office generates a pseudonym for each case by a cryptographic procedure. This office also handles the notification of cases and communicates with the reporting physicians. It passes pseudonymous records to the registration office for permanent storage. The registration office links the records according to the pseudonyms. Starting from a requirements analysis we show how to construct the pseudonyms; we then show that they meet the requirements. We discuss how the pseudonyms have to be protected by cryptographic and organizational means. A pilot study showed that the proposed procedure gives acceptable synonym and homonym error rates. The methods described are not restricted to cancer registration and may serve as a model for comparable applications in medical informatics.

  19. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data are regis......The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data...

  20. National registry of hemoglobinopathies in Spain (REPHem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Elena; Bellón, José M; de la Cruz, María; Beléndez, Cristina; Berrueco, Rubén; Ruiz, Anna; Elorza, Izaskun; Díaz de Heredia, Cristina; Cervera, Aurea; Vallés, Griselda; Salinas, J Antonio; Coll, M Teresa; Bermúdez, Mar; Prudencio, Marta; Argilés, Bienvenida; Vecilla, Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Although highly prevalent throughout the world, the accurate prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain is unknown. This study presents data on the national registry of hemoglobinopathies of patients with thalassemia major (TM), thalassemia intermedia (TI), and sickle cell disease (SCD) in Spain created in 2014. Fifty centers reported cases retrospectively. Data were registered from neonatal screening or from the first contact at diagnosis until last follow-up or death. Data of the 715 eligible patients were collected: 615 SCD (497 SS, 64 SC, 54 SBeta phenotypes), 73 thalassemia, 9 CC phenotype, and 18 other variants. Most of the SCD patients were born in Spain (65%), and 51% of these were diagnosed at newborn screening. Median age at the first diagnosis was 0.4 years for thalassemia and 1.0 years for SCD. The estimated incidence was 0.002 thalassemia cases and 0.03 SCD cases/1,000 live births. Median age was 8.9 years (0.2-33.7) for thalassemia and 8.1 years (0.2-32.8) for SCD patients. Stroke was registered in 16 SCD cases. Transplantation was performed in 43 TM and 23 SCD patients at a median age of 5.2 and 7.8 years, respectively. Twenty-one patients died (3 TM, 17 SCD, 1 CC) and 200 were lost to follow-up. Causes of death were related to transplantation in three patients with TM and three patients with SCD. Death did not seem to be associated with SCD in six patients, but nine patients died secondary to disease complications. Overall survival was 95% at 15 years of age. The registry provides data about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain and will permit future cohort studies and the possibility of comparison with other registries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  2. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Souza Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The population-based cancer registries (PBCR and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC] have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL in Brazil. Methods: A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i characteristics of the child at birth and (ii characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression models. Results: EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10 and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00. Conclusions: The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide.

  3. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Silva, Neimar de Paula; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Camargo, Beatriz; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    The population-based cancer registries (PBCR) and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC]) have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL) in Brazil. A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i) characteristics of the child at birth and (ii) characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models. EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10) and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00). The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Fetal abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural tube defects in Gauteng, South Africa: Recurrence risks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neural tube defects in Gauteng, South Africa: Recurrence risks and associated factors. G Teckie, A Krause, JGR Kromberg. Abstract. Background. After congenital heart disease, neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common serious structural birth defects in human infants. Objectives. To (i) determine the recurrence risks ...

  6. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data...... are registered. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence has been significantly decreasing since the birth period 1983-1986 with 3.0 per 1000 live births until the period 1995-1998 with 2.1 per 1000 live births. The overall decrease was seen in preterm infants (...

  7. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  8. Review of patient registries in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; Hill, Dane; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-10-01

    Patient registries are datasets containing information on patients with a particular disease or patients who are undergoing a specific treatment. Our objective was to search for and catalog the types of registries being used in dermatology and investigate their characteristics and uses. We searched Google, the Registry of Patient Registries, Orphanet, and ClinicalTrials.gov to compile a list of dermatology disease registries. We also conducted a literature review on the uses of dermatology registries using PubMed. We identified 48 dermatology patient registries, with 23 distinct diseases represented. We also identified 11 registries used for postmarketing surveillance of skin disease. Our search was limited to registries in English. Registries are commonly used for the study of rare dermatologic diseases and for postsurveillance monitoring of systemic therapies in more common dermatologic diseases, such as psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Danish National Lymphoma Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arboe B

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bente Arboe,1 Pär Josefsson,2 Judit Jørgensen,3 Jacob Haaber,4 Paw Jensen,5 Christian Poulsen,6 Dorthe Rønnov-Jessen,7 Robert S Pedersen,8 Per Pedersen,9 Mikael Frederiksen,10 Michael Pedersen,1 Peter de Nully Brown1 1Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, 2Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Department of Hematology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Hematology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 6Department of Hematology, Roskilde Hospital, Roskilde, 7Department of Hematology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle, 8Department of Hematology, Holstebro Hospital, Holstebro, 9Department of Hematology, Esbjerg Hospital, Esbjerg, 10Department of Hematology, Haderslev Hospital, Haderslev, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO was established in order to monitor and improve the diagnostic evaluation and the quality of treatment of all lymphoma patients in Denmark. Study population: The LYFO database was established in 1982 as a seminational database including all lymphoma patients referred to the departments of hematology. The database became nationwide on January 1, 2000. Main variables: The main variables include both clinical and paraclinical variables as well as details of treatment and treatment evaluation. Up to four forms are completed for each patient: a primary registration form, a treatment form, a relapse form, and a follow-up form. Variables are used to calculate six result quality indicators (mortality 30 and 180 days after diagnosis, response to first-line treatment, and survival estimates 1, 3, and 5 years after the time of diagnosis, and three process quality indicators (time from diagnosis until the start of treatment, the presence of relevant diagnostic markers, and inclusion rate in clinical protocols. Descriptive data: Approximately 23

  10. Birth rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkin, R

    1980-06-01

    Despite the marked decline in Singapore's crude birth rate from 42.7/1000 population to 22.1/1000 population from 1957 to 1970, the government adopted a policy of sterilization by coercion with the passage in 1970 of the Voluntary Sterilisation Act. Although sterilization is supposedly voluntary, various regulations make it extremely difficult for couples who wish to retain their fertility. Couples under 40 years of age with more than 2 children must agree to accept sterilization or their children are assigned to a low priority category in regard to primary school admittance. An individual who wishes to marry a non-Singaporean cannot obtain a marriage application unless one of the parties to the marriage agrees to have a sterilization after the birth of their 2nd child. Singapore, with a population density of almost 4000/square kilometer, needs to be concerned about population growth; however, since the population had for the most part already adopted a 2 child family norm, these coercive policies appear to be blatantly excessive.

  11. The value of trauma registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lynne; Clark, David E

    2008-06-01

    Trauma registries are databases that document acute care delivered to patients hospitalised with injuries. They are designed to provide information that can be used to improve the efficiency and quality of trauma care. Indeed, the combination of trauma registry data at regional or national levels can produce very large databases that allow unprecedented opportunities for the evaluation of patient outcomes and inter-hospital comparisons. However, the creation and upkeep of trauma registries requires a substantial investment of money, time and effort, data quality is an important challenge and aggregated trauma data sets rarely represent a population-based sample of trauma. In addition, trauma hospitalisations are already routinely documented in administrative hospital discharge databases. The present review aims to provide evidence that trauma registry data can be used to improve the care dispensed to victims of injury in ways that could not be achieved with information from administrative databases alone. In addition, we will define the structure and purpose of contemporary trauma registries, acknowledge their limitations, and discuss possible ways to make them more useful.

  12. Validity of the stage of lung cancer in records of the Maastricht Cancer Registry, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Leo J.; Langendijk, JA; Jager, JJ; vandenBrandt, PA

    Information collected in a clinical study on a random sample of 99 patients with inoperable lung cancer, treated with radiotherapy, was compared to the staging information in the Maastricht cancer registry. Validity of sex (0% disagreements), date of birth (0%), histology (1% major disagreements)

  13. Increased risk of severe congenital heart defects in offspring exposed to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tanja Majbrit; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Garne, Ester

    2014-01-01

    terminated due to congenital anomalies. The study population consisted of all registered pregnancies (n = 72,280) in Funen, Denmark in the period 1995-2008. SSRI-use was assessed using The Danish National Prescription Registry, information on marital status, maternal educational level, income, and country......BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a possible association between maternal use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD). The purpose of this study was to verify this association by using validated data from the Danish EUROCAT...... Register, and secondary, to investigate whether the risk differs between various socioeconomic groups. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study based on Danish administrative register data linked with the Danish EUROCAT Register, which includes all CHD diagnosed in live births, fetal deaths and in pregnancies...

  14. The prevalence at birth of congenital malformations in the city of Ozyorsk located near the nuclear complex Mayak production association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushkina, N. P.; Koshurnikova, N. A.; Okatenko, P. V.

    2004-01-01

    For many years possible genetic effects of exposure to ionizing radiation have been a subject of interest and concern, but data from studies of the risk of radiation-induced hereditary effects in humans are limited. the most extensive human studies of genetic effects were those conducted on the Japanese. A-bomb survivors. In These studies in investigators examined the association of various levels of radiation exposure and several different endpoints, including major congenital defects, stillbirth, death during the first week of life, survivals, and sex ratio and Down's syndrome (8, (14-16). Although associations of these outcomes with radiation exposure were in the positive direction, none were close to statistical significance. Only teratogenic effects of in utero exposure at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, microcephaly and mental retardation, have been observed (8, (10, 16)). Of most interest is possible association of congenital malformations (CMs) with parental occupational radiation exposure. Determination of the role of parental occupational exposure in induction of CMs in children is necessary to evaluate reliability of radiation protection standards Epidemiological studies conducted on the basis of Registries of children who were born in regions located near a nuclear complex may be useful for such evaluation. It is preferable to carry out such studies on the basis of population registries, since long follow-up in large populations allows to reveal increased frequency of even very rare forms of congenital abnormalities. In a case-control study of association of parental occupational exposure due to Hanford Nuclear Site and risk of CMs in their offspring there was no evidence of such an association (12, 13). Our investigation is conducted on the basis of the basis of the Registry of children of Ozyorsk. The whole Registry includes all children with 1948-1988 birth years show were born or-came to town at the age of 0-14 years, and were residents of these towns one

  15. Outcomes of independent midwifery attended births in birth centres and home births: a retrospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yaeko; Eto, Hiromi; Iida, Mariko

    2013-08-01

    blood loss over 500mL (RR1.28; 95%CI 1.07 to 1.53) and over 1000mL (RR1.75; 95%CI 1.04 to 2.82) compared to women birthing at home. our results for birth outcomes with independent midwives at birth centres and home births in Japan indicated a high degree of safety and evidence-based practice. This study had some limitations because of its incomplete data and low response rate. However, this is one of the few studies that reported outcomes of Japanese independent midwives and the safety of their practice. A birth registry system would provide us with more accurate and complete information of all childbirths with which to evaluate the safety of independent Japanese midwives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... as a source for research regarding lung cancer in Denmark and in comparisons with other countries....

  17. Birthing Healthy Babies (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-11

    Every four and a half minutes a baby is born with a birth defect in the United States. That means nearly 120,000 babies, or about three percent of all babies born each year. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Gilboa discusses ways to prevent birth defects.  Created: 1/11/2018 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/11/2018.

  18. Paternity acknowledgment in 2 million birth records from Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Almond

    Full Text Available Out-of-wedlock childbearing is more common in the U.S. than in other countries and becoming more so. A growing share of such non-marital births identify the father, which can create a legal entitlement to child support. Relatively little is known about individual determinants of the decision to establish paternity, in part because of data limitations. In this paper, we evaluate all birth records in Michigan from 1993 to 2006, which have been merged to the paternity registry. In 2006, 30,231 Michigan children, almost one quarter of all Michigan births, were born to unmarried mothers and had paternity acknowledged. We find that births with paternity acknowledged have worse outcomes along various health and socio-economic dimensions relative to births to married parents, but better outcomes relative to births to unmarried parents without paternity acknowledgement. Furthermore, unmarried men who father sons are significantly more likely to acknowledge paternity than fathers of daughters.

  19. Embedded defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriola, M.; Vachaspati, T.; Bucher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the Z string and a one-parameter family of strings called the W(α) string. It is argued that although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member becomes physically distinct when multistring configurations are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The Z string is shown to be unstable for all values of the Higgs boson mass when θ W =π/4. W strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron

  20. Environmental Agents Service (EAS) Registry System of Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Environmental Agent Service (EAS) Registries is the information system encompassing the Ionizing Radiation Registry (IRR), the Agent Orange Registry (AOR), and...

  1. Paper 3: EUROCAT data quality indicators for population-based registries of congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester; Greenlees, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    The European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of population-based congenital anomaly registries is an important source of epidemiologic information on congenital anomalies in Europe covering live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. EUROCAT's policy is to strive for high-quality data, while ensuring consistency and transparency across all member registries. A set of 30 data quality indicators (DQIs) was developed to assess five key elements of data quality: completeness of case ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, completeness of information on EUROCAT variables, timeliness of data transmission, and availability of population denominator information. This article describes each of the individual DQIs and presents the output for each registry as well as the EUROCAT (unweighted) average, for 29 full member registries for 2004-2008. This information is also available on the EUROCAT website for previous years. The EUROCAT DQIs allow registries to evaluate their performance in relation to other registries and allows appropriate interpretations to be made of the data collected. The DQIs provide direction for improving data collection and ascertainment, and they allow annual assessment for monitoring continuous improvement. The DQI are constantly reviewed and refined to best document registry procedures and processes regarding data collection, to ensure appropriateness of DQI, and to ensure transparency so that the data collected can make a substantial and useful contribution to epidemiologic research on congenital anomalies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The danish multiple sclerosis registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Stenager, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Registry was established in 1956. Content: The register comprises data on all Danes who had MS in 1949 or who have been diagnosed since. Data on new cases and updated information on persons with an MS diagnosis already notified are continuously...

  3. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  4. Does maternal birth outcome differentially influence the occurrence of infant death among African Americans and European Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Archer, Phillip W

    2011-11-01

    The United States continues to have one of the highest infant mortality rates (IMR). Although studies have examined the association between maternal and infant birth outcomes, few studies have examined the impact of maternal birth outcome on infant mortality. This study was designed to examine the influence of maternal low birth weight and preterm birth on infant mortality. The 1997-2007 Virginia birth and infant death registry was analyzed. The infant birth and death data was linked to maternal birth registry data using the mother's maiden name and date of birth. From the mother's birth registry data, the grandmother's demographic and pregnancy history was obtained. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. There was a statistically significant association between maternal birth outcome and subsequent infant mortality. Infants born from a mother who was low birth weight were 2.3 times more likely to have an infant die within the first year of life. Similarly, infants born from a mother born preterm were 2.2 times more likely to have an infant die. Stratification by race showed that there was no statistical association between maternal birth weight and infant death among Whites. However, a strong association was observed among Blacks. Maternal birth outcomes may be an important indicator for infant mortality. Future longitudinal studies are needed to understand the underlying cause of these associations.

  5. Registries in European post-marketing surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvy, Jacoline C; Blake, Kevin; Slattery, Jim

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Regulatory agencies and other stakeholders increasingly rely on data collected through registries to support their decision-making. Data from registries are a cornerstone of post-marketing surveillance for monitoring the use of medicines in clinical practice. This study was aimed...... for a registry was made as a condition of the marketing authorisation. All centrally authorised products that received a positive opinion of the EMA Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2013 were included. Data regarding registry design and experiences were...... registries and 71% of the registries had a primary safety objective. Most commonly reported issues with registries were delayed time to start and low patient accrual rates. CONCLUSIONS: The delays found in getting new registries up and running support the need to improve the timeliness of data collection...

  6. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary...... complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake...

  7. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  8. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 582 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or ...

  9. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrative Staff Donate Contact MENU CLOSE back Accredited Birth Centers You are here: Home Accredited Birth Centers ... not CABC-accredited. How do you find a birth center here? Skip Instructions! Get to the Map… ...

  10. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of ...

  11. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... health problems new moms may have after giving birth? Chances are that you’ll be healthy after ...

  12. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  13. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyang Xie; Keyu Jiang; Xiaohong Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathav...

  14. Risk factors for perinatal mortality in Murmansk County, Russia: a registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usynina, Anna A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Krettek, Alexandra; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Anda, Erik Eik

    2017-01-01

    Factors contributing to perinatal mortality (PM) in Northwest Russia remain unclear. This study investigated possible associations between selected maternal and fetal characteristics and PM based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry. This study investigated possible associations between selected maternal and fetal characteristics and PM based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all live- and stillbirths registered in the Murmansk County Birth Registry during 2006-2011 (n = 52,806). We excluded multiple births, births prior to 22 and after 45 completed weeks of gestation, infants with congenital malformations, and births with missing information regarding gestational age (a total of n = 3,666) and/or the studied characteristics (n = 2,356). Possible associations between maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, maternal pre-pregnancy characteristics, pregnancy characteristics, and PM were studied by multivariable logistic regression. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 49,140 births eligible for prevalence analysis, 338 were identified as perinatal deaths (6.9 per 1,000 births). After adjustment for other factors, maternal low education level, prior preterm delivery, spontaneous or induced abortions, antepartum hemorrhage, antenatally detected or suspected fetal growth retardation, and alcohol abuse during pregnancy all significantly increased the risk of PM. We observed a higher risk of PM in unmarried women, as well as overweight or obese mothers. Maternal underweight reduced the risk of PM. Our results suggest that both social and medical factors are important correlates of perinatal mortality in Northwest Russia.

  15. Data Quality in Rare Diseases Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodra, Yllka; Posada de la Paz, Manuel; Coi, Alessio; Santoro, Michele; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Ahmed, Faisal; Rubinstein, Yaffa R; Weinbach, Jérôme; Taruscio, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    In the field of rare diseases, registries are considered power tool to develop clinical research, to facilitate the planning of appropriate clinical trials, to improve patient care and healthcare planning. Therefore high quality data of rare diseases registries is considered to be one of the most important element in the establishment and maintenance of a registry. Data quality can be defined as the totality of features and characteristics of data set that bear on its ability to satisfy the needs that result from the intended use of the data. In the context of registries, the 'product' is data, and quality refers to data quality, meaning that the data coming into the registry have been validated, and ready for use for analysis and research. Determining the quality of data is possible through data assessment against a number of dimensions: completeness, validity; coherence and comparability; accessibility; usefulness; timeliness; prevention of duplicate records. Many others factors may influence the quality of a registry: development of standardized Case Report Form and security/safety controls of informatics infrastructure. With the growing number of rare diseases registries being established, there is a need to develop a quality validation process to evaluate the quality of each registry. A clear description of the registry is the first step when assessing data quality or the registry evaluation system. Here we report a template as a guide for helping registry owners to describe their registry.

  16. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing ...

  17. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per

    2011-01-01

    -for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min birth order. In our large-scale, registry......Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden...... during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic...

  18. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per

    2011-01-01

    during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic......-for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min birth order. In our large-scale, registry......Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden...

  19. The Civil Registry of Children Born of Surrogacy Pregnancy: An Investigation Based on Recent Spain Supreme Court Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cristina de Carvalho Rettore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In foreign law, there has been intense debates concerning civil registry of children born of surrogacy pregnancy, when such birth disrespects the country’s norms. Thus, based on the analysis of recent Spain Supreme Court judgments – that is, through a juridical-comparative investigation, using primary and secondary sources –, and considering that although Brazil lacks an express federal law about the issue, a Resolution of the Federal Counsel of Medicine establishing parameters is being generally applied, the paper aims to answer whether or not Brazilian registry should be facilitated for births (demonstrated as not uncommon that disregard such parameters.

  20. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    OpenAIRE

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were...

  1. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  2. Coagulation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Doreen E; Broadman, Lynn M

    2006-09-01

    The present understanding of the coagulation process emphasizes the final common pathway and the proteolytic systems that result in the degradation of formed clots and the prevention of unwanted clot formations, as well as a variety of defense systems that include tissue repair, autoimmune processes, arteriosclerosis, tumor growth, the spread of metastases, and defense systems against micro-organisms. This article discusses diagnosis and management of some of the most common bleeding disorders. The goals are to provide a simple guide on how best to manage patients afflicted with congenital or acquired clotting abnormalities during the perioperative period, present a brief overview of the methods of testing and monitoring the coagulation defects, and discuss the appropriate pharmacologic or blood component therapies for each disease.

  3. Reducing selection bias in case-control studies from rare disease registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Pramod K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical research of rare diseases, where small patient numbers and disease heterogeneity limit study design options, registries are a valuable resource for demographic and outcome information. However, in contrast to prospective, randomized clinical trials, the observational design of registries is prone to introduce selection bias and negatively impact the validity of data analyses. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the utility of case-control matching and the risk-set method in order to control bias in data from a rare disease registry. Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG Gaucher Registry were used as an example. Methods A case-control matching analysis using the risk-set method was conducted to identify two groups of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease in the ICGG Gaucher Registry: patients with avascular osteonecrosis (AVN and those without AVN. The frequency distributions of gender, decade of birth, treatment status, and splenectomy status were presented for cases and controls before and after matching. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each variable before and after matching. Results The application of case-control matching methodology results in cohorts of cases (i.e., patients with AVN and controls (i.e., patients without AVN who have comparable distributions for four common parameters used in subject selection: gender, year of birth (age, treatment status, and splenectomy status. Matching resulted in odds ratios of approximately 1.00, indicating no bias. Conclusions We demonstrated bias in case-control selection in subjects from a prototype rare disease registry and used case-control matching to minimize this bias. Therefore, this approach appears useful to study cohorts of heterogeneous patients in rare disease registries.

  4. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Congenital Heart Defects and Receipt of Special Education Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Autry, Andrew; Razzaghi, Hilda; Boyle, Coleen A; Mahle, William T; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of receipt of special education services among children with congenital heart defects (CHDs) compared with children without birth defects. Children born from 1982 to 2004 in metropolitan Atlanta with CHDs (n = 3744) were identified from a population-based birth defect surveillance program; children without birth defects (n = 860 715) were identified from birth certificates. Cohorts were linked to special education files for the 1992-2012 school years to identify special education services. Children with noncardiac defects or genetic syndromes were excluded; children with CHDs were classified by presence or absence of critical CHDs (ie, CHDs requiring intervention by age one year). We evaluated the prevalence of receipt of special education services and prevalence rate ratios using children without birth defects as a reference. Compared with children without birth defects, children with CHDs were 50% more likely to receive special education services overall (adjusted prevalence rate ratio [aPRR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-1.7). Specifically, they had higher prevalence of several special education categories including: intellectual disability (aPRR = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.8-5.1), sensory impairment (aPRR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.8-5.0), other health impairment (aPRR = 2.8; 95% CI: 2.2-3.5), significant developmental delay (aPRR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.8), and specific learning disability (aPRR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). For most special education services, the excess prevalence did not vary by presence of critical CHDs. Children with CHDs received special education services more often than children without birth defects. These findings highlight the need for special education services and the importance of developmental screening for all children with CHDs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. ICD-10 impact on ascertainment and accuracy of oral cleft cases as recorded by the Brazilian national live birth information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Ricardo Lima; Castilla, Eduardo E; Dutra, Maria da Graça; Orioli, Iêda M

    2018-02-09

    We compared Brazilian oral cleft (OC) frequencies between the population-based Brazilian System of Live Birth (SINASC) and the hospital-based Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), trying to understand the paucity of cleft of lip and palate (CLP) in the first system. SINASC uses the International Classification of Disease version 10 (ICD-10) for congenital defects coding, ECLAMC uses ICD-8 with modifications. In SINASC, the CLP frequency was 1.7 per 10,000 (95% confidence limits 1.7-1.8), cleft lip (CL) 1.6 (1.5-1.7), and cleft palate (CP) 2.0 (1.9-2.1). In ECLAMC, the CLP frequency was 10.4 per 10,000 (9.0-12.1), CL 5.5 (4.5-6.7), and CP 4.4. (4.5-6.7). In SINASC, only 33% of the oral clefts were CLP, versus 51% in ECLAMC. Part of this discrepancy may have been due to the relative excess of CP and CL cases. Although congenital defect frequencies are usually lower in population than in hospital-based registries, differences in the proportion of the main OC categories are not expected and are probably due to ICD-10 coding issues, such as lumping of unilateral CL and CL without other specifications. ICD-10 codes, whose deficiency for oral clefts is fully explained in the literature, lack modifiers for severity, or clinical subtypes. This paper shows the practical aspect of the ICD-10 system deficiency in capturing cleft lip and palate (CLP) subtypes, as demonstrated in SINASC covering three million births per year. Such errors are expected to occur in any registry that uses the ICD-10 coding system, and must be adjusted, given its relevance worldwide. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated whether maternal immune responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens affect pregnancies negatively. This study explores, on a population level, whether previous births of boys compared with girls are associated with a decrease in birth weight...... of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...

  8. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  9. Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and clinical features of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: a registry-based study in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barisic, Ingeborg

    2014-01-08

    Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is a complex developmental disorder characterised mainly by anomalies of the ear, hemifacial microsomia, epibulbar dermoids and vertebral anomalies. The aetiology is largely unknown, and the epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date, using data provided by the large network of congenital anomalies registries in Europe. The study population included infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum during the 1990-2009 period from 34 registries active in 16 European countries. Of the 355 infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, there were 95.8% (340\\/355) live born, 0.8% (3\\/355) fetal deaths, 3.4% (12\\/355) terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly and 1.5% (5\\/340) neonatal deaths. In 18.9%, there was prenatal detection of anomaly\\/anomalies associated with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, 69.7% were diagnosed at birth, 3.9% in the first week of life and 6.1% within 1 year of life. Microtia (88.8%), hemifacial microsomia (49.0%) and ear tags (44.4%) were the most frequent anomalies, followed by atresia\\/stenosis of external auditory canal (25.1%), diverse vertebral (24.3%) and eye (24.3%) anomalies. There was a high rate (69.5%) of associated anomalies of other organs\\/systems. The most common were congenital heart defects present in 27.8% of patients. The prevalence of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, defined as microtia\\/ear anomalies and at least one major characteristic anomaly, was 3.8 per 100 000 births. Twinning, assisted reproductive techniques and maternal pre-pregnancy diabetes were confirmed as risk factors. The high rate of different associated anomalies points to the need of performing an early ultrasound screening in all infants born with this disorder.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 January 2014; doi:10.1038\\/ejhg.2013.287.

  10. Evaluation of institutional cancer registries in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Cuervo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The four primary objectives of this descriptive study were to: 1 design a quality-measurement instrument for institutional cancer registries (ICRs, 2 evaluate the existing ICRs in Colombia with the designed instrument, 3 categorize the different registries according to their quality and prioritize efforts that will efficiently promote better registries with the limited resources available, and 4 determine the institution with the greatest likelihood of successfully establishing Colombia's second population-based cancer registry. In 1990 the National Cancer Institute of Colombia developed 13 institution-based cancer registries in different Colombian cities in order to promote the collection of data from a large group of cancer diagnostic and treatment centers. During the first half of 1997, this evaluation reviewed 12 registries; one of the original 13 no longer existed. All of the Colombian institutions (hospitals that maintain institution-based cancer registries were included in the study. At each institution, a brief survey was administered to the hospital director, the registry coordinator, and the registrar (data manager. Researchers investigated the institutions by looking at six domains that are in standard use internationally. Within each domain, questions were developed and selected through the Delphi method. Each domain and each question were assigned weights through a consensus process. In most cases, two interviewers went to each site to collect the information. The university hospitals in Cali, Pereira, and Medellín had substantially higher scores, reflecting a good level of performance. Four of the 12 institutions had almost no cancer registry work going on. Five of the 12 hospital directors considered that the information provided by the cancer registries influenced their administrative decisions. Three of the registries had patient survival data. Four of the institutions allocated specific resources to operate their cancer

  11. Congenital Microphthalmia, Anophthalmia and Coloboma among Live Births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Laura; Jensen, Hanne; Grønskov, Karen

    2016-01-01

    -2012 with diagnoses of MO/AO or coloboma was identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR), and their ocular and extra-ocular diagnoses were reviewed. In order to assess the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort, the data were cross-referenced with the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry...... (DCCR). RESULTS: We identified 415 patients with MO/AO/coloboma in the DNPR. The total number of live births from 1995-2012 was 1,174,299, and the average birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma was 3.6/10,000 live births and of MO/AO was 1.2/10,000 live births. Extra-ocular abnormalities were observed in 32....... CONCLUSION: The birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma in Denmark has been steady at 3.6/10,000 live births during the last 17 years. The rate of syndromic cases was lower compared to other studies. A relatively high rate of pathogenic chromosomal aberrations was observed, suggesting an important role...

  12. The Danish Heart Failure Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Inge; Nakano, Anne; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Heart Failure Registry (DHFR) is to monitor and improve the care of patients with incident heart failure (HF) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The DHFR includes inpatients and outpatients (≥18 years) with incident HF. Reporting to the DHFR is mandatory......: The main variables recorded in the DHFR are related to the indicators for quality of care in patients with incident HF: performance of echocardiography, functional capacity (New York Heart Association functional classification), pharmacological therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme/angiotensin II...

  13. The Danish National Prescription Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Hallas, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    ), contains information on dispensed prescriptions, including variables at the level of the drug user, the prescriber, and the pharmacy. Validity and coverage: Reimbursement-driven record keeping, with automated bar-code-based data entry provides data of high quality, including detailed information......Introduction: Individual-level data on all prescription drugs sold in Danish community pharmacies has since 1994 been recorded in the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics of the Danish Medicines Agency. Content: The register subset, termed the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR...

  14. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden...... during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic...... regression analysis. We observed a distinct association between Wilms tumor and high birth weight (=4 kg) for girls (OR 1.97, CI 1.50-2.59) but not for boys (1.04, 0.78-1.38); overall, the OR was 1.43 (1.17-1.74). Among girls, risk increased by 28% (15-42%) per 500 g increase in birth weight. Large...

  15. Birth order and postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Jones, Ian; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2014-05-01

    Primiparity is a well-established and significant risk factor for postpartum psychosis and especially bipolar affective disorders. However, no studies have, to our knowledge, quantified the risk of psychiatric disorders after the first, second, or subsequent births. The overall aim of the present study was to study the risk of first-time psychiatric episodes requiring inpatient treatment after the birth of the first, second, or third child. A cohort comprising 750,127 women was defined using information from Danish population registries. Women were followed individually from the date of birth of their first, second, or third child through the following 12 months over the period 1970-2011. The outcome of interest was defined as first-time admissions to a psychiatric hospital with any type of psychiatric disorder. Women who had a first psychiatric episode which required inpatient treatment after their first (n = 1,327), second (n = 735), or third (n = 238) delivery were included. The highest risk was found in primiparous mothers 10-19 days postpartum [relative risk (RR) = 8.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.89-10.85]. After the second birth, the highest risk was at 60-89 days postpartum (RR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.52-2.65), and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The effect of primiparity was strongest for bipolar disorders. Primiparity is a significant risk factor for experiencing a first-time episode with a psychiatric disorder, especially bipolar disorders. A second birth was associated with a smaller risk, and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The risk of postpartum episodes after the second delivery increased with increasing inter-pregnancy intervals, a result which warrants further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  17. On Domain Registries and Website Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2018-01-01

    such as Internet access service providers, hosting platforms, and websites that link to content. This article shows that in recent years, however, that the (secondary) liability of domain registries and registrars, and more specifically country code top-level domain registries (ccTLDs) for website content, has...... been tested in several EU Member States. The article investigates tendencies in the national lower-court jurisprudence and explores to what extent the liability exemption regime of the E-Commerce Directive applies to domain registries. The analysis concludes that whereas domain registries fall under...

  18. National Suicide Registry Malaysia (NSRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, A N; Kamarul, A K

    2008-09-01

    To create a nationwide system to capture data on completed suicide in Malaysia i.e. the morbidity, geographic and temporal trends and the population at high risk of suicide. Data from this registry can later be used to stimulate and facilitate further research on suicide. This paper describes the rationale and processes involved in developing a national suicide registry in 2007. The diagnosis of suicide is based on the ICD-10 codes for fatal intentional self-harm (X60-X84). A case report form with an accompanying instruction manual had been prepared to ensure systematic and uniform data collection. State Forensic Pathologist's offices are responsible for data collection in their respective states, and in turn will submit the data to a central data management unit. Data collection began in July 2007 and currently in data cleaning process. Training for source data producers is ongoing. In 2008, the NSRM plans to involve university hospitals into its network as currently only Ministry of Health hospitals are involved. The NSRM will be launching its online application for case registration this year while an overview of results will be available via its public domain at www.nsrm.gov.my beginning 20 April 2008. To efficiently capture the data on suicide, a concerted effort between various agencies is needed. A lot of conceptual work and data base development remains to be done in order to position preventive efforts on a more solid foundation.

  19. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from taking birth control pills include: Blood clots Heart attack High blood pressure Stroke Birth control pills without estrogen are much less likely to cause these problems. The risk is higher for women ...

  20. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  1. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ...

  2. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...

  3. Challenges and opportunities for HSCT outcome registries: perspective from international HSCT registries experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljurf, M; Rizzo, J D; Mohty, M; Hussain, F; Madrigal, A; Pasquini, M C; Passweg, J; Chaudhri, N; Ghavamzadeh, A; Solh, H E; Atsuta, Y; Szer, J; Kodera, Y; Niederweiser, D; Gratwohl, A; Horowitz, M M

    2014-08-01

    Patient registries, frequently referred to as outcome registries, are 'organized systems' that use observational study methods to collect uniform data. Registries are used to evaluate specified outcomes for a population defined by a particular disease, condition or exposure that serves one or more predetermined scientific, clinical or policy purposes. Outcome registries were established very early in the development of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). Currently, myriads of national and international HSCT registries collect information about HSCT activities and outcomes. These registries have contributed significantly to determining trends, patterns, treatment practices and outcomes. There are many different HSCT registries, each with different aims and goals; some are led by professional organizations, others by government authorities, health care providers or third parties. Some registries simply assess activity and others study outcomes. These registries are complementary and are gradually developing interoperability with each other to expand future collaborative research activities. A key development in the last few years was the incorporation of recommendations into the World Health Organization guiding principles on cell, tissue and organ transplantation. The data collection and analysis should be an integral part of therapy and an obligation rather than a choice for transplant programs. This article examines challenges in ensuring data quality and functions of outcome registries, using HSCT registries as an example. It applies to all HSCT-related data, but is predominantly focused on HSCT registries of professional organizations.

  4. Private provider participation in statewide immunization registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Anne E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based registries have been promoted as an effective method to improve childhood immunization rates, yet rates of registry participation in the private sector are low. We sought to describe, through a national overview, the perspectives of childhood immunization providers in private practice regarding factors associated with participation or non-participation in immunization registries. Methods Two mailed surveys, one for 264 private practices identified as registry non-participants and the other for 971 identified as registry participants, from 15 of the 31 states with population-based statewide immunization registries. Frequency distributions were calculated separately for non-participants and participants regarding the physician-reported factors that influenced decisions related to registry participation. Pearson chi-square tests of independence were used to assess associations among categorical variables. Results Overall response rate was 62% (N = 756. Among non-participants, easy access to records of vaccines provided at other sites (N = 101, 68% and printable immunization records (N = 82, 55% were most often cited as "very important" potential benefits of a registry, while the most commonly cited barriers to participation were too much cost/staff time (N = 36, 38% and that the practice has its own system for recording and monitoring immunizations (N = 35, 37%. Among registry participants, most reported using the registry to input data on vaccines administered (N = 326, 87% and to review immunization records of individual patients (N = 302, 81%. A minority reported using it to assess their practice's immunization coverage (N = 110, 29% or generate reminder/recall notices (N = 54, 14%. Few participants reported experiencing "significant" problems with the registry; the most often cited was cost/staff time to use the registry (N = 71, 20%. Conclusion Most registry participants report active participation with few

  5. Cranial birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de

  6. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  7. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's in this article? What Is ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of ...

  8. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a ...

  9. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  10. Validity of preeclampsia-related diagnoses recorded in a national hospital registry and in a postpartum interview of the women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Ase K; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Osterdal, Marie Louise

    2007-01-01

    In a population-based sample, the authors examined the validity of preeclampsia and related diagnoses recorded in a mandatory Danish national hospital discharge registry and in a standardized telephone interview of women who gave birth between 1998 and 2002. Using a "gold standard" for preeclampsia...... as such by the registry. A total of 21 of 2,951 women without preeclampsia (0.71%) had a preeclampsia diagnosis in the registry. All registrations of serious subtypes of preeclampsia reflected true cases. The positive predictive value of a preeclampsia diagnosis in the registry was 74.4%. Including interview data reduced...... the sample size to 2,307 women. In this sample, of 62 women with preeclampsia, 45 (72.6%) reported in the interview to have had preeclampsia. Of 2,245 women with no preeclampsia, 31 (1.4%) reported to have had preeclampsia. The positive predictive value of the women's own report on preeclampsia was 59...

  11. Predicting preeclampsia from a history of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Svein; Ebbing, Cathrine; Irgens, Lorentz M

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether women with a history of preterm birth, independent on the presence of prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM) and growth deviation of the newborn, are more likely to develop preeclampsia with preterm or preterm birth in a subsequent pregnancy. We conducted a population-based cohort study, based on Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 1967 and 2012, including 742,980 women with singleton pregnancies who were followed up from their 1st to 2nd pregnancy. In the analyses we included 712,511 women after excluding 30,469 women with preeclampsia in the first pregnancy. After preterm birth without preeclampsia in the first pregnancy, the risk of preterm preeclampsia in the second pregnancy was 4-7 fold higher than after term birth (odds ratios 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-4.0 to 6.5; 95% CI 5.1-8.2). The risk of term preeclampsia in the pregnancy following a preterm birth was 2-3 times higher than after term birth (odds ratios 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8 to 2.6; 95% CI 2.0-3.4). After spontaneous non-PROM preterm birth and preterm PROM, the risk of preterm preeclampsia was 3.3-3.6 fold higher than after spontaneous term birth. Corresponding risks of term preeclampsia was 1.6-1.8 fold higher. No significant time trends were found in the effect of spontaneous preterm birth in the first pregnancy on preterm or term preeclampsia in the second pregnancy. The results suggest that preterm birth, regardless of the presence of PROM, and preeclampsia share pathophysiologic mechanisms. These mechanisms may cause preterm birth in one pregnancy and preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy in the same woman. The association was particularly evident with preterm preeclampsia.

  12. Service registry design: an information service approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Pires, Luis; Wang, J.; van Oostrum, Arjen; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A service registry is a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) component that keeps a ‘catalogue’ of available services. It stores service specifications so that these specifications can be found by potential users. Discussions on the design of service registries currently focus on technical issues,

  13. 50 CFR 600.1410 - Registry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registry process. 600.1410 Section 600.1410 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... United States § 600.1410 Registry process. (a) A person may register through the NMFS web site at www...

  14. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  15. Nanocarbon: Defect Architectures and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Amanda

    The allotropes of carbon make its solid phases amongst the most diverse of any element. It can occur naturally as graphite and diamond, which have very different properties that make them suitable for a wide range of technological and commercial purposes. Recent developments in synthetic carbon include Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) and nano-carbons, such as fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene. The main industrial application of bulk graphite is as an electrode material in steel production, but in purified nuclear graphite form, it is also used as a moderator in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors across the United Kingdom. Both graphene and graphite are damaged over time when subjected to bombardment by electrons, neutrons or ions, and these have a wide range of effects on their physical and electrical properties, depending on the radiation flux and temperature. This research focuses on intrinsic defects in graphene and dimensional change in nuclear graphite. The method used here is computational chemistry, which complements physical experiments. Techniques used comprise of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD), which are discussed in chapter 2 and chapter 3, respectively. The succeeding chapters describe the results of simulations performed to model defects in graphene and graphite. Chapter 4 presents the results of ab initio DFT calculations performed to investigate vacancy complexes that are formed in AA stacked bilayer graphene. In AB stacking, carbon atoms surrounding the lattice vacancies can form interlayer structures with sp2 bonding that are lower in energy compared to in-plane reconstructions. From the investigation of AA stacking, sp2 interlayer bonding of adjacent multivacancy defects in registry creates a type of stable sp2 bonded wormhole between the layers. Also, a new class of mezzanine structure characterised by sp3 interlayer bonding, resembling a prismatic vacancy loop has also been identified. The mezzanine, which is a

  16. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  17. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...

  18. Windows registry forensics advanced digital forensic analysis of the Windows registry

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    Harlan Carvey brings readers an advanced book on Windows Registry - the most difficult part of Windows to analyze in forensics! Windows Registry Forensics provides the background of the Registry to help develop an understanding of the binary structure of Registry hive files. Approaches to live response and analysis are included, and tools and techniques for postmortem analysis are discussed at length. Tools and techniques will be presented that take the analyst beyond the current use of viewers and into real analysis of data contained in the Registry. This book also has a DVD containing tools, instructions and videos.

  19. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  20. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry.

  1. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  2. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both......Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...

  3. The Italian National Rare Diseases Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Kodra, Yllka; Ferrari, Gianluca; Vittozzi, Luciano

    2014-04-01

    Rare disease registries are a priority at European level and specific actions are being implemented by the European Commission to support their development.In Italy, a National Registry of rare diseases has been established in 2001 as a network of regional registries. The latter have gradually been established and the full coverage of the Italian territory was attained during 2011. Here we describe the basic features of the National Registry of rare diseases; the activities carried out to promote consistent operations in the regional registries; and the overall quality and composition of the records collected. After a validation process, including removal of duplicate records, 110,841 records of patients with rare diseases, single and with group denominations, are stored in the National Registry of rare diseases. They correspond to the overall diagnoses communicated to national registry by regional registries up to 30 June 2012.The quality of the data collected by the the National Registry of rare diseases has been assessed with respect to completeness and consistency of procedures. Variables characterising case and diagnosis showed a very limited number of missing values. Records reported at least one case of 485 rare conditions. To date, the National Registry of rare diseases is a surveillance system with the main objective of producing epidemiologic evidence on rare diseases in Italy, and of supporting policy making and health services planning.Data quality still represents a limitation for any sound epidemiological estimate of rare diseases in Italy. However, improvements of the quality of collected data and the completeness of case notifications should be strengthened.

  4. 76 FR 20690 - International Consortium of Orthopedic Registries; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Consortium of Orthopedic Registries; Public... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``International Consortium of Orthopedic Registries... orthopedic registries that have orthopedic implant information and create a research network to advance the...

  5. Estimation of live birth underreporting with a capture-recapture method, Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Bianca; Silva, Nilza Nunes da

    2011-12-01

    Estimate the number of live births and, therefore, underreporting of live births. The databases of the Live Birth Information System and the Civil Registry of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, from the second and third trimesters of 2006 in Sergipe state (Northeastern Brazil) were paired by deterministic linkage based on the number of the Live Birth Declaration. The geographic disaggregation utilized was mother's microregion of residence. Huggins closed population models were used to estimate the capture probabilities for each database and the total live births during the period, within each geographic subdivision. MARK® software was used for the estimates. Underregistration during the period studied was 19.3%. Application of the capture-recapture method to estimate underregistration of live births is possible, including for geographic disaggregations smaller than a state. The deterministic linkage was impaired in four microregions, due to non-inclusion of the Live Birth Declaration number in the database of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Maternal age, a heterogeneity characteristic in the population of live births, affected the probability of capture by the civil registry. Capture-recapture was a viable method to estimate the underregistration of live births.

  6. Prevalence at birth of congenital malformations in communities near the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, L.E.; Hessol, N.A.; Gilbert, E.S.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of congenital malformations among births in Benton and Franklin counties, in southeastern Washington State, from 1968 through 1980. The Hanford Site is in this area and serves as a major employer. In addition, various agriculturally and chemically related activities are in the area. Hospital and vital records were used to identify 454 malformation cases among 23,319 births; this yielded a malformation rate of 19.6 per 1000 births, a rate similar to those reported in other studies. The rates of specific malformations ascertained during the first year of life were compared with combined rates from the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho from the Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Among defects that would be expected to be comparably ascertained, a statistically significant elevated rate of neural tube defects was observed (1.72 per 1000 births vs. 0.99 per 1000). Rates of cleft lip were significantly lower in Benton and Franklin counties than in the Birth Defects Monitoring Program (0.59 per 1,000 vs. 1.17 per 1000). For congenital heart defects, pyloric stenosis, and Down syndrome, which are often not diagnosed in the newborn period, Birth Defects Monitoring Program data did not offer appropriate comparisons. The rates of these defects did not appear to be elevated in relation to rates found in other relevant populations. When rates of neural tube defects were compared with those in populations other than the Birth Defects Monitoring Program, the Benton and Franklin county rates were still considered to be elevated. The increased bicounty rate cannot be explained by employment of the parents at Hanford or by the impact of plant emissions on the local population

  7. Fluconazole-Associated Birth Defects: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen M. Firth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The August 2013 publication of a large historical cohort study in the New England Journal of Medicine has reignited interest in the potential teratogenic effects of fluconazole when used in pregnant females. Fluconazole is an effective and commonly-utilized antifungal medication. Thus, maternal and fetal exposure to fluconazole is expected in the general population, and pharmacists are expected to counsel patients regarding any risks to their prescribed treatment. Methods: A literature review of all published literature indexed to PubMed (January 1966 to October 2013 and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (January 1975 to October 2013 including fluconazole and teratogenic effects and published in the English language was conducted. Results: Fourteen publications were included for analysis including case reports (n=7, cross-sectional research (n=2, and historical cohort studies (n=5. Conclusion: There appears to be little to no fetal risk resulting from a single dose or short duration antifungal therapy with fluconazole. However, prolonged high-dose fluconazole therapy has increased potential to confer teratogenic effects. In those cases, the risks of such therapy should be weighed against potential benefits.   Type: Student Project

  8. FastStats: Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childbearing Deaths Deaths and Mortality Leading Causes of Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Health of ...

  9. Late preterm birth and neurocognitive performance in late adulthood: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tuovinen, Soile; Osmond, Clive; Raikkonen, Katri

    2015-04-01

    We studied if late preterm birth (34 weeks 0 days-36 weeks 6 days of gestation) is associated with performance on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) in late adulthood and if maximum attained lifetime education moderated these associations. Participants were 919 Finnish men and women born between 1934 and 1944, who participated in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. They underwent the CERAD-NB at a mean age of 68.1 years. Data regarding gestational age (late preterm versus term) were extracted from hospital birth records, and educational attainment data were gathered from Statistics Finland. After adjustment for major confounders, those born late preterm scored lower on word list recognition (mean difference: -0.33 SD; P = .03) than those born at term. Among those who had attained a basic or upper secondary education, late preterm birth was associated with lower scores on word list recognition, constructional praxis, constructional praxis recall, clock drawing, Mini-Mental State Examination, and memory total and CERAD total 2 compound scores (mean differences: >0.40 SD; P values late preterm birth was not associated with CERAD-NB scores. Our findings offer new insight into the lifelong consequences of late preterm birth, and they add late preterm birth as a novel risk factor to the list of neurocognitive impairment in late adulthood. Our findings also suggest that attained lifetime education may mitigate aging-related neurocognitive impairment, especially among those born late preterm. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... positive and negative predictive values for both university (96%/99%) and nonuniversity centers (97%/99%). CONCLUSION: WDHR-CCTR provides ongoing prospective registration of all cardiac CTs performed in Western Denmark since 2008. Overall, the registry data have a high degree of completeness and validity...

  11. Status of human assisted reproduction in Spain: results from the new registry of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosser, Roser; Gispert, Rosa; Torné, Mar; Calaf, Joaquim

    2009-11-01

    The FIVCAT. NET database in Catalonia is the only official obligatory registry of human assisted reproduction practitioners in Spain. The present study assessed the effectiveness and outcomes of assisted reproduction over the period 2001-2005 relative to other established worldwide registries. The data analysed were derived from all centres conducting assisted reproduction in Catalonia, and included users of the services (resident and non-resident); all cycles performed; descriptive characteristics of the assisted reproduction procedures; and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Effectiveness of assisted reproduction was measured by standard indicators such as rates of pregnancy and rates of live births per pregnancy. The results indicated that the preferred number of embryos for transfer changed from three to two over this period. Pregnancies per transfer improved from 33.2% to 37.1% (from 36.9% to 40.2% using fresh embryos and from to 18.4% to 27.0% with frozen embryos). Multiple births decreased from 50.1% to 38.6%, premature births from 37.5% to 28.3% and low-birth-weight infants from 38.0% to 25.6%. It is concluded that the conduct of assisted reproduction in Catalonia has improved considerably and compares favourably with other countries, not only with respect to the level of activity, but also the effectiveness and outcomes achieved, although the quality of the sociodemographic information requires improvement.

  12. Maternal alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and the risk for an offspring with an isolated congenital heart defect and in particular a ventricular septal defect or an atrial septal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Grønbaek, Morten

    2011-01-01

    (VSD) or of an atrial septal defect (ASD). METHODS: Participants were 80,346 pregnant women who were enrolled into the Danish National Birth Cohort in 1996-2002 and gave birth to a live-born singleton without any chromosome anomalies. Twice during pregnancy these women were asked about their intake...

  13. Epidemiology of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of defibrillator lead performance registry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Elgaard; Larsen, Jacob Moesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2017-01-01

    intervention. The validity of the less detailed overall reasons for lead interventions commonly used to report lead performance is also excellent. These findings indicate high registry data quality appropriate for scientific analysis and industry-independent post-marketing surveillance........9% (95% CI: 85.2-90.2%) with a κ value of 0.82 (95% CI:0.78-0.86) representing an almost perfect match. CONCLUSION: The validity of data on defibrillator lead performance recorded in the DPIR is excellent for the specific types of lead intervention and good for the specific reasons for defibrillator lead......AIMS: The validity of registry data on defibrillator lead performance is described only sparsely, despite its clinical importance. This study investigated the validity of defibrillator lead performance registry data in a nationwide and population-based registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified...

  15. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): RBLC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  16. EPA Facility Registry System (FRS): NCES

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry System (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  17. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): SDWIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  18. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): NCDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  19. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): BRAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  20. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): TRI

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  1. EPA Linked Open Data: Substance Registry Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) central system for information about substances that are tracked or regulated by EPA...

  2. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): RCRA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of hazardous waste...

  3. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): LANDFILL

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of non-hazardous waste...

  4. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): BIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  5. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): RMP

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  6. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): RADINFO

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  7. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): ICIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  8. Registries Help Moms Measure Medication Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Registries Help Inform Medication Use in Pregnancy Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... or epilepsy, pregnant women must often take prescription medication. Studies show that most women take at least ...

  9. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): ACRES

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service consists of location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of sites that link to...

  10. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): NEI

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  11. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): OIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Oil...

  12. Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) receives and stores information on cancer diagnosis and treatment constraints compiled and sent in by the local...

  13. Linking Medicare, Medicaid, and Cancer Registry Data...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Linking Medicare, Medicaid, and Cancer Registry Data to Study the Burden of Cancers in West Virginia In the United States, the elderly carry an unequal burden of...

  14. Assessing Ontario's Personal Support Worker Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Laporte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing role of personal support workers (PSWs in the delivery of health care services to Ontarians, the Ontario government has moved forward with the creation of a PSW registry. This registry will be mandatory for all PSWs employed by publicly funded health care employers, and has the stated objectives of better highlighting the work that PSWs do in Ontario, providing a platform for PSWs and employers to more easily access the labour market, and to provide government with information for human resources planning. In this paper we consider the factors that brought the creation of a PSW registry onto the Ontario government’s policy agenda, discuss how the registry is being implemented, and provide an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of this policy change.

  15. The Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, K-M; Grytten, N; Torkildsen, Ø; Wergeland, S; Bø, L; Aarseth, J H

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with unknown cause and various benefits from disease modifying therapies. Systematic recording of data into national MS registries is therefore needed to optimize treatment and define the pathogenesis of the disease. The Norwegian MS Registry and Biobank was established for systematic collection of clinical and epidemiological data, as well as biological samples. Data collection is based on informed consent from the individual patients and recordings by treating neurologists. All researchers have, by application, access to data and biological samples from the Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank. By this combined effort from both patients and healthcare personnel, the Registry and Biobank aims to facilitate research for improved understanding of disease mechanisms and improved health care in MS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  17. Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem if you are in a high security environment where this is disabled by a network policy. The Registry will work in JavaScript-enabled browsers such as: Google Chrome 17+ Mozilla Firefox 12+ Internet Explorer 10+ ...

  18. EPA Facility Registry System (FRS): NEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry System (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  19. EPA Linked Open Data: Facility Registry Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Facility Registry Service (FRS) identifies facilities, sites, or places subject to environmental regulation or of environmental interest to EPA programs or...

  20. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): CAMDBS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  1. Findings from the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome registry of uruguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadur Tchekmedyian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS is characterized by intestinal polyposis, mucocutaneous pigmentation and an increased cancer risk, usually caused by mutations of the STK11 gene. This study collected epidemiological, clinical and genetic data from all Uruguayan PJS patients. METHODS: Clinical data were obtained from public and private medical centers and updated annually. Sequencing of the STK11 gene in one member of each family was performed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 25 cases in 11 unrelated families were registered (15 males, 10 females. The average age of diagnosis and death was 18 and 41 years respectively. All patients had characteristic PJS pigmentation and gastrointestinal polyps. 72% required urgent surgery due to intestinal obstruction. 3 families had multiple cases of seizure disorder, representing 20% of cases. 28% developed cancer and two patients had more than one cancer. An STK11 mutation was found in 8 of the 9 families analyzed. A unique M136K missense mutation was noted in one family. Comparing annual live births and PJS birth records from 1970 to 2009 yielded an incidence of 1 in 155,000. CONCLUSION: The Uruguayan Registry for Peutz-Jeghers patients showed a high chance of emergent surgery, epilepsy, cancer and shortened life expectancy. The M136K missense mutation is a newly reported STK 11 mutation.

  2. Findings from the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome registry of Uruguay

    KAUST Repository

    Tchekmedyian, Asadur

    2013-11-19

    Background: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is characterized by intestinal polyposis, mucocutaneous pigmentation and an increased cancer risk, usually caused by mutations of the STK11 gene. This study collected epidemiological, clinical and genetic data from all Uruguayan PJS patients. Methods: Clinical data were obtained from public and private medical centers and updated annually. Sequencing of the STK11 gene in one member of each family was performed. Results and discussion: 25 cases in 11 unrelated families were registered (15 males, 10 females). The average age of diagnosis and death was 18 and 41 years respectively. All patients had characteristic PJS pigmentation and gastrointestinal polyps. 72% required urgent surgery due to intestinal obstruction. 3 families had multiple cases of seizure disorder, representing 20% of cases. 28% developed cancer and two patients had more than one cancer. An STK11 mutation was found in 8 of the 9 families analyzed. A unique M136K missense mutation was noted in one family. Comparing annual live births and PJS birth records from 1970 to 2009 yielded an incidence of 1 in 155,000. Conclusion: The Uruguayan Registry for Peutz-Jeghers patients showed a high chance of emergent surgery, epilepsy, cancer and shortened life expectancy. The M136K missense mutation is a newly reported STK 11 mutation. © 2013 Tchekmedyian et al.

  3. Birth Characteristics and Childhood Leukemia Risk: Correlations With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, Mehmet T

    2015-07-01

    Birth characteristics such as birth order, birth weight, birth defects, and Down syndrome showed some of the first risk associations with childhood leukemia. Examinations of correlations between birth characteristics and leukemia risk markers have been limited to birth weight-related genetic polymorphisms. We integrated information on nongenetic and genetic markers by evaluating the relationship of birth characteristics, genetic markers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, and ALL risk together. The multiethnic study consisted of cases with childhood ALL (n=161) and healthy controls (n=261). Birth characteristic data were collected through questionnaires, and genotyping was achieved by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed risk associations for birth weight over 4000 g (odds ratios [OR]=1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.19), birth length (OR=1.18 per inch; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), and with gestational age (OR=1.10 per week; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). Only the HFE tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9366637 showed an inverse correlation with a birth characteristic, gestational age, with a gene-dosage effect (P=0.005), and in interaction with a transferrin receptor rs3817672 genotype (Pinteraction=0.05). This correlation translated into a strong association for rs9366637 with preterm birth (OR=5.0; 95% CI, 1.19-20.9). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of prenatal events in the development of childhood ALL. The inverse correlation of rs9366637 with gestational age has implications on the design of HFE association studies in birth weight and childhood conditions using full-term newborns as controls.

  4. Definition, epidemiology and registries of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awdish, R; Cajigas, H

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a subcategory of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that comprises a group of disorders with similar pulmonary vascular pathology. Though PH is common, the estimated incidence of IPAH is 1-3 cases per million, making it a rare disease. The hemodynamic definition of PAH is a mean pulmonary artery pressure at rest >OR = 25 mm Hg in the presence of a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure registries. These registries have been indispensable in the characterization and mapping of the natural history of the disease. Equations and risk calculators derived from registries have given clinicians a basis for risk stratification and prognostication. The sequential accumulation of data since the registries began in the 1980s allows for comparisons to be made. Patients who are differentiated by treatment eras and environments can be contrasted. Variability among inclusion criteria similarly allows for comparisons of these subpopulations. This article provides an overview of available registries, highlights insights provided by each and discusses key issues around the interpretation and extrapolation of data from PAH registries. Registries have allowed us to appreciate the improvement in survival afforded by modern therapy and enhanced detection of this disease. Moving forward, a more global approach to registries is needed, as is enhanced collaboration and centralization.

  5. PCCR: Pancreatic Cancer Collaborative Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Ketcham, Marsha A.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Whitcomb, David C.; Lynch, Henry T.; Ghiorzo, Paola; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Sasson, Aaron R.; Grizzle, William E.; Haynatzki, Gleb; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Kinarsky, Leo; Brand, Randall E.

    2011-01-01

    The Pancreatic Cancer Collaborative Registry (PCCR) is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed to collect a variety of data on pancreatic cancer patients and high-risk subjects in a standard and efficient way. The PCCR was initiated by a group of experts in medical oncology, gastroenterology, genetics, pathology, epidemiology, nutrition, and computer science with the goal of facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention and treatment strategies against pancreatic cancer. The PCCR is a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java/JSP technology and has Oracle 10 g database as a back-end. The PCCR uses a “confederation model” that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The PCCR utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The PCCR controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT). The PCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in cancer research and healthcare. Currently, seven cancer centers in the USA, as well as one center in Italy are participating in the PCCR. At present, the PCCR database contains data on more than 2,700 subjects (PC patients and individuals at high risk of getting this disease). The PCCR has been certified by the NCI Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Bronze Compatible product. The PCCR provides a foundation for collaborative PC research. It has all the necessary prerequisites for subsequent evolution of the developed infrastructure from simply gathering PC-related data into a biomedical computing platform vital for successful PC studies, care and treatment. Studies utilizing data collected in the PCCR may engender new approaches

  6. Defect of the Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanning Nina; Pelton, Ron W; Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, John David

    2017-08-01

    Eyelid defects disrupt the complex natural form and function of the eyelids and present a surgical challenge. Detailed knowledge of eyelid anatomy is essential in evaluating a defect and composing a reconstructive plan. Numerous reconstructive techniques have been described, including primary closure, grafting, and a variety of local flaps. This article describes an updated reconstructive ladder for eyelid defects that can be used in various permutations to solve most eyelid defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    effect on mothers' age at first birth (p < 0.001), the number of children born within the five years of the survey (p<0.001), and the total number of ... approach that compares reported numbers of births for settlers and non-settlers in ... 1Department of Geography, Sonoma State University, USA. 2. Department of Epidemiology ...

  8. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women can choose from many different types of birth control methods. These include, in order of most effective to least effective at preventing pregnancy: Female and male sterilization (female tubal ligation or occlusion, male vasectomy) — Birth control that prevents pregnancy for the rest of ...

  9. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 ... Labor and Birth (FAQ087) Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy (FAQ170) Patient Education ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  10. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  11. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  12. Risk factors for premature birth in French Guiana: the importance of reducing health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leneuve-Dorilas, Malika; Favre, Anne; Carles, Gabriel; Louis, Alphonse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-11-27

    French Guiana has the highest birth rate in South America. This French territory also has the highest premature birth rate and perinatal mortality rate of all French territories. The objective was to determine the premature birth rate and to identify the prevalence of risk factors of premature birth in French Guiana. A retrospective study of all births in French Guiana was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014 using the computerized registry compiling all live births over 22 weeks of gestation on the territory. During this period 12 983 live births were reported on the territory. 13.5% of newborns were born before 37 (1755/12 983). The study of the registry revealed that common sociodemographic risk factors of prematurity were present. In addition, past obstetrical history was also important: a scarred uterus increased the risk of prematurity adjusted odds ratio =1.4, 95%CI (1.2-1.6). Similarly, obstetrical surveillance, the absence of preparation for birth or of prenatal interview increased the risk of prematurity by 2.4 and 2.3, the excess fraction in the population was 69% and 72.2%, respectively. Known classical risk factors are important. In the present study excess fractions were calculated in order to prioritize interventions to reduce the prematurity rate.

  13. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  14. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between gestational age, birth size, and the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. We conducted a nation-wide prospective follow-up study of the cohort of all Danish women with a singleton delivery in 1982/1983 (index delivery) and no history...... of diabetes (n = 100,669). Registries were used to extract information on patients with a hospital or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes, subsequent deliveries, and death/emigration in the period from the index delivery until the end of 2006. The association between the maternal risk of diabetes and the index...... birth size (adjusted HR 9.0, 95 % CI 6.17-13.12) and a preterm delivery at 32-37 weeks (adjusted HR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.46-3.40). Offspring preterm birth and large size for gestational age at birth are associated with increased risk of maternal diabetes....

  15. Triptan safety during pregnancy: a Norwegian population registry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezvalová-Henriksen, Kateřina; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on triptan safety during pregnancy remains limited to their class effect or studies on sumatriptan. Our aim was to evaluate the individual effect of four most frequently used triptans on several pregnancy outcomes. We used the Norwegian prescription database to access information on triptans redeemed by pregnant women living in Norway between 2004 and 2007. This database was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway covering every institutional delivery in Norway and providing information on pregnancy, delivery, maternal and neonatal health. Estimates of associations with pregnancy outcomes were obtained by Generalised Estimation Equations analysis. Of the 181,125 women in our study, 1,465 (0.8 %) redeemed triptans during pregnancy, and 1,095 (0.6 %) redeemed triptans before pregnancy only (disease comparison group). The population comparison group comprised the remaining 178,565 women. Using this group as reference, we found no associations between triptan redemption during pregnancy and congenital malformations. Second trimester redemption was associated with postpartum haemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.57; 95 % CI 1.19–2.07). The disease comparison group had an increased risk of major congenital malformations (adjusted OR 1.48; 95 % CI 1.11–1.97), low birth weight (adjusted OR 1.39; 95 % CI 1.08–1.81), and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.06–1.60). The association of triptans with postpartum hemorrhage could be attributable to decreased platelet agreeability occurring in severe migraine. Likewise, the increased risk of major congenital malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in the disease comparison group might be attributable to migraine severity

  16. Review of U.S. registries for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mina; No, Daniel J; Wu, Jashin J

    2017-12-01

    Patient registries are databases comprised of standardized clinical data for a specific population of patients with a particular disease or medical condition. Information from patient registries allows clinicians to assess long-lasting outcomes in patients with a specific disease, such as psoriasis. Our primary objective was to identify available psoriasis registries in the United States (U.S.) and evaluate the application of patient registries compared to clinical trials. We searched Google, the Registry of Patient Registries, Orphanet and ClinicalTrials.gov to create a list of U.S. psoriasis registries. We also performed a literature review on the application of psoriasis registries using PubMed. We identified 6 psoriasis patient registries in the United States. Patient registries are frequently used for psoriasis in the U.S. and provide important information about the safety, efficacy and long-term effects of systemic therapies.

  17. [German resuscitation registry : science and resuscitation research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräsner, J-T; Seewald, S; Bohn, A; Fischer, M; Messelken, M; Jantzen, T; Wnent, J

    2014-06-01

    Sudden death due to cardiac arrest represents one of the greatest challenges facing modern medicine, not only because of the massive number of cases involved but also because of its tremendous social and economic impact. For many years, the magic figure of 1 per 1000 inhabitants per year was generally accepted as an estimate of the annual incidence of sudden death in the industrialized world, with a survival rate of 6 %. This estimate was based on large numbers of published reports of local, regional, national and multinational experience in the management of cardiac arrest. Measuring the global incidence of cardiac arrest is challenging as many different definitions of patient populations are used. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) provide insights into the value of specific treatments or treatment strategies in a well-defined section of a population. Registries do not compete with clinical studies, but represent a useful supplement to them. Surveys and registries provide insights into the ways in which scientific findings and guidelines are being implemented in clinical practice. However, as with clinical studies, comprehensive preparations are needed in order to establish a registry. This is all the more decisive because not all of the questions that may arise are known at the time when the registry is established. The German resuscitation registry started in May 2007 and currently more than 230 paramedic services and hospitals take part. More than 45,000 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in-hospital cardiac arrest are included. With this background the German resuscitation registry is one of the largest databases in emergency medicine in Germany. After 5 years of running the preclinical care dataset was revised in 2012. Data variables that reflect current or new treatment were added to the registry. The postresuscitation basic care and telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) datasets were developed in 2012 and 2013 as well. The German

  18. Contribution of Congenital Anomalies to Preterm Birth Risk in the Netherlands: poster presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohangoo1, A.; Lanting, C.; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, P.; Buitendijk, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To asses the extents to which congenital anomalies affect risk of preterm birth. Methods: For the present study, we analysed data on 1,972,058 newborns registered in the Netherlands Perinatal Registry database (inclusion criteria 16 weeks of gestation). Logistic regression techniques were

  19. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...... of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (phypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68...

  20. On holographic defect entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, John [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY Stony Brook,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); O’Bannon, Andy [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Tsatis, Efstratios [8 Kotylaiou Street, Athens 11364 (Greece); Wrase, Timm [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  1. On holographic defect entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-05-01

    We study a number of (3 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3 + 1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1 + 1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  2. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  3. Comparison of cancer diagnoses between the US solid organ transplant registry and linked central cancer registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Nogueira, Leticia M.; Koch, Lori; Copeland, Glenn; Lynch, Charles F.; Pawlish, Karen S.; Finch, Jack L.; Kahn, Amy R.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Segev, Dorry L.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Snyder, Jon J.; Kasiske, Bertram L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    US transplant centers are required to report cancers in transplant recipients to the transplant network. The accuracy and completeness of these data, collected in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR), are unknown. We compared diagnoses in the SRTR and 15 linked cancer registries, for colorectal, liver, lung, breast, prostate, and kidney cancers, melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Among 187,384 transplants, 9323 cancers were documented in the SRTR or cancer registries. Only 36.8% of cancers were in both, with 47.5% and 15.7% of cases additionally documented solely in cancer registries or the SRTR, respectively. Agreement between the SRTR and cancer registries varied (kappa: 0.28 for liver cancer, 0.52–0.66 for lung, prostate, kidney, colorectum and breast cancers). Upon evaluation, some NHLs documented only in cancer registries were identified in the SRTR as another type of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Some SRTR-only cases were explained by miscoding (colorectal cancer instead of anal cancer, metastases as lung or liver cancers) or missed matches with cancer registries, partly due to out-migration from their catchment areas. Estimated sensitivity for identifying cancer was 52.5% for the SRTR and 84.3% for cancer registries. In conclusion, SRTR cancer data are substantially incomplete, limiting their usefulness for surveillance and research. PMID:27062091

  4. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  5. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry....... The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...

  6. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A A; Salina, A A; Abdul Kadir, A B; Badiah, Y; Cheah, Y C; Nor Hayati, A; Ruzanna, Z Z; Sharifah Suziah, S M; Chee, K Y

    2008-09-01

    The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports.

  7. ISHKS joint registry: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahir A Pachore

    2013-01-01

    form can be downloaded from the website www.ishks.com. The information collected includes patient demographics, indication for surgery, implant details and in case of revision arthroplasty: the details of implants removed and the cause of failure of primary arthroplasty. These forms are mailed to the central registry office and the data is fed in computerized registry. Data collection started in October 2006. Results: Joint registry is a very important initiative of ISHKS and till date, have data of 34,478 TKAs and 3604 THAs, contributed by 42 surgeons across India. Some important observations have emerged. Data of 34,478 TKAs was assessed: These included 8612 males (25% and 25,866 females (75%. Average age was 64.4 years (Osteoarthritis range: 45 to 88 years; Rheumatoid arthritis range: 22 to 74 years. Average body mass index was 29.1 (Range: 18.1 to 42.9. The indication for TKA was osteoarthritis in 33,444 (97% and rheumatoid arthritis in 759 (2.2%. Total of 3604 THA procedures were recorded. These included 2162 (60% male patients and 1442 (40% female patients. Average age was 52 years (Range 17 to 85 years and average BMI was 25.8 (Range: 17.3 to 38.5. The indications for THA was AVN in 49%. Conclusion: The registry will become more meaningful in years to come. Active participation of all arthroplasty surgeons across India is vital for the success of the joints registry.

  8. Birth outcomes of women with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Fonager, Kirsten; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine birthweight, low birthweight (celiac disease in relation to their first hospitalization for the disease. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on The Danish Medical Birth Registry...... data of celiac women discharged from Danish hospitals from 1977-1992. The study included 211 newborns to 127 mothers with celiac disease, and 1260 control deliveries. RESULTS: Before celiac women were first hospitalized the mean birthweight of their newborns was 238 g (95% confidence interval [95% CI......] = 150, 325 g) lower than that of the control women, after adjustment for potential confounders. After the first hospitalization the mean birthweight for newborns of diseased women was higher than that of controls, by 67 g (95% CI = -88, 223 g) after adjustment for potential confounders. Before celiac...

  9. Birthing postures and birth canal lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-05-01

    This study was performed to assess the differences in the birth canal lacerations following the lateral and fours posture deliveries compared with those following the supine posture deliveries. We examined the birth canal lacerations of our "low risk" pregnant women under the midwife-led delivery care at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between April 2006 and March 2015. There were 3826, 1754 and 719 women who delivered with supine, lateral and fours postures. The rate of no laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.630, 95% CI 0.56-0.71, p < 0.01); however, the incidence of perineal laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.856, 95% CI 0.76-0.90, p < 0.01). The incidence of perineal laceration of third- or fourth-degree in the women who delivered with fours posture was significant higher than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.2-4.2, p < 0.01). The current results may be to help for self-determination of birthing postures in prenatal women.

  10. Recent Decrease in the Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnood, Babak; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2013-01-01

    for the period 1990-2007 for 47 508 cases of CHD not associated with a chromosomal anomaly from 29 population-based European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies registries in 16 countries covering 7.3 million births. We estimated trends for all CHDs combined and separately for 3 severity groups using random...

  11. The Creation Of The National Registry Of Rare Diseases In The Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cisárik F.

    2014-08-01

    Its creation builds on the existing registries as well as on the structure of health care in the Slovak Republic. With the protection of personal data in mind, the collection of data will be carried out by the National Centre of Health Information (NCHI, which will also use the existing tool in the process of creation. Thanks to the cooperation between NCHI and the Slovak Society of Medical Genetics, NCHI developed separate reporting forms on rare diseases according to OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man and ORPHANET rare disease coding (ORPHA codes of rare diseases, and the International classification of diseases code (ICD 10. The activities also include cooperation with the existing registries (part of which are rare diseases. For example National Registry of Congenital Developmental Heart Defects, national register of neuromuscular disorders, oncologic register or register of diabetes mellitus. Gathering the information from these registries we will extend the data about rare diseases in the Slovak republic. At the international level the participation in the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT is important.

  12. [The possibility of registering in the Spanish Civil Registry children born abroad from surrogate mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barrón Arniches, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    In the Spanish Civil Registry it is now possible to register "natural" children of a homosexual marriage born overseas through surrogate pregnancy. And this is despite article 10.1 of the current Spanish law regarding assisted human reproduction techniques, which declares fully null and void contracts renouncing maternal relationship, and orders imperatively that in these cases, the relationship of children is determined by birth. This article analyses and formulates a criticism regarding the Resolution of the Office of Registries and Notaries, of February 18, 2009, insisting on some relevant issues such as legal security and greater interest of the minor, in the context of the analysis of the facts of the case and the arguments put forward in the resolution.

  13. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  14. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  15. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... discuss birth control methods with one’s sexual partner. General methods of contraception include: Barrier —physically interferes with ...

  16. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, ...

  17. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... and effective method of birth control. Most young women who use the patch have no side effects. ...

  18. Congenital Anomalies Associated with Trisomy 18 or Trisomy 13 : A Registry-Based Study in 16 European Countries, 2000-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springett, Anna; Wellesley, Diana; Greenlees, Ruth; Loane, Maria; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Cavero-Carbonell, Clara; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Lynch, Catherine; Dias, Carlos Matias; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; O'Mahony, Mary; Pierini, Anna; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Stoianova, Sylvia; Tuckerz, David; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalya; Morris, Joan K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of trisomies 18 and 13 in Europe and the prevalence of associated anomalies. Twenty-five population-based registries in 16 European countries provided data from 2000-2011. Cases included live births, fetal deaths (20+ weeks' gestation), and

  19. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  20. The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell; Raaschou-Jensen, Klas Kræsten

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The main aim of the Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) was to obtain information about the epidemiology of the hematologic cancers acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). STUDY POPULATION: The registry...... was established in January 2000 by the Danish Acute Leukemia Group and has been expanded over the years. It includes adult AML patients diagnosed in Denmark since 2000, ALL patients diagnosed since 2005, and MDS patients diagnosed since 2010. The coverage of leukemia patients exceeds 99%, and the coverage of MDS...... years. To ensure this high coverage, completeness, and quality of data, linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Registry of Patients, and several programmed data entry checks are used. CONCLUSION: The completeness and positive predictive values of the leukemia data have...

  1. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the primary scientific activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. The Registries are parallel human tissue research programs devoted to the study of the actinide elements in humans. To date there have been 261 autopsy or surgical specimen donations, which include 11 whole bodies. The emphasis of the Registry was directed towards quality improvement and the development of a fully computerized data base that would incorporate not only the results of postmortem radiochemical analysis, but also medical and monitoring information obtained during life. Human subjects reviews were also completed. A three compartment biokinetic model for plutonium distribution is proposed. 2 tabs

  2. Systematic Review of Cerebral Palsy Registries/Surveillance Groups: Relationships between Registry Characteristics and Knowledge Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Donna S; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J; Pavone, Larissa; Mutlu, Akmer; Dewald, Julius PA; Msall, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive summary of the body of research disseminated by Cerebral Palsy (CP) registries and surveillance programs from January 2009 through May 2014 in order to describe the influence their results have on our overall understanding of CP. Secondly, registries/surveillance programs and the work they produced were evaluated and grouped using standardized definitions and classification systems. Method A systematic review search in PubMed, CINAH and Embase for original articles published from 1 January 2009 to 20 May 2014 originating from or supported by population based CP registries and surveillance programs or population based national registries including CP were included. Articles were grouped by 2009 World CP Registry Congress aim, registry/surveillance program classification, geographical region, and the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) domain. Registry variables were assessed using the ICF-CY classification. Results Literature searches returned 177 articles meeting inclusion criteria. The majority (69%) of registry/surveillance program productivity was related to contributions as a Resource for CP Research. Prevention (23%) and Surveillance (22%) articles were other areas of achievement, but fewer articles were published in the areas of Planning (17%) and Raising the Profile of CP (2%). There was a range of registry/surveillance program classifications contributing to this productivity, and representation from multiple areas of the globe, although most of the articles originated in Europe, Australia, and Canada. The domains of the ICF that were primarily covered included body structures and function at the early stages of life. Encouragingly, a variety of CP registry/surveillance program initiatives included additional ICF domains of participation and environmental and personal factors. Interpretation CP registries and surveillance programs, including novel non-traditional ones

  3. Establishing an institutional therapeutic apheresis registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steven A; McCleskey, Brandi; Marques, Marisa B; Adamski, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Apheresis was first performed as a therapeutic procedure in the 1950s. The first national therapeutic apheresis (TA) registry was established in Canada in 1981 and other national registries followed, including two attempts at establishing an international TA registry. There is no national registry in the United States. Our large, academic, tertiary hospital has a very active TA service. We created a TA database to track all procedures performed by the apheresis service by transferring data from paper appointment logs and the electronic medical records into a Microsoft Access database. Retrospective data from each TA procedure performed at UAB from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were entered, including the type of procedure, indication, date, and patient demographics. Microsoft Excel was used for data analysis. During the 10-year period, our TA service treated 1,060 patients and performed 11,718 procedures. Of these patients, 70% received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), 21% received extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), 4.5% received red cell exchange (RCE), 4.2% received leukocytapheresis, and 0.6% underwent platelet depletion. Among the procedures, 54% were TPEs, 44% were ECPs, 1.3% were RCEs, 0.5% were leukocytaphereses, and 0.1% were platelet depletions. According to the current literature, national and international TA use is underreported. We believe that the UAB TA registry provides useful information about TA practices in our region and can serve as a model for other institutions. Furthermore, data from multiple institutional registries can be used for clinical research to increase the available evidence for the role of TA in various conditions. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:516-522, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A study on limb reduction defects in six European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoll, C; Calzolari, E; Cornel, M; GarciaMinaur, S; Garne, E; Nevin, N

    1996-01-01

    Limb reduction defects (LRD) gained especial attention after the thalidomide tragedy in 1962, LRD are common congenital malformations which present as obvious congenital anomalies recognized at birth, Therefore it might be assumed that they are well documented, However classification of LRDs is

  5. Corpus callosum defect with dilated lateral ventricles and an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by anemia that usually presents before the first birthday or in early childhood, is associated with birth defects and an increased risk of cancer. Although anemia is the most prominent feature of DBA, the disease is also characterized ...

  6. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database completen......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database...

  7. Genetic epidemiology of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Agopian, A J; Castillo, Heidi; Castillo, Jonathan; Clayton, Gerald H; Dosa, Nienke P; Hopson, Betsy; Joseph, David B; Rocque, Brandon G; Walker, William O; Wiener, John S; Mitchell, Laura E

    2017-12-11

    It has been estimated that 60-70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) have a genetic component, but few causative genes have been identified. The lack of information on genes associated with non-syndromic NTDs in humans is especially notable as the "genomic revolution" has led to new tools (e.g., genome-wide genotyping arrays, next-generation sequencing) that are helping to elucidate the full spectrum of genetic variation (from common to rare) contributing to complex traits, including structural birth defects. However, the application of modern genomic approaches to the study of NTDs has lagged behind that of some other common structural birth defects. This may be due to the difficulty of assembling large study cohorts for anencephaly or spina bifida. The purpose of this review is to outline the evolution of genetic studies of NTDs, from studies of familial aggregation to candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, through whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. Strategies for addressing gaps in NTD genetic research are also explored.

  8. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  9. A web-based, patient driven registry for Angelman syndrome: the global Angelman syndrome registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Kathryn R; Tones, Megan; Simons, Chloe; Heussler, Helen; Hunter, Adam A; Cross, Meagan; Bellgard, Matthew I

    2017-08-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterised by severe global developmental delays, ataxia, loss of speech, epilepsy, sleep disorders, and a happy disposition. There is currently no cure for AS, though several pharmaceutical companies are anticipating drug trials for new therapies to treat AS. The Foundation for Angelman Therapeutics (FAST) Australia therefore identified a need for a global AS patient registry to identify patients for recruitment for clinical trials.The Global AS Registry was deployed in September 2016 utilising the Rare Disease Registry Framework, an open-source tool that enables the efficient creation and management of patient registries. The Global AS Registry is web-based and allows parents and guardians worldwide to register, provide informed consent, and enter data on individuals with AS. 286 patients have registered in the first 8 months since deployment.We demonstrate the successful deployment of the first patient-driven global registry for AS. The data generated from the Global AS Registry will be crucial in identifying patients suitable for clinical trials and in informing research that will identify treatments for AS, and ultimately improve the lives of individuals and their families living with AS.

  10. Is Three-Dimensional Echocardiography Useful in Evaluation of Atrial Septal Defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles German

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Of all birth defects, Congenital Heart Disease (CHD remains the most prevalent. These malformations are largely multifactorial with both environmental and genetic components, but known chromosomal abnormalities and mutations of single genes account for less than 10% of all cardiac defects (1. They affect approximately 6 to 13 newborns per 1000 live births (2 and are made up of 5 major Atrial Septal Defects (ASDs, including primum and secundum type defects, sinus venosus and coronary sinus defects, and Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO. However, there is debate within the medical community regarding inclusion of PFOs and coronary sinus defects within the realm of CHD. PFOs do not have absent septal tissue, and coronary sinus defects, or unroofed coronary sinus, represent an abnormal communication between the superior portion of the coronary sinus and the neighboring left atrium. Regardless, these anomalies can go undetected at birth, particularly if asymptomatic. Though some defects may be innocuous at birth, the continued shunting of blood between the atria can lead to pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and even death. Thus, finding an accurate and reliable means of diagnosis via echocardiography is necessary in establishing the optimal treatment and ultimately improving patient mortality.

  11. Folate and neural tube defects - Recommendations from a Danish working group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Andersson, G.

    1998-01-01

    A working group was established to evaluate the need for an increased folate intake in Danish women to decrease the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTD are birth defects a which include anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. In Denmark the incidence is about 1.4 per 1,000 pregnancies...

  12. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis from five US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G; Mueller, Beth A; Carozza, Susan E; Chow, Eric J; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas and Washington. We included 17,672 cases confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size, which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  13. Mexican registry of pulmonary hypertension: REMEHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Zarate, Julio; Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Ramirez-Rivera, Alicia; Zamudio, Tomas Pulido; Gutierrez-Fajardo, Pedro; Elizalde Gonzalez, Jose; Leon, Mario Seoane Garcia De; Gamez, Miguel Beltran; Abril, Francisco Moreno Hoyos; Michel, Rodolfo Parra; Aguilar, Humberto Garcia

    REMEHIP is a prospective, multicentre registry on pulmonary hypertension. The main objective will be to identify the clinical profile, medical care, therapeutic trends and outcomes in adult and pediatric Mexican patients with well-characterized pulmonary hypertension. REMEHIP a multicenter registry began in 2015 with a planned recruitment time of 12 months and a 4-year follow-up. The study population will comprise a longitudinal cohort study, collecting data on patients with prevalent and incident pulmonary hypertension. Will be included patients of age >2 years and diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension by right heart catheterization within Group 1 and Group 4 of the World Health Organization classification. The structure, data collection and data analysis will be based on quality current recommendations for registries. The protocol has been approved by institutional ethics committees in all participant centers. All patients will sign an informed consent form. Currently in Mexico, there is a need of observational registries that include patients with treatment in the everyday clinical practice so the data could be validated and additional information could be obtained versus the one from the clinical trials. In this way, REMEHIP emerges as a link among randomized clinical trials developed by experts and previous Mexican experience. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Costing Tool for International Cancer Registries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-21

    A health economist at CDC talks about a new tool for estimating how much it costs to run cancer registries in developing countries.  Created: 11/21/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/21/2016.

  15. An international registry for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Claudius; Lablans, Martin; Ataian, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder leading to chronic upper and lower airway disease. Fundamental data on epidemiology, clinical presentation, course and treatment strategies are lacking in PCD. We have established an international PCD registry to realise an u...

  16. An active registry for bioinformatics web services.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettifer, S.; Thorne, D.; McDermott, P.; Attwood, T.; Baran, J.; Bryne, J.C.; Hupponen, T.; Mowbray, D.; Vriend, G.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY: The EMBRACE Registry is a web portal that collects and monitors web services according to test scripts provided by the their administrators. Users are able to search for, rank and annotate services, enabling them to select the most appropriate working service for inclusion in their

  17. Correlating Orphaned Windows Registry Data Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kahved

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been shown that deleted entries of the Microsoft Windows registry (keys may still reside in the system files once the entries have been deleted from the active database. Investigating the complete keys in context may be extremely important from both a Forensic Investigation point of view and a legal point of view where a lack of context can bring doubt to an argument. In this paper we formalise the registry behaviour and show how a retrieved value may not maintain a relation to the part of the registry it belonged to and hence lose that context. We define registry orphans and elaborate on how they can be created inadvertently during software uninstallation and other system processes. We analyse the orphans and attempt to reconstruct them automatically. We adopt a data mining approach and introduce a set of attributes that can be applied by the forensic investigator to match values to their parents. The heuristics are encoded in a Decision Tree that can discriminate between keys and select those which most likely owned a particular orphan value.

  18. Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Jannet; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Per

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aims of the Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes (DanDiabKids) are to monitor and improve the quality of care for children and adolescents with diabetes in Denmark and to follow the incidence and prevalence of diabetes. STUDY POPULATION: The study population consists of all...

  19. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...