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Sample records for birth control pill

  1. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  2. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a ...

  3. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from taking birth control pills include: Blood clots Heart attack High blood pressure Stroke Birth control pills without estrogen are much less likely to cause these problems. The risk is higher for women ...

  4. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ...

  5. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  6. Progestin-Only Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and ... ExpectDepo-Provera: An Injectable ContraceptiveTubal Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)Birth Control OptionsNatural Family PlanningBirth Control: How to Use ...

  7. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  8. Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne? Print My doctor prescribed ...

  9. Access to the Birth Control Pill and the Career Plans of Young Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...... access to the pill is found to be on non-white students, both among men and women. The paper uses Census Data to compare the changes in career plans to actual changes in labor market outcomes. When looking at the actual career outcomes, early access to the pill affects both men and women - shifting...... their careers towards traditionally male dominated occupations associated with higher wages. Early access to the pill is also associated with significantly higher actual income for men....

  10. Access to the Birth Control Pill and the Career Plans of Young Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    plans of both men and women, and by separating the effect by level of academic ability, race and family income. The results show that unrestricted access to the pill caused high ability women to move towards occupations with higher wages, higher occupational prestige scores and higher male ratios......The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...... access to the pill is found to be on non-white students, both among men and women. The paper uses Census Data to compare the changes in career plans to actual changes in labor market outcomes. When looking at the actual career outcomes, early access to the pill affects both men and women - shifting...

  11. Feminism, biomedicine and the 'reproductive destiny' of women in clinical texts on the birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Andrea

    2017-10-18

    The birth control pill is one of the most popular forms of contraception in North America and has been a key player in women's rights activism for over 50 years. In this paper, I conduct a feminist deconstructive analysis of 12 biomedical texts on the birth control pill, published between 1965 and 2016. This study is situated amongst the feminist scholarship that challenges the representation of women's bodies in biomedicine. Findings suggest that clinical texts on the birth control pill continue to universalise women's lives and experiences, and essentialise them based on their reproductive capacities. One way the texts accomplish this is by making women absent or passive in the literature thereby losing concern for the diversity of their lives, interpretations and identities as more than reproductive beings. The consequence of such representations is that biomedical texts disseminate limited forms of knowledge, in particular concerning definitions of 'natural' and 'normal' behaviour, with important consequences for the embodied experiences of women.

  12. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita

    2010-08-09

    To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills. This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation. The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation. The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis), fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women's desires for fewer and shorter menses) and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding). Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.

  13. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anita NelsonHarbor-UCLA Hospital, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USAAim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills.Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation.Results: The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation.Conclusion: The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis, fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women’s desires for fewer and shorter menses and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding. Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.Keywords: extended-cycle oral contraceptives, low-dose extended-cycle pills, Lo Seasonique

  14. Investigating Birth Control: Comparing Oestrogen Levels in Patients Using the Ortho Evra[R] Patch versus the Ortho-Cyclen[R] Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent drug studies have investigated the incidence of blood clots among patients using the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch. In this article, the author describes an investigation of oestrogen levels in the body resulting from the application of the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch versus daily use of Ortho-Cyclen[R] birth control pills.…

  15. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms are very unlikely. References Aronson JK. Hormonal contraceptives - emergency contraception. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs . 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:824-826. Aronson JK. Hormonal contraceptives - oral. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meyler's Side Effects ...

  16. Birth Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive pills. IUDs, devices which are implanted into the ... Medical Education and Research) Depo-Provera: An Injectable Contraceptive (American Academy ... Emergency Contraception (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in ...

  17. Birth Control: How to Use Your Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and ... TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Vasectomy: What to ExpectProgestin-Only ... Control PillsDepo-Provera: An Injectable ContraceptiveTubal Sterilization (Tubal ...

  18. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a doctor or proof of your age to buy these. These are on the drugstore shelf. If you don’t see them, ask the pharmacist for help. Levonorgestrel tablets (two-pill generic Next Choice and LNG tablets 0.75 mg) You take ...

  19. Noncontraceptive Benefits of Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  20. Delaying Your Period with Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent periods, especially during the first few months. Breakthrough bleeding typically decreases over time, however, as your body adjusts to the new regimen. Another drawback of routinely delaying your period ...

  1. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 582 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or ...

  2. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of ...

  3. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing ...

  4. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) PDF Reproductive Health Access Project Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - English PDF Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - ...

  5. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's in this article? What Is ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of ...

  6. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  7. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  8. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women can choose from many different types of birth control methods. These include, in order of most effective to least effective at preventing pregnancy: Female and male sterilization (female tubal ligation or occlusion, male vasectomy) — Birth control that prevents pregnancy for the rest of ...

  9. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... discuss birth control methods with one’s sexual partner. General methods of contraception include: Barrier —physically interferes with ...

  10. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... and effective method of birth control. Most young women who use the patch have no side effects. ...

  11. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. ...

  12. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...... the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers....

  13. Emergency contraceptive pills as a backup for lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) of contraception: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Omar M; Hassen, Shaimaa G; Nour, Sanna A; Kames, Mervat A; Yones, Entsar M

    2013-03-01

    The use of breastfeeding as a method of birth spacing occasionally ends in "unplanned pregnancy." This is due to unexpected expiration of one or more of the lactation amenorrhea method (LAM) prerequisites. The current study tests a new concept that the in-advance provision of single packet of progestogen emergency contraception (EC) pills during the postpartum LAM counseling may decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy during breastfeeding. This was a registered two-armed randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929). Women intending to breastfeed and to postpone pregnancy for 1 year or more were approached. They received adequate postpartum contraceptive counseling. Women intending to use LAM were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The LAM-only group received the proper LAM counseling and did not receive counseling about EC. The LAM-EC group received counseling for both LAM and EC with in-advance provision of one packet of EC pills. They were advised to use these pills if one of the prerequisites of LAM expires and sexual relation has occurred before the initiation of another regular contraceptive protection. All the participants were advised that they need to use another regular method upon expiration of any of the LAM prerequisites. Eligible women were 1158 parturients randomized into two equal groups. Forty-four percent of the women provided with EC used them. Significantly more women in the LAM-EC group initiated regular contraception within or shortly after the first 6 months postpartum when compared with those in the LAM-only group (30.5% vs. 7.3%, respectively; p=.0004). Pregnancy occurred in 5% of the LAM-only group as compared with 0.8% in the LAM-EC group (p=.005). Minimal side effects were reported after EC use. In-advance provision of EC pills can increase the rate of initiation of regular contraception once one or more of the prerequisites of LAM expire. Consequently, the use of EC pills as a temporary backup of LAM can decrease the incidence

  14. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the stories that unite us in a shared journey toward better heart health. Hear from our new ... and Usage No FEAR Act Grants and Funding Customer Service/Center for Health Information Email Alerts Jobs ...

  15. Family planning and birth control counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawrant, A G

    1977-06-18

    The following item appeared recently in our local newspaper: "The Federal Government plans to press the provinces to establish special abortion clinics that would also provide family planning services, Health Minister Marc Lalonde announced. The proposed clinics would combine abortion services with family planning and birth control counseling, cancer screening and other services related to the health of mothers, he said." It seems that the federal government is attempting to cover the bitter pill of a therapeutic abortion clinic with the sugar coating of family planning and contraceptive counseling. Family planning and contraceptive counseling is an important part of the day-to-day work of the great majority of family physicians and gynecologists, and I urge all physicians who are opposed to Mr. Lalonde's proposal to contact their Members of Parliament and their representatives in the provincial legislatures. Let us urge the Canadian Medical Association to make it clear that the appropriate setting for contraceptive counseling and related services should be the office of the family physician or gynecologist. The time has come for the association to take a more aggressive approach in the field of family planning and birth control counseling and, at the same time, actively discourage government involvement in this important area of preventive medicine. Further, let us make it clear that the whole question of therapeutic abortions and abortion clinics is to be regarded as distinct from family planning and contraceptive counseling.

  16. Hyperglycemia in poor controlled diabetes from crude tamarind herbal pill: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is an important finding in the diabetic patient with poor glycemic control. There are several possible causes of hyperglycemic. Here, the author presents an interesting case study on a female diabetic patient presenting with hyperglycemic due to intake of crude tamarind herbal pill. General practitioner should realize that the use of alternative medicine can be a cause of unexplained hyperglycemic episode in diabetic patient.

  17. A novel estrogen-free oral contraceptive pill for women: multicentre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of mifepristone and progestogen-only pill (levonorgestrel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakha, F; Ho, P C; Van der Spuy, Z M; Dada, K; Elton, R; Glasier, A F; Critchley, H O D; Williams, A R W; Baird, D T

    2007-09-01

    The acceptability and continuation rate of oral contraceptive steroids are limited by unpredictable bleeding and the fear of long-term risks such as breast cancer. By inhibiting ovulation and by altering the receptivity of the endometrium, antagonists of progesterone, such as mifepristone, could be developed as estrogen-free novel contraceptives. Multicentre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing frequency of amenorrhoea (primary outcome), bleeding patterns, side effects and efficacy in women taking daily 5 mg mifepristone (n = 73) or 0.03 mg levonorgestrel (progestogen-only pill; POP, n = 23) for 24 weeks. More women were amenorrhoeic while taking mifepristone than POP (49 versus 0% P 5 days per month (4 versus 39% P contraception. Two pregnancies occurred in women taking mifepristone who were also using condoms for dual protection. Daily mifepristone (5 mg) is an effective oral contraceptive pill which has a better pattern of menstrual bleeding than an existing POP (levonorgestrel).

  18. Emergency contraception – a neglected option for birth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka R. Gunardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception (EC is any method of contraception which is used after intercourse and before the potential time of implantation, in order to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected sexual intercourse, or cases of rape. Use of emergency contraception could halve the number of unintended pregnancies and the consequent need for abortion, but unfortunately many medical professionals and the public are not aware of it. Two methods are available for emergency contraception, namely emergency contraception pills (ECPs and copper-bearing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs. There are two regimens of ECP, the levonorgestrel regimen and combined regimen. The levonorgestrel regimen is preferred as it is more effective and causes less side effects. ECPs should be administered as soon as possible after unprotected or inadequately protected sex, being most effective if initiated within 24 hours. Cu-IUDs can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sexual intercourse. Emergency contraception mainly works by preventing fertilization, and does not interrupt and established pregnancy. Emergency contraception is very safe, therefore can be offered to women who have had unprotected intercourse and wish to prevent pregnancy. It must only be used as a backup method of birth control. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:248-52. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.609Keywords: Birth control, copper-IUD, emergency contraception, emergency contraceptive pills, levonorgestrel

  19. Birth Control in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Beyer, B. K.; Chadwick, K.; De Schaepdrijver, L.; Desai, M.; Enright, B.; Foster, W.; Hui, J. Y.; Moffat, G. J.; Tornesi, B.; Van Malderen, K.; Wiesner, L.; Chen, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee sponsored a pharmaceutical industry survey on current industry practices for contraception use during clinical trials. The objectives of the survey were to improve our understanding of the current industry practices for contraception requirements in clinical trials, the governance processes set up to promote consistency and/or compliance with contraception requirements, and the effectiveness of current contraception practices in preventing pregnancies during clinical trials. Opportunities for improvements in current practices were also considered. The survey results from 12 pharmaceutical companies identified significant variability among companies with regard to contraception practices and governance during clinical trials. This variability was due primarily to differences in definitions, areas of scientific uncertainty or misunderstanding, and differences in company approaches to enrollment in clinical trials. The survey also revealed that few companies collected data in a manner that would allow a retrospective understanding of the reasons for failure of birth control during clinical trials. In this article, suggestions are made for topics where regulatory guidance or scientific publications could facilitate best practice. These include provisions for a pragmatic definition of women of childbearing potential, guidance on how animal data can influence the requirements for male and female birth control, evidence-based guidance on birth control and pregnancy testing regimes suitable for low- and high-risk situations, plus practical methods to ascertain the risk of drug-drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives. PMID:27042398

  20. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall...

  1. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Outlined is a protocol for the administration of emergency contraceptive pills. The indication for such treatment is unprotected intercourse within the past 72 hours. Absolute contraindications include the possibility of an existing pregnancy and a family history of stroke, heart attack, thrombophlebitis, breast or endometrial cancer, or liver tumor. Possibly excluded, depending on evaluation by a physician, are women with abnormal vaginal bleeding, active hepatitis, active gallbladder disease, high blood pressure, acute focal migraine, breastfeeding women, and those unable to understand instructions. The recommended regimen consists of six tablets of Ovral (two taken immediately, two more in 12 hours) or 12 tablets of Lo/Ovral, Nordette, or Levlen (four taken immediately, repeat dosage in 12 hours). The extra pills are to be used in cases of vomiting within three hours of pill ingestion. Women with a history of oral contraceptive-related nausea and vomiting should be provided with Compazine. Women should be informed that this method is effective in only about 92% of cases. All women who receive emergency contraception should be counseled that this is strictly a back-up method and helped to formulate a long-term birth control strategy.

  2. Student Volunteers as Birth Control Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Raymond S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A one-year project on birth control education that used students as birth control educators was initiated to increase student awareness of the need for contraception. Support for this method of disseminating information was demonstrated. The project facilitated student use of the Gynecological Clinic of the Student Health Center. (Author)

  3. Barrier methods of birth control - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/presentations/100107.htm Barrier methods of birth control - series—Female normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Birth Control A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  4. Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xue-Jun; Sun, Yue-Li; You, Sheng-Fu; Mo, Wen; Lu, Sheng; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2013-10-07

    Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and would like to publish the results and

  5. Efficacy of Suxiao Jiuxin Pill on Coronary Heart Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suxiao jiuxin pill is considered an effective ancillary drug in patients with coronary heart disease. Although numerous small, single-center clinical trials have been conducted, the benefits and harms of suxiao jiuxin pill remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the efficacy of suxiao jiuxin pill on patients with coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trials were identified by using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Wanfang, Weipu, and China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases (until June 2016. Pooled relative risks (RR, weighted mean differences (WMD, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were estimated using random-effects models. Forty-one trials involving 6276 patients were included in our analysis. Administration of suxiao jiuxin pill significantly improved electrocardiogram (ECG results when compared with other therapies (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.38, and P<0.001. Subgroup analyses revealed that suxiao jiuxin pills improve ECG results more than salvia tablets (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.67, and P<0.001, isosorbide dinitrate (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.44, and P=0.001, nitroglycerin (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.56, and P<0.001, and other drugs (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.44, and P<0.001. Available evidence additionally suggests that suxiao jiuxin pills could significantly reduce total cholesterol (WMD −0.62 mmol/L, 95% CI −1.06 to –0.18 mmol/L, and P=0.005 and low-density lipoprotein (LDL levels (WMD −1.12 mmol/L, 95% CI −1.42 to −0.82 mmol/L, and P<0.001 and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels (WMD 0.32 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.58 mmol/L, and P=0.014. However, no significant differences were observed in total triglyceride levels, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, and fibrinogen. No incidences of adverse reactions were observed after administration of suxiao jiuxin pill. Improvements in ECG results and lipid profiles were also observed after suxiao jiuxin

  6. Study on prevention effect of Zishen Yutai pill combined with progesterone for threatened abortion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yan, Wei; Ge, Pu-Feng; Li, Yan; Ye, Qian

    2016-06-01

    To observe preventive and therapeutic effects and the mechanism of actions on Zishen Yutai pill combined with progesterone on threatened abortion in rats. After pregnancy, 50 SPF female SD rats were selected and divided into control group, model group, progesterone group, Zishen Yutai pill group, and progesterone plus Zishen Yutai pill group (combination group), with 10 rats in each group. The rats of control group and abortion model group were lavaged with 2 mL/kg normal saline on pregnancy day 1 for continuous 10 days. Rats in Zishen Yutai pill group were given 1.575 g/kg/d of Zishen Yutai pill for intragastric administration for continuous 10 days. Rats in progesterone group were given intramuscular injection treatment of 0.1 mL/d progestin, continuous for 10 days. Rats in combination group were given injection therapy of aqueous solution of Zishen Yutai pill for continuous 10 days, and other treatments were the same as previous two groups. Abortion model were established then and live births, numbers of abortion and average rate of abortion were compared between the five groups. Peripheral blood was collected to detect the estradiol (E2) and progestational hormone (P), and obtain ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ, IL-4, IL-10). Significant more live births of rats were found in the control group compared with other four groups (P pill group and joint group (P pill group. The serum E2 level of P of rats in the control group, progesterone group, Zishen Yutai pill group and joint group were significant higher than that of abortion model group (P pill group and joint group were not significant different (P > 0.05) but these levels in the control group and Zishen Yutai pill group were significant lower than that of progesterone group and joint group (P pill group and joint group were balanced deviating to Th2, and joint group' deviation was better than progesterone group and Zishen Yutai pill group (P pill combined with progesterone has a

  7. NRPB 'pill'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board circulated a leaflet entitled 'Advice for general practitioners in the event of a civil nuclear emergency' in July 1985 to doctors' surgeries in the vicinity of nuclear power stations in England and Wales. The leaflet is reviewed and the scientific background to the 'anti-radiation' potassium iodate pill is explained. (author)

  8. The Relationship between Barriers to Birth Control Use and Actual Birth Control Use among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between barriers to using birth control and actual use of birth control among Mexican American adolescents (N=26,666). Results show that nonusers had significantly higher barrier scores compared with users of birth control. These results indicate that attitudes toward birth control are associated with actual birth control…

  9. Effect of progestin compared with combined oral contraceptive pills on lactation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony; Leeman, Lawrence; Singh, Rameet; Ostrom, Katie; Schrader, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the effect of progestin-only compared with combined hormonal contraceptive pills on rates of breastfeeding continuation in postpartum women. Secondary outcomes include infant growth parameters, contraceptive method continuation, and patient satisfaction with breastfeeding and contraceptive method. Postpartum breastfeeding women who desired oral contraceptives were randomly assigned to progestin-only and combined hormonal contraceptive pills. At 2 and 8 weeks postpartum, participants completed in-person questionnaires that assessed breastfeeding continuation and contraceptive use. Infant growth parameters including weight, length, and head circumference were assessed at 8 weeks postpartum. Telephone questionnaires assessing breastfeeding, contraceptive continuation, and satisfaction were completed at 3-7 weeks and 4 and 6 months. Breastfeeding continuation was compared between groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. Differences in baseline demographic characteristics and in variables between the two intervention groups were compared using χ tests, Fisher exact test, or two-sample t tests as appropriate. Breastfeeding continuation rates at 8 weeks (progestin-only 63.5%; combined hormonal 64.1%), contraceptive continuation, and infant growth parameters did not differ between users of progestin-only and combined hormonal contraceptive pills. Infant formula supplementation and maternal perception of inadequate milk supply were associated with decreased rates of breastfeeding in both groups. Choice of combined hormonal or progestin-only contraceptive pills administered 2 weeks postpartum did not adversely affect breastfeeding continuation. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01465022.

  10. ABORTION PILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Pretnar-Darovec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. This contribution describes the history of the abortion pill, its introduction in the world and in our country. On the basis of the findings of the studies, carried out since the early ’80s, the authors provide the indications and contraindications for the application of the method.Conclusions. The most efficient method for termination of an early pregnancy with least adverse side effects is the combination of drugs, viz. 1 tablet of mifepristone (200 mg administered orally and 4 tablets (4 × 200 mcg of misoprostol applied vaginally.

  11. Prenatal food supplementation fortified with multiple micronutrients increases birth length: a randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Menten, Joris; Meda, Nicolas; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) or balanced energy and protein supplementation has a limited effect on birth size of the offspring. The objective was to determine whether a prenatal MMN-fortified food supplement (FFS) improves anthropometric measures at birth compared with supplementation with an MMN pill alone. We conducted a nonblinded, individually randomized controlled trial in 1296 pregnant women in 2 villages in rural Burkina Faso. Supplements were provided on a daily basis, and compliance was closely verified by using a community-based network of home visitors. Anthropometric measures at birth were available for analysis for 87% of the 1175 live singleton deliveries enrolled. After adjustment for gestational age at birth, the FFS group had a significantly higher birth length (+4.6 mm; P = 0.001). FFS supplementation resulted in a modestly higher birth weight (+31 g; P = 0.197). Subgroup analyses showed clinically important treatment effects on birth length (+12.0 mm; P = 0.005) and on birth weight (+111 g; P = 0.133) for underweight [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) birth to longer newborns (+7.3 mm; P = 0.002) than did those who received MMN supplementation. The provision of FFS to pregnant women resulted in higher birth length than did MMN supplementation. For women with a suboptimal prepregnancy nutritional status, MMN supplementation should be complemented with a balanced energy and protein supplement to produce a clinical effect on birth size. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00909974.

  12. Morning-After Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a type of emergency birth control (contraception). The purpose of emergency contraception is to prevent pregnancy after a woman has had unprotected sex or after her birth control method has failed. ...

  13. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Rose Mary; And Others

    Designed for the general public, these three learning modules utilize text, illustrations, and exercises to describe various methods of birth control. The first module, "All about Contraception for the Teenage New Mother" by Rose Mary Pries, discusses the desirability of planned pregnancy and reviews the effectiveness and side effects of…

  14. Population control I: Birth of an ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1997-01-01

    Population control, as a major international development strategy, is a relatively recent phenomenon. However, its origins reach back to social currents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in an organized birth control movement in Europe and the United States. The conflicts and contradictions in that movement's history presage many of today's debates over population policy and women's rights. Eugenics had a deep influence on the U.S. birth control movement in the first half of the 20th century. After World War II private agencies and foundations played an important role in legitimizing population control as a way to secure Western control over Third World resources and stem political instability. In the late 1960s the U.S. government became a major funder of population control programs overseas and built multilateral support through establishment of the U.N. Fund for Population Activities. At the 1974 World Population Conference, Third World governments challenged the primacy of population control. While their critique led population agencies to change their strategies, population control remained a central component of international development and national security policies in the United States.

  15. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  16. A hugh marketing research task: birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1968-02-01

    Research in underdeveloped countries to sell family planning is discussed. The article also aims at pinpointing other possible research areas. Census reports were actually the earliest work relevant to birth control. Later came the research on psychosocial factors affecting family size in developed countries. After World War I, client oriented research into family planning began. The history of this type of research is discussed with more emphasis on the surveys of the knowledge, attitude and contraception practices (KAP) in various countries. The author claims the KAP surveys to be the largest worldwide market research job ever done. Propagands campaigns, contraceptive costs, bonuses for contraceptive practices, and effectiveness of persuasion techniques are discussed.

  17. birth complications control between midwives among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study sought to assess birth complications control between midwives among women in cross river ..... pains birth complication control. 1.7 .... shoulder dystocia. Most fetal birth injuries resolve without long term harm, but brachial plexus injury may lead to Erb's palsy. Neonatal infection: neonates are prone to.

  18. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschlagl, H

    1991-01-01

    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  19. Efficacy of Acupuncture versus Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill in Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intira Sriprasert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture and combined oral contraceptive (COC pill in treating moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea. Fifty-two participants were randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture (n = 27 or COC (n = 25 for three menstrual cycles. Mefenamic acid was prescribed as a recue analgesic drug with both groups. The statistical approach used for efficacy and safety assessments was intention-to-treat analysis. By the end of the study, both treatments had resulted in significant improvement over baselines in all outcomes, that is, maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores, days suffering from dysmenorrhea, amount of rescue analgesic used, and quality of life assessed by SF-36 questionnaire. Over the three treatment cycles, COC caused greater reduction in maximal pain scores than acupuncture, while improvements in the remaining outcomes were comparable. Responders were defined as participants whose maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores decreased at least 33% below their baseline. Response rates following both interventions at the end of the study were not statistically different. Acupuncture commonly caused minimal local side effects but did not cause any hormone-related side effects as did COC. In conclusion, acupuncture is an alternative option for relieving dysmenorrhea, especially when COC is not a favorable choice.

  20. Pill power: The prequel

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Lena; Machado, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Goldin and Katz [2002], in an influential paper, argued that giving unmarried minors access to the contraceptive Pill was instrumental for women's professional advancement, because such access allowed marriage to be postponed. However, by 1960, married women could get the Pill and thence it is not clear why early marriage would interfere with the pursuit of professional interests. We explore the effects of this alternative, earlier, and common, route to the Pill. Using variation in state mini...

  1. Morning-After Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... isn't recommended. Side effects of the morning-after pill typically last only a few days and may include: Nausea or vomiting Dizziness Fatigue ... pregnancy. If you have unprotected sex in the days and weeks after taking the morning-after pill, you're at risk of becoming pregnant. Be ...

  2. Localization of magnetic pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  3. [The new policies of natural birth control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J H; Reich, J

    1986-01-01

    International agency donors have in recent years become increasingly interested in natural family planning (NFP). The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has made an increasing amount of funds available annually for NFP, and at 1 point, in the case of NFP, relaxed the requirement that donor agencies offer more than 1 contraceptive method, despite the argument that developing country populations do not benefit from enough information for informed consent to be guaranteeable by 1-method agency. NFP has evolved from simple counting of days to observation of changes in cervical mucus and body temperature. The self-observation and learning generally required contribute to difficulties experienced in recruitment and retention of acceptors. At a 1986 meeting in Ottawa, Canada, sponsored by the International Federation for Family Life Promotion, it was revealed that calendar (but not the more effective sympto-thermal) method of NFP is fairly common in some developing countries (it is used by 41% of Peruvian and 24% of Filipino and Sri Lankan women), and even in developed countries. The hypothesized connection between the phenomenon of "old gametes" and birth defects, feared to be a side effect of NFP, was touched on, as was the possibility of using NFP to control the sex of the fetus. It was stressed that the effect of breastfeeding on fecundability constituted NFP in many countries. Other speakers cited religious and moral reasons for promotion of NFP, adding that NFP aids marital communication. It is possible increased popularity of NFP could depend in the near future on medical and legal problems associated with artificial methods as well as the US political situation.

  4. UNICEF supports birth control despite Holy See.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, T

    1992-01-01

    The Vatican has failed in its attempt to prevent the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) from spreading the message of family planning in developing countries. Over the strong objections of the Holy See, the 41-member Executive Board of UNICEF has asked the agency to cooperate with the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and the WHO "to support family planning in the context of sustainable national healthcare systems." A member of the Executive Board said the Vatican held the view that UNICEF had no legitimate right to be involved in family planning. "But the Holy See was in a minority of one," he said, adding that "the whole problem arises from the fact that the Vatican continues to equate birth control and abortion with family planning." A recently concluded board meeting unanimously adopted a resolution requesting UNICEF to "contribute substantively" to the UNFPA-sponsored International Conference on Population and Development (CPF) set to take place in 1994 in Cairo. The board also asked UNICEF Executive Director James Grant to submit a policy paper "on the involvement of UNICEF in family planning, taking into account the health of the child and the mother." The paper is to be presented for the consideration of the board at its regular session next year, with a view to approving it prior to the ICPD. Prior to the adoption of the resolution, J. Klink, a spokesman for the Holy See, told the Executive Board that there were "concerns" over calls for UNICEF to involve itself in family planning activities. He said UNICEF should not be concerned with family planning because there were other agencies entrusted with that mandate. Responding to the support given by Nordic countries to the UNICEF resolution, Klink said that wealthy nations must not impose dictates as to the "appropriate" size of poor families. "The Holy See would not propose that UNICEF halt its current balanced, informational approach to the spacing of births," he said. "Families must be free to decide their size

  5. More research on the pill and alternative methods (of contraception).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-31

    More research on the pill and alternative methods of contraception was urged by Ralph Nader's Health Research Group (HRG), which also recommended that the Food and Drug Administration develop a new patient package insert for all forms of contraceptives, including nonprescription methods. The group also said the government and drug companies should share the cost of long-term follow-up studies of the effects on health of the pill and other birth control methods. The recommendations followed presentations at an HRG forum from NIH scientists and S. Ramcharan, principal investigator of the Walnut Creek (California) Contraceptive Study supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Ramcharan studied 15,000 women over 10 years and found cervical cancer incidence of 173/100,000 person years for women who used the pill for more than 4 years, compared with a rate of 32/100,000 for women who never used the pill. Ramcharan declined to draw any cause-effect conclusions based on these results, stating they were "confounded" by possible differences in sexual activity between the 2 groups. She said a preliminary case comparison study to adjust for these differences "suggests sexual behavior may account for some, but not all," of the 5-fold increase in cervical cancer incidence among pill users. HRG director S. Wolfe said enough data exists to state a relationship between the pill and cervical cancer. "There's no other explanation for the increase," he said, adding that Ramcharan had controlled for the effects of age, education, marital status, number of Papanicolaou smears, religion, number of pregnancies, a history of genital infections, and smoking. Forum participants urged more research on contraceptive devices and drugs now in use, long-term effects of sterilization, value of condoms and spermicides in preventing VD, and development of a patient package insert for all forms of contraception stating the relative effectiveness and risks of each. The

  6. Dynamically programmable electronic pill dispenser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquete, Luciano; Rodriguez-Ascariz, Jose Manuel; Artacho, Irene; Cantos-Frontela, Joaquin; Peixoto, Nathalia

    2010-06-01

    Compliance in medicine dispensation has proven critical for dosage control, diagnosis, and treatment. We have designed, manufactured, and characterized a novel dynamically programmable e-pill dispensing system. Our system is initially programmed remotely through a cell phone. After programming, the system may be reconfigured in order to adapt pill dispensation to new conditions. In this paper we describe the mechanics, electronics, control, and communication protocols implemented. Our dyn-e-pill devices can be actuated for over 350 h with two pill retrievals per hour. We challenged the charging circuit and demonstrated that the system has a lifetime longer than 6 h with a 30 min charging cycle, while it lasts for 14 h of uninterrupted use with a full charge.

  7. Birth Control Practices and Levels of Development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, P.P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Analyzes the spatial patterns of acceptance of birth control practices in India and examines the relationship between these patterns and levels of economic development. Suggests implications of the area differences in acceptance patterns for family planning program policymakers. (Author)

  8. Contraception. Low-dose pill launched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    At a vibrant ceremony in Kampala, Uganda, the Minister of Women in Development, Youth and Culture launched the new low-dose oral contraceptive Pilplan which provides women more options for birth spacing. Diplomats, physicians, government officials, and business leaders attended the ceremony at the Sheraton Hotel Kampala. A dance group did an interpretation of "Women in Uganda: Gaining Momentum." The Minister considered the introduction of this new pill as a turning point for reproductive rights. A baseline survey among Ugandan women has shown that although almost all women were familiar with the pill, only 36% have ever used it and only 15% were currently using it. 80% thought that pill use was preferable to having an unplanned pregnancy. These findings convinced the Minister that ignorance and misconception keep women from using the pill. The government, health providers, and others need to educate women about Pilplan and how to use it correctly. A bilateral agreement between the Ministry of Health and USAID set in motion a social marketing project which has now launched two contraceptive methods: Pilplan in 1993 and the Protector condom in 1990. USAID vowed to continue to support Pilplan, particularly if men could also help in supporting birth spacing. A Uganda-based pharmaceutical firm will distribute Pilplan in Uganda through pharmacies, clinics, and health facilities. Pilplan targets all middle- to low-income women.

  9. Broadcasting Birth Control: mass media and family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parry, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book explores the use of media by American birth control movement since the early twentieth century, as they built support for fertility control and the availability of contraception. Though these public efforts in advertising and education were undertaken initially by leading advocates,

  10. Birth Control: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Permanent Sterilization Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARC) Contraceptive Injection Short-Acting Hormonal Methods Barrier Methods Other Contraception Emergency Contraception Some things to think about when you ...

  11. The Pills problem revisited | Brennan | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We revisit the pills problem proposed by Knuth and McCarthy. In a bottle there are m large pills and n small pills. The large pill is equivalent to two small pills. ... Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): Primary: 05A15; Secondary: 60C05. Key words: Pills problem, recursions, harmonic numbers, generating functions.

  12. CTS trials network: Rate control vs rhythm control for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery - Do bitter pills have blessed effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ahmed

    2016-06-30

    New onset AF is a very common sequel of cardiac surgery with an incidence reaching 50% in some studies. This post-operative complication leads to increased morbidity, hospital stay and, consequently, hospital costs 1 . Currently there is a great variability in the management of this condition. Despite efforts to produce best practice guidelines 2 , what best to do for a patient who develops AF post-operatively remains a question. In a systematic attempt to find an answer to this question, the Cardiothoracic Trials Network have recently published the results of their trial "Rate Control Versus Rhythm Control for Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery" 3 (clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT02132767).

  13. The Pill and Men’s Disappearance from the Teaching Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    and 1980, the ratio of male college freshmen planning to become a teacher fell from 12.4% to 2.4% and the share of males among those who aspired to teach dropped from 30.6% to 19.7%. Using nationally representative data on the career plans of college freshmen I find that unrestricted access to the birth...... control pill bears a negative relation to the likelihood that men plan to teach, while changes in the strength of teacher unions and relative wages of teachers have limited effect on their career plans. Men’s aspirations shift away from teaching towards occupations that are associated with higher average......In this paper I look at the relationship between increased access to reliable fertility controls and men’s disappearance from teaching. As the pill has been found to have a substantial effect on women’s family responsibilities, career investments and labor market outcomes, men’s bargaining position...

  14. Parliament and birth control in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, M

    1978-02-01

    The history of the family planning movement in England in the 1920s is traced. The movement actually began with the establishment by Andrew Carnegie of maternity and child welfare clinics on an experimental basis. The government extended such clinics by legislation. The radical element within the birth control movement recognized these clinics as the perfect environment for dissemination of birth control information and supplies. In 1926 Ernest Thurtle moved in Parliament that local authorities be given authorization to provide birth control methods to married women through the clinics. His bill was permissive, allowing but not compelling the clinics to participate in family planning. He aimed at removing 1 of the disabilities of poverty and at equalizing the sexes. The issue was controversial within Parliament. Finally, the Ministry of Health issued a directive allowing birth control information and supplies to be disseminated through the clinics, thus taking the issue out of the political and legislative realm. By the early 1930s, voluntary clinics, the forerunners of today's Family Planning Association affiliates, were being set up to implement the Ministry of Health directive.

  15. Use of Modern Birth Control Methods Among Rural Communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    Columbia, China, India and Bangladesh have successfully applied family planning programs as a panacea for overpopulation14, 15. Nigeria has also adopted ..... WOA (World Overpopulation Awareness. www.overpopulation org. visited 27/1/07. 8. Illingworth, B. Birth control in developing nations. Planned Parenthood.

  16. Birth complications control between midwives among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Independent t-test and contingency chi-square were used in testing the null hypotheses. Results: The result showed that women delivered by traditional midwives have more negative control of delivery pain caused by birth complication than their counterparts who are delivered by western trained midwives; On the basis of ...

  17. Blood pressure control with a single-pill combination of indapamide sustained-release and amlodipine in patients with hypertension: the EFFICIENT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Jadhav

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite antihypertensive treatment, most hypertensive patients still have high blood pressure (BP, notably high systolic blood pressure (SBP. The EFFICIENT study examines the efficacy and acceptability of a single-pill combination of sustained-release (SR indapamide, a thiazide-like diuretic, and amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB, in the management of hypertension. METHODS: Patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy (BP≥140/90 mm Hg or were previously untreated with grade 2 or 3 essential hypertension (BP≥160/100 mm Hg received a single-pill combination tablet containing indapamide SR 1.5 mg and amlodipine 5 mg daily for 45 days, in this multicenter prospective phase 4 study. The primary outcome was mean change in BP from baseline; percentage of patients achieving BP control (BP<140/90 mm Hg was a secondary endpoint. SBP reduction (ΔSBP versus diastolic BP reduction (ΔDBP was evaluated (ΔSBP/ΔDBP from baseline to day 45. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. RESULTS: Mean baseline BP of 196 patients (mean age 52.3 years was 160.2/97.9 mm Hg. After 45 days, mean SBP decreased by 28.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 26.4 to 30.6, while diastolic BP decreased by 15.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 14.5 to 16.7. BP control (<140/90 mm Hg was achieved in 85% patients. ΔSBP/ΔDBP was 1.82 in the overall population. Few patients (n = 3 [2%] reported side effects, and most (n = 194 [99%] adhered to treatment. CONCLUSION: In patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy or untreated with grade 2 or 3 hypertension, single-pill combination indapamide SR/amlodipine reduced BP effectively--especially SBP--over 45 days, and was safe and well tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry-India CTRI/2010/091/000114.

  18. Short-Term Treatment of Bothersome Bleeding for Etonogestrel Implant Users Using a 14-Day Oral Contraceptive Pill Regimen: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiahi, Maryam; McBride, Madeline; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Teal, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    To understand whether using oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) results in temporary interruption of bleeding for etonogestrel contraceptive implant users during a 14-day course. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned etonogestrel implant users reporting 7 consecutive days or more of bothersome bleeding to receive 14 pills of study drug (150 microgram levonorgestrel and 30 microgram ethinyl estradiol combined OCPs) or an identical-appearing placebo. The primary outcome was the proportion of women in each group who stopped bleeding during therapy and continued to report no bleeding at the end of therapy. Prespecified secondary outcomes were number of days until temporary interruption of bleeding occurred, number of days without bleeding during therapy, and number of days to recurrence of bleeding after discontinuation of therapy. We hypothesized that temporary interruption of bleeding would occur in 80% of the treatment group compared with 20% in the control group; using 80% power, we needed a sample size of 26 women. We performed intent-to-treat analysis. From November 2013 through December 2014, 66 women were screened and 32 were randomized: OCPs (n=16) or placebo (n=16). The majority was young, Caucasian women with reported bleeding as extremely or very annoying; groups had similar baseline characteristics. Participants randomized OCPs were more likely (14 of 16 [87.5%±16.2%] compared with six of 16 [37.5%±23.7%]) to have a temporary interruption of bleeding during the study drug period (odds ratio 11.7, 95% confidence interval 1.9-70.2). Of women in the OCP arm who had a temporary interruption, 85.7% had bleeding recurrence within 10 days after treatment. Bothersome bleeding in etonogestrel contraceptive implant users will usually stop with 14-day OCP treatment, but bleeding most often resumes within days of treatment cessation. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01968135. I.

  19. Towards Automated and Objective Assessment of Fabric Pilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Furferi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pilling is a complex property of textile fabrics, representing, for the final user, a non-desired feature to be controlled and measured by companies working in the textile industry. Traditionally, pilling is assessed by visually comparing fabrics with reference to a set of standard images, thus often resulting in inconsistent quality control. A number of methods using machine vision have been proposed all over the world, with almost all sharing the idea that pilling can be assessed by determining the number of pills or the area occupied by the pills on the fabric surface. In the present work a different approach is proposed: instead of determining the number of pills, a machine vision-based procedure is devised with the aim of extracting a number of parameters characterizing the fabric. These are then used to train an artificial neural network to automatically grade the fabrics in terms of pilling. Tested against a set of differently pilled fabrics, the method shows its effectiveness.

  20. A randomized-controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eStip

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR is about 49.5 % in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we compared AAR obtained by the DoPill® and the BARS, in order to verify whether the DoPill® provides reliable assessment of medication adherence. Methods: The DoPill® is a smart pill dispenser that beeps and flashes at the appropriate time of the day. Each of its 28 compartments is covered by a plastic lamina that, when taken off, sends a signal to the pharmacist. Patients were randomized to the DoPill® or Treatment As Usual group (TAU for six weeks. The BARS was used as a reference measure. Results: Forty-six percent of patients were deemed to be non-adherent with antipsychotic medication. The mean AAR was 67 % after six weeks. DoPill® recorded better AAR than some of those found in the literature and were lower than the BARS estimate we found. Conclusion: These results suggest that DoPill® is a valid tool that provides more reliable and objective data for the clinician about their patient’s adherence, than existing assessment tools like the BARS. Furthermore, the device may help patients successfully manage their medication regimen.

  1. A randomized controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Vincent, Philippe D; Sablier, Juliette; Guevremont, Catherine; Zhornitsky, Simon; Tranulis, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR) is about 49.5% in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill(®) improved AAR of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we compared AAR obtained by the DoPill(®) and the BARS, in order to verify whether the DoPill(®) provides reliable assessment of medication adherence. The DoPill(®) is a smart pill dispenser that beeps and flashes at the appropriate time of the day. Each of its 28 compartments is covered by a plastic lamina that, when taken off, sends a signal to the pharmacist. Patients were randomized to the DoPill(®) or treatment as usual groups for 6 weeks. The BARS was used as a reference measure. Forty-six percent of patients were deemed to be non-adherent with antipsychotic medication. The mean AAR was 67% after 6 weeks. DoPill(®) recorded better AAR than some of those found in the literature and were lower than the BARS estimate we found. These results suggest that DoPill(®) is a valid tool that provides more reliable and objective data for the clinician about their patient's adherence, than existing assessment tools like the BARS. Furthermore, the device may help patients successfully manage their medication regimen.

  2. [Sex hormones: inexpensive pills to poor women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, N

    1988-03-16

    The medical community in India is engaged in a strident debate on wither the sale of pills containing a high dose of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone should be forbidden by law. During the '50s and '60s pills with a high dose of estrogen and progesterone were used in the industrial nations as a means of pregnancy tests. The failure of a woman with delayed menses to respond to administration of a high dose of these hormones in a few days was an indication of pregnancy. Eventually evidence accumulated that use of these pills during the early stages of pregnancy caused malformations of the fetus, particularly hydrocephalus. In most countries sale of these pills was forbidden or at least subjected to strong controls. Today, however, sales continue in a large part of the Third World, which accounts for 87% of all estrogen and progesterone preparations in the world. Studies in southern India show that among women who have delivered malformed children, 31% had taken hormone pills during the first 3 months of pregnancy. In 1982 the Indian department of health forbade the sale of high dose combinations of estrogen and progesterone but gave manufacturers a half year to cease production and a year to cease sales. The manufacturers appealed the ruling to the Indian supreme court and sales have continued as hearings proceeded through the legal system. The deciding factor, however, is one of price. A urine pregnancy test is quicker and completely harmless but a urine tests costs $4-$5 while the pills cost less than $1.

  3. Methods of Preventives to keep Birth Control in the Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is mainly concerned about the methods set by the Quran for preserving the human breeding, which is regarded the main pillar not only for the future survival of the humankind, but also for assuring its permanence and continuity. Taking this into consideration, the Quran has addressed this issue by setting solid preventive tools that ensure the continuity and prosperity of the human offspring in a normal manner. The objective of the research is to shed light on the importance of protecting the human offspring in the Quran, since neglecting its importance could lead to the corruption of the whole society and its members. The research attempts also to tackle the various preventive tools that the Quran has adopted for protecting the normal continuity and prosperity of the human offspring. The research proposes to study the Quranic verses that address the protection of the human offspring and the various preventive tools that should be adopted, along with the accredited analysis and statements of purpose of the Quranic verses, with reference to the approved sources of interpretation. Apart of the findings are that the Quran has set two main methods for protecting the human offspring that is; the preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control, and the preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control. The preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control include the forbidding of being monastic, the prohibiting of killing children for fear of poverty, and the forbidding of falling into immorality, either outwardly or inwardly. They also include the establishment of prayer, giving charity, reciting Dhikr (remembrance and asking of forgiveness. The preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control, however, include not approaching adultery, prohibiting adoption, and forbidding incest, the people of shirk and immorality and blasphemy.

  4. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  5. Tacit consent: the Church and birth control in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2011-01-01

    This article employs novel documentation to examine ways in which the Church's moral rules on contraception were (or were not) communicated to parishioners in a predominantly Catholic context in a period of rapid fertility decline: the diocese of Padua, in the northeastern Italian region of Veneto, during the first half of the twentieth century. The account is based on documents that have until now been overlooked: the moral cases discussed during the periodic meetings among Padua priests in the years 1916–58, and the written answers provided by priests in response to a question asked of them concerning their efforts to combat the limiting of births. This documentation reveals the limited effect on the reproductive behavior of the position of the Catholic Church against birth control.

  6. A randomized-controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel eStip; Emmanuel eStip; Emmanuel eStip; Philippe D. Vincent; Philippe D. Vincent; Philippe D. Vincent; Catherine eGuevremont; Simon eZhornitsky; Constantin eTranulis; Constantin eTranulis; Constantin eTranulis; Juliette eSablier; Juliette eSablier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR) is about 49.5 % in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improv...

  7. A randomized controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Stip, Emmanuel; Vincent, Philippe D.; Sablier, Juliette; Guevremont, Catherine; Zhornitsky, Simon; Tranulis, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR) is about 49.5% in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR...

  8. Those Dirty Ads! Birth Control Advertising in the 1920s and 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarch, Amy

    1997-01-01

    Examines how, in the 1920s and 1930s, birth control advertisements (prolific and illegal) conflicted with the arguments for birth-control legalization. Applies M. Bakhtin's grotesque and classical categories and M. Douglas's pollution metaphors to analyze the language birth-control advocates used to distinguish between medical and nonmedical…

  9. Family Change and Continuity in Iran: Birth Control Use before First Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Morgan, S. Philip; Hossein-Chavoshi, Meimanat; McDonald, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 2002 Iran Fertility Transition Survey, we examined birth control use between marriage and first pregnancy. We focused on the post-1990 increase in birth control use and develop two explanations. The first posits that birth control use reflects a new marriage form, the conjugal marriage, which places a heightened value on the…

  10. Effect of oral contraceptive pill pretreatment on ongoing pregnancy rates in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonists and recombinant FSH for IVF. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Papanikolaou, Evangelos G; Camus, Michel; Tournaye, Herman; Van Steirteghem, Andre C; Devroey, Paul

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effect of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment on the probability of ongoing pregnancy in patients treated with a GnRH antagonist for IVF. A fixed dose of 200 IU recombinant FSH (rFSH) was started in 425 patients either on day 2 of the menstrual cycle (non-OCP group: n = 211) or 5 days after discontinuing the OCP (OCP group: n = 214). GnRH-antagonist was initiated on day 6 of stimulation, and triggering of final oocyte maturation was performed with 10,000 IU of HCG. Ongoing pregnancy rates per started cycle in the non-OCP and OCP group were 27.5% and 22.9%, respectively [95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference: -3.7 to +12.8]. Pregnancy loss was significantly increased in the OCP (36.4%) compared with the non-OCP group (21.6%) (95% CI of the difference: -28.4 to -2.3). Pretreatment with OCP, as compared with initiation of stimulation on day 2 of the cycle in patients treated with GnRH antagonist and recombinant FSH, appears to be associated with a not significant difference in ongoing pregnancy rates per started cycle and results in a significantly higher early pregnancy loss.

  11. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    OpenAIRE

    Pamukcu Gunaydin, Gul; Dogan, Nurettin Ozgur; Levent, Sevcan; Kurtoglu Celik, Gulhan

    2015-01-01

    Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day...

  12. Fifty years of "the pill": risk reduction and discovery of benefits beyond contraception, reflections, and forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Kristina D; Burkman, Ronald T; Tornesi, Belen M; Mahadevan, Brinda

    2012-01-01

    Widely regarded as a revolutionary drug in its early years, "the pill" may be considered the first designer or lifestyle drug. Approximately 85% of women in the United States will use an oral contraceptive (OC) for an average of 5 years. Since the introduction of OCs in the 1960s, both health benefits and safety concerns have been attributed to their use. Widespread use of OC formulations by women throughout their reproductive life cycle gave rise to concerns about the effects of OCs on risk factors for cardiovascular disorders and cancer. In most instances, the noncontraceptive benefits of OCs outweigh the potential risks. As with many first in class drugs, lessons can be learned from its development and use. Indeed, "the pill" played a significant role in reshaping the regulatory process for new drugs during the second half of the 20th century. The birth control pill celebrates its 50th birthday this year, as women and men celebrate five decades of this revolutionary method of family planning. Recent scientific and technological advances in genomics, proteomics, new materials, and new drug delivery systems, along with a new understanding of reproductive biology, offer the promise of new, safe, and effective forms of contraception. In addition to the history of OC therapeutic advances and unintended side effects, the noncontraceptive health benefits that women experience beyond pregnancy prevention are discussed. This article summarizes a symposium presented at the 50th Anniversary of the Society of Toxicology National Meeting, held from 6 to 10 March 2011 in Washington, DC.

  13. [Impact of media alerts on contraceptive pills medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi-Gaudin, S; Deffieux, X; Davitian, C; Guerre, N; Faucher, P; Bacle, F; Teboul, M; Larmignat, P; Hatchuel, M; Benachi, A

    2015-09-01

    The end of 2012 was marked by some media alerts regarding combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) and lawsuit against pharmaceutical companies selling these birth control pills. In this study, we analyzed whether these information had an impact on the number of abortion. Prospective study determining the number of women asking for abortion and who spontaneously declare that the contraception defect was due to an abandon of their oral contraception as they were scared of some information they received from media about the medication. Eleven centers out of 16 did participate to the study, allowing the study of 2300 abortion during this time frame. Ninety-eight of these pregnancies (4.2%) were due to an interruption of the contraceptive treatment as a consequence of media alerts. Average age was 26 years old. Within these pregnancies, 4 (6%) started in December 2012, 3 months after the beginning of the alerts, 11 (16%) in January, 24 (36%) in February and 18 (27%) in March 2013 (4-6 months later). In 7 cases (10%) CHC stopped by fear of information reported by media were of 2nd generation, in 17 cases (25%) of 3rd generation, in 32 cases (48%) of 4th generation and microprogestative in 2 cases (3%). Women who declared that they stopped their birth control medication by fear of information reported in media, represented 4% of the number of abortions performed between 2013 February 18th and 2013 April 30th. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Control selection and participation in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Anderka, Marlene; Caton, Alissa R; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Hockett Sherlock, Stacey M; Meyer, Robert E; Ramadhani, Tunu; Robbins, James M; Shaw, Gary M; Mathews, T J; Royle, Marjorie; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the representativeness of controls in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects in 10 centers across the United States, researchers compared 1997-2003 birth certificate data linked to selected controls (n = 6,681) and control participants (n = 4,395) with those from their base populations (n = 2,468,697). Researchers analyzed differences in population characteristics (e.g., percentage of births at > or =2,500 g) for each group. Compared with their base populations, control participants did not differ in distributions of maternal or paternal age, previous livebirths, maternal smoking, or diabetes, but they did differ in other maternal (i.e., race/ethnicity, education, entry into prenatal care) and infant (i.e., birth weight, gestational age, and plurality) characteristics. Differences in distributions of maternal, but not infant, characteristics were associated with participation by selected controls. Absolute differences in infant characteristics for the base population versus control participants were controls from hospitals compared with centers that selected controls from electronic birth certificates. These findings suggest that control participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study generally are representative of their base populations. Hospital-based control selection may slightly underascertain infants affected by certain adverse birth outcomes.

  15. Cervical pessary placement for prevention of preterm birth in unselected twin pregnancies: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Kypros H; Syngelaki, Argyro; Poon, Liona C; de Paco Matallana, Catalina; Plasencia, Walter; Molina, Francisca S; Picciarelli, Gemma; Tul, Natasa; Celik, Ebru; Lau, Tze Kin; Conturso, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal death and handicap in survivors. Although twins are found in 1.5% of pregnancies they account for about 25% of preterm births. Randomized controlled trials in singleton pregnancies reported that the prophylactic use of progestogens, cervical cerclage and cervical pessary reduce significantly the rate of early preterm birth. In twin pregnancies, progestogens and cervical cerclage have been shown to be ineffective in reducing preterm birth. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the insertion of a cervical pessary in twin pregnancies would reduce the rate of spontaneous early preterm birth. This was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial in unselected twin pregnancies of cervical pessary placement from 20(+0)-24(+6) weeks' gestation until elective removal or delivery vs. expectant management. Primary outcome was spontaneous birth control groups in rates of spontaneous birth birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention of Preterm Birth with Pessary in Singletons (PoPPS): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugoff, Lorraine; Berghella, Vincenzo; Sehdev, Harish; Mackeen, A Dhanya; Goetzl, Laura; Ludmir, Jack

    2017-09-20

    To determine if pessary use prevents preterm birth in singleton gestations with a short transvaginal ultrasound cervical length and without a prior spontaneous preterm birth. In this open-label multicenter randomized trial we enrolled asymptomatic women with singleton gestations with a transvaginal ultrasound cervical length ≤ 25 mm at 18 0 -23 6 weeks and no prior spontaneous preterm birth. Subjects were randomized to receive the Bioteque cup pessary or no pessary. Pessaries were inserted by trained maternal fetal medicine staff.. Vaginal progesterone was recommended to women with a cervical length ≤20mm. The primary outcome was preterm birth preterm birth preterm birth preterm birth preterm birth in women with singleton gestations with a short transvaginal ultrasound cervical length and without a prior spontaneous preterm birth in this small underpowered randomized controlled trial. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 02056652. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence on birthing positions affects women's sense of control in second stage of labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijze, M.J.; Jonge, A. de; Korstjens, I.; Bude, L.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore whether choices in birthing positions contributes to women's sense of control during birth. DESIGN: survey using a self-report questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate which factors associated with choices in birthing positions affected women's sense

  18. Influence on birthing positions affects women's sense of control in second stage of labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijze, M.J.; de Jonge, J.; Korstjens, I.; Bude, L.; Lagro-Janssen, T.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to explore whether choices in birthing positions contributes to women's sense of control during birth. Design: survey using a self-report questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate which factors associated with choices in birthing positions affected women's sense

  19. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A. J.; van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Benders, Manon J. N.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. A case control study was performed at the University

  20. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A J; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Benders, Manon J N; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G J; Oudijk, Martijn A

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed

  1. Pille Jänes 39

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Pille Jänes sai tänavu rahvusvahelise teatripäeva peol Ugalas kunstnikuauhinna kujunduse eest Tallinna Linnateatri lavastusele "Tshapajev ja Pustota", Linnateter andis kunstnikule parima kunstniku aastaauhinna

  2. Anti-C.Diff Pill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Anand [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-30

    The anti- C.diff pill is being developed for patients who are at high risk for Clostridium difficile, a bacterium that causes diarrhea and serious intestinal conditions like colitis. C-diff is deadly, killing over 30,000 people a year in the United States and costing an average of $42,000 per treatment. The most common treatment is a fecal transplant (FT). The anti- C.diff replaces the invasive and messy FT practice with a pill.

  3. The birth control movement before Roe v. Wade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J W

    1995-01-01

    This essay synthesizes the history of the birth control movement in the US and describes changes in sexual behavior, social values, and public policy in order to provide a context for the changes in human reproductive public policy. After an introduction, the essay outlines the history of contraception from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth centuries. Part 3 covers the period of World War I to the Depression when civil libertarians and eugenicists began to question the suppression of contraception and Margaret Sanger organized her clinics. The fourth part of the essay carries the history forward to the end of World War II, a period in which Dr. Clarence J. Gamble began to expose the marketing of defective contraceptive methods and to illustrate the willingness of poor women to accept contraceptives. The social changes which began in the 1950s are the subject of the fifth section of the essay. During this period, Roman Catholic opposition to contraception lessened, and social scientists began to focus world attention on overpopulation. Frank Notestein was appointed the first head of the Office of Population Research at Princeton, and John D. Rockefeller III founded the Population Council which conducted research into the IUD and began to attempt to influence population growth in nonindustrialized countries. This period also saw the development of the oral contraceptive. The changes of this era were institutionalized in 1967 when the federal government took a positive stance towards family planning in its Social Security Amendments. The decade of the 1970s is the subject of the last part of this essay. This period saw the Supreme Court assign a constitutionally protected right to abortion and Congress pass the Helms Amendment which denied the use of foreign aid funds for abortions. Challenges to the right to individual birth control practice continued during this period, and debate centered around the specter of overpopulation, the threat of adolescent

  4. Blood Pressure Control with a Single-Pill Combination of Indapamide Sustained-Release and Amlodipine in Patients with Hypertension: The EFFICIENT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, Uday; Hiremath, Jagdish; Namjoshi, Deepak J.; Gujral, Vinod K.; Tripathi, Kamlakar K.; Siraj, Mohammad; Shamanna, Paramesh; Safar, Michel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite antihypertensive treatment, most hypertensive patients still have high blood pressure (BP), notably high systolic blood pressure (SBP). The EFFICIENT study examines the efficacy and acceptability of a single-pill combination of sustained-release (SR) indapamide, a thiazide-like diuretic, and amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), in the management of hypertension. METHODS: Patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy (BP≥140/90 mm Hg) or were previousl...

  5. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  6. Pilling Resistance of Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita BUSILIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knitted fabrics with different quantity of elastane, conspicuous by high viscosity and elasticity, having one of the most important performance properties - resistance to pilling are often used in the production of high quality sportswear. During technological process imitating operating conditions, the behaviour of knitted fabrics may be changed by different industrial softeners from 12 % to 20 % of active substance, for example fatty acid condensate (Tubingal 5051 or silicone micro emulsion (Tubingal SMF. The aim of this investigation is to define the influence of fibrous composition and chemical softeners to the propensity of fuzzing and pilling of plain and plated jersey pattern knitted fabrics. The results of investigations showed that fibrous composition and thickness of materials (up to 6 % and washing as well as softening (from 33 % to 67 % change the resistance of knitted fabrics to pilling.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.597

  7. "Pills" and the air passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpeli, Elif; Khemasuwan, Danai; Lee, Pyng; Mehta, Atul C

    2013-08-01

    Aspiration of a medication in the airways in any form produces a variety of adverse effects, both local and systemic. Furthermore, specific reaction of the airways to each type of pill strongly affects the outcome. It is crucial for pulmonologists and emergency medicine specialists to acknowledge this clinical entity. In addition, airways have been increasingly used to deliver medications such as insulin and prostacycline. These aerosolized medications can also cause local as well as systemic side effects. We review the local and systemic reactions of these "pills" accessing the airways either by incidental aspiration or iatrogenic administration. We address clinical presentation, mechanism of injury, diagnosis, and management of complications of these pills in the air passages.

  8. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  9. 77 FR 8900 - Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal... within the United States after importation of certain vaginal birth control devices by reason of...

  10. [The Greek Orthodox Church and position regarding birth control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapor-stanulovic, N; Beric, B M

    1983-09-01

    The Christian Orthodox Church has 100-150 million baptized members worldwide. Its official position on fertility regulation is little known among nontheologians. The Christian Orthodox Church is resolutely opposed to all attempts to permit induced abortion, and has been since its earliest history. In the 4th century the aborting woman was considered in the same category as a murderer, and the position was reiterated through the centuries in the canons of the Church. However, the common practice of Church members differed greatly from the official position. During the Roman period and the 1st years of the Christian era, abortion and the exposure of newborns were very common. Many of the earlier arguments in favor of abortion that were countered by the Church are still offered. The liberalization of abortion legislation in the US was opposed by American Christian Orthodox Church members. The Church's position on contraception is less well known than its stand on abortion. Several official publications have condemned family planning, regarding it as a form of prostitution within the family and as a sin. The official position of the Greek Orthodox Church was set forth in an encyclical written in 1937, which recommended abstinence as the only legal method of avoiding conception. The position of the Christian Orthodox Church on abortion and contraception is fundamentally identical to that of the Roman Catholic Church. Because the position of the Christian Orthodox Church on birth control, which has been fixed for centuries, has not been officially debated and has not been communicated to the members, it has not fully guided daily life. One might suppose that members of the Christian Orthodox Church are freer of church control of their fertility behavior than are Catholics.

  11. Analysis of traditional Tibetan pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnek, Martin; Štefánik, Milan; Miglierini, Marcel; Kmječ, Tomáš; Sklenka, L'ubomír

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine starts to be a very popular complementary medicine in USA and Europe. These pills contain many elements essential for the human body. However, they might also contain heavy metals such as mercury, iron, arsenic, etc. This paper focuses on elemental composition of two Tibetan pills and investigation of forms of iron in them. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis identified the presence of several heavy metals such as mercury, iron and copper. Mőssbauer spectroscopy revealed the possible presence of α - F e 2 O 3(hematite) and α - F e O O H(goethite) in both of the investigated samples.

  12. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups are ... in the body; some more steroid medicines; important dosing considerations; and our research on steroids. Learn more ...

  13. Rein Pill tegi fantastilise sõidu / Rein Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Rein

    2008-01-01

    Septembris Chernjahovskis peetud CS14 taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel tegi Rein Pill ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  14. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Pamukcu Gunaydin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times.

  15. [A follow-up study on a randomized, single-blind control of King's Brain pills in treatment of memory disorder in elderly people with MCI in a Beijing community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin-zhou; Zhu, Ai-hua; Zhong, Jian

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of King's Brain pills (Compound Chinese ginseng extract from herbs) on the treatment and the delaying of memory decline in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a community by a year follow-up of neuropsychology. 75 patients with MCI were selected from Beixinqiao community of Beijing by a cutoff score of 0.0/0.5 on CDR and were randomly assigned into a treatment group (n = 30 cases), given 4 pills of a compound Chinese ginseng extract (King's Brain) with 2 placebo tablets, and a positive control group (n = 30 cases), given 2 tablets of Piracetam with 4 placebo tablets, as well as a placebo group (n = 15 cases), given a placebo of 4 tablets and 2 pills. All subjects took this medication 3 times a day for 3 months. Single-blind and double-moulding control were used in this study. At a baseline and a middlepoint (after 3 months), and a follow-up end (one year later) following a three months of medication therapeutics, all subjects were assessed using a battery consisting of MMSE and 5 memory items on BNPT battery. In the treatment group, MMSE score 27.50 +/- 1.68 was increased to 28.27 +/- 1.70 after 3 months but decreased to 26.90 +/- 1.90 after one year of the treatment. However, the latter score was higher than that in a placebo group 26.33 +/- 1.03 (P Brain spills and piracetam tablets have protective effect on cognitive and memory decline in elderly with MCI.

  16. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR. As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively. Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases, 9% (2 cases and 32% (7 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases versus 10% (2 cases, respectively (P < 0.05. Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively. In conclusion, diffuse

  17. A Survey on Some of the Effective Factors in Premature Birth: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Esmailnasab; Hossein Amirian; Batoul Eskandai; Mina Zarei

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives : Preterm birth (birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy) is the major factor affecting a child's health and survival. Compared with term infants, these infants are at higher risk of mortality and incidence of health problems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with preterm birth. Material and Methods : A case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Fatemieh hospital, Iran, between 23rd October 2011 and 21st June 2012. Convenie...

  18. The politics of birth control, 1920-1940: the impact of professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L

    1975-01-01

    Before the 1920s, a birth control movement arose in the United States out of socialist, feminist, and other radical groups concerned with women's rights and sexual freedom. After 1920 the birth control movement became gradually transformed into a respectable, nonradical reform cause, the recipient of large grants from big business, with women's rights secondary to an overriding concern with medical health and population control. This transformation was achieved through the professionalization of the birth control movement-that is, its takeover by professional experts, almost all male, in place of the radical amateur women, fighting for their own interests, who initiated it. The article examines two groups of professionals who were particularly influential in this transformation: doctors and academic eugenists. The former made birth control a medical issue, held back the development of popular sex education, and stifled a previously developing feminist approach to women's birth control needs. The later contributed racism to the birth control movement, helping to transform it into a population control movement with racist and anti-feminist overtones. Both groups, while they made contributions to the technology of contraception, simultaneously held back the spread of birth control by transforming the campaign for it from a popular, participatory cause to a professional staff lobbying operation.

  19. A pill for every ill?

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the US, non-medical use of prescription drugs is second only to marijuana. Marc Buhagiar meets up with Prof. Marilyn Clark to investigate just how dangerous this problem is around Europe. Illustrations by Sonya Hallett. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/a-pill-for-every-ill/

  20. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (pdogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-768] In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain vaginal ring birth control... investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders. ADDRESSES: The complaint, except for any...

  2. Employment and the use of birth control by sexually active single Hispanic, black, and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, J M; Coverdill, J E

    1994-11-01

    Previous studies of the use of birth control by sexually active single women tend to emphasize family background and aspirations, and restrict their attention to teenagers. We elaborate this framework by considering how labor market experiences might shape the birth control practices of women in their late teens and twenties. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Experiences--Youth Cohort provide evidence that employment histories and wages influence birth control practices, net of the effects of family background, aspirations, and educational attainment. Several pronounced racial and ethnic differences are found.

  3. "Pictures with a purpose": the birth control debate on the big screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Manon

    2011-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, birth control advocates used the mass media to reframe contraception from a private, secret matter to an acceptable part of life fit for public discussion. Although their campaign began in print, they quickly embraced the more far-reaching medium of film to deliver their message. This article argues that birth control advocates circumvented the Comstock Act in the early decades of the twentieth century by taking up this new medium as part of a long-running strategy to publicize the birth control movement. Their efforts shaped both the public debate on the topic and the development of motion picture censorship.

  4. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. Methods A questionnaire was administered in family practice and obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Participants included women ages 18–50 presenting for any reason and women under age 18 presenting for family planning or pregnancy care. Analyses were based on key questions addressing beliefs about whether specific birth control methods may act after fertilization, beliefs about when human life begins, intention to use a method that may act after fertilization, and reported use of specific methods. The questionnaire contained no information about the mechanism of action of any method of birth control. Responses were considered inconsistent if actual use contradicted intentions, if one intention contradicted another, or if intentions contradicted beliefs. Results Of all respondents, 38% gave consistent responses about intention to not use or to stop use of any birth control method that acted after fertilization, while 4% gave inconsistent responses. The corresponding percentages for birth control methods that work after implantation were 64% consistent and 2% inconsistent. Of all respondents, 34% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization and would not use any birth control method that acts after fertilization (a consistent response, while 3% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization but would use a birth control method that acts after fertilization (inconsistent. For specific methods of birth control, less than 1% of women gave inconsistent responses. A majority of women (68% or greater responded accurately about the

  5. An update on the pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The discussion traces the development of the oral contraceptive (OC) pill and presents the most recent medical findings on OC and its effects. In 1959 the 1st combined OC, Enovid, was officially approved for use in the US after clinical trials in Los Angeles and Puerto Rico. By 1975, OCs were being used in the US by more than 1/3 of married women who practiced family planning and by an even higher percentage of unmarried contraceptive users. Retail pharmacy sales of OCs have declined by 40% during the 1975-79 period. The major reason given for the decline was the side effects or fear of side effects arising from OC use. Many OCs are available today because of an increasing variety of chemical combinations and the rapid increase in product names, according to "Oral Contraceptives: A Guide for Programs and Clinics," a Pathfinder Fund handbook. The authors classified OCs into 2 general groups -- combined pills and the mini-pills. OCs used in the combined preparation each contain 2 synthetic hormones -- estrogen and progestin. The combined OC is 99% effective when taken properly. The most popular belief now is that OCs act by interfering with the normal menstrual cycle. The mini-pills, which contain small doses of synthetic progestins, have a contraceptive effect by altering the cervical mucus and by altering the lining of the womb or endometrium. Absolute, strong relative, and other relative contraindications to pill use are listed. Side effects that are possibly life threatening include blood clots in the legs, pelvis (lower abdomen), lungs, heart, or brain. Women OC users over 40 have a higher risk of heart attack than younger users, and users over 40 who smoke have the highest risk of heart attack. Benign tumors of the liver, which have been found to be more common in women who use OCs, may cause rupture of the capsule of the liver, extensive bleeding, and even death. Rare tumors of the liver, hepatocelluar adenomas, are more likely to occur in long term OC users

  6. Beyond pills and condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhart, P

    1991-01-01

    Conditions and changes in Kenya, noted by the author after an absence of 20 years, are discussed. Commentary is provided on the marriage pattern and birth rate, modernization, unemployment, changes in transfers of wealth; the individual waste of natural resources in developed countries is contrasted with Kenya's population. The difficulty of individual action and the constraints on acting on the basis of one's understanding are presented. Kenya's population growth from 11 million in 1969 to 25 million in 1990 is evident in the differences in the road to Kutus. The 7 miles down the slope of Mount Kenya in 1969 were dotted with small farms and stretches of solitude, while in 1990 people were everywhere, hundreds going or coming and working in small farms metered out across the countryside. Kenya was 1 of the 1st African nations to adopt a population policy. The growth rate was very high at 4.1 in the 1980s. The present density is 1/2500 people/sq mile. 50% of the population is 15 years. 40,000 were unemployed in 1976 and 1 million are unemployed at present. 75% of the women now 40 married before the age of 20 years; 22% married before 15 years. Kenyans value children as wealth and old age security. Expected children/family has dropped from 7.7 in 1984 to 6.7 in 1989. Contraceptive use has increased from 7% in 1977 to 27% in 1989. Modernization has begun. Many people, because of population growth do not have access to land. Education is the only hope for the future. Civil unrest may occur. Only 4% of the land is arable. Agriculture must expand to the arid plains. Food production/capita has dropped 30% since 1972. Imports for food and development money means debt to developed nations. Westerners hold the monetary wealth, consume more soil, water, and energy, and contribute more greenhouse gases. The impact on the ecosystem of a US baby is 4 times what it is for a Kenyan baby. The example of waste is given of the van of tourists traveling down the road to Kutus, which

  7. Maternal exposure to benzodiazepine and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: A case-control study using a claims database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yusuke; Takeshima, Nozomi; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2018-01-03

    To examine (1) if the use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth and/or low birth weight (LBW), and, if yes, (2) which types of benzodiazepines or antidepressants have stronger influences. A case-control study was performed using a large claims database in Japan. Cases were mothers who had given birth to preterm and/or LBW infants between 2005 and 2014 (737 with preterm births and 1615 with LBW). Controls were mothers who had neither experienced preterm birth nor given birth to an LBW infant. Overall, 42 058 births were included. The maternal use of benzodiazepines was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.69, P preterm deliveries (adjusted OR, 0.57; 0.08-4.16) and LBW (adjusted OR, 0.56; 0.14-2.29). Benzodiazepine use was associated with increased risk of preterm birth but not with LBW. Antidepressant use was not associated with both preterm deliveries and LBW. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion, and odds of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Barrios, Yasmin V; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-09-27

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a pressing need to identify risk factors leading to effective interventions. Limited evidence suggests potential relationships between maternal sleep or vital exhaustion and preterm birth, yet the literature is generally inconclusive. We examined the relationship between maternal sleep duration and vital exhaustion in the first six months of pregnancy and spontaneous (non-medically indicated) preterm birth among 479 Peruvian women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (exhaustion were ascertained through in-person interviews. Spontaneous preterm birth cases were further categorized as those following either spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. In addition, cases were categorized as very (exhaustion was also associated with increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.79-3.23) compared to no exhaustion (Ptrend exhaustion on the odds of spontaneous preterm birth. The results of this case-control study suggest maternal sleep duration, particularly short sleep duration, and vital exhaustion may be risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth. These findings call for increased clinical attention to maternal sleep and the study of potential intervention strategies to improve sleep in early pregnancy with the aim of decreasing risk of preterm birth.

  9. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  10. [Why is it difficult to carry out birth control work in Wenzhou?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-23

    Some leading cadres in Wenzhou Municipaity, Zhejian refuse to practice birth control instead of supporting this effort. The wife of Comrade Lin Xiannen, a member of the Standing Committee of the party municipal committee, gave birth to a 3rd child last March. Up to now, they have refused to practice birth control. Wang Danwen, a member of the provincial revolutionary committee and deputy director of the municipal posts and telecommunications bureau, did not break the news that she was pregnant with her 3rd child until the 8th month of her pregnancy. Following the example of these leading cadres, Lin Xiaohua, a cadre of the Wenzhou prefectural intermediate court of justice, and Sun Lianfang (a party member and cadre) gave birth to their 3rd child. These cases have been reported many times to the municpal committee leadership. In Wenzhou Municipality at this time, many young people got married too early and many young women are pregnant too early. The actions that were subsequently taken against the cadres who refused to practice birth control and were having too many children are outlined. The fundamental reason why birth control work in Wenzhou is lagging behind is that some cadres fail to practice family planning and urge their sons and daughters to marry too early. According to an investigation, 496 of the 728 cadres, or 68.1%, in 6 areas in Ruian County have 3 or more children.

  11. Intracervical procedures and the risk of subsequent very preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lyndsey F; Rayner, Jo-Anne; King, James; Jolley, Damien; Forster, Della

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the relation of prior intracervical procedures with very preterm birth. A population-based case-control study. The study was conducted in Australia between 2002 and 2004. Three hundred and forty-five women having a medically indicated and 236 having a spontaneous singleton birth between 20 and 31 weeks of gestation and 796 women selected randomly from all those giving birth at ≥37 weeks of gestation. Interview data were analysed using logistic regression. Very preterm birth. Very preterm birth was significantly associated with having any intracervical procedure [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.7], in particular curettage associated with abortion (AOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.2-2.6). Assisted reproductive technology procedures were significantly associated with medically indicated very preterm birth (AOR 3.07; 95% CI 1.8-5.3) and treatments for precancerous cervical changes were significantly associated with spontaneous very preterm birth, as follows: conization/cone biopsy (AOR 3.33; 95% CI 1.8-6.2) and cauterization/ablation (AOR 2.27; 95% CI 1.4-3.8). Suction aspiration for abortion, abnormal Pap smear without treatment and abortion without instrumentation were not associated with very preterm birth. Intracervical procedures are associated with very preterm birth. Notably, curettage rather than any other procedure associated with abortion appears to be implicated in the risk. The introduction of infection during cervical procedures may be the common link with risks found. Changing clinical practice in the management of abortion and human papillomavirus vaccination may lead to lowering the risks of very preterm birth. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. A Survey on Some of the Effective Factors in Premature Birth: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Esmailnasab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Preterm birth (birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy is the major factor affecting a child's health and survival. Compared with term infants, these infants are at higher risk of mortality and incidence of health problems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with preterm birth. Material and Methods : A case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Fatemieh hospital, Iran, between 23rd October 2011 and 21st June 2012. Convenience sampling was performed and a total number of 110 cases of preterm births and 132 full-term births as control group were screened and enrolled in the study.  Data were collected through interview and patient medical record. The results were compared using logistic regression analysis and odds ratio (OR in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between preterm birth and the following risk factors were identified. Results : Significant risk factors for preterm births included: preeclampsia (OR = 2.42 cesarean delivery (OR = 2.61, previous history of stillbirth or abortion (OR = 2.75, multiple pregnancies (OR = 1.03, recurrent low birth weight delivery (OR = 4.10, prenatal care in private sector (OR = 2.47, working women (OR = 5.70, hospitalization during pregnancy for more than 2 days, multiple gestation deliveries (OR = 5.79, diabetes in first-degree relatives and birth order higher than 3 (OR = 1.03 showed a significant relationship with premature births. The logistic regression analysis indicated that odds of preterm birth increases with the number of pregnancies ≥3 (OR=0.03 95% CI: 1.07- 3.75. Conclusion : The main determinants of preterm birth in the study consisted of previous history of stillbirth or abortion, cesarean delivery, multiple pregnancies, working women, preeclampsia and health care in the private sector. By applying special attention to the caring of high-risk pregnancies and health services for mothers and improvement of

  13. The Effect of Vitamin D and Calcium plus Vitamin D during Pregnancy on Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidence suggests a high prevalence of calcium and vitamin D deficiencies exists in both pregnant women and babies. Adequate intake of micronutrients has great importance especially during pregnancy and lactation period. Thus, the present study aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin D and calcium-vitamin D on pregnancy and birth outcomes (including duration of pregnancy, type of delivery and infant anthropometric indicators. Methods: A randomized, controlled, clinical, triple-blind trial conducted on 126 pregnant women referring to Tabriz health centers in 2013-14. Subjects were allocated into three groups using block randomization. Interventional groups received vitamin D, calcium-vitamin D and placebo pills daily for 60 days. ANCOVA and Chi-square tests were used for data analysis. Results: By controlling BMI before and during pregnancy, there were no significant differences between the group in average neonatal weight, height and head circumference, duration of pregnancy, type of delivery and gestational age at the time of delivery. Conclusion: The results show that calcium-vitamin D and vitamin D have no effect on duration of pregnancy, type of delivery and infant anthropometric indicators.

  14. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  15. Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Ross R

    2010-10-01

    is a protocol for a randomised trial, the findings of which will contribute information about the optimal time of birth for women with an uncomplicated multiple pregnancy at and beyond 37 weeks gestation. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15761056

  16. Maternal hypertensive disorders, antihypertensive medication use, and the risk of birth defects: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Bennekom, C.M. Van; Louik, C.; Werler, M.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Mitchell, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study previously identified associations between specific maternal hypertensive disorders and/or prenatal exposure to antihypertensive medication and birth defects. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Slone Birth Defects Study, 1998-2010. POPULATION: A total of 5568 cases with birth

  17. Liuwei Dihuang Pills Enhance the Effect of Western Medicine in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of adding Liuwei Dihuang Pills (LDP to Western medicine for treating diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Studies were retrieved from seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP, and Wanfang Data until November 2015. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Meta-analysis was performed on the overall therapeutic efficacy of hyperglycemia and renal functions, and the study also analyzed adverse events. Results. A total of 1,275 patients from 18 studies were included. The methodological quality of these included trials was generally low. We found that adding LDP can lower patients’ FBG (MD: −0.36 [−0.46, −0.25], P<0.00001, PBG (MD: −1.10 [−1.35, −0.85], P<0.00001, and HbA1c (MD: −0.14 [−0.49, 0.21], P=0.43. There were also improvements in lowering patients’ BUN (MD: −0.67 [−0.89, −0.45], P<0.00001, SCr (MD: −0.96 [−1.53, −0.39], P<0.00001, 24 h UTP (SMD: −1.26 [−2.38, −0.15], P<0.00001, UAER (MD: −26.18 [−27.51, −24.85], P<0.00001, and UmAlb (SMD: −1.72 [−2.67, −0.77], P<0.00001. Conclusion. There is encouraging evidence that adding LDP to Western medicine might improve treatment outcomes of diabetic nephropathy, including hyperglycemia and renal functions. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorous high-quality trials are warranted to substantiate or refute the results.

  18. [Mamy-boom and baby-flop, pill and pill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraud, R

    1989-05-01

    Data from France's National Institute of Demographic Studies indicate that in 1986, 778,859 infants were born in France, including 80,874 to foreign mothers. France's total fertility rate was 1.83, higher than the 1.40 of the Federal Republic of Germany or the 1.35 of Italy but not high enough to ensure replacement. A 1988 survey by the National Institute of Demographic Studies indicated that almost 2/3 of fertile-aged French women used pills or IUDs. 7% had undergone sterilization, 4% were infertile, 13% had no partners, and 10% were pregnant or desired to become pregnant. All the developed countries, regardless of their form of government, have low fertility rates. The complete explanations of the trend to low fertility are not known. Economic and sociological explanations probably carry less weight than psychological factors. The desire for material goods, greater freedom of women, changing roles of men in the family and society, and fragility of marriages probably all play a part. The pill and to a lesser extent abortion have been blamed for the declining fertility, but do not furnish the complete explanation. Greater availability of RU 486 may cause further decline, but nobody can predict with assurance. Falling nuptiality, increased nonmarital cohabitation with its low fertility rates, the low rate of remarriage after divorce, and the greater life expectancy of women all affect France's population structure and prospects. By 2010, some 20% of the European population will be aged 65 and over. By 2035 almost 10 million persons will be over 70 years old in France, and nearly 2/3 of them will be female. This large cohort of elderly will require expensive care that the smaller young cohorts will be expected to finance. Intergenerational solidarity, however, already shows signs of strain. Serious conflicts will inevitably arise over the care and maintenance of this large elderly population group and will be exacerbated by the uneven population structure resulting

  19. Birth attendance and magnitude of obstetric complications in Western Kenya: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liambila, Wilson N; Kuria, Shiphrah N

    2014-09-08

    Skilled birth attendance is critical in the provision of child birth related services. Yet, literature is scanty on the outcomes of child birth related complications in situations where majority of women deliver under the care of non-skilled birth attendants compared to those who are assisted by skilled providers. The study sought to assess the nature of childbirth related complications among the skilled and the non-skilled birth attendants in Western Kenya. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 15-49 years at the household. Controls were individually matched to cases on the basis of age and socio-economic status. A total of 294 cases and 291 controls were interviewed. Data were collected on various demographic and socio-economic characteristics and women's perception on the quality of care. All independent variables were analysed initially in bivariate models and those that were significantly associated with obstetric complications were included in multiple logistic regression model in order to control for confounding factors. Odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals, were computed to show the association between the occurrence, magnitude and the extent to which child birth related complications were managed. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the cases and controls were similar. About 52% of the deliveries were assisted by skilled birth attendants while non-skilled providers attended to 48% of them. The odds of the occurrence of obstetric complications were greater among the women who were attended to by skilled providers in health facilities: adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.32 (CI 0.95, 1.84) than among those who were assisted by unskilled birth attendants, AOR 0.76 (CI 0.55, 1.06). Undignified care, high delivery and transport costs and fear of hospital procedures such as HIV tests and mishandling of the placenta were cited as some of the barriers to facility deliveries. Skilled birth attendants in facilities were associated

  20. A lost chance? Birth control policies in the Mao's China (1949-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the birth control policies in China during the Maoist era (1949- 1976. Considering Chinese and foreign sources, it is explained how the different campaigns of family planning took place and how these campaigns were subjected positively and negatively to the policies of the supreme leader Mao Zedong. Although only the last one had a real impact on the fight against overpopulation, all campaigns helped to promote the necessity of confronting this phenomenon. More importantly, they laid the foundations of the birth control policies that currently take place in China.

  1. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...

  2. Reproductive Restraints. Birth Control in India, 1877-1947, Sanjam Ahluwalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Hackett

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This book, written by historian and feminist Sanjam Ahluwalia, provides a comprehensive account and solid analysis of the heterogeneous colonial and nationalist discourse of the reproductive and birth control debates in India at the end of the colonial period (from 1877-1947. Over the course of five well-balanced chapters, the author exposes the underlying dynamics of the birth control and reproductive policies of India from colonial times up until the country’s Independence in 1947. She und...

  3. "Dangerously Large": The 1938 Labor Rebellion and the Debate over Birth Control in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bourbonnais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1930s, following a massive labor rebellion on the island, a group of middle- and upper-class Jamaicans launched a campaign to spread access to modern birth control technology to the working classes, leading to the establishment of the first birth control clinic in Kingston in March of 1939. This paper analyzes the debate that arose as a result of these activities during this period, focusing on the ways concerns surrounding “over-population” and illegitimacy in Jamaica were intimately linked to class and racial tensions as well as to local and international nationalist, feminist, and eugenics movements.

  4. "Dangerously Large": The 1938 Labor Rebellion and the Debate over Birth Control in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Bourbonnais

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1930s, following a massive labor rebellion on the island, a group of middle- and upper-class Jamaicans launched a campaign to spread access to modern birth control technology to the working classes, leading to the establishment of the first birth control clinic in Kingston in March of 1939. This paper analyzes the debate that arose as a result of these activities during this period, focusing on the ways concerns surrounding “over-population” and illegitimacy in Jamaica were intima...

  5. A case-control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Waller, D Kim; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-10-16

    Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ≥15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ≥15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15-19, 20-29, and ≥ 30 minutes) were similar. Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ≥15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile.

  6. Birth preference in women undergoing treatment for childbirth fear: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Birgitta; Karlström, Annika; Rubertsson, Christine; Ternström, Elin; Ekdahl, Johanna; Segebladh, Birgitta; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2017-12-01

    Childbirth fear is the most common underlying reason for requesting a caesarean section without medical reason. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to investigate birth preferences in women undergoing treatment for childbirth fear, and to investigate birth experience and satisfaction with the allocated treatment. Pregnant women classified with childbirth fear (≥60 on the Fear Of Birth Scale) (n=258) were recruited at one university hospital and two regional hospitals over one year. The participants were randomised (1:1) to intervention (Internet-based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (ICBT)) (n=127) or standard care (face-to-face counselling) (n=131). Data were collected by questionnaires in pregnancy week 20-25 (baseline), week 36 and two months after birth. Caesarean section preference decreased from 34% to 12% in the ICBT group and from 24% to 20% in the counselling group. Two months after birth, the preference for caesarean increased to 20% in the ICBT group and to 29% in the counselling group, and there was no statistically significant change over time. Women in the ICBT group were less satisfied with the treatment (OR 4.5). The treatment had no impact on or worsened their childbirth fear (OR 5.5). There were no differences between the groups regarding birth experience. Women's birth preferences fluctuated over the course of pregnancy and after birth regardless of treatment method. Women felt their fear was reduced and were more satisfied with face-to-face counselling compared to ICBT. A higher percentage were lost to follow-up in ICBT group suggesting a need for further research. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Politics of the birth control programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S S

    1988-03-01

    The myth that projects population control as the cure-all for all social and economic problems has a class bias. The emphasis of planners on population control is an attempt to weaken the class struggle in India by absolving the exploiters of the responsibility for perpetuating inequalities and shifting the blame from the capitalist order to the people. 2 major issues in the family planning program are considered: 1) that overpopulation is a major cause of poverty; and 2) that persuading people to accept the small family norm is the only way that population growth may be controlled. The socio-political content of these issues are examined, and it is emphatically suggested that eradication of poverty and unemployment as well as guarantees against insecurity, sickness, and the death of children must be demanded as a prerequisite for accepting the small family norm.

  8. 76 FR 3690 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-10, Birth Affidavit, OMB Control Number 1405...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-10, Birth Affidavit, OMB Control Number 1405-0132 ACTION... Collection: Birth Affidavit. OMB Control Number: 1405-0132. Type of Request: Extension of a Currently... form number (if applicable), information collection title, and OMB control number in any correspondence...

  9. The efficacy and safety of Jian-Wei-Qu-Tong Pills for the treatment of chronic non-atrophic gastritis (spleen and stomach qi deficiency with damp-heat stasis syndrome): study protocol for a phase II, randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic gastritis (CG), a poorly understood entity, is a very common disease of the digestive tract and is difficult to cure. Chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNG) is the most common type of CG. Even if treated with current standard chemotherapy, some patients will not be freed from this confusing disease. Many studies have shown traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is more effective compared to chemotherapy in the treatment of chronic gastritis and no serious side effects have been identified. However, the studies that have been carried out were not scientifically rigorous trials. Our aim is to design a high-quality trial for a new TCM drug, the Jian-Wei-Qu-Tong Pills (JWQTP), to investigate the efficacy and safety of this new drug in treating chronic non-atrophic gastritis patients with spleen and stomach qi deficiency with damp-heat stasis syndrome (SSQDDSS). Methods/Design This is a phase II, multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. A total of 240 participants will be assigned to a high-dose group, a low-dose group or a placebo control group with a 1:1:1 ratio at five sites. Then, one dose (six 1-g pills), with a variable ratio between real drug and dummy drug according to the intervention protocol, will be taken three times a day before each meal for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the eradication rate of epigastric pain. The secondary outcome includes the changes of endoscopic examination, histopathological examination, traditional Chinese medicine symptom scores and patient-reported outcome instrument scores for chronic gastrointestinal diseases and the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Discussion Many CNG patients suffer from frequent, recurrent bouts of dyspeptic symptoms. This is the first clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of JWQTP in treating CNG with SSQDDSS in a multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled manner. This trial may not only

  10. No association between periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogacci, Mariana Fampa; Cardoso, Elaine de O C; Barbirato, Davi da S; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Sansone, Carmelo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontitis in pregnant women and adverse pregnancy outcomes by heeding confounding risk factors for preterm low birth weight infants. This study was reported according to The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement. A case-control study was conducted. Medical records of all pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic were screened. Those between 21 and 34 years and gestational age of 28-32 weeks were initially enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were then applied: diabetes mellitus, genitourinary tract infections, or HIV infection; previous multiple gestations; previous preterm birth/low birth weight infants; in vitro fertilization procedures; placental, cervical/uterine abnormalities; history of infertility; history of drug abuse; and any medical conditions that required antibiotics prophylaxis. Patients' anthropometric, demographic, and behavioral characteristics were collected. The periodontal clinical parameters were obtained from six sites per tooth: clinical attachment level, probing pocket depth, dental plaque index, and gingival bleeding index. Women were then allocated into two groups: mothers of preterm and/or low birth weight newborns (cases) and mothers of full-term and normal birth weight newborns (controls). Periodontal clinical parameters were analyzed and reported separately for each group, and no significant differences were observed (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that periodontal clinical parameters were not associated with the adverse pregnancy outcomes. After controlling for confounding factors, our results suggest that maternal periodontal disease is not a risk factor associated with preterm low birth weight infants.

  11. Effect of maternal periodontitis and low birth weight--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luise Maria; Cruz, Simone Seixas da; Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Passos-Soares, Johelle Santana; Trindade, Soraya Castro; Figueiredo, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy; Alves, Claúdia Maria Coêlho; Coelho, Julita Maria Freitas; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, evidence has been raised that there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and undesirable gestational events, for example low birth weight; this issue is controversial. To evaluate whether there is an association between maternal periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was carried out on 951 mothers that had been cared for by the Brazilian Unified Health System in Petrolina-PE and Juazeiro-BA, Brazil. The case group (n = 269) consisted of mothers of newborns with birth weight <2500 g and a control group (n = 682) of mothers of newborns with birth weight ≥2500 g. An interview was realized, using a questionnaire as well as a full mouth examination to diagnose the periodontal condition. Women who had at least four teeth with probing depth ≥4 mm and clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm, with bleeding on probing at the same site, were diagnosed with periodontitis. The birth weight was obtained through the hospital book record. The main association was evaluated using the multivariate regression model, considering confounders. The frequency of periodontitis was 16.4% (case group) and 17.4% (control group). Periodontitis did not show an association with LBW (ORcrude = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.63-1.35), even after adjustment for the following confounders: maternal age, pre-gestational body mass index, number of pre-natal consultations, number of pregnancies, maternal schooling level, smoking habit during pregnancy and hypertension (ORadjusted = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.61-1.68). The findings of this study showed no association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight, even after appropriate adjustments for confounding factors.

  12. Use of mouth rinse during pregnancy to improve birth and neonatal outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Su, Yi; Qian, Xu

    2015-11-25

    Poor oral health, such as periodontal (gum) disease, has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality, especially in low-and middle-income countries. However, there is little or no access to preventive dental care in most low-and middle-income countries. We propose to develop and test a "Mouth Rinse Intervention" among pregnant women to prevent the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy and reduce adverse birth and neonatal outcomes in a rural county of China. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. A sample of 468 (234 in each arm of the study) women in early pregnancy with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through the methods of Periodontal Screening and Recording. All women diagnosed with periodontal disease will be randomly allocated into the intervention or control group. Women assigned in the intervention group will be provided with non-alcohol antimicrobial mouth rinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride throughout the pregnancy and oral health education. Women in the control group will receive a package of tooth brush and paste, plus oral hygiene education. Women will be followed-up to childbirth until the 42nd day postpartum. The main outcomes include mean birthweight (gram) and mean gestational age (week). Compared with conventional mechanical 'scaling and root planning' periodontal treatment during pregnancy, our proposed mouth rinse intervention could be a simple, cost-effective, and sustainable solution to improve both mother's oral health and neonate outcomes. If the mouth rinse is confirmed to be effective, it would demonstrate great potential for the application in other low- or middle-income countries to prevent adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight and to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. This trial was registered with Chinese

  13. Adolescents' Interpretations of the Birth Control Behavior of a Soap Opera Couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Childers, Kim

    A study investigated whether adolescents' schemas about contraceptive use would influence their perceptions that a soap opera couple used birth control during sex. The study also examined the effects of increasing explicitness of characters' conversations about contraceptives on viewers' perceptions of the couple's contraceptive use. Thirty-six…

  14. Sexuality Education Beliefs among Sexually Experienced Youth: Differences by Gender and Birth Control Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether gender and birth control use are associated with premarital sexual attitudes, beliefs about peers, family communication about sexual relationships, and sexuality education among sexually experienced youth. Methods: Data were collected from a randomly selected ethnically diverse youth sample (N = 1,253). Only the…

  15. The Supply of Birth Control Methods, Education, and Fertility: Evidence from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the supply of birth control methods on fertility behavior by examining Romania's 23-year period of pronatalist policies. Following the lifting of the restrictions in 1989 the immediate decrease in fertility was 30 percent. Women who spent most of their reproductive years under the restrictive regime…

  16. Adolescent Perceptions of Maternal Approval of Birth Control and Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.

    2000-01-01

    Used data from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health to examine the relationship between adolescent perception of maternal approval of the use of birth control and sexual outcomes over 12 months. Overall, adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval related to an increased likelihood of sexual intercourse in the next year and an increase in…

  17. [Assessing drug targeting of Yougui Pill, Zuogui Pill, and their disassembled prescriptions using infrared thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xia; Deng, Yan-Li; Li, Qi-Jia; Lu, Hua

    2014-04-01

    To dynamically assess drug targeting of Yougui Pill (YP) and Zuogui Pill (ZP) using infrared thermography. In this self-control experiment, five healthy volunteers were recruited. By using infrared thermography 10 to 11 thermal images of different body locations were taken from each participant after they took warm water, YP, ZP, and their dissembled prescriptions at 30, 70, 100, 130, and 160 min, respectively. The heat values in the lower quadrant abdomen, uterus, Du channel, and Shenque (CV8) were statistically analyzed after scanning for 125 times. Administration of YP and its disassembled prescriptions enhanced the heat value of the locations of the Du channel and Shenque (CV8), but did no enhance the heat value of the lower quadrant abdomen at 30 min. Administration of ZP and its disassembled prescriptions reduced the heat value in the locations of the lower quadrant abdomen, uterus, Du channel, and Shenque (CV8) at each time point. The drug targeting of ZP and YP focused on the locations of the Du channel and Shenque (CV8), not on the locations of the lower quadrant abdomen or uterus.

  18. Investigation on some maternal factors affecting the birth of preterm infants: a case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Dadipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant mortality is considered as the key healthcare index in every country. The outcomes of a preterm birth are among the main and direct causes of neonate mortality. Therefore, the present research aims to investigate some maternal factors influencing the immature birth. Materials and Methods: This observational case study was conducted on 100 term babies as the control group. The questionnaires were completed through interviewed mothers or perused hospital files. Results: The results of this study showed the high chances of premature birth in women with multiple pregnancies, smoking, placenta previa, uterine problems and placental abruption compared to most of the mothers with no history of such problems. In mothers with cervical incompetence, the chances of delivering a preterm baby are 11 times as high as mothers with no such problems. Similarly, the chances are 9.33 times as high among the mothers who had a history of placenta previa. Conclusion: Identifying maternal factors influencing the preterm infant birth as well as attentive care taken during pregnancy can significantly reduce the preterm infant birth.

  19. Time Delayed Stage-Structured Predator-Prey Model with Birth Pulse and Pest Control Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally, chemical pesticides kill not only pests but also their natural enemies. In order to better control the pests, two-time delayed stage-structured predator-prey models with birth pulse and pest control tactics are proposed and analyzed by using impulsive differential equations in present work. The stability threshold conditions for the mature prey-eradication periodic solutions of two models are derived, respectively. The effects of key parameters including killing efficiency rate, pulse period, the maximum birth effort per unit of time of natural enemy, and maturation time of prey on the threshold values are discussed in more detail. By comparing the two threshold values of mature prey-extinction, we provide the fact that the second control tactic is more effective than the first control method.

  20. Time Delayed Stage-Structured Predator-Prey Model with Birth Pulse and Pest Control Tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Mei; Li, Yongfeng; Xiang, Zhongyi

    2014-01-01

    Normally, chemical pesticides kill not only pests but also their natural enemies. In order to better control the pests, two-time delayed stage-structured predator-prey models with birth pulse and pest control tactics are proposed and analyzed by using impulsive differential equations in present work. The stability threshold conditions for the mature prey-eradication periodic solutions of two models are derived, respectively. The effects of key parameters including killing efficiency rate, pul...

  1. Radio pill antenna range test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  2. Empagliflozin/linagliptin single-pill combination therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is typically progressive, with sequential addition of therapies often needed to address increasing hyperglycemia over the disease course. Using treatments in combination may be preferred to sequential addition, as a means of providing a more rapid clinical response and potentially avoiding clinical inertia. In such cases, a single-pill combination can help to reduce pill burden. Although various single-pill combinations of oral glucose-lowering agents are available, empagliflozin/linagliptin was the first approved combination of a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor with a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor in the United States. Areas covered: Two publications of the clinical trial investigating the efficacy and safety of single-pill combinations of empagliflozin/linagliptin in treatment-naive or metformin-treated patients with T2DM (NCT01422876) are reviewed, and their potential impact on clinical practice is discussed. Expert opinion: The study discussed provides evidence for the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin/linagliptin single pills. Addition of an empagliflozin/linagliptin single pill may be considered in patients with inadequate glycemic control on metformin, or as an alternative to first-line treatment with empagliflozin or linagliptin when metformin is not suitable, particularly in patients with very poor glycemic control, or those who need to achieve target more quickly.

  3. Maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpalatha Govindaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Preterm birth (PTB is an important issue in public health and is a major cause for infant mortality and morbidity. There is a growing consensus that systemic diseases elsewhere in the body may influence PTB. Recent studies have hypothesized that maternal periodontitis could be a high-risk factor for PTB. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maternal periodontitis on PTB. Materials and Methods: Forty systemically healthy primiparous mothers aged 18–35 years were recruited for the study. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, they were categorized into PTB group as cases and full term birth group (FTB as controls. PTB cases (n = 20 defined as spontaneous delivery before/<37 completed weeks of gestation. Controls (FTB were normal births at or after 37 weeks of gestation. Data on periodontal status, pregnancy outcome variables, and information on other factors that may influence adverse pregnancy outcomes were collected within 2 days of labor. Data were subjected to Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference with respect to the gestational period at the time of delivery and birth weight of the infants in (PTB group (<0.001 compared to (FTB group was observed. Overall, there was statistically significant poor periodontal status in the (PTB group compared to (FTB group. The statistical results also showed a positive correlation between gestational age and clinical parameters. Conclusion: An observable relationship was noticed between periodontitis and gestational age, and a positive correlation was found with respect to PTB and periodontitis. Further studies should be designed to establish periodontal disease as an independent risk factor for PTB/preterm low birth weight.

  4. Oral contraceptive use before first birth and risk of breast cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apter Dan

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was first, to investigate whether women starting oral contraceptive (OC use at a young age and before first birth have an increased risk for breast cancer and second, to report difficulties encountered in studying long-term health impacts of medical technologies. Methods Breast cancers occurring up until 1997 among 37153 Helsinki students born between 1946 and 1960 were identified by record linkage from the Finnish Cancer Registry; for each cancer case, five age-matched random controls were picked from the same student population. Those who had used the Helsinki Student Health Service (HSHS at least three times (150 cases and 316 controls form the final study subjects. Data on OC use and background characteristics were collected from patient records, and data on live births were derived from the population register. Odds ratios (OR were adjusted for number of births, smoking and sports activity. Results Compared to the few non-users, OC users had a higher risk of breast cancer: the adjusted OR was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.1–4.2. Among OC users, no statistically significant differences in risk of breast cancer were found in regard to starting age or first birth, but small numbers made confidence intervals wide. Even though we had chosen students to be our study group, the population turned out to be unsuitable to answer our research question: most women had started their OC use old (at the age of 20 or later and there were very few unexposed (almost all had used OC and before their first birth. Conclusions Because adoption of the modern pattern of OC use was not common among students, it is unlikely that the impact of early and extended OC use can be studied before 2010, when women born in the 1960s are 40 to 50 years old.

  5. Marketing of birth control in LDCs: with special references to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, R R; Kindra, G S; Pangotra, P

    1985-01-01

    The authors outline a marketing approach for family planning programs in developing countries, with references to experiences in India. Following an overview of types of population programs, suggestions for strengthening program efforts are offered, and a framework for marketing birth control is described. "This approach was based on the recognition that acceptance of a small family norm is interwoven with the freedom to make that choice.... This framework suggests that marketing plans should be aimed at the three-dimensional goal of increasing the population's desire, ability, and capability toward acceptance of the small family norm and the practice of birth control [and] that in consideration of the wide geographical variations in population growth, per capita income, and the level of development in general, programs should be designed in a segmented manner to suit the socio-economic nature of each group." excerpt

  6. The origins of the birth control movement in England in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W L

    1975-01-01

    The origins of the birth control movement in England in the 19th cen tury are discussed. The impact of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population" and the activities of such thinkers and reformers as Jermy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, Francis Plance, Richard Carlile, Robert Dale Owen, and Charles Knowlton are discussed. The social debate that arose during the century is discussed.

  7. Impact of oral contraceptive pill use on premenstrual mood: predictors of improvement and deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Cohen, Lee S; Harlow, Bernard L

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate risk factors for the deterioration and improvement of premenstrual mood disturbance with oral contraceptive pill use. Predictors of the deleterious and beneficial effects of oral contraceptive pill use on premenstrual mood were analyzed with the use of logistic regression in a nested case-control study within a community-based cohort of 976 premenopausal women in Massachusetts. Of 658 women who were using oral contraceptive pills, 16.3% of the women reported oral contraceptive pill-related premenstrual mood deterioration, and 12.3% of the women reported premenstrual mood improvement. In adjusted models, previous depression was the only significant predictor of mood deterioration (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.8); early-onset premenstrual mood disturbance and dysmenorrhea were significant predictors of oral contraceptive pill-related mood improvement (odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.9-5.2] and odds ratio, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.4-3.9], respectively). Oral contraceptive pills do not influence premenstrual mood in most women. Premenstrual mood is most likely to deteriorate in women with a history of depression and to improve in women with early-onset premenstrual mood disturbance or dysmenorrhea.

  8. Birth Control in Clinical Trials: Industry Survey of Current Use Practices, Governance, and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J; Breslin, W J; Beyer, B K; Chadwick, K; De Schaepdrijver, L; Desai, M; Enright, B; Foster, W; Hui, J Y; Moffat, G J; Tornesi, B; Van Malderen, K; Wiesner, L; Chen, C L

    2016-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee sponsored a pharmaceutical industry survey on current industry practices for contraception use during clinical trials. The objectives of the survey were to improve our understanding of the current industry practices for contraception requirements in clinical trials, the governance processes set up to promote consistency and/or compliance with contraception requirements, and the effectiveness of current contraception practices in preventing pregnancies during clinical trials. Opportunities for improvements in current practices were also considered. The survey results from 12 pharmaceutical companies identified significant variability among companies with regard to contraception practices and governance during clinical trials. This variability was due primarily to differences in definitions, areas of scientific uncertainty or misunderstanding, and differences in company approaches to enrollment in clinical trials. The survey also revealed that few companies collected data in a manner that would allow a retrospective understanding of the reasons for failure of birth control during clinical trials. In this article, suggestions are made for topics where regulatory guidance or scientific publications could facilitate best practice. These include provisions for a pragmatic definition of women of childbearing potential, guidance on how animal data can influence the requirements for male and female birth control, evidence-based guidance on birth control and pregnancy testing regimes suitable for low- and high-risk situations, plus practical methods to ascertain the risk of drug-drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives.

  9. Characteristics of users of the Birth Control program. 2007 National Health Survey, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Lalinde ángel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study sought to characterize the use of Birth Control methods by women users of Healthcare Service Provider Institutions in Colombia, who were included in the National Health Survey -2007 NHS. Methodology. Ours was a descriptive study, which performed secondary analysis of the data from a subsample of 2033 women from the outpatient service of the Birth Control (BC program in the Healthcare Service Provider Institutions (IPS, for the term in Spanish included in the 2007 National Health Survey (NHS. Results. The BC contraception methods most used by the women surveyed were: hormonal (60%, barrier (22%, and female sterilization (11%. A direct relationship was observed between educational level and the autonomy to select the BC method. A total of 11% of the users did not receive information on all the BC methods from their treating physician. Some 98% of the women surveyed manifested having understood the information provided on the use of the BC method selected. Nine of every 10 women exercised autonomy upon selecting a BC method. Conclusion. The hormonal methods of Birth Control were the most used by the women surveyed. The participants showed high autonomy to choose the BC method.

  10. Higher Prevalence of Left-Handedness in Twins? Not After Controlling Birth Time Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Kauko; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Saari-Kemppainen, Aulikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Haukka, Jari; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Iivanainen, Matti

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy- and birth-related factors may have an effect on handedness. Compared with singletons, twins have a lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and are at higher risk for birth complications. We tested whether the prevalence of left-handedness is higher among twins than singletons, and if so, whether that difference is fully explained by pregnancy and birth-related differences between twins and singletons. We analyzed Finnish population-based datasets; included were 8,786 twins and 5,892 singletons with information on birth weight (n = 12,381), Apgar scores (n = 11,129), and gestational age (n = 11,811). Two twin cohorts were involved: FinnTwin12 included twins born during 1983-1987, and FinnTwin16 included twins born during 1974-1979. We had two comparison groups of singletons: 4,101 individuals born during 1986-1988 and enrolled in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial, and 1,791 individuals who were partners of FinnTwin16 twins. We used logistic regression models with writing hand as the outcome for comparison and evaluating effects of covariates. Left-handedness was more common in twins (9.67%) than in singletons (8.27%; p = .004). However, Apgar scores were associated with handedness, and after controlling for covariates, we found no difference in the prevalence of left-handedness between twins and singletons. Increased left-handedness among twins, often reported by others, was evident in our data, but only among our older twin cohorts, and that association disappeared after removing effects of perinatal covariates.

  11. [A brief history of traditional Chinese medicinal pills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P

    2016-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of low density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes in Korea: single-pill regimen (amlodipine/atorvastatin versus double-pill regimen (amlodipine+atorvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Park

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Single-pill combination therapy (amlodipine/atorvastatin might be more effective than double-pill therapy (amlodipine+atorvastatin in patients with diabetes and concomitant hypertension requiring statin therapy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of a single-pill with that of double-pill for control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, with the ultimate goal of cardiovascular disease prevention, in these patients using a cost-effectiveness analysis model that considered medication adherence. METHODS: Effectiveness was defined as the percentage (% attainment of target LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL based on adherence for each therapy. Adherence was defined as compliance to medication (≥80% proportion of days covered. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were adherent and target goal attainment based on adherence level. The annual medication costs were based on the adherence levels for each regimen. The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER was calculated as the cost per % attainment of the target LDL-C level. RESULTS: The ACER for the single-pill regimen was lower than for the double-pill regimen (4,123 vs. 6,062 Korean won per 1% achievement of target goal. Compared with the double-pill, the medication costs were approximately 32% lower with the single-pill. CONCLUSION:A single-pill for reductions in LDL-C is cost-effective compared with double-pill in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Estimating the impact of birth control on fertility rate in Sub-Saharan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contrary to our expectation other variables (methods) like the use of pills, injection, intra uterine device(IUD), condom/diaphragm and cervical cap, female sterilization and periodic abstinence/rhythm fulfilled our a-priori expectations. These results notwithstanding, the paper suggests measures, such as the need for massive ...

  14. Domestic violence, marital control, and family planning, maternal, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiksin, Rebecca; Meekers, Dominique; Thompson, Susan; Hagopian, Amy; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2015-06-01

    Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste provide a context that facilitates violence against women. More than a third of ever-married Timorese women report physical and/or sexual domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by their most recent partner. DV violates women's rights and may threaten their reproductive health. Marital control may also limit women's reproductive control and healthcare access. Our study investigated relationships between DV and marital control and subsequent family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using logistic regression, we examined 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,951 women in Timor-Leste. We controlled for age, education, and wealth. We limited our analyses of pregnancy- and birth-related outcomes to those from the 6 months preceding the survey. Rural women with controlling husbands were less likely than other rural women to have an unmet need for family planning (Adj. OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9). Rural women who experienced DV were more likely than other rural women to have an unplanned pregnancy (Adj. OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-4.8), fewer than four antenatal visits (Adj. OR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.1-4.9), or a baby born smaller than average (Adj. OR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.4-6.7). DV and marital control were not associated with the tested outcomes among urban women. Given high rates of DV internationally, our findings have important implications. Preventing DV may benefit both women and future generations. Furthermore, rural women who experience DV may benefit from targeted interventions that mediate associated risks of negative family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes.

  15. A chewable low-dose oral contraceptive: a new birth control option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisberg E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Edith Weisberg1,21Sydney Centre for Reproductive Health Research, Research Division of Family Planning NSW, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Elizabeth II Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: A new chewable combined oral contraceptive pill containing ethinyl estradiol (EE 0.025 mg and norethindrone (NE 0.8 mg in a 24/4 regimen was approved for marketing in December 2010. Each of the four inactive tablets contains 75 mg ferrous fumarate, which has no therapeutic benefit. The tablet can be taken with food but not water as this affects the absorption of EE. The Pearl index based on intention to treat women aged 18–35 years has been reported at 2.01 (confidence interval [CI] 1.21, 3.14 and for the whole population 1.65 (CI 1.01, 2.55. The effect of a body mass index of >35 was not studied. Regular withdrawal bleeding occurred for 78.6% of women in Cycle 1, but by Cycle 13 almost half the women failed to have a withdrawal bleed. This new formulation provides an intermediate dose of an EE/NE combination that will be useful for women experiencing breakthrough bleeding on the lower-dose EE/NE pill. The convenience of a low-dose pill, which can be chewed without the need for water, will be useful to enable women who have forgotten a pill to take one whenever they remember, provided they carry it with them. The advantage of a 24/4 regimen is better suppression of follicular development in the pill-free interval and may be beneficial for women who experience menstrual cycle-related problems, such as heavy bleeding or dysmenorrhea.Keywords: combined oral contraceptive, low dose, ethinyl estradiol, norethindrone

  16. The 2016 iodine pill distribution campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmestre, A.; Le Guen, B.

    2016-01-01

    The last iodine pills were distributed in february 2009, they are now outdated and a new campaign has been launched. Each family will receive a voucher to recover iodine pills from the nearby pharmacy. The aim of this new campaign is of course to protect people in case of severe nuclear accident but also to develop a radiation protection culture among the population. During the previous campaign only 51% of the concerned people went to the pharmacy to get the pills. The 2016 campaign will involve the public and all the establishments open to the public in a range of 10 km around each of the 19 nuclear power plants. It concerns 500 municipalities, 375.000 households, 55.000 enterprises and public utilities and 275 pharmacies are involved in the campaign. (A.C.)

  17. Preterm birth among women living within 600 meters of high voltage overhead Power Lines: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Taktom; Ahmadi, Amirmasoud; Javadian, Maryam; Gholamian, Sayyed Asghar; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Ahmadi, Bahare; Hadighi, Mozhgan Sadat Hassanpour

    2017-09-26

    The issue of preterm birth due to exposure to magnetic fields from power lines is unclear. Exposure to electromagnetic field in uterus has been hypothesized as possible preterm birth. The aim of the present study was to determine whether living closer to high voltage power lines increased the risk of preterm labor. In a nested case-control study, 135 cases of singleton live spontaneous preterm birth in Rohani hospital, Babol, Iran, during the period between 2013 and 2014 were studied. The 150 control subjects were singleton term live birth in the same year of birth and city of residence using randomized-digit dialing. The shortest distance to any of the high voltage power lines to the maternal residence during pregnancy was measured using ArcGIS software for every case and control. To test the association between the preterm births and the residential proximity to power lines, stepwise multiple logistic regression was used. There were 28 households, 20 cases (14.8%) and 8 controls (5.3%) situated within 600 meters of high voltage power lines. The adjusted OR for spontaneous preterm birth and birth defect in women who were living in less than 600 meters from high voltage power lines was higher compared to those living at farther distance (OR = 3.28, CI: 1.37 to 7.85) and (OR = 5.05, CI: 1.52 to 16.78), respectively. Therefore, installing overhead power lines and stations within 600 meters or making overhead underground would be useful in the prevention of both preterm birth and birth defect.

  18. Smart pill dispenser for dependent people

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Grau, Guillermo de

    2015-01-01

    Many medical errors are due to the fact that people in charge of patient or elder’s medication have to deal with sorting huge amounts of pills each day. This paper consists on the conception, design and creation of a pillbox prototype intended to solve this deficiency in the medical area as it has the ability of sorting out the pills by itself as well as many other advanced features, with this device being intended to be used by hospitals or retirement homes. For the design of this device ope...

  19. An international randomised placebo-controlled trial of a four-component combination pill ("polypill" in people with raised cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rodgers

    Full Text Available There has been widespread interest in the potential of combination cardiovascular medications containing aspirin and agents to lower blood pressure and cholesterol ('polypills' to reduce cardiovascular disease. However, no reliable placebo-controlled data are available on both efficacy and tolerability.We conducted a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a polypill (containing aspirin 75 mg, lisinopril 10 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg and simvastatin 20 mg in 378 individuals without an indication for any component of the polypill, but who had an estimated 5-year cardiovascular disease risk over 7.5%. The primary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP, LDL-cholesterol and tolerability (proportion discontinued randomised therapy at 12 weeks follow-up.At baseline, mean BP was 134/81 mmHg and mean LDL-cholesterol was 3.7 mmol/L. Over 12 weeks, polypill treatment reduced SBP by 9.9 (95% CI: 7.7 to 12.1 mmHg and LDL-cholesterol by 0.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.9 mmol/L. The discontinuation rates in the polypill group compared to placebo were 23% vs 18% (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.89 to 2.00, p = 0.2. There was an excess of side effects known to the component medicines (58% vs 42%, p = 0.001, which was mostly apparent within a few weeks, and usually did not warrant cessation of trial treatment.This polypill achieved sizeable reductions in SBP and LDL-cholesterol but caused side effects in about 1 in 6 people. The halving in predicted cardiovascular risk is moderately lower than previous estimates and the side effect rate is moderately higher. Nonetheless, substantial net benefits would be expected among patients at high risk.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000099426.

  20. Implementation, quality control and selected pregnancy outcomes of the Murmansk County Birth Registry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Erik Eik; Nieboer, Evert; Voitov, Alexander Valentinovitch; Kovalenko, Anton Alexandrovich; Lapina, Yana Mikhailovna; Voitova, Elena Alexandrovna; Kovalenko, Liudmila Fedorovna; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2008-09-01

    To describe the essential features of the newly established Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR); make some preliminary comparisons of selected variables related to pregnancy and delivery in northern counties of the Nordic countries and in cities and towns of Murmansk County [Murmanskaja Oblast (MO)] and explore some research possibilities. A registry-based cohort study. The MCBR was established in 2005 and registration began on 1 January 2006. A registry form draws upon both hospital files and information from the mother. There are 54 major fields consisting primarily of tick-off boxes and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes. A quality control exercise was conducted in both 2006 and 2007. During 2006, 8,468 births were registered in the MO (coverage = 98.9%). The proportion of errors was below 1% in both years. Limiting the descriptive statistics to 2006, compared to counties of the Nordic counties in the Barents Region, the delivering women in the MO were younger and had fewer and lighter (mean of 200 g) babies. The gestational age was somewhat shorter in the MO than in the Nordic counties and fewer babies had a birthweight above 4,500 g. The perinatal mortality corresponding to a gestational age (GA) of either 22 or 28 completed weeks was higher (p < 0.02) in the MO than the Nordic counties in this study. In the MO, the birth rate does not balance the reported increase in death rate. Our study concludes that a medical birth registry of satisfactory quality has been established for the world's largest arctic population.

  1. Seeking control in the midst of uncertainty: Women's experiences of choosing mode of birth after caesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Sarah; Janssen, Patricia; Corbett, Kitty; Wilcox, Elizabeth; Bansback, Nick; Kornelsen, Jude

    2017-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines indicate that over 80% of women with a previous caesarean should be offered a planned vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC), however only one third of eligible women choose to plan a VBAC. To support informed choices for birth after caesarean, it is necessary to understand the factors that influence women's decision-making. The goal of this study was to explore attitudes towards and experiences with decision-making for mode of delivery after caesarean from the perspectives of Canadian women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 women eligible for VBAC in three rural and two urban communities in British Columbia, Canada, during summer 2015. Constructivist grounded theory informed iterative data collection and analysis. Women's decision-making experiences were a process of "seeking control in the midst of uncertainty." Women formed early preferences for mode of delivery after their primary caesareans and engaged in careful deliberation during their inter-pregnancy interval, consisting of: reflecting on their birth, clarifying their values, becoming informed, considering the feasibility of options, deliberating with the care team, and making an actual choice. Women struggled to make trade-offs between having a healthy baby and social attributes of delivery, such as uninterrupted bonding with their newborn. Women begin decision-making for birth after caesarean earlier than previously reported and their choices are influenced by personal experience and psychosocial concerns. Future interventions to support choice of mode of delivery should begin early after the primary caesarean, to reflect when women begin to form preferences. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic effects of Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill on myocardial injury induced by chronic hypoxia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu-Chao; Xu, Yan-Juan; Tong, Jia-Yi; Lu, Zhou-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Hui

    2015-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, called Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill on chronic hypoxia-induced myocardial injury. To establish a rat chronic hypoxia model to be used in the evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control, model, and treatment groups (n = 10 per group). The animals were housed in a plexiglass container. The control animals were under normal oxygen concentration and the model and treatment groups were exposed to air and nitrogen for 5 weeks. The rats in the treatment group were orally administered the Qishen Yiqi Dropping pill (35 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 5 weeks. After the treatment, the cardiac function and morphology were analyzed, and the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) were determined using Western blotting. Our results indicated that the cardiac function was impaired, cell apoptosis was enhanced, and HIF-1α expression was up-regulated in the model group, compared to the control group. These changes were ameliorated by the treatment with the Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill. In conclusion, Qishen Yiqi Dropping pill can ameliorate myocardial injury induced by chronic hypoxia, improve cardiac function, and decrease myocardial cell apoptosis, which may provide a basis for its clinical use for the treatment of chronic cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Women Bar Drinkers’ Discussions about Birth Control and Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated how birth control discussions prior to sexual activity affected condom use in a sample of 225 young women bar drinkers. The use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD) and partner type also were assessed. Data were collected through daily reports and qualitative interviews over 12 weeks. A total of 1671 sexual events were reported (M = 7.4 events per participant), of which 64.7% (n = 1081) did not involve condom use. Discussions of birth control occurred prior to 10.9% (n = 183) of all sexual events. These discussions were more likely to be initiated by the woman and to occur when AOD had been used. Thematic analysis revealed four common themes: confirmation of the need to use condoms, confirmation of oral/hormonal contraceptive use, use of sufficient birth control, and discrepant condom use. The discussions reduced rates of risky sex when the sexual partner was more intimate (i.e., boyfriend/dating partner), regardless of AOD use and when the sexual partner was a friend or ex-partner and no AOD were used. The thematic analysis suggested that pregnancy prevention was a stronger motivation for discussing condom use, rather than risk of contracting an STI. Given the substantial rate of high risk partners, history of STIs, and limited amount of time women reported knowing “regular” partners, we suggest that interventions designed to reduce risky sex should be tailored to increase women’s awareness of STI and pregnancy risk when under the influence of AOD, and promote condom use regardless of partner type. PMID:21892691

  4. Breastfeeding is associated with a maternal feeding style low in control from birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Brown

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal child-feeding style upon child weight and eating style for children over the age of twelve months is well established. However there is little empirical evidence examining maternal child-feeding style during milk feeding despite evidence that mothers who breastfeed exert lower levels of control over later diet. The aim of this paper was to examine variation in maternal child-feeding style during the first six months postpartum and to explore associations with mode of milk feeding and infant weight.The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ is frequently used to measure maternal child-feeding style in preschool children. 390 mothers with an infant aged 0-6 months completed an adapted version of the CFQ to measure maternal child-feeding style during milk feeding. Participants reported breastfeeding duration, infant weight and perceived size.Principle components analysis of questionnaire items produced six factors; encouraging feeding, feeding to a routine, limiting intake, concern for weight, monitoring and perceived responsibility. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of control compared to formula feeding. Infant birth weight was significantly inversely associated with concern for weight, monitoring and encouraging feeding.Formula feeding is associated with greater maternal control of child-feeding from birth whilst a lower birth weight is linked to concerns for infant weight and pressure to eat. As early maternal child-feeding relationships may impact negatively upon longer term child weight and eating style, identifying variations in maternal feeding style and understanding the factors that influence this is pertinent.

  5. Strategies for nevirapine initiation in HIV-infected children taking pediatric fixed-dose combination "baby pills" in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, V; Cook, A; Walker, A S; Kabamba, D; Chijoka, C; Ferrier, A; Kalengo, C; Kityo, C; Kankasa, C; Burger, D; Thomason, M; Chintu, C; Gibb, D M

    2010-11-01

    Controlled Trials identifier: ISRCTN31084535 .

  6. The effects on ovarian activity of ulipristal acetate when 'quickstarting' a combined oral contraceptive pill: a prospective, randomized, double-blind parallel-arm, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, S T; Berger, C; Michie, L; Klipping, C; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

    2015-07-01

    What is the effect on ovarian activity of a preceding intake of ulipristal acetate (UPA) when starting a combined oral contraceptive (COC) in the mid- to late-follicular phase of the cycle? This study shows that UPA does not affect the ability of the COC to induce ovarian quiescence. UPA is a progesterone receptor modulator that is available for emergency contraception (EC). In theory, UPA could alter the effectiveness of hormonal contraception started immediately following it and vice versa. Current guidelines regarding quick starting a COC following UPA are based on expert opinion only. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at three separate sites, Edinburgh (Scotland), Stockholm (Sweden) and Groningen (the Netherlands), over a 5-month period in 2012. Healthy female volunteers were randomized to take either UPA or an identically packaged placebo, at mid-cycle (once a lead ovarian follicle was determined to be >13 mm on transvaginal ultrasound imaging). Participants were randomized by a computer-generated randomization schedule, allocated by sequential, sealed envelopes. All women then started 21 days of the same COC the following day. The study was designed to show non-inferiority of UPA compared with placebo in terms of the proportion of women attaining ovarian quiescence, as measured by the Hoogland scoring system, while taking COC. A total of 76 women were recruited over the three sites, Edinburgh (n = 18), Stockholm (n = 13), Groningen (n = 45) and received either UPA (n = 39) or placebo (n = 37). There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics of women in the UPA and placebo groups. Among the 76 participants treated, 47 (61.8%) reached quiescence and 25 (32.9%) ovulated. There were no significant differences between the groups in the odds ratio (OR) of reaching ovarian quiescence or not; OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.39-2.46). All women who reached quiescence had done so after taking COCs for 14 days. The main

  7. The Contraceptive Pill-Current Status

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16 Okt 1974 ... the method and a certain amount of inherent risk, and nonetheless request it. The onus is therefore on the medical profession to select the most suitable type of pill for each type of patient. An attempt must be made to assess the risks in specific indi- viduals, and to prevent prescription of oral contra-. 2085 ...

  8. The effect of parental involvement laws on teen birth control use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J; Anderson, D Mark

    2016-01-01

    In Volume 32, Issue 5 of this journal, Colman, Dee, and Joyce (CDJ) used data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (NYRBS) and found that parental involvement (PI) laws had no effect on the probability that minors abstain from sex or use contraception. We re-examine this question, augmenting the NYRBS with data from the State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (SYRBS), and use a variety of identification strategies to control for state-level time-varying unmeasured heterogeneity. Consistent with CDJ, we find that PI laws have no effect on minor teen females' abstinence decisions. However, when we exploit additional state policy variation unavailable to CDJ and use non-minor teens as a within-state control group, we find evidence to suggest that PI laws are associated with an increase in the probability that sexually active minor teen females use birth control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202.

  11. A Case–Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. Methods This case–control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012–2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164–169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202 PMID:26009470

  12. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-09-18

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty.

  13. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097

  14. Risk factors for pre-term birth in Iraq: a case-control study

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    Al-Dabbagh Samim A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTBis a major clinical problem associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors associated with PTB in Mosul, Iraq. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Mosul, Iraq, from 1st September, 2003 to 28th February, 2004. Results A total of 200 cases of PTB and 200 controls of full-term births were screened and enrolled in the study. Forward logistic regression analysis was used in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between PTB and the following risk factors were identified: poor diet (OR = 4.33, heavy manual work (OR = 1.70, caring for domestic animals (OR = 5.06, urinary tract infection (OR = 2.85, anxiety (OR = 2.16, cervical incompetence (OR = 4.74, multiple pregnancies (OR = 7.51, direct trauma to abdomen (OR = 3.76 and abortion (OR = 6.36. Conclusion The main determinants of PTB in Iraq were low socio-economic status and factors associated with it, such as heavy manual work and caring for domestic animals, in addition to urinary tract infections and poor obstetric history.

  15. Birth control in the Third World - is it Neo-colonialism in disguise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measham, A R

    1974-01-01

    This paper challenges the simplistic, though popular, view that the world must choose between programs for fertility control and socioeconomic development; between the Malthusian focus on population control and the Marxist one on exploitation control. In the developing world there is great need for achievement on both fronts through a broad range of policies and programs. It is inaccurate and injust to label social policies aimed at ensuring stabilization of world population size in the next century as neoMalthusian. It is also a fact that Soviet scholars now consider excessive population growth a problem for development planners. Accusations that birth control programs advocated for the Third World represent race genocide are based on erroneous thinking. Those who advocate contraception want to make it available to less privileged members of both more and less developed societies. It is not a neo-colonialist plot against the Third World: China herself has a population policy. On the other hand, the Roman Catholic Church, in common with some socialist countries, seeks to inhibit international action aimed at spreading contraception. Even though there is no optimal strategy for development per se, it is understandable that most developmental aid is viewed in terms of a desired model of social change by the donor countries. However, leadership by the U.S. in providing family planning assistance since the 1950s should not be construed as an imperialist plot. No group has the right to impose its preferences on the Third World. A rational approach towards development suggests that 1) developing countries should accept aid without undue concern of the motives involved in the giving of aid; and 2) the development assistance by donors should be increased, made more easily available, should be more multilateral, given without strings attached, and generally made less discriminatory. Birth control assistance will succeed only if general development assistance is redefined

  16. Low birth weight at term and its determinants in a tertiary hospital of Nepal: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Raj Sharma

    Full Text Available Birth weight of a child is an important indicator of its vulnerability for childhood illness and chances of survival. A large number of infant deaths can be averted by appropriate management of low birth weight babies and prevention of factors associated with low birth weight. The prevalence of low birth weight babies in Nepal is estimated to be about 12-32%.Our study aimed at identifying major determinants of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal. A hospital-based retrospective case control study was conducted in maternity ward of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from February to July 2011. A total of 155 LBW babies and 310 controls were included in the study. Mothers admitted to maternity ward during the study period were interviewed, medical records were assessed and anthropometric measurements were done. Risk factors, broadly classified into proximal and distal factors, were assessed for any association with birth of low-birth weight babies. Regression analysis revealed that a history of premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio; aOR5.24, CI 1.05-26.28, hard physical work during pregnancy (aOR1.48, CI 0.97-2.26, younger age of mother (aOR1.98, CI 1.15-3.41, mothers with haemoglobin level less than 11gm/dl (aOR0.51, CI0.24-1.07 and lack of consumption of nutritious food during pregnancy (aOR1.99, CI 1.28-3.10 were significantly associated with the birth of LBW babies. These factors should be addressed with appropriate measures so as to decrease the prevalence of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal.

  17. Developmental origins of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a case control study comparing birth weight in women with PCOS and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrzadeh, Sheda; Painter, Rebecca C; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2016-10-01

    Evidence from various epidemiological studies and experimental animal studies has linked adverse intrauterine circumstances with health problems in adult life. This field of investigation is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Studies investigating the relation between developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adulthood and birth weight have yielded inconsistent results: PCOS is described more often in women with low birth weight and high birth weight, while other studies have failed to establish any relation. In this retrospective case-control study, we evaluated whether women diagnosed with PCOS had lower birth weight compared to women with a regular menstrual cycle (controls). Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the data and correct for known confounders. About 65 women with PCOS and 96 controls were recruited for this purpose. The average birth weight of PCOS women (3357 g) did not differ from the average birth weight of controls (3409 g). Mean age at menarche differed significantly between groups, 13.7  years and 12.8  years (p = 0.006), respectively, for PCOS women and controls. In conclusion, we could not confirm the effect of adverse intrauterine conditions, reflected in birth weight, on developing PCOS.

  18. Young males' perspectives on pregnancy, fatherhood and condom use: Where does responsibility for birth control lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer L; Fenwick, Jennifer; Skinner, Rachel; Merriman, Gareth; Hallett, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To improve our understanding of males' role in contraceptive practices, this paper explores the relationship between young males' perspectives on pregnancy and fatherhood and their attitudes, beliefs and practices in relation to condom use and birth control. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 42 males aged 15-25 years. A systematic process of thematic analysis was used to reduce and organise the narrative data around the focus areas of relationships, sex, condom use, STIs and pregnancy/fatherhood. To facilitate the emergence of key patterns in the data, new data was constantly compared with existing ideas to formulate and refine codes and descriptive categories. The analysis revealed a clear discrepancy between young males' desire to prevent pregnancy and the level of control they assumed over this. Despite pregnancy emerging as the overriding concern for participants, this failed to motivate continued use of condoms when STI risk was perceived as low and a partner was using birth control. Reliance on a partner's use of hormonal contraceptives and in several cases, beliefs of low personal responsibility for pregnancy prevention reduced young males' participation in fertility control. Young males' unfavourable attitudes toward immediate pregnancy and fatherhood provide a unique opportunity for safe sex promotion by encouraging greater ownership over sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, this requires a shift in the meanings associated with condoms, from a disease prevention only orientation to one that promotes condom use as a positive act for self and partner protection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is improved by the Ruyi Zhenbao pill in a rats

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, TIAN; DUAN, SIJIN; WANG, HAIPING; SUN, SHAN; HAN, BING; FU, FENGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill on neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion following reperfusion. The rats received intragastrically either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control and model groups) or Ruyi Zhenbao pill at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg. Neurological function was assessed by cylinder, adhesive and beam-walking te...

  20. The right to have a family: 'legal trafficking of children', adoption and birth control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarello, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on one of the 'child-trafficking scandals' that occurred in Brazil in the 1990s. Ethnographic research was carried out between 2000 and 2001 within a movement of poor families formed in São Paulo to put pressure on the authorities to review the legal procedures that had led to their children being placed for national and international adoption. Fieldwork was supplemented by other data, including reports by legislative bodies, articles in the press, and case files involving the termination of parental rights. This paper explores views on international adoption among members of the Brazilian elites such as judges, agents in the field of child protection and journalists, in the context of old but persistent neo-Malthusian ideas. Although the Brazilian birth rate is now below the replacement level, it is still common to blame 'irresponsible' reproduction among the urban poor for violence in large cities. Drawing a parallel with the routine sterilization of women that prevailed for decades and was encouraged by Brazilian physicians, the paper examines how, in a 'struggle against poverty', judicial agents took it upon themselves to enforce 'birth control' through adoption, bypassing family consent and the law in the process. The paper concludes by arguing that discrimination against poor families who are viewed as disorganized, immoral and irresponsible - characteristics frequently associated with criminality by a sector of the elites - has contributed to the view that lower-class families do not have the right to bear children, or to keep them.

  1. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway

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    Jan Norum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami and 23% (controls, respectively. Results. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94 or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82. Conclusions. Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  2. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Svee, Tove E; Heyd, Anca; Nieder, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD) rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group) were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age) were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999-2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15-44 years) were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami) and 23% (controls), respectively. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded) ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94) or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82). Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  3. Intimate partner violence and postpartum contraceptive use: the role of race/ethnicity and prenatal birth control counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Susan; Chapman, Derek A; Wan, Wen; Burton, Candace W; Masho, Saba W

    2015-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major problem that could affect reproductive decision making. The aim of this study is to examine the association between IPV and contraceptive use and assess whether the association varies by receipt of prenatal birth control counseling and race/ethnicity. This study analyzed the 2004-2008 national Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) that included 193,310 women with live births in the United States. IPV was determined by questions that asked about physical abuse by a current or former partner in the 12 months before or during pregnancy. The outcome was postpartum contraceptive use (yes vs. no). Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of experiencing IPV at different periods (preconception IPV, prenatal IPV, both preconception and prenatal IPV, preconception and/or prenatal IPV). Data were stratified to assess differential effects by race/ethnicity and receipt of birth control counseling. Approximately 6.2% of women reported IPV, and 15.5% reported no postpartum contraceptive use. Regardless of the timing of abuse, IPV-exposed women were significantly less likely to report contraceptive use after delivery. This was particularly true for Hispanic women who reported no prenatal birth control counseling and women of all other racial/ethnic groups who received prenatal birth control counseling. IPV victimization adversely affects the use of contraceptive methods following delivery in women with live births. Birth control counseling by health providers may mitigate these effects; however, the quality of counseling needs further investigation. Better integration of violence prevention services and family planning programs is greatly needed. Consistent with national recommendations by the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force, clinicians and public health workers are strongly encouraged to screen for IPV. Health providers should educate women on effective contraceptive options and

  4. Fatal Fentanyl: One Pill Can Kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mark E; Gerona, Roy R; Davis, M Thais; Roche, Bailey M; Colby, Daniel K; Chenoweth, James A; Adams, Axel J; Owen, Kelly P; Ford, Jonathan B; Black, Hugh B; Albertson, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    The current national opioid epidemic is a public health emergency. We have identified an outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Over an 8-day period in late March 2016, a total of 18 patients presented to our institution with exaggerated opioid toxicity. The patients provided a similar history: ingesting their "normal dose" of hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets but with more pronounced symptoms. Toxicology testing and analysis was performed on serum, urine, and surrendered pills. One of the 18 patients died in hospital. Five patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, one required extracorporeal life support, three required intubation, and two received bag-valve-mask ventilation. One patient had recurrence of toxicity after 8 hours after naloxone discontinuation. Seventeen of 18 patients required boluses of naloxone, and four required prolonged naloxone infusions (26-39 hours). All 18 patients tested positive for fentanyl in the serum. Quantitative assays conducted in 13 of the sera revealed fentanyl concentrations of 7.9 to 162 ng/mL (mean = 52.9 ng/mL). Pill analysis revealed fentanyl amounts of 600-6,900 μg/pill. The pills are virtually indistinguishable from authentic hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets and are similar in weight. To date, our county has reported 56 cases of fentanyl opioid toxicity, with 15 fatalities. In our institution, the outbreak has stressed the capabilities and resources of the emergency department and intensive care units. A serious outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl-adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen is under way in California. These patients required higher dosing and prolonged infusions of naloxone. Additionally, observation periods off naloxone were extended due to delayed, recurrent toxicity. The outbreak has serious ramifications for public health and safety, law

  5. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  6. Fixed combinations in the pragmatic management of hypertension: focus on aliskiren and hydrochlorothiazide as a single pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Burnier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Michel BurnierService of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandAbstract: A majority of hypertensive patients need more than one antihypertensive drug to control their blood pressure. For this reason, most guidelines have introduced the possibility of prescribing fixed-dose combination therapies as first-line treatment in hypertension. Today, the concept of fixed-dose combinations has evolved and the term single pill combination might become more appropriate to reflect the large choice of drug combinations available on the market. Recently, a new single pill combination has been launched which combines the first direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and low doses of hydrochlorothiazide. This paper reviews the potential advantages of single pill combinations and presents the first results obtained with the aliskiren/HCTZ single pill combination in hypertension.Keywords: hypertension, drug adherence, combination therapies, diuretics, renin inhibition

  7. Intraventricular hemorrhage risk factors in very low birth weight newborns: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of variables that affect the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Methods: Analytic case-control study, in a population consisting of all VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a maternity hospital, between January 2002 and December 2007. The authors considered as cases all VLBW newborns with severe IVH (grade ≥ 3, and control all VLBW newborns without IVH. Independent variables included obstetric, perinatal and neonatal diagnosis and therapy. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Rresults: During this period, of the 864 VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 9.7% had severe IVH. With bivariate analysis an association between severe IVH, gestational age and birth weight was found. Prenatal care and pre-eclampsia were associated with a decrease in the incidence of severe IVH. Amnionitis, being outborn, vaginal delivery, male gender, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC perforation and oscillatory high frequency ventilation were associated with an increased incidence of severe IVH. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with increased risk of severe IVH were: pneumothorax (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 1.7-8.3, NEC with perforation (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 1.7-45.0, vaginal delivery (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.0-4.1 and high frequency ventilation (OR = 4.8; 95%CI = 1.3-17.3. The following were protective of severe IVH: gestational age (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.52-0.72, patent ductus arteriosus treatment with indomethacin (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.11-0.6 and fertility treatment (OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.06-0.94. Cconclusion: These data outline the importance of improvement of pre and neonatal care to reduce severe IVH.

  8. Happy-People-Pills for All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    It is argued that we have a moral duty to create, and make available, advanced pharmacological agents to boost the happiness of those in the normal, i.e., the non-depressed, range of happiness. Happiness, conceived as a propensity to positive moods, is a quantitative trait with a sizeable genetic component. One means to boost the happiness of those in the normal range is to test the efficacy of antidepressants for enhancement. A second possibility is to model new pharmacologicals based on the genetics of the happiest amongst us, that is, the hyperthymic. The suggestion, in other words, is to “reverse engineer” the hyperthymic: to investigate what makes the hyperthymic genetically and physiologically different and then put what they have into pill form. To the ‘Brave New World’ objection, that there is more to wellbeing than happiness and that taking happy-people-pills will require the sacrifice of these other aspects of wellbeing, it is countered that contemporary social science research supports the view that happiness promotes achievement in the ‘higher’ endeavors of humanity, including work, love and virtue. In other words, happiness promotes acquisition of traits valued by perfectionists. Those born with genes for hyperthymia, on average, tend to be doubly blessed: they are happier and achieve more than the rest of the population. Happy-people-pills are a means to allow everyone else to share in this good

  9. Birth outcomes of cases with isolated atrial septal defect type II--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-07-01

    In general, epidemiological studies have evaluated cases with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities together. The aim of this study is to describe the birth outcomes of cases with isolated/single atrial septal defect type II (ASD-II, i.e. only a fossa ovalis defect) after surgical correction or lethal outcome in the light of maternal sociodemographic data. Comparison of birth outcomes and maternal characteristics of cases with ASD-II and controls without defect. The population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Hungarian newborn infants with or without ASD-II. Medically recorded birth outcomes, maternal age and birth order were evaluated. Marital and employment status was based on maternal information. The lifestyle factors were analyzed in a subsample of mothers visited at home based on a personal interview with mothers and their close relatives, and the family consensus was accepted. Mean gestational age at delivery and birthweight, rate of preterm birth and low birthweight, maternal age, birth order, marital and employment status. The evaluation of 471 cases with ASD-II and 38,151 controls without any defects showed a female excess in cases with ASD-II, having shorter gestational age and lower mean birthweight, and thus a higher rate of preterm births and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction and shorter gestational age were found in cases with ASD-II, particularly in female children. These factors may have a general developmental process in which there was not closure of the foramen ovale, thus echocardiographic screening of these babies might be of value. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. The Role of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets in Treating Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To observe the clinical prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets for type 2 diabetic vascular complications. Methods. It was a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. 140 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into the treatment group and control group. The two groups were given basic therapy (management of blood sugar, blood pressure, etc.. Additionally, the treatment group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets, while the control group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets placebos. All subjects were followed up for consecutive 36 months and observed monthly. The clinical data as urinary microalbumin to urinary creatinine ratio (Umalb/cr, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, diabetic nephropathy (DN and diabetic retinopathy (DR prevalence, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, blood glucose, and blood pressure were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. After 36-month treatment, the Umalb/cr level and DN and DR prevalence in treatment group were all significantly lower than control group (P0.05. Conclusions. Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets are beneficial to diabetic microvascular complications, while the efficacy to diabetic macrovascular complications needs more observations.

  11. Single-pill combination therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus: linagliptin plus empagliflozin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Ronnie

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus invariably requires the use of multiple daily medications which can impact negatively on patient adherence. As a result, there is growing interest in the use of single-pill combinations that can reduce the pill burden. Many such formulations incorporate metformin, although this agent is not suitable for all patients. The single-pill combination of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin with the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin offers a new and attractive option, given their complementary mechanisms of action. Publications with titles containing the keywords 'linagliptin' or 'empagliflozin' were identified from a non-systematic search of PubMed without date restrictions, together with abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes 2012-2014. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for entries containing these two keywords. Additional references known to the author were included. The efficacy and safety of linagliptin and empagliflozin as monotherapy or in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs has been established through extensive clinical trial programs. Studies specifically evaluating the efficacy/safety of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor/sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in combination are limited, but do include two studies of linagliptin/empagliflozin of up to 52 weeks in duration. These studies show that the single-pill combination of linagliptin and empagliflozin produced clinical improvements in glycemic control that were generally superior to the improvements seen with linagliptin and empagliflozin alone, but with a safety profile comparable to that of the individual constituents. The single-pill combination of linagliptin and empagliflozin, with their complementary mechanisms of action, is a promising treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It would reduce the daily

  12. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy and strict plaque control on preterm/low birth weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Patricia; Moreira, Carlos Heitor C; Fiorini, Tiago; Musskopf, Marta L; da Rocha, José M; Oppermann, Maria Lucia R; Aass, Anne M; Gjermo, Per; Susin, Cristiano; Rösing, Cassiano K; Oppermann, Rui V

    2013-01-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the effect of comprehensive nonsurgical periodontal treatment and strict plaque control performed during pregnancy on the reduction of preterm and/or low birth weight rates (PTLBW). Three hundred and three women were randomly allocated to receive periodontal treatment either during pregnancy (n = 147, test group) or after delivery (n = 156, control group). During pregnancy, the control group received only one session of supragingival scaling and oral hygiene instruction. In contrast, the test group received comprehensive periodontal treatment including multiple sessions of scaling and root planing, oral hygiene instructions, and frequent maintenance visits. At baseline, periodontal inflammation was observed in approximately 50% of sites and attachment loss affected controls, women in the test group had significant reductions in the percentage of sites with plaque (48.5% vs. 10.3%, p control significantly improved periodontal health; however, no reduction of PTLBW rates was observed. Thus, remaining periodontal inflammation posttreatment cannot explain the lack of effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW. Clinical relevance This study demonstrated that periodontal diseases may be successfully treated during pregnancy. Our results do not support a potential beneficial effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW.

  13. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, A., E-mail: goelanju23@gmail.com; Gakkhar, S., E-mail: sungkfma@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2016-04-06

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  14. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A.; Gakkhar, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  15. Effects of birth ball exercise on pain and self-efficacy during childbirth: a randomised controlled trial in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Meei-Ling; Chang, Ching-Yi; Tian, Shu-Hui; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2011-12-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a birth ball exercise programme during childbirth by measuring childbirth self-efficacy and childbirth pain. In addition, it tested the mediating effects of childbirth self-efficacy on the relationship between the birth ball exercise programme and childbirth pain. Randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted from December 2008 to November 2009, at two birth units, one at a regional hospital and one at a medical centre, with 600 and 1022 annual births, respectively. One hundred and eighty-eight expectant mothers were recruited (recruitment rate: 47%) and were allocated by block randomisation into the two arms of the study, but only 48 intervention and 39 control group participants completing the trial. The birth ball exercise programme consisted of a 26-page booklet and a 19-minute videotape, with periodic follow-ups during prenatal checks. All members of the experimental group were asked to practise the exercises and positions at home for at least 20 minutes three times a week for a period of 6-8 weeks. Each woman in the experimental group was given a birth ball for use during labour and encouraged every hour to choose the most comfortable positions, movements, and exercises. Both the experimental and control groups received standard nursing and midwifery care from hospital staff nurses in all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth. When cervical dilations were four centimetres and eight centimetres, the women completed demographic and obstetrics information, the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory (CBSEI), and the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Our study revealed that birth ball exercises provided statistically significant improvements in childbirth self-efficacy and pain. Specifically, self-efficacy had a 30-40% mediating effect on relationships between birth ball exercises and childbirth pain. Mothers in the experimental group had shorter first-stage labour duration, less epidural analgesia, and fewer

  16. The effects of programs of birth control education on the practice of induced abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figa-talamanca, I

    1970-01-01

    The impact of family planning education on abortion in Japan is discussed. At the present time, Japan has a low birthrate (18.5% population) and a low death rate (7.1% population) which allows an annual average 1% natural increase rate. The birthrate has been halved in 30 years. Although it is a common assertion that Japan solved its population problem by induced abortion, this view is both inaccurate and a simplification of the actual demographic situation. There are at least 3 important demographic factors that contributed to the reduction of the Japanese fertility: 1) the decline of the age-specific fertility among married women achieved by birth control methods, including abortion; 2) emigration, especially from the rural areas; and 3) the change in the marriage pattern of the population. The present family planning movement was started in the 1920s by the socialists and the leaders of the labor movement, but the government discouraged the movement and continued the strong pronatalist policy. After World War II, the Eugenic Protection Law was enacted in 1948. In 1951, as a result of the increasing numbers of reported induced abortions, the government officially disapproved of induced abortion as a usual means of birth control and endorsed an official plan to promote conception control. From 1950 to 1965, women using contraceptive methods increased from 19.5% to 51.9%. From 1950 to 1965, women who had experienced induced abortion decreased from 35.6% to 29.7%. But during that period, the percentage of women who had experienced induced abortion fluctuated up and down. In fact, induced abortions have been on the upswing since 1961. Having no data on the rate of illegal induced abortion, the observed reduction of abortion in favor of contraception is always open to alternative explanations in addition to the family planning programs. It appears that there has been a greater impact of family planning education in cities than in rural areas. Early reduction of the

  17. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  18. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  19. Birth setting, transfer and maternal sense of control: results from the DELIVER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, C.C.; Klomp, T.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Dillen, J.; de Jonge, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, low risk women receive midwife-led care and can choose to give birth at home or in hospital. There is concern that transfer of care during labour from midwife-led care to an obstetrician-led unit leads to negative birth experiences, in particular among those with

  20. Birth setting, transfer and maternal sense of control: results from the DELIVER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, C.C.; Klomp, T.; Lagro-Janssen, A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, low risk women receive midwife-led care and can choose to give birth at home or in hospital. There is concern that transfer of care during labour from midwife-led care to an obstetrician-led unit leads to negative birth experiences, in particular among those with

  1. Macrosomic Births in Abuja: A Case–Control Study of Predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were performed for various predisposing factors and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic births. Results: The incidence of macrosomia was 77 per 1000 births. Independent predictors of macrosomia were parental high social class (P = 0.000), gestational weight.

  2. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin B; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-04-01

    A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Pharmacists' knowledge and perceptions of emergency contraceptive pills in Soweto and the Johannesburg Central Business District, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Kelly; Harrison, Teresa; Sello, Mosala

    2005-12-01

    In South Africa, emergency contraceptive pills are available directly from pharmacies without a prescription, yet few studies have assessed pharmacists' knowledge of and attitudes toward the medication. In-person interviews were conducted with 34 pharmacists practicing in Soweto and the Johannesburg Central Business District, from February through April 2003. The pharmacists provided data on their knowledge of emergency contraceptive pills and their attitudes toward providing the medication to women in specific situations. Nearly all pharmacists sold at least one of the two types of dedicated emergency contraceptive pills available in South Africa. Although most had accurate knowledge about the method's dosing schedule, side effects and mechanism(s) of action, more than half erroneously believed that repeated use posed health risks. A large majority of pharmacists believed the pills should be available to rape victims, to single or married women and to women who had never given birth, but almost half did not think the pills should be given to women younger than 18, and a fourth said they would not give them to women with a late menstrual period. About one-third to half of pharmacists supported advance provision of the medication under certain circumstances. Most were willing to display promotional materials on emergency contraceptives in their pharmacies. Interventions aimed at educating pharmacists about the benefits of emergency contraceptive pills, especially for adolescents, are needed. Government and medical authorities should take advantage of pharmacists' willingness to display educational materials as a way to increase women's knowledge and use of the medication in South Africa.

  4. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujuju C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go

  5. Maternal Locus of Control and Perception of Family Status at Entry and Exit of Birth to Three Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffaro, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Birth to three early intervention is unique time in the life of a family of a child with a disability in that confidence and competence of the parents can be addressed as part of the intervention goals and objectives. Locus of control is a quality measure of a parent's perception of their ability to be their child's teacher, advocate, and champion…

  6. Hydrocortisone Cream to Reduce Perineal Pain after Vaginal Birth: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfre, Margaret; Adams, Donita; Callahan, Gloria; Gould, Patricia; Lang, Susan; McCubbins, Holly; Mintz, Amy; Williams, Sommer; Bishard, Mark; Dempsey, Amy; Chulay, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    To determine if the use of hydrocortisone cream decreases perineal pain in the immediate postpartum period. This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT), crossover study design, with each participant serving as their own control. Participants received three different methods for perineal pain management at three sequential perineal pain treatments after birth: two topical creams (corticosteroid; placebo) and a control treatment (no cream application). Treatment order was randomly assigned, with participants and investigators blinded to cream type. The primary dependent variable was the change in perineal pain levels (posttest minus pretest pain levels) immediately before and 30 to 60 minutes after perineal pain treatments. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance, with p creams, with average perineal pain change scores of -4.8 ± 8.4 mm after treatment with hydrocortisone cream (N = 27) and -6.7 ± 13.0 mm after treatment with the placebo cream (N = 27). Changes in pain scores with no cream application were 1.2 ± 10.5 mm (N = 27). Analysis of variance found a significant difference between treatment groups (F2,89 = 3.6, p = 0.03), with both cream treatments having significantly better pain reduction than the control, no cream treatment (hydrocortisone vs. no cream, p = 0.04; placebo cream vs. no cream, p = 0.01). There were no differences in perineal pain reduction between the two cream treatments (p = .54). This RCT found that the application of either hydrocortisone cream or placebo cream provided significantly better pain relief than no cream application.

  7. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS......: This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins...

  8. Evaluation of the effects of a birth plan on Taiwanese women's childbirth experiences, control and expectations fulfilment: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Hsu, Chi-Ho; Yang, Cherng-Chia; Chang, Min-Yu; Tsao, Chien-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chu

    2010-07-01

    In many western countries, pregnant women often prepare birth plans, outlining how they would like their childbirth experiences to proceed. However there have been no experimental studies to evaluate the effect of birth plans. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of birth plans on women's fulfilment of their childbirth expectations, their control over the birth process, and overall experiences. A randomised, single-blind controlled trial study design was used. This study involved seven hospitals and 10 obstetricians in Taiwan. Participants included primiparous women, each under the care of one of seven Taiwanese medical facilities, and who had been pregnant for at least 32 weeks. They were also at least 18 years old, and had no pregnancy complications. An exclusion criterion was elective caesarean as a mode of delivery. A total of 296 women in hospital clinics who met the study criteria were allocated by block randomisation to experimental (n=155) or control (n=141) groups. The women completed their basic personal information and a childbirth expectations questionnaire when they were recruited. One day after delivery, all the participants completed a questionnaire about the childbirth experience, control and fulfilment of their childbirth expectations. The experimental group had a statistically higher degree of positive childbirth experiences than that of the control group (t=2.48, p=0.01). The experimental group also showed a higher degree of childbirth control (t=9.60, pcontrol groups in prenatal birth expectations, but a significant difference (t=2.63, p=0.01) in the degree of fulfilment of their childbirth expectations after delivery. On a subscale measuring the fulfilment of childbirth expectations, there was a statistically higher degree of mastery and participation (t=3.74, pcontrol group. The results justify the clinical implementation of birth plans. Providing birth plans in medical facilities is an effective means of fulfilling

  9. Improving access to emergency contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    This article focuses on the accessibility of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). The ECPs are safe, simple, and effective contraceptive agent that can reduce a woman's chance of becoming pregnant by 75%. It works by preventing or delaying ovulation, interfering with fertilization, or blocking implantation of a fertilized egg, depending on when in the menstrual cycle the pills are taken. The Population Council takes a multifaceted approach to expanding access to and knowledge on emergency contraception. Studies on innovations in service delivery are being conducted. In Mexico, one-tenth of women aged 13-55 who reported being raped during the 9-month study were counseled about ECPs. Results showed that pregnancies from reported rapes declined from 9.8% to 7.4% during the study. In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, practitioners approved of the use of emergency contraception and desired more accurate knowledge so that they could provide it effectively. Moreover, in Zambia, researchers found out that giving women packages of ECPs in advance greatly reduced the length of time between having unprotected intercourse and beginning ECP treatment. Council researchers have also addressed the safety of offering ECPs without prescription. They have collaborated with leaders in the health care industry to increase method availability.

  10. Smoking, the oral contraceptive pill, and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, A J; Sawyerr, A M; Hudson, M; Dhillon, A P; Pounder, R E

    1991-08-01

    Both cigarette smoking and the oral contraceptive pill have been implicated as aggravating factors in Crohn's disease. Based upon the recent demonstration of multifocal gastrointestinal infarction in Crohn's disease, a possible pathogenic mechanism for this condition, we propose how smoking and the oral contraceptive pill may potentiate a tendency for focal thrombosis and hence exacerbate the activity of Crohn's disease.

  11. Understanding gastric forces calculated from high-resolution pill tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Tripathi, Anubhav; Schlageter, Vincent; Kucera, Pavel; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2010-05-04

    Although other methods exist for monitoring gastrointestinal motility and contractility, this study exclusively provides direct and quantitative measurements of the forces experienced by an orally ingested pill. We report motive forces and torques calculated from real-time, in vivo measurements of the movement of a magnetic pill in the stomachs of fasted and fed humans. Three-dimensional net force and two-dimensional net torque vectors as a function of time data during gastric residence are evaluated using instantaneous translational and rotational position data. Additionally, the net force calculations described can be applied to high-resolution pill tracking acquired by any modality. The fraction of time pills experience ranges of forces and torques are analyzed and correlate with the physiological phases of gastric digestion. We also report the maximum forces and torques experienced in vivo by pills as a quantitative measure of the amount of force pills experience during the muscular contractions leading to gastric emptying. Results calculated from human data are compared with small and large animal models with a translational research focus. The reported magnitude and direction of gastric forces experienced by pills in healthy stomachs serves as a baseline for comparison with pathophysiological states. Of clinical significance, the directionality associated with force vector data may be useful in determining the muscle groups associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility. Additionally, the quantitative comparison between human and animal models improves insight into comparative gastric contractility that will aid rational pill design and provide a quantitative framework for interpreting gastroretentive oral formulation test results.

  12. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  13. Estradiol valerate and dienogest: a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micks, Elizabeth; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-09-01

    Estradiol valerate and dienogest have been combined to create a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for both pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. This formulation represents the only oral contraceptive pill available in the USA containing an estrogen component that is biologically active as the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol. This medication was developed out of efforts to replace the most common estrogen in contraceptive pills, ethinyl estradiol, which is known to be a potent inducer of hepatic protein synthesis. Estradiol valerate has been available since the 1970s in oral and injectable forms indicated for the treatment of menopausal climacteric symptoms. Dienogest has been used in other oral contraceptive pills for over 10 years. Previous attempts to develop an oral contraceptive pill with natural estradiol or estradiol valerate were unsuccessful due to poor cycle control. A novel dynamic-dosing regimen was devised to improve the bleeding pattern. This medication has been shown in several clinical trials to have good contraceptive efficacy and cycle control. Recent studies have also demonstrated that this medication is effective for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. However, compared with other oral contraceptive pills, this medication is associated with a higher frequency of absent withdrawal bleeding. Furthermore, the dynamic dosing regimen requires relatively complex instructions for users who miss pills.

  14. [Tissue distribution of arsenic of liushen pills and realgar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Li; Wu, Qian; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Shen, Lian-Zhong; Fan, Min-Wei; Liang, Qiong-Lin; Wang, Yi-Ming; Luo, Guo-An

    2011-06-01

    This study is to report the tissue distribution of arsenic after giving different doses of realgar and Liushen pills to Beagle dogs, in order to provide basis for the safety evaluation of Liushen pills. ICP-MS was used to measure arsenic concentration, and HPLC-ICP-MS was used to analyze arsenic speciation. The concentration of total arsenic and As(III) + DMA (arsenite + dimethylarsenic acid) increased with dosing of realgar. Total arsenic concentration in most tissues and As(III) + DMA concentration in all tissues of Liushen pills group are lower than that of realgar group, but AsB concentration in liver, spleen and kidney of Liushen pills group increased. The concentration of total arsenic showed a dose-dependent manner with dosage administered. It was indicated that components in Liushen pills can reduce solubility of arsenic in realgar, which may decrease toxicity of realgar.

  15. Month of birth, vitamin D and risk of immune-mediated disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disanto Giulio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A season of birth effect in immune-mediated diseases (ID such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes has been consistently reported. We aimed to investigate whether season of birth influences the risk of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and systemic lupus erythematosus in addition to multiple sclerosis, and to explore the correlation between the risk of ID and predicted ultraviolet B (UVB light exposure and vitamin D status during gestation. Methods The monthly distribution of births of patients with ID from the UK (n = 115,172 was compared to that of the general population using the Cosinor test. Predicted UVB radiation and vitamin D status in different time windows during pregnancy were calculated for each month of birth and correlated with risk of ID using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results The distributions of ID births significantly differed from that of the general population (P = 5e-12 with a peak in April (odds ratio = 1.045, 95% confidence interval = 1.024, 1.067, P P P = 0.00005 and third trimester vitamin D status (Spearman's rho = -0.44, P = 0.0003. Conclusions The risk of different ID in the UK is significantly influenced by the season of birth, suggesting the presence of a shared seasonal risk factor or factors predisposing to ID. Gestational UVB and vitamin D exposure may be implicated in the aetiology of ID.

  16. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  17. Effectiveness of oral contraceptive pills in a large U.S. cohort comparing progestogen and regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Jürgen; Minh, Thai Do; Buttmann, Nina; Bardenheuer, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    To estimate real-life effectiveness of oral contraceptive pills by progestogen, length of pill-free interval, and body mass index while focusing on the effect of progestogens with a long half-life and on 24-day oral contraceptive pills regimens. Outcome data from 52,218 U.S. participants in the International Active Surveillance of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives—a large, prospective, controlled, noninterventional, long-term cohort study with active surveillance of the study participants—were used to analyze contraceptive failure in association with oral contraceptive pills use. Low loss to follow-up is ensured by a comprehensive follow-up procedure. Contraceptive failure rates are described by Pearl Index and life-table analysis. Inferential statistics for contraceptive failure are based on Cox regression models. Analyses are based on 1,634 unintended pregnancies during 73,269 woman-years of oral contraceptive pills exposure. Life-table estimates of contraceptive failure for a 24-day regimen of drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol and 21-day regimens of other progestogens were 2.1% and 3.5% after the first study year, and 4.7% and 6.7% after the third year. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6–0.8). Direct comparisons of the 24-day and 21-day regimens of drospirenone and norethisterone, respectively, showed also lower contraceptive failure rates for 24-day regimens. Contraceptive failure rates adjusted for age, parity and educational level showed a slight increase with higher body mass index. The 24-day oral contraceptive regimens containing a progestogen with a long half-life show higher contraceptive effectiveness under routine medical conditions compared with conventional 21-day regimens. Obesity seems to be associated with a slight reduction of contraceptive effectiveness. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00335257. II

  18. Combining qualitative with quantitative approaches to study contraceptive pill use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, D; Yu, M Y; Zhang, Y M; Zhu, X L; Chen, W H; Yao, L

    1999-03-01

    According to large-scale studies, oral contraceptive users become pregnant at rates that exceed ideal use failure rates. It is thought that a major cause is missed pills, but current research on consistent contraceptive pill taking is characterized by inadequate measures and a failure to investigate women's thinking about their own patterns of use. The purpose of this study was to gain some understanding about women's interpretations of consistency in their own pill taking through combining qualitative with quantitative data. The study was conducted in China, where contraception is free and widely available. Five urban and five rural oral contraceptive users were followed for up to three pill-taking cycles during 1996 for a total of 759 person-days. Consistency of pill taking was measured with electronic data obtained from a new blister package made by Anderson Clinical Technologies (Elmhurst, IL). Data from these devices were reviewed and interpreted by the study participants during in-depth private interviews. The users' reasons for missing pills included disruptions in their daily routines, their husband's absence, spotting, and trouble implementing the family planning program's instructions to take one pill per day for 22 days and start the next cycle on the fifth day of menses. One user gave these reasons for two cycles but denied missing numerous pills in her third cycle. Data from a series of four questionnaires showed that most demographic, psychosocial, and service system characteristics were not related to missed pills. However, results suggested that the daily routines of rural living may make consistent use more likely and that instructions for taking the pill may be associated with prolonged pill-free intervals and skipping pills during episodes of spotting. Three of the 10 women were at increased risk of pregnancy during the study period because of their pill-taking pattern. We concluded that the combination of qualitative with quantitative data

  19. Low-dose aspirin and preterm birth: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert M; Ahrens, Katherine; Wong, Luchin F; Perkins, Neil J; Galai, Noya; Lesher, Laurie L; Faraggi, David; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Townsend, Janet M; Lynch, Anne M; Mumford, Sunni L; Sjaarda, Lindsey; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the association between low-dose aspirin initiated before conception and the risk of preterm birth. This was a secondary analysis of the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial. Women with a history of pregnancy loss (original stratum: one loss less than 20 weeks of gestation during the previous year; expanded stratum: one or two losses with no restrictions on timing or gestational age of the losses) were randomized to either daily low-dose aspirin (81 mg, n=615) and folic acid or folic acid alone (placebo; n=613). Preterm birth was compared between groups using intent-to-treat analysis. Preterm birth rates were 4.1% (22/535 low-dose aspirin) and 5.7% (31/543 placebo) (relative risk [RR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-1.23); spontaneous preterm birth rates were 1.1% (6/535 low-dose aspirin) and 2.2% (12/543 placebo) (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19-1.34); medically indicated preterm birth rates were 2.6% (14/535 low-dose aspirin) and 2.9% (16/543 placebo) (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.44-1.80). After restriction to confirmed pregnancies using inverse probability weighting, preterm birth rates were 5.7% and 9.0% (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.37-1.09) and spontaneous preterm birth rates were 1.4% and 3.2% (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.17-1.18). In confirmed pregnancies in the original stratum, preterm birth occurred in 3.8% and 9.7% of the low-dose aspirin and placebo groups, respectively (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.94). Preconception low-dose aspirin was not significantly associated with the overall rate of preterm birth. Although the study was underpowered for this secondary analysis, numeric trends in favor of benefit, particularly in the women with a recent, single early pregnancy loss, warrant further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00467363.

  20. Divergent Trends in Abortion and Birth Control Practices in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Boris P.; Sakevich, Victoria I.; Jasilioniene, Aiva

    2012-01-01

    Context The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. Methods Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. Results The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. Conclusion Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia. PMID:23349656

  1. Divergent trends in abortion and birth control practices in belarus, Russia and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris P Denisov

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. METHODS: Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. CONCLUSION: Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia.

  2. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword"

    OpenAIRE

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that “the pill is mightier than the sword.” I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism.

  3. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottes, Ilsa L

    2015-08-21

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  4. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Folic acid (FA) may have a role in the prevention of pregnancy complications. However, the efficacy of FA supplementation in reducing the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is still unclear. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth (PTB). The research protocol was designed a priori, defining methods for searching the literature in electronic databases, including and examining articles, and extracting and analyzing data. We included all randomized trials (RCTs) of asymptomatic singleton gestations without prior PTB who were randomized to prophylactic treatment with either FA supplementation or control (placebo or no treatment). The primary outcome was the incidence of PTB supplementation had a similar rate of PTB birth weight (mean difference 85.58g, 95% CI -55.17-226.34), low birth weight (21.0% vs 15.1%; RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.28) and perinatal death (2.9% vs 2.4%; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.60-1.34). In summary, FA supplementation during pregnancy does not prevent PTB supplementation remains the most important intervention to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of an extended flexible regimen of an oral contraceptive pill containing 20 μg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone on menstrual-related symptoms: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Pompei, Luciano Melo; Badalotti, Mariangela; Ferriani, Rui; Cruz, Achilles M; Nahas, Eliana; Maia, Hugo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy for menstrual-related symptoms of an extended flexible regimen of an oral contraceptive pill containing 20 μg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone in comparison with a 24/4 d cyclical regimen of the same formulation. This randomised, non-inferiority, open-label, multicentre study was conducted in women aged 18-39 years. Their menstrual-related symptoms were assessed using the Penn Daily Symptom Rating (DSR17). Participants were randomised to use an extended flexible regimen of 20 μg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone (EE/DRSP e.flex ), comprising 168 consecutive days with a 4-d hormone-free interval (HFI, allowing for management of unexpected bleeding) or a conventional 24/4 cyclical regimen of the same pill (EE/DRSP 24/4 ). The primary measure of efficacy was the percentage change in DSR17 total score from baseline to cycle 6. The secondary measures of efficacy were the percentage changes in DSR17 total score from baseline after each 28-d interval throughout the entire study and in the scores for individual DSR17 symptoms. The primary analysis demonstrated that EE/DRSP e.flex was not inferior to EE/DRSP 24/4 (Mean DSR17 score 9.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 2.5, 20.6; p = 0.123). Analysis at intervals throughout the entire evaluation period showed greater reduction in DSR17 total score for EE/DRSP e.flex than for the 24/4 regimen (p depression/feeling sad/down or blue' were greater for the extended flexible regimen than for the cyclical regimen (p < 0.05). The extended flexible regimen was not inferior to the 24/4 cyclical regimen in terms of the primary endpoint. It significantly improved symptoms in the interval analysis, and the effects on specific DSR17 symptoms, compared with the cyclical regimen.

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Childbirth Education Classes in Turkey on Adaptation to Pregnancy Process, Concerns About Birth, Rate of Vaginal Birth, and Adaptation to Maternity: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Gul; Avsar, Filiz; Aslantekin, Filiz

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of childbirth education in Turkey on the adaptation to pregnancy process, concerns about birth, rate of vaginal birth, and adaptation to maternity. This quasi-experimental study with control group was conducted from December 2013 to December 2014. The sample size was 132 primiparous pregnant women ( n experimental = 66, n control = 66). The average age of the pregnant women in the experimental and control groups was 24.41 ± 3.92 and 23.68 ± 4.19, respectively. The study showed that experimental group participants had lower concerns about birth, higher levels of knowledge, and faster adaptation to pregnancy and postpartum process; they could also give positive feedback about labor pain and action and could start breastfeeding at an earlier stage when compared with those in the control group ( p process.

  7. U.A.R.: influential factors in the acceptance of birth control and the consequential approaches to family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicki, T; Diller, C

    1973-01-01

    A number of factors have retarded the acceptance of birth control methods among peasant communities in Egypt: 1) the religious world-view of the peasant discourages him from interfering with the natural process of procreation; 2) the large family is important socially and economically in peasant society for strength and security and for the distribution of labor; 3) the status of a married woman depends to a great extent on the number of children, particularly the number of sons, she bears; and 4) in the Egyptian village, the midwife discourages the use of contraception. Acceptance and utilization of birth control methods in Egypt are directly proportionate to the level of education of the individual. The better the economic status of the family, the smaller the family is likely to be. Demographically, the closer a family lives to Cairo, the more likely it is that birth control techniques are being used. Egyptian family planning programs which take into consideration the difficulties of spreading the acceptance and use of contraceptives in traditional societies are discussed.

  8. Association of paternal age at birth and the risk of breast cancer in offspring: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Keun-Young

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older paternal age may increase the germ cell mutation rate in the offspring. Maternal age may also mediate in utero exposure to pregnancy hormones in the offspring. To evaluate the association between paternal and maternal age at birth with the risk of breast cancer in female offspring, a case-control study was conducted in Korea. Methods Histologically confirmed breast cancer cases (n = 1,011 and controls (n = 1,011 with no present or previous history of cancer, matched on year of birth and menopausal status, were selected from several teaching hospitals and community in Seoul during 1995–2003. Information on paternal and maternal ages and other factors was collected by interviewed questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were estimated by unconditional logistic regression model adjusting for family history of breast cancer in 1st or 2nd degree relatives, and lifetime estrogen exposure duration. Results The risk of breast cancer significantly increased as the paternal age increased (p for trend = 0.025. The association was stronger after controlling for maternal age; women whose fathers were aged ≥40 years at their birth had 1.6-fold increased risk of breast cancer compared with fathers aged Conclusion These findings suggest that older paternal age increases the risk of breast cancer in their female offspring.

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of Slow Versus Rapid Enteral Feeding Advancements on the Clinical Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F; Mannan, M A; Dey, A C; Nahar, N; Hasan, Z; Jahan, I; Dey, S K; Shahidullah, M

    2017-04-01

    Starting and advancement of feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are big challenges for the neonatal practitioners. Wide variations in volume of feed advancement have observed in earlier trials both in slow and rapid advancement groups. Volume advancement in slow advancement groups have ranged from 10ml/kg/day to 23ml/kg/day and in rapid advancement groups have ranged from 15ml/kg/day to 45ml/kg/day in earlier different studies. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from April 2013 to July 2014 to evaluate the effects of slow versus rapid rates of feeding advancements on the clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants. A total 95 infants were enrolled into two strata according to their birth weight. Infants of each stratum were randomly allocated to either slow or rapid advancement group during initiation of feeding. After gut priming over five days, feeding was advanced daily 10ml/kg in slow and 15ml/kg in rapid advancement group for 1000 - rapid advancement group. The primary outcome variable was time taken to achieve full enteral feed. Total 82 infants completed the trial. Demographically both groups were same. Infants in the rapid feeding advancement group achieved full enteral feedings before the slow advancement group, had significantly fewer days of parenteral nutrition and regained birth weight earlier. There were no statistical differences in episodes of feed interruption, number of infants with apnea, feed intolerance or diagnosis of sepsis. Rapid enteral feeding advancements were well tolerated by very low birth weight infants.

  10. Complementary therapies for labour and birth study: a randomised controlled trial of antenatal integrative medicine for pain management in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett, Kate M; Smith, C A; Bensoussan, A; Dahlen, H G

    2016-07-12

    To evaluate the effect of an antenatal integrative medicine education programme in addition to usual care for nulliparous women on intrapartum epidural use. Open-label, assessor blind, randomised controlled trial. 2 public hospitals in Sydney, Australia. 176 nulliparous women with low-risk pregnancies, attending hospital-based antenatal clinics. The Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth protocol, based on the She Births and acupressure for labour and birth courses, incorporated 6 evidence-based complementary medicine techniques: acupressure, visualisation and relaxation, breathing, massage, yoga techniques, and facilitated partner support. Randomisation occurred at 24-36 weeks' gestation, and participants attended a 2-day antenatal education programme plus standard care, or standard care alone. Rate of analgesic epidural use. Secondary: onset of labour, augmentation, mode of birth, newborn outcomes. There was a significant difference in epidural use between the 2 groups: study group (23.9%) standard care (68.7%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.55), p≤0.001). The study group participants reported a reduced rate of augmentation (RR=0.54 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.77), pComplementary Therapies for Labour and Birth study protocol significantly reduced epidural use and caesarean section. This study provides evidence for integrative medicine as an effective adjunct to antenatal education, and contributes to the body of best practice evidence. ACTRN12611001126909. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Oxycodone Ingestion Patterns in Acute Fracture Pain With Digital Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Chapman, Brittany; Schreiber, Kristin L; Edwards, Robert R; Carrico, Adam W; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed on an as-needed (PRN) basis for acute painful conditions. Uncertainty of how patients actually take PRN opioids, coupled with a desire to completely cover pain, leads to variable and overly generous opioid prescribing practices, resulting in a surplus of opioids. This opioid surplus becomes a source for diversion and nonmedical opioid use. Understanding patterns of actual opioid ingestion after acute painful conditions can help clinicians counsel patients on safe opioid use, and allow timely recognition and intervention when escalating opioid self-dosing occurs, to prevent tolerance and addiction. We used a novel oxycodone digital pill system (ingestible biosensor within a standard gelatin capsule combined with 5-mg oxycodone) that when ingested, is activated by the chloride ion gradient in the stomach thereby emitting a radiofrequency signal captured by a wearable reader. The reader relays ingestion data to a cloud-based server that displays ingestion events to the study team. We deployed the oxycodone digital pill among opioid-naive individuals discharged from the emergency department with acute fracture pain. Participants were trained on digital pill operation and discharged with twenty-one 5-mg oxycodone digital pills. They were instructed to take digital pills PRN for pain on discharge. We conducted a brief interview 7 days after study enrollment, at which point participants returned the digital pill system. We identified oxycodone ingestion events in real time by data from the digital pill system and performed pill counts at the return visit to validate digital pill reporting of medication ingestion. In this study, 26 individuals were approached; 16 enrolled with 15 completing the study. Participants ingested a median of 6 (3-9.5) oxycodone digital pills over the course of 7 days, with 82% of the oxycodone dose ingested in the first 3 days. In individuals who required operative repair, 86% (N = 6) continued to ingest

  12. Effects of pill burden on discontinuation of the initial HAART regimen in minority female patients prescribed 1 pill/day versus any other pill burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Seth; Kavookjian, Jan; Qian, Jingjing; Chung, Allison; Vandewaa, John

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since second line HAART therapies can be costlier and less effective, it is essential to understand the duration of initial HAART therapies. The overall aim of this study was to estimate the effects of daily pill burden on the time to discontinuation of the initial HAART regimen. Patients were initially identified through the clinic's CAREWARE database. A chart review was conducted for data collection, where only adult, female, HIV-positive patients initiating therapy at the study clinic between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011 were included. All study subjects were followed up from the initiation of HAART to treatment discontinuation. A Kaplan-Meier curve was generated to describe time to discontinuation by regimens, and a Cox proportional hazards model was developed to assess the impact of different regimen and patient demographic characteristics on the hazard of discontinuation of the initial regimen. A total of 498 charts were initially reviewed. After assessment of these patients for inclusion criteria, a cohort of 115 adult female patients who initiated HAART at the study clinic was included. Patients treated with 1 pill/day regimen had a significantly longer time to discontinuation than regimens of >1 pills/day (mean duration of initial therapy was 1062.56 days vs. 631.70 days, respectively, p = 0.003). Compared to 1 pill/day regimens, >1 pills/day regimens were associated with a higher hazard of discontinuation (hazard ratio (HR) =3.44 with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25, 9.48). A higher viral load and patients without insurance were also found to be significantly associated with increased hazards of discontinuation. Overall, female HIV patients initiating therapy with the 1 pill/day HAART regimen were less likely to discontinue their treatment compared to patients initiating with >1 pills/day HAART regimen.

  13. Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Shinde, Mayura U; Zhan, F Benjamin; Gong, Xi; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-11-19

    Some studies have noted an association between maternal occupational exposures to chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring, but data are lacking on the potential impact of industrial air emissions of these solvents on birth defects. With data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for births occurring in 1996-2008, we examined the relation between maternal residential proximity to industrial air releases of chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring of 60,613 case-mothers and 244,927 control-mothers. Maternal residential exposures to solvent emissions were estimated with metrics that took into account residential distances to industrial sources and annual amounts of chemicals released. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between residential proximity to emissions of 14 chlorinated solvents and selected birth defects, including neural tube, oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. All risk estimates were adjusted for year of delivery and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence. Relative to exposure risk values of 0, neural tube defects were associated with maternal residential exposures (exposure risk values >0) to several types of chlorinated solvents, most notably carbon tetrachloride (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.86); chloroform (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04, 1.87); ethyl chloride (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08, 1.79); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11, 2.18); and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08, 2.06). Significant associations were also noted between a few chlorinated solvents and oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. We observed stronger associations between some emissions and neural tube, oral cleft, and heart defects in offspring of mothers 35 years or older, such as spina bifida with carbon tetrachloride (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.09, 5.72), cleft palate

  14. Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), gestational weight gain of ≥15 kg (P = 0.000), and previous history of macrosomia (P = 0.002). The most frequent route of delivery was emergency cesarean section accounting for 51 (42%) births. Macrosomia was significantly associated ...

  15. The Pill and Men’s Disappearance from the Teaching Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    control pill bears a negative relation to the likelihood that men plan to teach, while changes in the strength of teacher unions and relative wages of teachers have limited effect on their career plans. Men’s aspirations shift away from teaching towards occupations that are associated with higher average......In this paper I look at the relationship between increased access to reliable fertility controls and men’s disappearance from teaching. As the pill has been found to have a substantial effect on women’s family responsibilities, career investments and labor market outcomes, men’s bargaining position...... in the marriage market is likely to have changed considerably. Teaching stands out among the career choices of male college freshmen in terms of average income and prestige. The effect of the shift in bargaining power on men’s career choices is hence likely to be prominent in the teaching sector. Between 1968...

  16. The Role of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Populations: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroush, Ali; Farshchian, Negin; Komasi, Saeid; Izadi, Neda; Amirifard, Nasrin; Shahmohammadi, Afshar

    2016-12-01

    Cancer is one of the main public health issues in the world. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. It is also the second cause of mortality in women. The association between the use of oral contraceptive pills and breast cancer is controversial and a main issue in public health. Some findings have shown that taking these pills does not have a significant effect in increasing the risk of breast cancer, while others have confirmed the carcinogenic effect of these products. These contradictory findings necessitated this meta-analysis, through of all correlated studies in Iran. All published studies were considered from June 2000 until June 2015, using reliable Latin databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Google search, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Persian database like SID, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Magiran. Finally, 26 papers were selected: 24 studies were case control while two were population based studies. A total of 26 papers with 46,260 participants were assessed since 2001. Overall estimate of OR for the effect of oral contraceptive pills on breast cancer is 1.521 (CI = 1.25-1.85), which shows that the intervention group had more chance (52%) compared to the control group ( P = 0.001). Using these pills increased the risk of breast cancer up to 1.52 times. Because of directly increasing levels of estrogen and the role of estrogen in gaining weight indirectly, oral contraceptive pills can stimulate the occurrence of breast cancer. More studies should be conducted for controlling the period of pill use.

  17. Assessment of Adequacy of Supplementation of Vitamin D in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, N B; Saini, Ashish; Mishra, T K

    2016-12-01

    To compare the effect of 400 IU and 1000 IU vitamin D for 6 weeks in very low birth weight preterm neonates. Randomized, double-blinded controlled trial in a teaching hospital. Fifty very low birth weight preterm neonates. Vitamin D 400 IU/day (Group 1) or 1000 IU/day (Group 2). Change in serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD), parathormone, incidence of skeletal hypomineralization and growth. After 6 weeks of supplementation, the mean serum calcium and 25-OHD levels were significantly higher (p  supplementation in a dose of 1000 IU/day is more effective in maintaining serum calcium, phosphate, ALP, 25-OHD and parathormone levels with lower incidence of skeletal hypomineralization and better growth. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  19. The rhetoric of reproduction and the reconfiguration of womanhood in the French birth control movement, 1890-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accampo, E A

    1996-01-01

    Birth control movements that emerged in Europe and the United States during the last third of the nineteenth century lost their emancipatory and feminist potential in the twentieth century as they succumbed to control by the medical profession, eugenicists, and institutionalized goals of planned parenthood. The neo-Malthusian movement in France, however, retained a radical character and became a focal point for the convergence of libertarian, feminist, and anarchist concerns. By emancipating women from their "biological destiny" and separating sexuality and reproduction, neo-Malthusian rhetoric reconfigured womanhood and established the basis for women's development as full individuals and citizens.

  20. The impact of prenatal vitamin A and zinc supplementation on birth size and neonatal survival - a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a rural area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawirohartono, Endy P; Nyström, Lennarth; Nurdiati, Detty S; Hakimi, Mohammad; Lind, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal supplementation with micronutrients may increase birth weight and thus improve infant health and survival in settings where infants and children are at risk of micronutrient deficiencies. To assess whether vitamin A and/or zinc supplementation given during pregnancy can improve birth weight, birth length, neonatal morbidity, or infant mortality. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial supplementing women (n = 2173) in Central Java, Indonesia throughout pregnancy with vitamin A, zinc, combined vitamin A+zinc, or placebo. Out of 2173 supplemented pregnant women, 1956 neonates could be evaluated. Overall, zinc supplementation improved birth length compared to placebo or combined vitamin A+zinc (48.8 vs. 48.5 cm, p = 0.04); vitamin A supplementation improved birth length compared to placebo or combined vitamin A+zinc (48.7 vs. 48.2 cm, p = 0.04). These effects remained after adjusting for maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight, and parity. There was no effect of supplementation on birth weight, the proportion of low birth weight, neonatal morbidity, or mortality. Prenatal zinc or vitamin A supplementation demonstrates a small but significant effect on birth length, but supplementation with zinc, vitamin A or a combination of zinc and vitamin A, have no effect on birth weight, neonatal morbidity, or mortality.

  1. Veevillad - hollandlaste väljakutse ja paratamatus / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2005-01-01

    Arhitekt Pille Nagel veele ehitatud elumajadest Hollandis. Paatmajadest, Veersche Poorti elurajoonist (1999-2004) Middelburgis, "Gewild Wonen" elurajoonist (1999-2001) Eilandenbuurti linnajaos Almeres, kanaliäärsetest linnavilladest Sheepstimmermanstraatil Amsterdamis jm. 9 värv. ill

  2. The impact of using the combined oral contraceptive pill for cycle scheduling on gene expression related to endometrial receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Alfonso; Iglesias, Carlos; Ruiz-Alonso, María; Blesa, David; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; García-Velasco, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Does the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) change endometrial gene expression when used for cycle programming? COCP used for scheduling purposes does not have a significant impact on endometrial gene expression related to endometrial receptivity. Controversy exists around COCP pretreatment for IVF cycle programming, as some authors claim that it might be detrimental to the live birth rate. Microarray technology applied to the study of tissue gene expression has previously revealed the behavior of genes related to endometrial receptivity under different conditions. Proof-of-concept study of 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Microarray data were obtained from endometrial biopsies from 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing COS with GnRH antagonists and recombinant FSH. In group A (n = 5), COCP pretreatment was used for 12-16 days, and stimulation began after a 5-day pill-free interval. Stimulation in group B (n = 5) was initiated on cycle day 3 after a spontaneous menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected 7 days after triggering with hCG. No individual genes exhibited increased or decreased expression (fold change (FC) >2) in patients with prior COCP treatment (group A) compared with controls (group B). However, the results of the functional analysis showed a total of 11 biological processes that were significantly enriched in group A compared with group B (non-COCP). The Endometrial Receptivity Array (ERA) has only been validated on endometrial samples obtained in natural cycles and after hormonal replacement treatment (HRT). Therefore, it was not possible in this study to classify the endometrial samples as receptive or non-receptive. We used the ERA to focus on 238 genes that are intimately related to endometrial receptivity, thus simplifying the analysis and understanding of the data. Cycle scheduling is common in IVF units and is used to avoid weekend

  3. A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of an early-intervention program in reducing parenting stress after preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Rønning, John A; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz B

    2006-07-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with increased parenting stress in early infancy, and some reports have found this to be a risk factor for later behavioral problems. There are, however, few studies and conflicting results. Information about the fathers is scarce. Our goal was to study the effects of an early-intervention program on parenting stress after a preterm birth until 1 year corrected age. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted including infants with a birth weight effects of a modified version of the Mother-Infant Transaction Program on parenting stress measured by the Parenting Stress Index. A term control group was also recruited. The Parenting Stress Index was administered to the mothers at 6 and 12 months' corrected age and to the fathers at 12 months' corrected age. The intervention consisted of 8 sessions shortly before discharge and 4 home visits by specially trained nurses focusing on the infant's unique characteristics, temperament, and developmental potential and the interaction between the infant and the parents. Seventy-one infants were included in the preterm intervention group, and 69 were included in the preterm control group. The preterm groups were well balanced. Seventy-four infants were included in the term control group. Compared with the preterm controls, both the mothers and fathers in the preterm intervention group reported significant lower scores in child domain, parent domain, and total stress on all occasions except the mother-reported child domain at 12 months. These differences were not related to birth weight or gestational age. The level of stress among the preterm intervention group was comparable to their term peers. Both parents in the intervention group reported consistently lower scores within the distractibility/hyperactivity, reinforces parents, competence, and attachment subscales compared with the preterm control group. There were no differences in mean summary stress scores between the mothers and fathers in

  4. Use of emergency contraceptive pill by 15-year-old girls: results from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudineau, A; Ehlinger, V; Gabhainn, S Nic; Vayssiere, C; Arnaud, C; Godeau, E

    2010-09-01

    To describe emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) use and variation across countries/regions; and to explore personal and contextual factors associated with ECP use and differences across countries/regions. Data were obtained from 11 countries/regions in the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. SETTING Data were collected by self-report questionnaire in school classrooms. The analysis is based on 2118 sexually active 15-year-old girls. Contraceptive behaviours were compared across countries/regions by chi-square tests. Individual factors related to ECP use were investigated with separate logistic regression models. Multilevel random-intercept models allowed the investigation of individual and contextual effects, by partitioning the variance into student, school and country/region levels. ECP use at last sexual intercourse. ECP use rate varied significantly across countries/regions. Poor communication with at least one adult (odds ratio [OR] 1.62 [1.12-2.36], P = 0.011) and daily smoking (OR 1.46 [1.00-2.11], P = 0.048) were independently associated with ECP use in comparison with condom and/or birth-control pill use. Sexual initiation at 14 years or later (OR 2.02 [1.04-3.93], P = 0.039), good perceived academic achievement (OR 1.69 [1.04-2.75], P = 0.035) and daily smoking (OR 1.63 [1.01-2.64], P = 0.045) were associated with higher levels of ECP use in comparison with unprotected girls. The country-level variance remained significant in both comparisons. These data document the large heterogeneity in rates of ECP use between countries/regions. These differences could not be explained by individual or contextual factors, and raise further questions in relation to ECP access for adolescents and their education in its appropriate use.

  5. Effect of compound radix sophorae flavescentis injection combined with Xiaoyao pill on breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the influence of compound radix sophorae flavescentis injection and Xiaoyao pill combined therapy on tumor markers, cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations of breast cancer patients, thus provide relevant assistance on clinical therapy for breast cancer patients. Methods: A total of 170 breast cancer patients treated in our hospital were selected and divided to be the observe group and control group at random, 85 cases for each group. For patients in control group, AC chemotherapeutic project was utilized, and for patients in observe group, compound radix sophorae flavescentis injection and Xiaoyao pill combined therapy were provided on the basis of AC chemotherapy. Tumor markers, cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations of breast cancer patients in each group were detected before and after therapy. Results: Comparison of tumor markers, cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations levels between the two groups of breast cancer patients before therapy showed no statistical significant difference (P>0.05. Compared with prior therapy, the tumor markers (CA153, CEA and CYRA21-1, CD8+ and cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 on both the two groups of breast cancer patients were dramatically decreased, while lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4+ /CD8+ , IFN-γ and IL-2 were significantly increased (P<0.05. Conclusions: Compound radix sophorae flavescentis injection and Xiaoyao pill combined therapy can significantly improve the tumor markers, cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations of the breast cancer patients. It is of vital clinical significance for treatment on breast cancer patients.

  6. Health behaviors, periodontal conditions, and periodontal pathogens in spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae-In; Oh, Kyungjoon; Yang, Hyejin; Choi, Bong-Kyu; Ha, Jung-Eun; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to determine whether periodontal conditions or dental health behaviors are risk factors for preterm birth (PTB), and whether periodontal pathogens are risk indicators for PTB among Korean mothers. This study was designed as a hospital-based case-control study. Examiner masking was ensured for the validity of the examinations. The mothers included those who gave birth between November 2007 and July 2009 at the obstetrics clinic of a general hospital in Seoul, Korea. Information on demographic and health conditions, periodontal conditions, and microbacterial data was collected. A total of 172 women met the inclusion criteria, 59 mothers who delivered a preterm neonate were assigned to the case group while the other 113 were assigned to the control group. There were no significant differences in demographic information, oral health conditions, and obstetric characteristics. Among health-related behaviors, only scaling within 12 months before pregnancy showed a significant difference (P = 0.031). Even in the adjusted logistic model, only the difference in the experience of scaling before pregnancy was significant between the PTB cases and the controls (P = 0.039). Periodontal disease did not exhibit a significant relationship with PTB even after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among the microbacterial factors, only Porphyromonas gingivalis showed a slight difference (P = 0.060). There was a significant difference in scaling experience within 12 months before pregnancy and P. gingivalis showed a marginal difference between the PTB and the control groups but clinical periodontal conditions showed no association with PTB.

  7. Addressing low health literacy with "Talking Pill Bottles": A pilot study in a community pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Annie Y; Nguyen, Juliet K; Parks, Jason J; Morisky, Donald E; Berry, Donna L; Wolpin, Seth E

    To test the effect of "Talking Pill Bottles" on medication self-efficacy, knowledge, adherence, and blood pressure readings among hypertensive patients with low health literacy and to assess patients' acceptance of this innovation. Longitudinal nonblinded randomized trial with standard treatment and intervention arms. Two community pharmacies serving an ethnically diverse population in the Pacific Northwest. Participants were consented patients with antihypertension prescriptions who screened positive for low health literacy based on the Test of Functional Health Literacy Short Form. Participants in the intervention arm received antihypertensive medications and recordings of pharmacists' counseling in Talking Pill Bottles at baseline. Control arm participants received antihypertensive medications and usual care instructions. Comparison and score changes between baseline and day 90 for medication knowledge test, Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale (SEAMS), Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), blood pressure, and responses to semistructured exit interviews and Technology Acceptance Model surveys. Of 871 patients screened for health literacy, 134 eligible participants were enrolled in the trial. The sample was elderly, ethnically diverse, of low income, and experienced regarding hypertension and medication history. In both arms, we found high baseline scores in medication knowledge test, SEAMS, and MMAS-8 and minimal changes in these measures over the 90-day study period. Blood pressure decreased significantly in the intervention arm. Acceptability scores for the Talking Pill Bottle technology were high. Our results suggest that providing audio-assisted medication instructions in Talking Pill Bottles positively affected blood pressure control and was well accepted by patients with low health literacy. Further research involving newly diagnosed patients is needed to mitigate possible ceiling effects that we observed in an experienced population

  8. Physical Activity Pattern and Personal-Social Factors of Mothers During Pregnancy And Infant Birth Weight Based On MET Scale: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Karimlou, Masoud; Sajjadi, Homeira; Dejman, Masoumeh; Vameghi, Meroe; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir

    2013-07-01

    Low birth weight is one of the most important public health issues in developing and developed countries and identifying its etiology is important for prevention. Considering the unknown impact of physical activity on low birth weight, this research was conducted to investigate the relationship between physical activity and low birth weight. This research was conducted using a case-control design. The control group was made of 500 women with normal birth weight infants and the case group included 250 women with low birth weight infants from the selected hospitals in city of Tehran. The information was gathered using a researcher-made questionnaire which was prepared for determining the relationship between mothers' lifestyle during pregnancy and infants' low birth weight using social determinants of health approach. In this questionnaire, scope of physical activity was investigated in three groups of athletic activities, activities at home and leisure activities. Activity intensity was determined using MET scale and the data were analyzed in SPSS software using independent t-test, Chi-square and logistic regression. In the present research, based on the results of multiple logistic regression test, an increase in the time spent on sport activities (OR = 2.20) and home activities (OR =1.44) (P = 0.003) was accompanied by increased chance of giving birth to low birth weight infants; in contrast, one hour increase of leisure activities decreased the probability of low birth weight infants by 0.32 (P = 0.008). An increase in the time spent on sport and home activities, even after considering other influential factors, was related to low birth weight.

  9. Omega-3 supplementation to prevent recurrent preterm birth: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation for the prevention of recurrent preterm birth (PTB) in asymptomatic singleton gestations with previous PTB. We searched fish oil, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pregnancy, and omega-3 in MEDLINE, OVID, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception of each database to December 2014 with no limit for language. In addition the reference lists of all identified articles were examined to identify studies that were not captured by electronic searches. We performed a metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials of asymptomatic singleton gestations with previous PTB who were assigned randomly to prophylactic omega-3 supplementation vs control (either placebo or no treatment). The primary outcome was predefined as PTB at supplementation during pregnancy does not prevent recurrent PTB in asymptomatic singleton gestations with previous PTB. The benefits in longer latency and higher birth weight may deserve further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Imported fenproporex-based diet pills from Brazil: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pieter A

    2009-03-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills. A 38-year-old man using imported diet pills presented after his occupational urine screen was significantly positive for amphetamine. Fenproporex and fluoxetine were detected in his pills. These cases illustrate the potential harm from imported prescription diet pills that combine fenproporex with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives and other substances. Increasing physicians' awareness of imported diet pill use may improve care of patients suffering from the pills' many adverse effects.

  11. THE BEHAVIOUR OF FABRICS USED FOR ANTIMIS PRODUCTION TO PILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRILĂ Mihai Maxim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study about the behaviour of plain textiles used for the production of antimis (Christian-orthodox liturgical item used in the liturgy to pilling explores the functional classification of different types of antimis as a textile product made out the following different types of fabrics: natural silk, flax, viscose, polyamide 6.6. Pilling is a phenomenon which consists of the formation of small balls made out of fibre congeries on the textile’s surface due to attrition and fatigue. For textiles used as liturgical items, the process of pilling formation includes the following stages: the emergence of the pilling surfaces (the formation of fuzzy, fibre tangle (appearance of small balls, and the detachment of small balls from the fabric’s surface. The analysis method of pilling for liturgical items made out the four types of fabrics mentioned above consists of stereoscopic microscopy techniques and electronic microscopy methods (SEM. The images of textiles samples (yarns and fabrics will be captured using a video microscope. Quantitative tests have been done to determine the metric number and the tex title of the above-mentioned fabrics. The increased resistance of silk to pilling compared to nylon, flax, and viscose can be attributed to the chemical properties of fibres and structural characteristics of silk fabric. The structural compactness of the same fiber mixture of natural silk fabric with bonded fabric will have a higher resistance coefficient to pilling compared to the other mentioned fabrics. Through this, the value of use and durability of the antimis will increase.

  12. Monitoring Location and Angular Orientation of a Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system moves through, or adjacent to, one or more organs in an animal or human body, while transmitting signals from its present location and/or present angular orientation. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates angular orientation and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into, or onto, the body. Optionally, the pill, as it moves, provides a sequence of visually perceptible images. The times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one of at least four criteria. This invention provides and supplies an algorithm for exact determination of location coordinates and angular orientation coordinates for a mobile pill transmitter (PT), or other similar device that is introduced into, and moves within, a GI tract of a human or animal body. A set of as many as eight nonlinear equations has been developed and applied, relating propagation of a wireless signal between either two, three, or more transmitting antennas located on the PT, to four or more non-coplanar receiving antennas located on a signal receiver appliance worn by the user. The equations are solved exactly, without approximations or iterations, and are applied in several environments: (1) association of a visual image, transmitted by the PT at each of a second sequence of times, with a PT location and PT angular orientation at that time; (2) determination of a position within the body at which a drug or chemical substance or other treatment is to be delivered to a selected portion of the body; (3) monitoring, after delivery, of the effect(s) of administration of the treatment; and (4) determination of one or more positions within the body where provision and examination of a finer-scale image is warranted.

  13. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes in a home-like birth centre: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudineau, Adrien; Sauleau, Erik-André; Nisand, Israël; Langer, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    To compare the intervention rates associated with labor in low-risk women who began their labor in the "home-like birth centre" (HLBC) and the traditional labor ward (TLW). This retrospective study used data that were collected from January 2005 to June 2008, from women admitted to the HLBC (n = 316) and compared to a group of randomly selected low-risk women admitted to the TLW (n = 890) using the Baysian information criterion to select the best predictive model. Women in the HLBC had spontaneous vaginal deliveries more often (88.6 vs. 82.8 %, p value 0.034) and perineal lesions less often (60.1 vs. 62.5 %, p value 0.013). The frequency of adverse neonatal outcomes did not differ statistically between the two groups, although the mean clamped at birth umbilical arterial pH level was higher in the HLBC group. The transfer rate from HLBC to TLW was 31.3 % of which 75.8 % were nulliparae. It appears that women could benefit from HLBC care in settings such as the one studied. Larger observational studies are warranted to validate these results.

  14. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET. Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P

  15. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  16. Effect of Florida's Prescription Drug Monitoring Program and Pill Mill Laws on Opioid Prescribing and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Webster, Daniel W; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Alexander, G Caleb

    2015-10-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) and pill mill laws are among the principal means states use to reduce prescription drug abuse and diversion, yet little high-quality evidence exists regarding their effect. To quantify the effect of Florida's PDMP and pill mill laws on overall and high-risk opioid prescribing and use. We applied comparative interrupted time-series analyses to IMS Health LifeLink LRx data to characterize the effect of PDMP and pill mill law implementation on a closed cohort of prescribers, retail pharmacies, and patients from July 2010 through September 2012 in Florida (intervention state) compared with Georgia (control state). We conducted sensitivity analyses, including varying length of observation and modifying requirements for continuous observation of individuals throughout the study period. Total opioid volume, mean morphine milligram equivalent (MME) per transaction, mean days' supply per transaction, and total number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Analyses were conducted per prescriber and per patient, in aggregate and after stratifying by volume of baseline opioid prescribing for prescribers and use for patients. From July 2010 through September 2012, a cohort of 2.6 million patients, 431,890 prescribers, and 2829 pharmacies was associated with approximately 480 million prescriptions in Florida and Georgia, 7.7% of which were for opioids. Total monthly opioid volume, MME per transaction, days' supply, and prescriptions dispensed were higher in Florida than Georgia before implementation. Florida's laws were associated with statistically significant declines in opioid volume (2.5 kg/mo, Pprescriptions, 2.5% decrease in opioid volume, and 5.6% decrease in MME per transaction. Reductions were limited to prescribers and patients with the highest baseline opioid prescribing and use. Sensitivity analyses, varying time windows, and enrollment criteria supported the main results. Florida's PDMP and pill mill laws were associated with

  17. Can pill placebo augment cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Rachel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of drug and psychotherapy comparative trials, psychotherapy-placebo combination has been assumed to represent psychotherapy. Whether psychotherapy plus pill placebo is the same as psychotherapy alone is an empirical question which however has to date never been examined systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs that directly compared cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT alone against CBT plus pill placebo in the treatment of panic disorder. Results Extensive literature search was able to identify three relevant RCTs. At the end of the acute phase treatment, patients who received CBT plus placebo had 26% (95%CI: 2 to 55% increased chances of responding than those who received CBT alone. At follow-up the difference was no longer statistically significant (22%, 95%CI: -10% to 64%. Conclusion The act of taking a pill placebo may enhance the placebo effect already contained in the effective psychotherapeutic intervention during the acute phase treatment. Theoretically this is an argument against the recently claimed null hypothesis of placebo effect in general and clinically it may point to some further room for enhancing the psychotherapeutic approach for panic disorder.

  18. [Effect of heijiang pill on radiation skin ulcer in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Yang, Yang; Xu, Yong-Mei

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between single dosage of 60Co radiation and the degree of radiation-induced skin ulcers, and to evaluate the curative effect of Heijiang Pill (HJP) on skin ulcer induced by various dosages of radiation in rats. Sixty-six Wistar female rats were randomly divided into three groups, the blank control group (n = 6) and the two radiation groups, each 30 rats, with their right hind leg exposed respectively to 60 Gy and 40 Gy of 60 Co radiation. The time of emergence and degree of skin ulcer were recorded. Then rats in the two radiation groups were subdivided into the HJP group, the Ethacridine group and the model group, 10 in each group, they received corresponding treatment after ulceration, and the incidence, pathology, cure rate and cure time of skin ulcer were observed in the 90 days of observation. The incidence of skin ulcer was higher and occurred earlier in rats radiated with 60 Gy than that with 40 Gy (P ulcer healing rate in rats treated with HJP was higher than that treated with Ethacridine (P cure time in the HJP group was shorter (P ulcers. HJP can effectively cure radiation skin ulcer, and the effect is especially significant on the ulcer induced by low dose radiation.

  19. Young adult couples' decision making regarding emergency contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Richard; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Humphreys, Janice

    2011-03-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health problem among young people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to explore and better understand the reasons for the apparent underuse of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in young people in coupled relationships. THEORETICAL RATIONAL: In postmodern explications of grounded theory, social construction of realities and the influence of subjectivities on the meanings of experiences lead to the development of partial truths that may change with time, context, and situation. Grounded theory methods guided semi-structured face-to-face interviews and data analysis. Twenty-two couples aged 18 to 25 years old were recruited through public notices. Four salient and interrelated conditions were constructed to help explain the complexities involved in young couples decision making regarding ECP use: (a) the shifting locus of responsibility for contraceptive decision making: in a perfect world versus biological reality; (b) relationship power: control-vulnerability continuum; (c) a woman's autonomy over her own body; and (d) conflicting views on ECP. Healthcare professionals whose practice includes young people need to be aware of possible couple dynamics when discussing contraception. Clients in supportive relationships should be encouraged to engage in open communication with their partners about their contraception needs, including possible ECP use. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge with regard to decision making related to ECP use in young adults. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  1. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K., E-mail: katerina_bas@abv.b [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lagunov, O. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-06-15

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  2. Unmarried Mother's Knowledge and Attitudes toward Emergency Contraceptive Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong Mi Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.

  3. The foxa2 gene controls the birth and spontaneous degeneration of dopamine neurons in old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Kittappa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease affects more than 1% of the population over 60 y old. The dominant models for Parkinson disease are based on the use of chemical toxins to kill dopamine neurons, but do not address the risk factors that normally increase with age. Forkhead transcription factors are critical regulators of survival and longevity. The forkhead transcription factor, foxa2, is specifically expressed in adult dopamine neurons and their precursors in the medial floor plate. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments show this gene, foxa2, is required to generate dopamine neurons during fetal development and from embryonic stem cells. Mice carrying only one copy of the foxa2 gene show abnormalities in motor behavior in old age and an associated progressive loss of dopamine neurons. Manipulating forkhead function may regulate both the birth of dopamine neurons and their spontaneous death, two major goals of regenerative medicine.

  4. Therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Xiong, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy, 19 patients with early diabetic retinopathy were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. The TaiYang, YangBai, YuYao and ZanZhu acupoints of patients in the treatment group were irradiated with a semiconductor laser combined with the oral compound Danshen dropping pills, while those in the control group only used the oral compound Danshen dropping pills. The indicators of vision, mean defect of light sensitivity in the visual field, renal function and fasting blood glucose, were examined to evaluate the efficacy. After treatment, the above indicators of patients in the two groups were significantly improved and there was a significant difference between the two groups. This showed that the compound Danshen dripping pills combined with the laser acupoint irradiation can improve the ischemic and anoxic state of early diabetic retinopathy and improve the visual field.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized cont...

  6. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary...... complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake...

  7. Improvement of the association between self-reported pill count and varenicline levels following exclusion of participants with misreported pill count: A commentary on Peng et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Annie R; Le Foll, Bernard; Morales, Mark; Lerman, Caryn; Schnoll, Robert; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2018-04-01

    We previously reported poor associations between salivary varenicline and pill counts, and a substantial overestimation of adherence by pill counts in "Measures and predictors of varenicline adherence in the treatment of nicotine dependence" (Peng et al., 2017). We have since conducted supplementary analyses characterizing, and then excluding, individuals with established inaccurate pill count recall. Based on published varenicline pharmacokinetics (including drug levels, and the long half-life) and our detection limits, conservatively we should be able to detect varenicline in anyone who took at least one pill during the 48h prior to saliva collection; thus, those reporting 1 or more pills in this time frame but who had undetectable salivary varenicline were deemed to have inaccurate pill count recall. Correlations between pill counts and salivary varenicline, and Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analyses were conducted following exclusion of participants with inaccurate pill count recall. Nearly 20% of our participants (N=67/376) had inaccurate self-reported pill counts. These participants were younger, non-white, lower income, and unmarried (evaluated using chi-square or Mann-Whitney U test). Following exclusion of these individuals, the correlations between salivary varenicline and pill count improved and the area under the curve (AUC) of pill counts for discriminating adherence improved modestly. When the 20% of individuals with inaccurate pill count recall were excluded, an improved association between self-reported pill count and salivary varenicline was observed, albeit still weak. A substantial overestimation of adherence by pill counts relative to salivary varenicline is still observed even after exclusion of almost 20% of the group having established inaccurate reporting suggesting that these individuals, with identifiable inaccuracies, were only part of the overestimation of adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement.

  9. Birth order and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus: a case-control study in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Yusuke; Lemoine, Maud; Bottomley, Christian; Njai, Harr Freeya; Ndow, Gibril; Jatta, Abdoulie; Tamba, Saydiba; Bojang, Lamin; Taal, Makie; Nyan, Ousman; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark; Hall, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Early age at infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases the risk of chronic infection. Moreover, early HBV infection may further independently increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond its effect on chronicity. The distribution of birth order, a proxy for mode and timing of HBV transmission, was compared in The Gambia between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases recruited from hospitals (n = 72) and two HBsAg-positive control groups without HCC: population-based controls from a community HBV screening (n = 392) and hospital-based controls (n = 63). HCC risk decreased with increasing birth order in the population-based case-control analysis. Using first birth order as the reference, the odds ratios were 0.52 (95% CI: 0.20-1.36), 0.52 (0.17-1.56), 0.57 (0.16-2.05) and 0.14 (0.03-0.64) for second, third, fourth and greater than fourth birth order respectively (P = 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed in the hospital-based case-control comparison (P = 0.04). Compared to controls, HCC cases had earlier birth order, a proxy for young maternal age and maternal HBV viraemia at birth. This finding suggests that in chronic HBV carriers perinatal mother-to-infant transmission may increase HCC risk more than horizontal transmission. Providing HBV vaccine within 24 h of birth to interrupt perinatal transmission might reduce the incidence of HCC in The Gambia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of a birth preparation program on lumbopelvic pain, urinary incontinence, anxiety and exercise: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelutti, Maria Amélia; Cecatti, José Guilherme; Makuch, Maria Yolanda

    2013-07-29

    Antenatal preparation programmes are recommended worldwide to promote a healthy pregnancy and greater autonomy during labor and delivery, prevent physical discomfort and high levels of anxiety. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a birth preparation programme to minimize lumbopelvic pain, urinary incontinence, anxiety, and increase physical activity during pregnancy as well as to compare its effects on perinatal outcomes comparing two groups of nulliparous women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 197 low risk nulliparous women aged 16 to 40 years, with gestational age ≥ 18 weeks. Participants were randomly allocated to participate in a birth preparation programme (BPP; n=97) or a control group (CG; n=100). The intervention was performed on the days of prenatal visits, and consisted of physical exercises, educational activities and instructions on exercises to be performed at home. The control group followed a routine of prenatal care. Primary outcomes were urinary incontinence, lumbopelvic pain, physical activity, and anxiety. Secondary outcomes were perinatal variables. The risk of urinary incontinence in BPP participants was significantly lower at 30 weeks of pregnancy (BPP 42.7%, CG 62.2%; relative risk [RR] 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.93) and at 36 weeks of pregnancy (BPP 41.2%, CG 68.4%; RR 0.60; 95%CI 0.45-0.81). Participation in the BPP encouraged women to exercise during pregnancy (p=0.009). No difference was found between the groups regarding to anxiety level, lumbopelvic pain, type or duration of delivery and weight or vitality of the newborn infant. The BPP was effective in controlling urinary incontinence and to encourage the women to exercise during pregnancy with no adverse effects to pregnant women or the fetuses. Clinicaltrials.gov, (NCT01155804).

  11. Birth and death of links control disease spreading in empirical contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    We investigate what structural aspects of a collection of twelve empirical temporal networks of human contacts are important to disease spreading. We scan the entire parameter spaces of the two canonical models of infectious disease epidemiology--the Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) and Susceptible-Infectious-Removed (SIR) models. The results from these simulations are compared to reference data where we eliminate structures in the interevent intervals, the time to the first contact in the data, or the time from the last contact to the end of the sampling. The picture we find is that the birth and death of links, and the total number of contacts over a link, are essential to predict outbreaks. On the other hand, the exact times of contacts between the beginning and end, or the interevent interval distribution, do not matter much. In other words, a simplified picture of these empirical data sets that suffices for epidemiological purposes is that links are born, is active with some intensity, and die.

  12. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students' Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  13. Adolescent self-control behavior predicts body weight through the life course: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, S; Hardy, R; Richards, M

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain has become one of the biggest issues for healthy aging in middle- and high-income countries. Self-control of emotional reward cues is an important behavioral factor for regulation of weight gain through voluntary diet control and physical activity. We tested the associations between teacher-rated self-control at ages 13 and 15 years, and measured body mass index (BMI) between ages 15 and 60-64 years, controlling for confounding factors such as affective symptoms and cognition, using 3873 study members in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort. Multivariable regression analysis after adjustment for all covariates showed that lower self-control was associated with higher BMI in all measure points (P<0.05). Multilevel modeling using a cubic model showed that there was an association between self-control and BMI at 15 years in females (male: BMI=-0.00 kg m(-2) per 1 s.d. on the self-control score (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.12 to 0.11), P =0.94; female: BMI=-0.27 (-0.42 to -0.11), P<0.001). The association became stronger with age in both sexes (BMI=-0.065 (-0.082 to -0.048), P<0.001; BMI=-0.036 (-0.057 to -0.015), P<0.001). By age 60-64 years, the association between self-control and BMI in men had increased to -0.70 (-0.96 to -0.44) and -0.67 (-1.04 to -0.30) in women. Lower adolescent self-control was associated with higher BMI through the life course, and this becomes stronger with age. Investigations to test whether intervention to self-control improves obesity are recommended.

  14. Imported Fenproporex-based Diet Pills from Brazil: A Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Pieter A.

    2008-01-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills...

  15. [The social context of the birth control debate in Colombia in the 1960s and 1970s: politics, medicine and society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Ana María Medina

    2014-01-01

    The article seeks to present the necessary context and a preliminary approach to understanding and addressing the birth control debate in Colombia in the 1960s and 1970s. It covers the main conflicting positions during that period and the discourses and logics permeating the arrival of North American family planning programs to Latin America as a form of political control of revolutionary movements.

  16. Oral contraceptive pill, progestogen or oestrogen pretreatment for ovarian stimulation protocols for women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Cindy; Rombauts, Luk; Kremer, Jan Am; Lethaby, Anne; Ayeleke, Reuben Olugbenga

    2017-05-25

    Among subfertile women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART), hormone pills given before ovarian stimulation may improve outcomes. To determine whether pretreatment with the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) or with a progestogen or oestrogen alone in ovarian stimulation protocols affects outcomes in subfertile couples undergoing ART. We searched the following databases from inception to January 2017: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Central Register Studies Online, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and registers of ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of hormonal pretreatment in women undergoing ART. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary review outcomes were live birth or ongoing pregnancy and pregnancy loss. We included 29 RCTs (4701 women) of pretreatment with COCPs, progestogens or oestrogens versus no pretreatment or alternative pretreatments, in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or antagonist cycles. Overall, evidence quality ranged from very low to moderate. The main limitations were risk of bias and imprecision. Most studies did not describe their methods in adequate detail. Combined oral contraceptive pill versus no pretreatmentWith antagonist cycles in both groups the rate of live birth or ongoing pregnancy was lower in the pretreatment group (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.95; 6 RCTs; 1335 women; I 2 = 0%; moderate quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether the groups differed in rates of pregnancy loss (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.26; 5 RCTs; 868 women; I 2 = 0%; moderate quality evidence), multiple pregnancy (OR 2.21, 95% CI 0.53 to 9.26; 2 RCTs; 125 women; I 2 = 0%; low quality evidence), ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS; OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.40; 2 RCTs; 642 women; I 2 = 0%, low quality evidence), or ovarian cyst formation (OR 0

  17. Infant's sex, birth control policy and postpartum well-being: a prospective cohort study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jing; Zhu, Liping; Du, Wenchong; Du, Li; Luo, Ting; Wu, Zhuochun

    2016-10-06

    The majority of Chinese families were under either one-child or two-child birth control policy status from 2001 to 2015. We explore the association between an infant's sex and the mother's postpartum well-being, which may be moderated by birth control policy status in China. We conducted a prospective cohort study in Shanghai City, one of the largest cities in China. A total number of 1730 childbearing women from eight obstetric hospitals across Shanghai were included in the study at baseline, with 1503 women completing the survey 7 days postpartum in 2013. The General Well-Being Schedule (GWBS) was used to assess maternal well-being at baseline and follow-up investigation in the study. The women's demographic, clinical characteristics, and well-being were measured at baseline. Maternal satisfaction and postpartum well-being were assessed in the follow-up survey. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that women who gave birth to male infants were positively associated with the total score of maternal well-being, when the participating hospitals, maternal well-being at baseline, sociodemographic characteristics, and maternal and infant health outcomes were added to the adjustments (β=1.462, pchild policy status was added to the adjustments (p>0.05). The results of a multiple logistic regression model showed that having a male infant was a risk factor of 'severe distress' (OR=1.607, pchild policy status (p>0.05). Our results emphasise the importance of conducting interventions to increase maternal general well-being, especially for those with a female infant in a society such as China where preference is for a son, and enhance the necessity of sustainability of a newly relaxed two-child policy which allows more couples to have a second child in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. New objective system of pilling evaluation for various types of fabrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Techniková, L.; Tunák, M.; Janáček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2017), s. 123-131 ISSN 0040-5000 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : objective pilling evaluation * 3D fabric surface reconstruction * image analysis * pill characteristics * pilling grade Subject RIV: JS - Reliability ; Quality Management, Testing OBOR OECD: Textiles Impact factor: 1.007, year: 2016

  19. Contraception with combined oral contraceptive pills in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass media was the commonest source of information, and one accidental pregnancy occurred (Pearl index 0.03 per 100 woman years). Conclusion: This study shows that combined oral contraceptives pills appear to be acceptable, safe and effective in Port Harcourt. This compares to world wide experience. Concerted ...

  20. Are we overestimating the stroke risk related to contraceptive pills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompel, Anne; Plu-Bureau, Genevieve

    2014-02-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are used by million of women worldwide. Ischemic stroke is one of the major harmful effects of hormonal contraceptives, but remains a very uncommon disease before menopause. The increased risk of stroke under third and fourth-generation contraceptive pills and nonoral contraceptives has been recently highlighted. Given the benefits associated with combined hormonal contraceptives (COCs), it is important to properly evaluate their risks in order to provide a better benefit/risk balance to young women. Scarce studies addressing the rates of stroke in young women suggest that the fraction attributable to the contraceptive pill remains low. In contrast, there is abundant literature on the relative risks of stroke under COCs. The risk of arterial disease seems to be similar among users of second and third-generation pills, drospirenone-containing pills and nonoral hormonal contraceptives. Progestin-only contraceptives do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of stroke. New formulations of hormonal contraceptives are not safer than second-generation COCs. Even if the absolute numbers of strokes attributable to hormonal contraceptives is very low, stringent selection of patients should help to reduce the events still more, and progestin-only contraceptives/nonhormonal methods should be preferred in cases of associated risk factors.

  1. Knowledge of pharmacists on proper use of oral contraceptive pills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the knowledge of community pharmacists and senior pharmacy students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) about the proper use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and to investigate factors associated with their knowledge. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated self-administered ...

  2. Assessing medication adherence by pill count and electronic monitoring in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Kusek, J W; Greene, P G; Bernhard, S; Norris, K; Smith, D; Wilkening, B; Wright, J T

    1996-08-01

    The Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), an electronic monitor which records the date and time of bottle cap openings, and pill counts were used to assess patterns of adherence for the primary antihypertensive drug in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Pilot Study (AASK). Blacks with hypertension and moderately reduced renal function were randomized to one of two levels of blood pressure control and to one of three antihypertensive drug regimens: primary therapy with a calcium channel blocker, an angiotension converting enzyme inhibitor, or a beta-blocker. Of the 94 participants in AASK, 91 had MEMS recordings and pill counts for 313 regularly scheduled monthly follow-up visits. The average length of follow-up was 4.6 months. An acceptable level of adherence by pill count was achieved if 80% to 100% of the prescribed pills were not returned to the clinic. Adherence by MEMS to a once-a-day drug dosing schedule was acceptable if 80% of the time intervals between MEMS openings were within 24 +/- 6 h. Acceptable adherence by pill count was observed at 68% of the follow-up visits; MEMS indicated nonadherence at 47% of those visits. Blood pressure was within goal in 50% of the participants who were adherent by both pill count and MEMS throughout their follow-up visits, and only 14% of the participants who were identified nonadherent by one or both methods. These findings suggest that electronic monitoring is a useful adjunct to pill counts in assessing adherence to antihypertensive drugs. Feedback of electronically collected information on dosing intervals to participants and staff may enhance adherence.

  3. Poison pills: A defensive measure against a hostile takeover or a demonstration of power of the target company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Zattila Milena

    2014-01-01

    control the use of poison pills and their impact on shareholder democracy.

  4. Modifying effects of maternal Hb concentration on infant birth weight in women receiving prenatal iron-containing supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Mei, Zuguo; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Jianmeng; Serdula, Mary K

    2016-02-28

    Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe-folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006-2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95% CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95% CI 21·98, 193·28) g (PHb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation.

  5. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  6. Selection of controls in case-control studies on maternal medication use and risk of birth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.; Dequito, A.; van den Berg, P.B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    BACKGROUND:: In case-control studies on teratogenic risks of maternal drug use during pregnancy, the use of normal or malformed controls may lead to recall-bias or selection bias. This can be avoided by using controls with a genetic disorder. However, researchers are hesitant to use these as

  7. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hawken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  8. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu rezhiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist ning Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  9. Discussing Smart Pills versus Endorsing Smart Pills: Reply to Swanson, Wigal, and Volkow (2011) and Elliott and Elliott (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Martha J.; Smith, M. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We find much of interest, and little to disagree with, in the commentaries on our article. We take issue only with the suggestion that our article was provocative and submit that the attempt to understand the use of stimulants as smart pills does not imply an endorsement of the practice.

  10. Are all placebo effects equal? Placebo pills, sham acupuncture, cue conditioning and their association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kong

    Full Text Available Placebo treatments and healing rituals have been used to treat pain throughout history. The present within-subject crossover study examines the variability in individual responses to placebo treatment with verbal suggestion and visual cue conditioning by investigating whether responses to different types of placebo treatment, as well as conditioning responses, correlate with one another. Secondarily, this study also examines whether responses to sham acupuncture correlate with responses to genuine acupuncture. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in two sequential experiments. Experiment one is a five-session crossover study. In each session, subjects received one of four treatments: placebo pills (described as Tylenol, sham acupuncture, genuine acupuncture, or no treatment rest control condition. Before and after each treatment, paired with a verbal suggestion of positive effect, each subject's pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings to calibrated heat pain were measured. At least 14 days after completing experiment one, all subjects were invited to participate in experiment two, during which their analgesic responses to conditioned visual cues were tested. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed experiment one, and 45 completed experiment two. The results showed significantly different effects of genuine acupuncture, placebo pill and rest control on pain threshold. There was no significant association between placebo pills, sham acupuncture and cue conditioning effects, indicating that individuals may respond to unique healing rituals in different ways. This outcome suggests that placebo response may be a complex behavioral phenomenon that has properties that comprise a state, rather than a trait characteristic. This could explain the difficulty of detecting a signature for "placebo responders." However, a significant association was found between the genuine and sham acupuncture treatments, implying that the non

  11. Multi-species pheromone-based mating disruption: Moth birth control in cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is a proven method of pest control, but in cranberries, tailoring this technology to modern production practices has been difficult. Using the wax carrier, SPLAT, we have overcome many of these difficulties and now have three years of data suggesting that mating dis...

  12. Laboratory evaluation for a potential birth control diet for fruit fly sterilization insect technique (SIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A potential fruit fly steilizing diet was evaluated on fertility, mating, survival, and protein anaylsis for fruit fly species in Hawaii. Insects were continuously fed an agar diet with lufenuron(LFN) for an initial 7d after emergence and then switched to a control diet to simulate the actual field ...

  13. "We weren't the sort that wanted intimacy every night": Birth control and abstinence in England, c.1930-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreter, Simon; Fisher, Kate

    2010-06-10

    This article presents an exploration of qualitative evidence on the relationship between birth control and abstinence from an oral history project, which interviewed middle and working-class English men and women, who had married between the late 1920s and the early 1950s. Among the working classes the assumption that men were responsible for birth control choices and the disadvantages that contraceptive methods of all types posed, combined with the fear of pregnancy, acted as a disincentive to have sex and resulted in forms of partial abstinence. Among the middle classes, women had much more access to birth control information and as a consequence a greater range of methods was used, including more female methods. However, the reluctance of couples to discuss sexual matters, and some continued preference for male methods meant that while condoms were the most regularly used middle-class male method, both withdrawal and abstinence were also in evidence. Moreover, although partners were more likely to discuss birth control at the start of their marriages, they were less likely to agree that contraception was a male responsibility and there was greater potential for conflict over contraceptive methods, not infrequently resulting in abstinence. The evidence suggests that sexual and contraceptive practices in marriages in England at the end of the secular fertility decline do not present a picture which straightforwardly correlates with the assumptions represented by the popular thesis that this period of increased fertility control was closely associated with the rise of companionate marriage.

  14. “We weren’t the sort that wanted intimacy every night”: Birth control and abstinence in England, c.1930–60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreter, Simon; Fisher, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an exploration of qualitative evidence on the relationship between birth control and abstinence from an oral history project, which interviewed middle and working-class English men and women, who had married between the late 1920s and the early 1950s. Among the working classes the assumption that men were responsible for birth control choices and the disadvantages that contraceptive methods of all types posed, combined with the fear of pregnancy, acted as a disincentive to have sex and resulted in forms of partial abstinence. Among the middle classes, women had much more access to birth control information and as a consequence a greater range of methods was used, including more female methods. However, the reluctance of couples to discuss sexual matters, and some continued preference for male methods meant that while condoms were the most regularly used middle-class male method, both withdrawal and abstinence were also in evidence. Moreover, although partners were more likely to discuss birth control at the start of their marriages, they were less likely to agree that contraception was a male responsibility and there was greater potential for conflict over contraceptive methods, not infrequently resulting in abstinence. The evidence suggests that sexual and contraceptive practices in marriages in England at the end of the secular fertility decline do not present a picture which straightforwardly correlates with the assumptions represented by the popular thesis that this period of increased fertility control was closely associated with the rise of companionate marriage. PMID:25931803

  15. Dispensing good sleep health behaviours not pills--a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test the feasibility and efficacy of pharmacist-provided brief behavioural treatment for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joanne M; Wong, Keith K; Hoyos, Camilla; Krass, Ines; Saini, Bandana

    2016-02-01

    Behavioural therapies are recommended as the first-line treatment of insomnia; however, sedatives and hypnotics constitute the main treatment modality used in primary care. Community pharmacies provide a unique conduit for identifying and providing appropriate treatment for those with insomnia either purchasing prescription sedatives or seeking over-the-counter treatments. A feasibility study using a cluster-randomized controlled trial, testing the efficacy of trained pharmacists providing behavioural interventions such as stimulus control and sleep restriction to patients with insomnia, in improving insomnia severity was conducted. The intervention involved three pharmacy visits (baseline, 1 and 3 months follow-up). The control group received usual care and information sheets on insomnia. The primary outcome was the Insomnia Severity Index. Twelve community pharmacists (five control, seven intervention) in New South Wales, Australia were recruited and trained. These pharmacists, in turn, recruited 46 patients (22 control, 24 intervention (mean age 53.7 ± 18.4, 72% females) and delivered a brief behavioural therapy intervention. The overall decrease in Insomnia Severity Index from baseline to the 3-month follow-up in the intervention group, n = 17 (7.6 ± 4.3 points), was significantly greater than for the control group, n = 19 (2.9 ± 8.8 points) (mean difference 4.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.005-9.2, P = 0.05). However, when the effect of clustering was taken into account using a mixed-effects model, the estimated difference in Insomnia Severity Index (change from baseline to visit 3) between the intervention and control groups was not significant (group difference in Insomnia Severity Index change = 3.78, 95% confidence interval: -0.81 to 8.37, P = 0.11; intracluster correlation = 0.18). The study highlights the use of a novel venue to deliver brief behavioural therapies for insomnia using trained non-psychologist health professionals. Although, when cluster

  16. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter J

    2013-03-21

    Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. For this population-based case-control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (>30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]<1.12). Similar results were found for OCs and LDs with the exception of animal nitrites and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (aORs and CIs for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 =1.24; CI=1.05-1.48), animal nitrites and cleft lip (4th quartile aOR=1.32; CI=1.01-1.72), and total nitrite and intercalary LD (4th quartile aOR=4.70; CI=1.23-17.93). Overall, odds of NTDs, OCs or LDs did not appear to be significantly associated with estimated dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.

  17. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Katy A.; Nellen, Jeannine F.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.

    2014-01-01

    Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03–1.71)). Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00–2.13)). We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only. PMID:25276422

  18. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...

  19. Shexiang Baoxin Pills for Coronary Heart Disease in Animal Models: Preclinical Evidence and Promoting Angiogenesis Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP originated from a classical TCM Fufang Suhexiang Pill for chest pain with dyspnea in the Southern Song Dynasty (1107–110 AD. Here, we aimed to evaluate preclinical evidence and possible mechanism of SBP for experimental coronary heart disease (CHD. Studies of SBP in animal models with CHD were identified from 6 databases until April 2016. Study quality for each included article was evaluated according to the CAMARADES 10-item checklist. Outcome measures were myocardial infarction area, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and microvessel count (MVC. All the data were analyzed by using RevMan 5.1 software. As a consequence, 25 studies with 439 animals were identified. The quality score of studies ranged from 2 to 5, with the median of 3.6. Meta-analysis of seven studies showed more significant effects of SBP on the reduction of the myocardial infarction area than the control (P < 0.01. Meta-analysis of eight studies showed significant effects of SBP for increasing VEGF expression compared with the control (P < 0.01. Meta-analysis of 10 studies indicated that SBP significantly improved MVC compared with the control (P < 0.01. In conclusion, these findings preliminarily demonstrated that SBP can reduce myocardial infarction area, exerting cardioprotective function largely through promoting angiogenesis.

  20. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-07-26

    BACKGROUND Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. RESULTS Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy.

  1. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Behavioral Voice Therapy for Dysphonia Related to Prematurity of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2017-03-01

    Dysphonia is a potential complication of prematurity. Preterm children may sustain iatrogenic laryngeal damage from medical intervention in the neonatal period, and further, adopt compensatory, maladaptive voicing behaviors. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of a voice therapy protocol on voice quality in school-aged, very preterm (VP) children. Twenty-seven VP children with dysphonia were randomized to an immediate intervention group (n = 7) or a delayed-intervention, waiting list control group (n = 14). Following analysis of these data, a secondary analysis was conducted on the pooled intervention data (n = 21). Six participants did not complete the trial. Change to voice quality was measured via pre- and posttreatment assessments using the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. The intervention group did not demonstrate statistically significant improvements in voice quality, whereas this was observed in the control group (P = 0.026). However, when intervention data were pooled including both the immediate and delayed groups following intervention, dysphonia severity was significantly lower (P = 0.026) in the treatment group. Dysphonia in most VP children in this cohort was persistent. These pilot data indicate that some participants experienced acceptable voice outcomes on spontaneous recovery, whereas others demonstrated a response to behavioral intervention. Further research is needed to identify the facilitators of and barriers to intervention success, and to predict those who may experience spontaneous recovery. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  2. Aletta Jacobs and the Dutch Cap : Transfer of Knowledge and the Making of a Reputation in the Changing Networks of Birth Control Activists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Mineke

    2017-01-01

    A close review of Aletta Jacobs's actions in the international birth control movement reveals that they have been exaggerated in most historiographical representations. Thus the unsubstantiated claim that the pessary known as 'Dutch cap' was named that way due to Aletta Jacobs's interventions on

  3. The birth of quantum networks: merging remote entanglement with local multi-qubit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ronald

    The realization of a highly connected network of qubit registers is a central challenge for quantum information processing and long-distance quantum communication. Diamond spins associated with NV centers are promising building blocks for such a network: they combine a coherent spin-photon interface that has already enabled creation of spin-spin entanglement over 1km with a local register of robust and well-controlled nuclear spin qubits for information processing and error correction. We are now entering a new research stage in which we can exploit these features simultaneously and build multi-qubit networks. I will present our latest results towards the first of such experiments: entanglement distillation between remote quantum network nodes. Finally, I will discuss the challenges and opportunities ahead on the road to large-scale networks of qubit registers for quantum computation and communication.

  4. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  5. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  6. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  7. Attitudes about opinions and practices in students of birth control a faculty of humanities in Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo Rodríguez-De Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study views on contraception and the relationship between the variable gender study and students of the faculty of humanities at the University of Magdalena are determined. This article would provide data on sexual risk behaviors of students, which can be useful for the prevention of this problem, thus a descriptive correlational study was conducted using purposive sampling, with a participation of 120 students. The findings support the conclusion that students pose positive reviews and increased use of condoms and pills also have negative opinions of abstinence, intrauterine devices and implants. On the other hand, there is no relationship between gender and views on contraception, also the opinion of students does not differ according to the program.

  8. [A co-twin control study on birth weight, overweight and obesity among children younger than 18 years old in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Yu, Canqing; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lyu, Jun; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the associations between birth weight and overweight/obesity among children. A total of 8 267 twin pairs younger than 18 years old from the Chinese National Twin Registry were included in the study. Associations between birth weight, childhood BMI and overweight/obesity were explored by this co-twin control study. After adjusting for sex and zygosity, when birth weight had an increase of 0.5 kg per fold, the OR values for overweight and obesity were 1.87(95%CI: 1.40-2.48) for 2-6 year olds, 1.69 (95%CI: 1.16-2.46) for 6-12 year olds and 1.28 (95%CI: 0.80-2.07) for 12-18 year olds. from the stratified analysis in the 2-6 year-olds, statistically significant differences were seen. When birth weight increased 0.5 kg per fold, the risk of overweight and obesity increased by 0.87 times among the dizygotic twins, more than that of the monozygotic twins (OR=1.86, 95%CI:1.24-2.81). The risk for male twins was 1.12 times higher than that of female twins (OR=1.65, 95%CI:1.11-2.44). Birth weight seemed associated with overweight and obesity for kids at early childhood or at age for schools. However, guidance on the implementation of public health interventions is still needed on these children.

  9. Arsenic levels in the soil and risk of birth defects: a population-based case-control study using GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jilei; Chen, Gong; Liao, Yilan; Song, Xinming; Pei, Lijun; Wang, Jinfeng; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly dangerous metal that has been linked to a number of adverse health effects in both adults and children, including birth defects. Yet few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between arsenic levels in the soil and the risk of birth defects. The purpose of the authors' study was to examine this association among people exposed to environmental pollution in a developed area of China. The authors used global positioning system to locate the coordinates of 80 villages in 40 towns for soil sampling. Soil samples were analyzed for arsenic content. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to arsenic and birth defects, controlling for potentially confounding factors. The authors found that exposure to arsenic in any amount increased the risk of birth defects. The positive association found between arsenic exposure and birth defects warrants further study, and future large-scale population-based studies are needed with an emphasis on individual-level exposure and confounding variables.

  10. The proximate determinants of fertility and birth intervals in Egypt: An application of calendar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hinde

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use calendar data from the 2000 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to assess the determinants of birth interval length among women who are in union. We make use of the well-known model of the proximate determinants of fertility, and take advantage of the fact that the DHS calendar data provide month-by-month data on contraceptive use, breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea, which are the most important proximate determinants among women in union. One aim of the analysis is to see whether the calendar data are sufficiently detailed to account for all variation among individual women in birth interval duration, in that once they are controlled, the effect of background social, economic and cultural variables is not statistically significant. The results suggest that this is indeed the case, especially after a random effect term to account for the unobserved proximate determinants is included in the model. Birth intervals are determined mainly by the use of modern methods of contraception (the IUD being more effective than the pill. Breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea both inhibit conception, and the effect of breastfeeding remains even after the period of amenorrhoea has ended.

  11. Effect of contraceptive pill on the selenium and zinc status of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Soudabeh; Sani, Fatemeh Valinejad; Firoozrai, Mohsen

    2009-07-01

    The study was conducted to ascertain the influence of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) uptake on serum zinc and selenium in contraceptive pill users. The concentration of zinc and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in 50 healthy women with normal menstrual cycles as a control group and 50 women taking low-dose OCP. The control reference values were 81.61+/-9.44 and 70.35+/-25.57 mcg/dL, which were obtained for zinc and selenium, respectively. Use of OCP resulted in a significant decrease in serum zinc levels (pselenium levels but not significantly (p=.08, t=0.935). The duration of use beyond 3 months had no effect on the magnitude of the decrease in serum zinc levels. These findings may be important because selenium is currently believed to offer protective benefits against carcinogenesis. It has been thought that the decrease in serum zinc could be reflected in a reduction of tissue zinc status due to changes in zinc absorption, excretion or tissue turnover. If these changes occur, the dietary zinc requirement would be greater in women using OCP.

  12. Quality evaluation of Huaijiao pill by chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangqin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For quality control purpose, an approach of combining chromatographic fingerprint of Huaijiao pill (HP and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC--DAD. For fingerprint analysis, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from different batches of three manufacturers. The similarities of 17 Huaijiao pill samples were beyond 0.966, indicating that samples from different batches and manufacturers were, to some extent, consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive markers, namely sophoricoside, baicalin, naringin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and 5-O-methylvisammioside, in HP was performed to interpret the quality consistency. The validation of the proposed approach was acceptable, with the accuracy of 90.2%–106.9% in recovery test. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and the RSD values were less than 2.81%. The results from the quantitative data showed that the contents of six marker compounds (except for 5-O-methylvisammioside were quite consistent between batches produced by one manufacturer and significantly distinctive among different manufacturers. The proposed approach was expected to be developed as a powerful tool for the quality control of HP.

  13. Factors relating to pregnancy and birth and the risk of childhood brain tumors: results from an Australian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Blair, Eve M; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the leading cause of cancer death in children, yet their causes are largely known. This study investigated the association between maternal and birth characteristics and risk of CBT. Cases families were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers between 2005 and 2010. Control families were recruited via random-digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on the basis of child's age, sex, and State of residence. Maternal and birth characteristics of children were ascertained by questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant confounders. For this analysis, data on 319 case children and 1,079 control children were available. No association was found between risk of CBT and birth weight, fetal growth, birth order, gestational age, or maternal body mass index. The ORs for inadequate and excessive maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) (Institute of Medicine 2009 guidelines) were 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-2.1), respectively; similar findings for GWG were seen across categories of child's age, fetal growth, maternal body mass index and height, maternal smoking, and parental education. Risk of low grade glioma appeared increased with preterm birth (OR 1.6 (95% CI 0.8-3.1) and admission to neonatal intensive care (NICU) for >2 days (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-3.6). We found little evidence of associations between risk of CBT and most birth characteristics. The associations we observed with GWG, prematurity and NICU admission require corroboration in other studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Depression as a side effect of the contraceptive pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2007-07-01

    Millions of women worldwide use the combined oral contraceptive pill as an effective form of contraception. However, the focus on its side effects to date has mainly been on physical aspects, even though the most commonly stated reason for discontinuation is depression. There are surprisingly few large studies investigating depression related to oral contraceptive use. A pilot study was conducted showing that women using the combined oral contraceptive pill were significantly more depressed than a matched group who were not. More research is needed to better inform women and doctors about depression related to oral contraceptive use, and clinical guidelines are needed regarding the different types of oral contraceptives and their potential depressogenic properties.

  15. Oral contraceptive use changes brain activity and mood in women with previous negative affect on the pill--a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial of a levonorgestrel-containing combined oral contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingnell, Malin; Engman, Jonas; Frick, Andreas; Moby, Lena; Wikström, Johan; Fredrikson, Mats; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2013-07-01

    Most women on combined oral contraceptives (COC) report high levels of satisfaction, but 4-10% complain of adverse mood effects. The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate if COC use would induce more pronounced mood symptoms than placebo in women with previous history of COC-induced adverse mood. A second aim was to determine if COC use is associated with changes in brain reactivity in regions previously associated with emotion processing. Thirty-four women with previous experience of mood deterioration during COC use were randomized to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing COC or placebo. An emotional face matching task (vs. geometrical shapes) was administered during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the COC treatment cycle. Throughout the trial, women recorded daily symptom ratings on the Cyclicity Diagnoser (CD) scale. During the last week of the treatment cycle COC users had higher scores of depressed mood, mood swings, and fatigue than placebo users. COC users also had lower emotion-induced reactivity in the left insula, left middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyri as compared to placebo users. In comparison with their pretreatment cycle, the COC group had decreased emotion-induced reactivity in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, whereas placebo users had decreased reactivity in the right amygdala. COC use in women who previously had experienced emotional side effects resulted in mood deterioration, and COC use was also accompanied by changes in emotional brain reactivity. These findings are of relevance for the understanding of how combined oral contraceptives may influence mood. Placebo-controlled fMRI studies in COC sensitive women could be of relevance for future testing of adverse mood effects in new oral contraceptives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the Oral Contraceptive Pill and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Robert N

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes our current knowledge of the role of the oral contraceptive pill in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBO), followed by a review of fertility in women and men. IBD and pregnancy, including the impact on the fetus and the mother with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, is considered. The safety of drug treatment during pregnancy, the outcome of surgical treatment during pregnancy and the problems that may be encountered during pregnancy in patients with a...

  17. Effects of Gluten Intake on Risk of Celiac Disease: A Case-Control Study on a Swedish Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén Aronsson, Carin; Lee, Hye-Seung; Koletzko, Sibylle; Uusitalo, Ulla; Yang, Jimin; Virtanen, Suvi M; Liu, Edwin; Lernmark, Åke; Norris, Jill M; Agardh, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Early nutrition may affect the risk of celiac disease. We investigated whether amount of gluten in diet until 2 years of age increases risk for celiac disease. We performed a 1-to-3 nested case-control study of 146 cases, resulting in 436 case-control pairs matched for sex, birth year, and HLA genotype generated from Swedish children at genetic risk for celiac disease. Newborns were annually screened for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). If tested tTGA positive, time point of seroconversion was determined from frozen serum samples taken every 3 months. Celiac disease was confirmed by intestinal biopsies. Gluten intake was calculated from 3-day food records collected at ages 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated through conditional logistic regression. Breastfeeding duration (median, 32 wk) and age at first introduction to gluten (median, 22 wk) did not differ between cases and tTGA-negative controls. At the visit before tTGA seroconversion, cases reported a larger intake of gluten than controls (OR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.46; P = .0002). More cases than controls were found in the upper third tertile (ie, >5.0 g/d) before they tested positive for tTGA seroconversion than controls (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.70-4.13; P children homozygous for DR3-DQ2 (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.61-6.30; P = .001), heterozygous for DR3-DQ2 (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.08-4.62; P = .030), and for children not carrying DR3-DQ2 (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 0.90-6.54; P = .079). The amount of gluten consumed until 2 years of age increases the risk of celiac disease at least 2-fold in genetically susceptible children. These findings may be taken into account for future infant feeding recommendations. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social constructions of the male contraception pill: When are we going to break the vicious circle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismore, Lorelle; Van Wersch, Anna; Swainston, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Social constructions of men towards the availability of a male hormonal contraceptive, the 'male pill', were explored. A qualitative approach applying semi-structured interviews and scenarios with 22 men (mean age 35 years) from the North East of England revealed two core constructs and six sub-constructs using a Thematic-Construct Analysis in line with the method of Toerien and Wilkinson and Clarke and Kitzinger. Verbal accounts were inductively used to balance the deductively created two core constructs 'Constructing the male pill norm: dominant system of sensemaking' and 'Living by the male pill norm' to represent a normative framework within a changing ideology of shared responsibility in contraceptive choice. Constructing the male pill norm was divided into two sub-constructs: 'Male pill: we are going to join the women and become responsible - too!' and 'Male pill: you look so girly - what are they going to think of me?' The 'Living by the male pill norm' was further divided into four sub-constructs 'Male pill - thank you for giving me promises not to have to become a dad as yet!'; 'Male pill: thank you for the idea of fun - sorry about my morals!'; 'Male pill: in stable relations - yes, I would have you now - sorry, I am too late!' and 'Male pill, we love you - but we are too anxious - we are not ready as yet!' From this male discourse, it is clear that discussions over the male pill follow the line of a vicious circle. In order to establish long-term side effects, Phase IV studies are necessary, and these cannot commence without the male hormonal contraception being a marketable product. So, unless this circle gets broken by some brave men, the male pill will remain a virtual rotating idea for a long time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Maintenance of ovulation inhibition with a new progestogen-only pill containing drospirenone after scheduled 24-h delays in pill intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Traditional progestogen-only pills (POPs) have stringent daily timing and missed pill rules that might affect contraceptive reliability. A new-generation oestrogen-free pill has been developed, containing 4-mg drospirenone with a unique regimen of 24 active treatment days followed...... of ovulation was maintained after four scheduled 24-h delays in tablet intake. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred thirty healthy women with proven ovulatory cycles were randomized, and 127 were treated with the drospirenone-only pill during two cycles. In treatment Group A (n=62), 24-h delays in tablet intake were...... inhibition by the new-generation oestrogen-free pill, containing 4-mg drospirenone for 24 days followed by a 4-day treatment-free period, was maintained despite four 24-h delays in tablet intake, so the impact of delayed intake on contraceptive reliability will be low....

  20. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  1. The Effect of Assisted Exercise Frequency on Bone Strength in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Erez, Hedva; Eliakim, Alon; Bauer-Rusek, Sofia; Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Sirota, Gisela; Nemet, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to assess whether a twice daily assisted exercise interventional program will have a greater effect on bone strength compared to a once daily intervention or no intervention in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Thirty-four very VLBW preterm infants (mean BW 1217 ± 55 g and mean gestational age 28.6 ± 1.1 weeks) were randomly assigned into one of three study groups: twice daily interventions (n = 13), a once daily intervention (n = 11), and no intervention (control, n = 10). The intervention was initiated at a mean of 8 ± 2.4 days of life and continued for 4 weeks. It included passive extension and flexion range-of-motion exercise of the upper and lower extremities. Bone strength was measured at enrollment and after 2 and 4 weeks using quantitative ultrasound of tibial bone speed of sound (SOS, Sunlight Omnisense™). At enrollment, the mean bone SOS was comparable between the twice daily interventions, once daily intervention and control groups (2918 ± 78, 2943 ± 119, and 2910 ± 48 m/s, respectively). As expected, the bone SOS declined in all groups during the study period (-23.6 ± 24, -68.8 ± 28, and -115.8 ± 30 m/s, respectively, p strength in the twice daily intervention group (p = 0.03). A twice daily intervention program of assisted range-of-motion exercise attenuates the decrease in bone strength and may decrease the risk of osteopenia and future fractures in VLBW preterm infants.

  2. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-12-09

    Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has examined if treating periodontal disease before pregnancy reduces adverse birth outcomes. This study aims to examine if the pre-conception treatment of periodontal disease will lead to improved periodontal status during late pregnancy and subsequent birth outcomes. A sample of 470 (235 in each arm of the study) pre-conception women who plan to conceive within one year and with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. All participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention group will receive free therapy including dental scaling and root planning (the standard therapy), supragingival prophylaxis, and oral hygiene education. The control group will only receive supragingival prophylaxis and oral hygiene education. Women will be followed throughout their pregnancy and then to childbirth. The main outcomes include periodontal disease status in late pregnancy and birth outcomes measured such as mean birth weight (grams), and mean gestational age (weeks). Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through a dental examination by measuring probing depth, clinical attachment loss and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) between gestational age of 32 and 36 weeks. Local and systemic inflammatory mediators are also included as main outcomes. This will be the first RCT to test whether treating periodontal disease among pre-conception women reduces periodontal disease during pregnancy and prevents adverse birth outcomes. If

  3. The MTR 2756A>G polymorphism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio; Bosco, Paolo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migheli, Francesca; Barone, Concetta; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Romano, Corrado; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) is required for the conversion of homocysteine (hcy) to methionine in the one-carbon metabolic pathway. Previous studies investigating a common MTR 2756A>G polymorphism as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS) are conflicting and limited by small case-control cohorts, and its contribution to circulating hcy levels is still debated. We performed a large case-control study and a meta-analysis of the literature to further address the role of MTR 2756A>G as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with DS. 286 mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 305 control mothers of Italian origin were included in the case-control study. Genotyping was performed by means of PCR/RFLP technique. Data on circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 were available for 189 MDS and 194 control mothers. The meta analysis of previous and present data involved a total of 8 studies (1,171 MDS and 1,402 control mothers). Both the case-control study and the meta-analysis showed no association of MTR 2756A>G with the maternal risk of birth of a child with DS (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI 0.85-1.55, and OR = 1.08; 95 % CI 0.93-1.25, respectively), even after stratification of the overall data available for the meta-analysis into ethnic groups. No association of the studied polymorphism with circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 was observed. Present data do not support a role for MTR 2756A>G as independent maternal risk factor for a DS birth.

  4. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations; Comment on “The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsa L. Lottes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that “the pill is mightier than the sword.” I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism.

  5. Acceptability of the use of cellular telephone and computer pictures/video for "pill counts" in buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive plan to attempt to minimize the diversion of prescribed controlled substances, many professional organization and licensing boards are recommending the use of "pill counts." This study sought to evaluate acceptability of the use of cellular phone and computer pictures/video for "pill counts" by patients in buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Patients prescribed buprenorphine/naloxone were asked a series of questions related to the type(s) of electronic communication to which they had access as well as their willingness to use these for the purpose of performing a "pill/film count." Of the 80 patients, 4 (5 percent) did not have a phone at all. Only 28 (35 percent) had a "smart phone" with some sort of data plan and Internet access. Forty (50 percent) of the patients had a phone with no camera and 10 (12.5 percent) had a phone with a camera but no video capability. All patients said that they would be willing to periodically use the video or camera on their phone or computer to have buprenorphine/naloxone pills or film counted as long as the communication was protected from electronic tampering. With the advent of applications for smart phones that allow for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996-compliant picture/video communication, a number of things can now be done that can enhance patient care as well as reduce the chances of misuse/diversion of prescribed medications. This could be used in settings where a larger proportion of controlled substances are prescribed including medication assisted therapy for opioid use disorders and pain management programs.

  6. Effect of a contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest (E2V/DNG) in women with menstrually-related migraine (MRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Terreno, Erica; Sances, Grazia; Martini, Ellis; Tonani, Silvia; Santamaria, Valentina; Tassorelli, Cristina; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2013-09-01

    Combined hormonal contraception might worsen migraine in sensitive women, especially during the free-hormone interval, and raise concerns about the vascular risk. The characteristics of a contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG) might be of potential benefit in women with menstrually related migraine (MRM) who choose to use oral contraception for birth control. This was a prospective diary-based pilot study. Thirty-two women (age >35 years) [n=18 who had never used combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and n=14 who had previously used COCs] diagnosed with MRMs according to the International Headache Society criteria were included. During the observational period, women filled in a diary with the clinical characteristics of migraine attacks. After a three-cycle run-in period, each subject received a COC containing E2V/DNG (Qlaira®/Natazia®; Bayer HealthCare, Berlin, Germany) administered using an estrogen step-down and progestogen step-up approach. Follow-up evaluations were scheduled at the last cycle of run-in and at the third and sixth cycles of treatment. The number of migraine attacks was significantly reduced at the third (p<.001) and sixth cycles (p<.001) in comparison with the run-in period. A similar result was evident for the duration (p<.001 at the third and p<.001 at the sixth cycle) as well as for the severity of head pain (p<.001 at the third and p<.001 at the sixth month). Indeed, a significantly lower number of analgesics were used at the third cycle (p<.001) in comparison with baseline, and a further decrease was evident at the sixth cycle (p<.001) in comparison with the third cycle of E2V/DNG use. Interestingly, duration and severity of head pain were significantly correlated with the number of days of dysmenorrhea at the third cycle (r=.89, p=.000 and r=.67, p=.02; respectively) and at the sixth cycle (r=.76, p=.000 and r=.62, p=.04; respectively) in women without complete remission of menstrual cramps during the study

  7. A randomised controlled trial of early insulin therapy in very low birth weight infants, "NIRTURE" (neonatal insulin replacement therapy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornette Luc

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in adult intensive care have highlighted the importance of insulin and improved glucose control on survival, with 32% reduction in mortality, 22% reduction in intensive care stay and halving of the incidence of bacteraemia. Very low birth weight infants requiring intensive care also have relative insulin deficiency often leading to hyperglycaemia during the first week of life. The physiological influences on insulin secretion and sensitivity, and the potential importance of glucose control at this time are not well established. However there is increasing evidence that the early postnatal period is critical for pancreatic development. At this time a complex set of signals appears to influence pancreatic development and β cell survival. This has implications both in terms of acute glucose control but also relative insulin deficiency is likely to play a role in poor postnatal growth, which has been associated with later motor and cognitive impairment, and fewer β cells are linked to risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. Methods A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of early insulin replacement in very low birth weight babies (VLBW, birth weight Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78428828. EUDRACT Number 2004-002170-34

  8. Historical and social context for birth planning in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J M

    1988-01-01

    Iceland is a rugged subarctic island 600 miles from Norway and 500 miles from Scotland. From the mid-14th to the end of the 18th century the island was virtually isolated. Isolation and sociocultural factors interacted to delay the fertility transition in Iceland until late in the 20th century. In 1983 Iceland had the highest crude birth rate of any developed country -- 18.4/1000. Between 1890-1982, the population almost tripled, to 235,501 inhabitants. The total fertility rate is 2.2, down from 4.17 in 1960. Combined with a high birth rate was a low mortality rate of 7.0/1000 of the population and a life expectancy of 79.5 years for women and 73.9 years for men -- the highest in the world. Infant mortality is only 6.2/1000 live births. This combination of high fertility, low mortality, and low emigration caused the high population growth. By the end of the 18th century, Iceland had achieved near universal literacy, and education through university is free, but not until 1960 did a woman receive a doctorate from the University of Iceland. By 198, 2/3 of women in Iceland participated in the labor force, but their earnings were only 2/3 those of men. In 1983 a Women's Party was formed, and women now hold 15% of the seats in the Althing (Parliament). Marriage rates have declined to 5.22/1000 of the population. The unique marital pattern of Iceland contributes to the high (41%) illegitimacy rate. Icelandic couples cohabit and have a child or 2 before they marry. They therefore tend to marry late (25.5 for men, 23.3 for women). Health care, including family planning services, is free in Iceland; and there is a medical school, a school of pharmacy, and 2 nursing schools. 35% of Icelandic women 20-40 years of age use either the pill or the IUD. Over-the-counter contraceptives are also available, and an average of 358 women are sterilized each year. The abortion rate is only 10.6/1000 females 15-49 years of age. The Birth Control Act of 1975 calls for the provision of sex

  9. [Study on absorption ingredients of yuanhuzhitong pill by everted intestinal sac method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Yingchun; Lin, Shuo; Yang, Hongjun; Wu, Hongwei; Li, Shaojing; Li, Defeng; Xu, Haiyu

    2012-07-01

    To establish an everted intestinal sac method for determining absorption ingredients of yuanhuzhitong pill and study absorption characteristics of major chemical constituents of yuanhuzhitong pill. The everted intestinal sac model was adopted. Intestinal sac fluid samples at different time points after administration of three concentrations of Yuanhuzhitong pill were collected and determined by HPLC. The accumulative absorbed doses of active constituents were calculated, while the proportion between samples of yuanhuzhitong pill and absorption ingredients was compared. Eight ingredients of Yuanhuzhitong pill can be detected in intestinal sac, they are protopine, palmatine, coptisine, imperatorin, berberine, byakangelicin, alpha-allocryptopine and tetrahydropalmatine. The absorption rate constants (Ka) of eight constituents increased in jejunum and ileum with the increase in concentration of Yuanhuzhitong pill extracts (P absorption. As ingredients are selectively absorbed in intestinal sac, the everted intestinal sac method is selected to assess the intestinal absorption characteristics of ingredients of Yuanhuzhitong prescription.

  10. Effects of Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation on Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwen; Mei, Zuguo; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Li, Nan; Ye, Rongwei; Ren, Aiguo; Liu, Jian-Meng; Serdula, Mary K

    2017-08-01

    In this secondary analysis of data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial carried out in northern China, we aimed to assess the effect of prenatal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron + folic acid (IFA), versus folic acid (FA) alone, on risk of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and the impact of supplementation timing on SPB. A total of 18,775 nulliparous pregnant women enrolled between 2006 and 2009 were randomly assigned to receive daily FA, IFA, or MMN from the period before 20 weeks' gestation to delivery. The incidences of SPB for women consuming FA, IFA, and MMN were 5.7%, 5.6% and 5.1%, respectively. Compared with women given FA, the relative risks of SPB for those using MMN and IFA were 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.16) and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.05), respectively. SPB incidence in women who started consuming FA, IFA, and MMN before the 12th week of gestation (4.6%, 4.2%, and 3.9%, respectively) was significantly reduced compared with starting supplement use on or after the 12th gestational week (6.9%, 7.2%, and 6.4%, respectively). Starting use of FA, IFA, or MMN supplements before the 12th week of gestation produced a 41%-45% reduction in risk of SPB. Early prenatal enrollment and micronutrient use during the first trimester of pregnancy appeared to be of particular importance for prevention of SPB, regardless of supplement group. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Psychosocial and academic characteristics of extremely low birth weight (< or =800 g) adolescents who are free of major impairment compared with term-born control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Ruth E; Whitfield, Michael F; Fay, Taryn B

    2004-12-01

    To compare academic and cognitive ability, attention, attitudes, and behavior of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) adolescents who are free of major impairments at 17 years of age with term-born control subjects. Between January 31, 1981, and February 9, 1986, 250 infants of Teens with major sensorimotor handicaps and/or IQ teens, 53 (67%) were assessed at 17.3 (16.3-19.7) years (birth weight: 720 [520-800 g]; gestation: 26 [23-29] weeks). The test battery screened the following areas: cognitive (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults Third Edition, 3 subtests), academic (Wide Range Achievement Test-3), attention (Connors' Continuous Performance Task), self-report (Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents; Job Search Attitude Inventory), and parent report (Child Behavior Check List). A comparison group of term born control subjects (n = 31) were also assessed (birth weight: 3506 [3068-4196] g; gestation: 40 [39-42] weeks) at age 17.8 (16.5-19.0) years. Multivariate analysis of variance (group x gender) was conducted for each domain (cognitive, academic, self-report, and parent report). The ELBW group showed lower cognitive scores (vocabulary, block design, and digit symbol) and academic skills (reading and arithmetic) compared with control subjects, with no gender differences. There were no differences in attention between the 2 groups using a repetitive computer task. ELBW teens reported lower scholastic, athletic, job competence, and romantic confidence and viewed themselves as more likely to need help from others in finding a job. In the behavioral domain, parents reported their ELBW teens to display more internalizing, more externalizing, and more total problems than the control teens, with ELBW boys showing more problems. ELBW teens showed a higher percentage of clinically significant behavior problems than control subjects. In a provincial cohort of unimpaired survivors of birth weight < or =800 g, psychosocial and educational vulnerabilities persist

  12. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  13. Using caffeine pills for performance enhancement. An experimental study on university students’ willingness and their intention to try neuroenhancements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eBrand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical, non-addictive use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience, especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%, low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5% or control condition (no information about peer prevalence. Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants’ willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40 45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  14. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  15. Search for an Emergency Contraception Provider in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency contraception provider. Concerned about cost? Click here . ---------- Emergency contraceptive pills are stocked by all major pharmacy chains, ... daily birth control pills you can use as emergency contraceptive pills. You can search for a provider in ...

  16. Influence of pill burden and drug cost on renal function after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardinger, Karen L; Hutcherson, Timothy; Preston, David; Murillo, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    To determine the influence of pill burden and drug cost on outcomes after renal transplantation. Retrospective medical record review. Kidney and pancreas transplantation center. Sixty-eight adults who underwent kidney or kidney-pancreas transplantation during 2007. The median pretransplantation pill burden was 15 pills/day, which increased to 25 pills/day at 1 month after transplantation and returned to 16 pills/day by 1 year after transplantation. Pretransplantation pill burden was lower than the burden at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after transplantation (pafter transplantation ($2564/mo, p=0.04) but was similar thereafter. Higher pretransplantation pill burden was associated with increased serum creatinine concentration at 6 months after transplantation (r=0.288, p=0.017). Higher pill burdens at 1 month (r=0.364, p=0.002), 3 months (r=0.332, p=0.006), and 6 months (r=0.374, p=0.002) were associated with increased 3-month serum creatinine concentration. Higher drug costs were associated with increased serum creatinine concentrations throughout the study. Higher pretransplantation pill burden and higher drug cost may be associated with poor renal function after transplantation. Further study addressing factors associated with nonadherence is needed. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. Differential impact of contraceptive methods on seizures varies by antiepileptic drug category: Findings of the Epilepsy Birth Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Andrew G; Mandle, Hannah B; Cahill, Kaitlyn E; Fowler, Kristen M; Hauser, W Allen

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether categories of contraception differ in their impact on seizures in women with epilepsy and whether the impact varies by antiepileptic drug category. Retrospective survey data came from 2712 contraceptive experiences reported by 1144 women with epilepsy. We compared risk ratios for reports of increase and decrease in seizure frequency on hormonal versus nonhormonal contraception, stratified by antiepileptic drug categories. More women with epilepsy reported a change in seizures on hormonal (28.2%) than on nonhormonal contraception (9.7%) (pcontraception (4.2%) was 4.47 (pcontraception (5.5%) was 1.71, pcontraception, the risk ratio for seizure increase was greater than for decrease (1.98, pmethod with a greater risk ratio for seizure decrease than combined pills. Seizure increase was greater for hormonal than nonhormonal contraception for each antiepileptic drug category (pcontraception, relative to the non-enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug category which had the lowest rate, each of the other categories had significantly greater risks for seizure increase, especially the enzyme-inhibiting (valproate) category (risk ratio=2.53, p=0.0002). The findings provide community-based, epidemiological survey evidence that contraceptive methods may differ in their impact on seizures and that this impact may vary by antiepileptic drug category. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  19. THE IDENTIFICATION OF PILL USING FEATURE EXTRACTION IN IMAGE MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hema

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the help of image mining techniques, an automatic pill identification system was investigated in this study for matching the images of the pills based on its several features like imprint, color, size and shape. Image mining is an inter-disciplinary task requiring expertise from various fields such as computer vision, image retrieval, image matching and pattern recognition. Image mining is the method in which the unusual patterns are detected so that both hidden and useful data images can only be stored in large database. It involves two different approaches for image matching. This research presents a drug identification, registration, detection and matching, Text, color and shape extraction of the image with image mining concept to identify the legal and illegal pills with more accuracy. Initially, the preprocessing process is carried out using novel interpolation algorithm. The main aim of this interpolation algorithm is to reduce the artifacts, blurring and jagged edges introduced during up-sampling. Then the registration process is proposed with two modules they are, feature extraction and corner detection. In feature extraction the noisy high frequency edges are discarded and relevant high frequency edges are selected. The corner detection approach detects the high frequency pixels in the intersection points. Through the overall performance gets improved. There is a need of segregate the dataset into groups based on the query image’s size, shape, color, text, etc. That process of segregating required information is called as feature extraction. The feature extraction is done using Geometrical Gradient feature transformation. Finally, color and shape feature extraction were performed using color histogram and geometrical gradient vector. Simulation results shows that the proposed techniques provide accurate retrieval results both in terms of time and accuracy when compared to conventional approaches.

  20. [Serious adverse effect of combined oral contraceptive pills among teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Malin Chatarina; Clausen, Helle V

    2014-06-23

    PubMed-search found studies investigating adverse effects of combined oral contraceptive pills (COC) among teenagers. Four studies found a small negative impact of COC on acquisition of bone mineral density. COC is associated with elevated risk of venous thrombotic events (VTE), especially during the first year of usage. VTE risk increases with EE dose and progestin of 3rd and 4th generation. There are several difficulties in studying COC use in teenagers: high dropout rates, ethical considerations and many different COC formulas.

  1. A Statewide Nested Case-Control Study of Preterm Birth and Air Pollution by Source and Composition: California, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Hu, Jianlin; Li, Lianfa; Kleeman, Michael J; Bartell, Scott M; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Wu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) has been associated with exposure to air pollution, but it is unclear whether effects might vary among air pollution sources and components. We studied the relationships between PTB and exposure to different components of air pollution, including gases and particulate matter (PM) by size fraction, chemical composition, and sources. Fine and ultrafine PM (respectively, PM2.5 and PM0.1) by source and composition were modeled across California over 2000-2008. Measured PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone concentrations were spatially interpolated using empirical Bayesian kriging. Primary traffic emissions at fine scale were modeled using CALINE4 and traffic indices. Data on maternal characteristics, pregnancies, and birth outcomes were obtained from birth certificates. Associations between PTB (n = 442,314) and air pollution exposures defined according to the maternal residence at birth were examined using a nested matched case-control approach. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education and neighborhood income. Adjusted odds ratios for PTB in association with interquartile range (IQR) increases in average exposure during pregnancy were 1.133 (95% CI: 1.118, 1.148) for total PM2.5, 1.096 (95% CI: 1.085, 1.108) for ozone, and 1.079 (95% CI: 1.065, 1.093) for nitrogen dioxide. For primary PM, the strongest associations per IQR by source were estimated for onroad gasoline (9-11% increase), followed by onroad diesel (6-8%) and commercial meat cooking (4-7%). For PM2.5 composition, the strongest positive associations per IQR were estimated for nitrate, ammonium, and secondary organic aerosols (11-14%), followed by elemental and organic carbon (2-4%). Associations with local traffic emissions were positive only when analyses were restricted to births with residences geocoded at the tax parcel level. In our statewide nested case-control study population, exposures to both primary and secondary pollutants were associated with an

  2. A Statewide Nested Case–Control Study of Preterm Birth and Air Pollution by Source and Composition: California, 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Hu, Jianlin; Li, Lianfa; Kleeman, Michael J.; Bartell, Scott M.; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth (PTB) has been associated with exposure to air pollution, but it is unclear whether effects might vary among air pollution sources and components. Objectives: We studied the relationships between PTB and exposure to different components of air pollution, including gases and particulate matter (PM) by size fraction, chemical composition, and sources. Methods: Fine and ultrafine PM (respectively, PM2.5 and PM0.1) by source and composition were modeled across California over 2000–2008. Measured PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone concentrations were spatially interpolated using empirical Bayesian kriging. Primary traffic emissions at fine scale were modeled using CALINE4 and traffic indices. Data on maternal characteristics, pregnancies, and birth outcomes were obtained from birth certificates. Associations between PTB (n = 442,314) and air pollution exposures defined according to the maternal residence at birth were examined using a nested matched case–control approach. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education and neighborhood income. Results: Adjusted odds ratios for PTB in association with interquartile range (IQR) increases in average exposure during pregnancy were 1.133 (95% CI: 1.118, 1.148) for total PM2.5, 1.096 (95% CI: 1.085, 1.108) for ozone, and 1.079 (95% CI: 1.065, 1.093) for nitrogen dioxide. For primary PM, the strongest associations per IQR by source were estimated for onroad gasoline (9–11% increase), followed by onroad diesel (6–8%) and commercial meat cooking (4–7%). For PM2.5 composition, the strongest positive associations per IQR were estimated for nitrate, ammonium, and secondary organic aerosols (11–14%), followed by elemental and organic carbon (2–4%). Associations with local traffic emissions were positive only when analyses were restricted to births with residences geocoded at the tax parcel level. Conclusions: In our statewide nested case–control study population, exposures

  3. A Randomized controlled trial of enteral glutamine supplementation in very low birth weight infants: Plasma amino acid concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Teerlink, T.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Fetter, Willem P. F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Glutamine depletion has negative effects on the functional integrity of the gut and leads to immunosuppression. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion, as enteral nutrition is limited in the first weeks of life. Enteral glutamine supplementation may

  4. A randomized controlled trial of enteral glutamine supplementation in very low birth weight infants: plasma amino acid concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.; van Elburg, R.M.; Teerlink, T.; Lafeber, H.N.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Fetter, W.P.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Glutamine depletion has negative effects on the functional integrity of the gut and leads to immunosuppression. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion, as enteral nutrition is limited in the first weeks of life. Enteral glutamine supplementation may

  5. Antiretroviral pill count and clinical outcomes in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J; Smith, C; Teira, R; Reiss, P; Jarrín Vera, I; Crane, H; Miro, J M; D'Arminio Monforte, A; Saag, M; Zangerle, R; Bucher, H C

    2018-02-01

    Treatment guidelines recommend single-tablet regimens for patients with HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy. These regimens might be as effective and cost less if taken as separate drugs. We assessed whether the one pill once a day combination of efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir reduces the risk of disease progression compared with multiple-pill formulations of the same regimen. We selected treatment-naïve patients starting one-, two- or three-pill formulations of this regimen in data from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. These patients were followed until an AIDS event or death or until they modified their regimen. We analysed these data using Cox regression models, then used our models to predict the potential consequences of exposing a future population to either a one-pill regimen or a three-pill regimen. Among 11 739 treatment-naïve patients starting the regimen, there were 386 AIDS events and 87 deaths. Follow-up often ended when patients switched to the same regimen with fewer pills. After the first month, two pills rather than one was associated with an increase in the risk of AIDS or death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.91], but three pills rather than two did not appreciably add to that increase (HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.84-1.68). We estimate that 77 patients would need to be exposed to a one-pill regimen rather than a three-pill regimen for 1 year to avoid one additional AIDS event or death. This particular single-tablet regimen is associated with a modest decrease in the risk of AIDS or death relative to multiple-pill formulations. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  6. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively f...... explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates....

  7. Possible association of first and high birth order of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Young, low-birth-weight men are not more susceptible to the diabetogenic effects of a prolonged free fatty acid exposure than matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Progression from normal to impaired glucose tolerance and overt diabetes may depend, to some extent, on elevation of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs). We undertook this study to elucidate whether...... a prolonged physiological lipid load could unmask or augment existing metabolic defects in otherwise healthy young LBW subjects. Forty 19-year-old men (LBW [n = 20], controls [normal birth weight, NBW] [n = 20]) without a family history of diabetes underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test (0.3 g kg(-1......)), followed by 2-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (2 x 120 minutes: 10 and 40 mU m(-2) min(-1)) in combination with [3-3H]-glucose and indirect calorimetry. The tests were preceded, in randomized order, by a 24-hour continuous intralipid (20%, 0.4 mg mL(-1) h(-1)) or saline infusion. Estimates...

  9. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu režiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist, Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  10. Provision of emergency contraceptive pills to spermicide users in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, A; Nerquaye-Tetteh, J; Glover, E K; Amankwah-Poku, A; Hays, M; Raymond, E

    2000-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of two approaches to provision of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) on ECP use and unprotected intercourse among women relying on spermicides for contraception. The study enrolled 211 women at 4 family planning clinics in Ghana. At two clinics, participants were advised to return to the clinic within 3 days after unprotected intercourse to obtain ECPs. At the other two clinics, participants were given ECPs to take home for use if unprotected intercourse occurred. All participants were asked to maintain daily diaries for 8 weeks to record information on sexual activity, spermicide use, and ECP use. Women at all clinics used ECPs after at least 78% of unprotected coital acts. ECPs were used more promptly by women who had the pills at home. At three of the clinics, at most 1.3% of the coital acts were unprotected; at the fourth, 6.7% were unprotected. Our data did not suggest that the availability of ECPs increased the frequency of unprotected intercourse.

  11. Cloxacillin: A New Cause of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Zezos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large variety of medications can cause pill-induced esophagitis. Herein we present a case of cloxacillin-induced esophagitis. A 66-year-old male presented with an acute onset of epigastric and retrosternal pain on the 5th day of a course of oral cloxacillin prescribed for erysipelas. Initial clinical and imaging assessment was negative and he was sent home. A few days later, he returned with persistent severe retrosternal pain; endoscopy at the same day revealed a normal upper esophagus, several small stellate erosions in the midesophagus, and a normal squamocolumnar junction with a small hiatus hernia. Treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg bid and MucaineR suspension resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms. Pill-induced esophagitis may be underreported by patients, when symptoms are mild and unrecognized and/or underdiagnosed by the clinicians as a cause of retrosternal pain, odynophagia, or dysphagia. Failure of early recognition may result in unnecessary diagnostic investigations and prolongation of the patient’s discomfort. This case signifies the importance of enhancing clinician awareness for drug-associated esophageal injury when assessing patients with retrosternal pain, as well as the value of prophylaxis against this unpleasant condition by universally recommending drinking enough water in an upright position during ingestion of any oral medication.

  12. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  13. A danger of induction of Brugada syndrome during pill-in-the-pocket therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyasu Aizawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiyasu Aizawa, Tomohiro Matsuhashi, Toshiaki Sato, Seiji Takatsuki, Keiichi FukudaDivision of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Rhythm control therapy by sodium channel blockers is widely performed for the ­treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Here, we present a case of acquired Brugada ­syndrome by pill-in-the-pocket treatment using pilsicainide. It is important that this therapy should be applied only after confirming the drug safety to the patients.Keywords: syncope, sudden death, drug, rhythm control, pilsicainide, atrial flutter

  14. Birth characteristics of women with Marfan syndrome, obstetric and neonatal outcomes of their pregnancies-A nationwide cohort and case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernell, Kristina; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Josefsson, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to investigate birth characteristics, obstetric and neonatal outcomes of the first childbirth in women with Marfan syndrome by use of Swedish national registers since pregnancy-related outcomes in women with Marfan syndrome have only been sparsely investigated. In this national population-based cohort study and matched case-control study of Swedish women born 1973-1993, women with Marfan syndrome (n=273) were compared to women without the condition (n=1 017 265). The study population was followed until 2013. A total of 364 553 mother-firstborn-offspring pairs were analyzed. Sixty-one women with Marfan syndrome became mothers. Women with Marfan syndrome were also compared to 543 healthy controls. Women with Marfan syndrome were more often born preterm (pMarfan syndrome had no increased risk of giving birth by cesarean section (p=0.079). No increased neonatal risks in their children were found. Women with Marfan syndrome were less likely to give birth than those without (pMarfan syndrome were more likely to be born preterm, SGA and by cesarean section. These increased risks of preterm birth and SGA babies were not found in connection with their own first childbirth. Pregnancies with known fetal Marfan syndrome have to be carefully monitored. The results are important for obstetricians giving preconception counseling and treating women with Marfan syndrome. Further studies are needed to evaluate risks during pregnancy and long-term effects of pregnancy on the cardiovascular status of women with Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of prenatal n-3 fatty acid supplementation on offspring resolvins at birth and 12 years of age: a double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Valene H L; Mas, Emilie; Prescott, Susan L; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burrows, Sally; Barden, Anne E; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A

    2017-12-01

    Resolution of inflammation is an active process involving specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPM) generated from the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy may provide an intervention strategy to modify these novel SPM. This study aimed to assess the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on offspring SPM at birth and 12 years of age (12 years). In all, ninety-eight atopic pregnant women were randomised to 3·7 g daily n-3 fatty acids or a control (olive oil), from 20 weeks gestation until delivery. Blood was collected from the offspring at birth and at 12 years. Plasma SPM consisting of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), E-series resolvins, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), D-series resolvins, 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA), 10 S,17S-dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, maresins and protectin 1, were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. We identified the resolvins RvE1, RvE2, RvE3, RvD1, 17R-RvD1 and RvD2 for the first time in human cord blood. n-3 Fatty acids increased cord blood 18-HEPE (Pbirth was significantly increased in the n-3 fatty acid group relative to the controls (P=0·001), but other SPM were not different between the groups. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy was associated with an increase in SPM precursors in the offspring at birth but the effects were not sustained at 12 years. The presence of these SPM, particularly at birth, may have functions relevant in the newborn that remain to be established, which may be useful for future investigations.

  16. Kino Kosmos Imax = Kosmos Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe ; kommenteerinud Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45. 1964. aastal valminud hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi. Renoveeritud interjööri autorid Pille Lausmäe, Kerli Lepp (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuri büroo). Projekti autorid Urmas Lõoke, Riina Poopuu (Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo)

  17. Study on anti-atherosclerotic effect of suxiao jiuxin pill and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Suxiao Jiuxin Pill is composed of Ligusticum wallichii, Borneolum Syntheticum and other drugs; it has qi promoting and blood circulation activating, meridian dredging and pain relieving efficacies. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (quick-acting heart reliever), in atherosclerosis ...

  18. Validation of self-report and hospital pill count using unannounced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is very crucial for successful treatment outcomes. This study aimed to validate patient-self report (PSR) and hospital based pill count (HoPC) as adherence determination methods by using unannounced home visit pill count (HPC). The study was carried out at Muhimbili National ...

  19. Study regarding the physical-mechanical properties of knits for garments – pilling performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coldea Alina Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the pilling degradation results is an important decreasing in garment quality and a negative influence on the user’s comfort to wear. There are a lot factors, such as the yarn spinning system, fabric geometry and finishing operation, which affect the pilling performance. This research paper presents the investigation of fabric surface concerning pilling formation, especially knits, influenced by the fibrous composition. As samples were used knitted fabric panels, obtained from carded yarns, with fibers composition like cotton, wool or mixed one. Regarding fabric geometry 3 types were used – single jersey, 2x2 rib and moss stitch. In order to establish which of the yarns are most appropriate for knitting garments from the point of view of pilling resistance were realized tests using the standard SR EN ISO 12945-2.The tests were performed with the Nu-Martindale – Abrasion and Pilling Tester, Model 864.For assessment were used two methods – the first one is a comparison with visual standards, tested fabrics or photographs of fabrics, to find the degree of pilling on a scale from 5 (no pilling to 1 (very severe pilling and the second one by determination of mass loss percent.

  20. Pilling evaluation of patterned fabrics based on a gradient field method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Techniková, L.; Tunák, M.; Janáček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2016), s. 97-101 ISSN 0971-0426 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3D surface reconstruction * fabric pilling * gradient field method * patterned fabric * pills detection Subject RIV: JS - Reliability ; Quality Management, Testing Impact factor: 0.430, year: 2016

  1. Sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe - Tallinna töö- ja toidukultuuri looja / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Omanimelise arhitektuuribüroo omanik sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe oma elust ja tööst, isast sisearhitekt Väino Tammest. Eesti Kunstiakadeemias õpib sisearhitektuuri ka Pille poeg Ville Lausmäe ja töötab ema büroos. Pillet iseloomustavad Priit Põldme, Riina Sildots, Rein Tallermo, Mari Kaljuste

  2. Efficacy of Probiotics Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, T.; Ali, M.M.; Hossain, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study Design: Arandomized double blind controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The Paediatrics Department of Sylhet M.A.G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet Bangladesh, from July 2012 to June 2015. Methodology: Preterm (28 - 33 weeks gestation) VLBW (birth weight 1000 - 1499 g) neonates were enrolled. The study group was fed with probiotics once daily with breast milk from first feeding, and the control group with only breast milk without the addition of probiotics. Both the groups received other standard care. The primary outcome was the development of NEC (stage II and III), categorized by modified Bell's classification. Result: In 108 neonates, development of NEC was significantly lower in the study group than that of control group [1 (1.9 percent) vs. 6 (11.5 percent); p=0.044]. Age of achievement of full oral feeding was significantly earlier in the study group than that in the control group (14.88 ±3.15 and 18.80 ±4.32 days; p < 0.001). Duration of hospital stay was significantly short in the study group compared to the control group (15.82 ±2.94 days vs. 19.57 ±4.26 days; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation reduces the frequency of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm neonates with very low birth weight. It is also associated with faster achievement of full oral feeding and short duration of hospital stay. (author)

  3. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... at determining whether there was a difference in rates of LBW in areas of varying malaria transmission intensity in Korogwe, Tanzania. Retrospective data for one year (June 2004-May 2005) in three maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in the district were analysed. Villages were stratified into three strata...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  4. Efficacy of combined hormonal vaginal ring in comparison to combined hormonal pills in heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Pushpa; Dalal, Monika; Yadav, Anu; Dahiya, Krishna; Jain, Shaveta; Silan, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    To compare the efficacy, acceptability and compliance of combined hormonal vaginal ring (CVR), with combined hormonal pills (CHP) in patients with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). This prospective study was conducted in 50 women with HMB in age group of 25-40 years. Patients were divided in two groups of 25 each and followed for six treatment cycles. In each group, cycle comprised of three weeks of CVR (releases 15μg of EE and 120μg of the etonogestrel per day) or CHP (containing 30μgm of EE and 150μgm of LNG) use, followed by one ring or pill free week. After each cycle, patients were evaluated about the amount of blood loss and duration of bleeding by the pictoral blood assessment chart (PBAC), early bleeding (EWB), continued bleeding (CWB), intermenstrual bleeding, intended bleeding, compliance, and user acceptability. The collected data were analyzed using the Chi square test, t-test and ANOVA test. Reduction in PBAC score for CVR (70.73%) and CHP group (70.02%), duration of bleeding and incidence of EWB was comparable among the two groups. The incidence of intermenstrual bleeding was lower in CVR than in CHP group in cycle 3 and 4 with significant p value. The incidence of CWB was significantly lower and the incidence of intended bleeding pattern in CVR group was significantly higher in cycle 3, 4, 5 and 6, signifying better cycle control. Compliance was also higher in CVR (88%) than CHC (75.33% of all cycles). This trial suggests that both the CVR and CHP are very effective short-term treatments for HMB in reproductive age group. However, women had better cycle control and compliance with CVR. This may be an attractive option among the wide variety of medications used to treat HMB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency of Candidiasis and Colonization of Candida albicans in Relation to Oral Contraceptive Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Atousa; Sabeti Sanat, Ali; Nik Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Candidiasis, the infection caused by Candida albicans , is one of the most common infections of the oral cavity in humans. Candidiasis causes irritation and is known for its carcinogenic effects. Thus, it is important to recognize the predisposing factors for this opportunistic infection. Several previous studies have demonstrated an increased frequency of vaginal candidiasis in relation to oral contraceptive consumption. Only a few studies on the relation between oral contraceptives and oral candidiasis have been previously conducted. This study aims to evaluate the possible relation between oral contraceptive pills and oral candidiasis. This analytic, case-control study included 40 non-pregnant women divided into two groups: 20 who used oral contraceptive pills and 20 who did not. The groups were matched according to age, oral health, and past and present medical history. Samples were collected from the tongue's dorsum using a cotton swab and inoculated on CHROMagar culture plates. The frequency of positive cultures and the number of Candida colonies were compared between the two groups using independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney statistical tests with SPSS18 software. The frequency of positive cultures of Candida albicans was higher (P value = 0.03) for the case group. Also, the number of C. albicans and C. krusei was significantly higher for the case group compared to the control group (P value = 0.04, P value = 0.03). The results of the present study demonstrate that oral contraceptives containing estradiol can lead to Candida colonization in the oral cavity. It is recommended that further studies comparing the influence of oral contraceptives on Candida's adherence to the epithelium is highly recommended.

  6. Women's social networks and use of facility delivery services for uncomplicated births in North West Ethiopia: a community-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrese, Kerebih; Adamek, Margaret E

    2017-12-28

    High maternal mortality has remained an unmet public health challenge in the developing world. Maternal mortality in Ethiopia is among the highest in the world. Since most maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, facility delivery with skilled birth attendants is recommended to reduce maternal mortality. Nonetheless, the majority of women in Ethiopia give birth at home. Individual attributes and availability and accessibility of services deter service utilization. The role of social networks that may facilitate or constrain service use is not well studied. Community-based case-control study was conducted between February and March 2014 in Jabi Tehinan District, North West Ethiopia. Retrospective data were collected from 134 women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 140 women who had uncomplicated births at home within a year preceding the survey. Interviews were held with eight women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 11 who had uncomplicated births at home. The quantitative data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for Windows versions 16.0 and hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and data were used to substantiate the quantitative data. The results indicated that social network variables were significantly associated with the use of health facilities for delivery. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of facility use for delivery services over women's individual attributes. Women embedded within homogeneous network members (Adjusted OR 2.53; 95% CI: 1.26-5.06) and embedded within high SBA endorsement networks (Adjusted OR 7.97; 95% CI: 4.07-12.16) were more likely to deliver at health facilities than their counterparts. Women living in urban areas (Adjusted OR 3.32; 95% CI: 1.37-8.05) and had better knowledge of obstetric complications (Adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46-6.18) were more likely to

  7. The comparative study of side effect of the two kinds of LD combined oral contraceptive pills containing Norgestimate and Levonorgestrel

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazizade Sh; Nowruzi A

    1998-01-01

    In order to compare the new generation of oral contraceptive pills containing Norgestimate (NGM) with currently available pills containing levonorgestrel (LNG) a clinical trial was conducted. 413 women (age 18-35 years) with no contrainindication to pill use entered the study and randomly received one type of pills. Premenstrual syndrome and depression were significantly decreased in NGM group (P=0.00016, P=0.005), on the other hand, breast tenderness, mood changes and hair loss were signific...

  8. Sleep complaints: Whenever possible, avoid the use of sleeping pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    and altered vigilance, and atropinic effects; (9) Case-control studies showed a statistical link between benzodiazepine use in early pregnancy and birth defects such as cleft lip. In contrast, data on the use of doxylamine during pregnancy are reassuring; (10) Other sedative psychotropics have not been adequately tested in this setting or have been shown to have a negative risk-benefit balance; (11) In practice, patients who complain of poor-quality sleep should be given appropriate information on the mechanisms of normal sleep and related misconceptions, on the best methods for getting to sleep, and on the dangers of sedative psychotropics (dependence, withdrawal syndrome). When prescribing or dispensing a benzodiazepine to a woman of child-bearing age, the risk of birth defects, although not clearly demonstrated, must be mentioned.

  9. Predicting the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to reduce early preterm birth in Australia and the United States using results of within country randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, L N; Gajewski, B J; Colombo, J; Gibson, R A; Makrides, M; Carlson, S E

    2016-09-01

    The DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) and Kansas DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) were randomized controlled trials that supplemented mothers with 800 and 600mg DHA/day, respectively, or a placebo during pregnancy. DOMInO was conducted in Australia and KUDOS in the United States. Both trials found an unanticipated and statistically significant reduction in early preterm birth (ePTB; i.e., birth before 34 weeks gestation). However, in each trial, the number of ePTBs were small. We used a novel Bayesian approach to estimate statistically derived low, moderate or high risk for ePTB, and to test for differences between the DHA and placebo groups. In both trials, the model predicted DHA would significantly reduce the expected proportion of deliveries in the high risk group under the trial conditions of the parent studies. Among the next 300,000 births in Australia we estimated that 1112 ePTB (95% credible interval 51-2189) could be avoided by providing DHA. And in the USA we estimated that 106,030 ePTB (95% credible interval 6400 to 175,700) could be avoided with DHA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Birth rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkin, R

    1980-06-01

    Despite the marked decline in Singapore's crude birth rate from 42.7/1000 population to 22.1/1000 population from 1957 to 1970, the government adopted a policy of sterilization by coercion with the passage in 1970 of the Voluntary Sterilisation Act. Although sterilization is supposedly voluntary, various regulations make it extremely difficult for couples who wish to retain their fertility. Couples under 40 years of age with more than 2 children must agree to accept sterilization or their children are assigned to a low priority category in regard to primary school admittance. An individual who wishes to marry a non-Singaporean cannot obtain a marriage application unless one of the parties to the marriage agrees to have a sterilization after the birth of their 2nd child. Singapore, with a population density of almost 4000/square kilometer, needs to be concerned about population growth; however, since the population had for the most part already adopted a 2 child family norm, these coercive policies appear to be blatantly excessive.

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine administered at birth or in infancy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Danchin, Margaret; Jackson, Pamela; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Lee, Katherine J; West, Amanda; Cowley, Daniel; Chen, Mee-Yew; Barnes, Graeme L; Justice, Frances; Buttery, Jim P; Carlin, John B; Bishop, Ruth F; Taylor, Barry; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2015-12-01

    Despite the success of rotavirus vaccines, suboptimal vaccine efficacy in regions with a high burden of disease continues to present a challenge to worldwide implementation. A birth dose strategy with a vaccine developed from an asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus strain has the potential to address this challenge and provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. This phase 2a randomised, double-blind, three-arm, placebo-controlled safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken at a single centre in New Zealand between Jan 13, 2012, and April 17, 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥36 weeks gestation) babies, who weighed at least 2500 g, and were 0-5 days old at the time of randomisation were randomly assigned (1:1:1; computer-generated; telephone central allocation) according to a concealed block randomisation schedule to oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 days after birth (neonatal schedule), to vaccine with the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to placebo. The primary endpoint was cumulative vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) after three doses. The immunogenicity analysis included all randomised participants with available outcome data. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611001212943. 95 eligible participants were randomised, of whom 89 were included in the primary analysis. A cumulative vaccine take was detected in 27 (90%) of 30 participants in the neonatal schedule group after three doses of RV3-BB vaccine compared with four (13%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·78, 95% CI 0·55-0·88; protavirus vaccines. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, the New Zealand Health Research Council, and the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ...

  13. Birth outcomes of cases with left-sided obstructive defects of the heart in the function of maternal socio-demographic factors: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the birth outcomes and maternal variables of cases with different types of left-sided obstructive defects (LSOD) of the heart. Live-born infants were selected from the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, and 302 cases with LSOD, 469 matched controls and 38,151 all controls without any defect, and 20,750 malformed controls with other isolated defects were compared. The diagnosis of LSOD was based on autopsy report or the documents of surgical intervention. Four types of LSOD were differentiated: 56 cases with valvular aortic stenosis (VAS), 76 cases with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), 113 cases with coarctation of the aorta (COA) and 57 cases with other congenital abnormalities of aorta (OCA). Cases with LSOD had male excess (64.6%) with a higher rate of preterm birth (14.2 vs. 6.6%) and low birthweight (15.6 vs. 4.3%) compared to matched controls. The high rate of preterm birth was particularly characteristic for HLHS (17.1%) while intrauterine fetal growth restriction was found in cases OCA (22.8%) and COA (13.3%). The mothers of cases with LSOD had higher birth order and lower socio-economic status than controls without any defect. The general pattern of birth outcomes and maternal variables were similar in the types of LSOD cases, but the higher rate of preterm birth and low birthweight indicated some association with their adverse fetal development.

  14. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effect of prenatal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to reduce the incidence of preterm birth: the ORIP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shao J; Best, Karen; Gibson, Robert; McPhee, Andrew; Yelland, Lisa; Quinlivan, Julie; Makrides, Maria

    2017-09-24

    Preterm birth accounts for more than 85% of all perinatal complications and deaths. Seventy-five per cent of early preterm births (EPTBs) occur spontaneously and without identifiable risk factors. The need for a broadly applicable, effective strategy for primary prevention is paramount. Secondary outcomes from the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to Optimise Mother Infant Outcome trial showed that maternal supplementation until delivery with omega-3 (ω-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA), predominantly as DHA, resulted in a 50% reduction in the incidence of EPTB and an increase in the incidence of post-term induction or post-term prelabour caesarean section due to extended gestation. We aim to determine the effectiveness of supplementing the maternal diet with ω-3 LCPUFA until 34 weeks' gestation on the incidence of EPTB. This is a multicentre, parallel group, randomised, blinded and controlled trial. Women less than 20 weeks' gestation with a singleton or multiple pregnancy and able to give informed consent are eligible to participate. Women will be randomised to receive high DHA fish oil capsules or control capsules without DHA. Capsules will be taken from enrolment until 34 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome is the incidence of EPTB, defined as delivery before 34 completed weeks' gestation. Key secondary outcomes include length of gestation, incidence of post-term induction or prelabour caesarean section and spontaneous EPTB. The target sample size is 5540 women (2770 per group), which will provide 85% power to detect an absolute reduction in the incidence of preterm birth of 1.16% (from 2.45% to 1.29%) between the DHA and control group (two sided α=0.05). The primary analysis will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: 2613001142729; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  15. Pills on the World Wide Web: reducing barriers through technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Lori M; Turok, David K

    2015-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are safe, effective, and available without a prescription in most countries. Despite support from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to provide oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication, US women are still required to have a prescription to obtain them. Use of online applications and the Internet has made most things easier to obtain in our society and this includes contraceptive methods. Several online ventures are now underway to enable US women to obtain oral contraceptives without visiting a medical provider's office. Women's health care professionals should encourage these novel approaches, as they will improve contraceptive access. As US women experiment with innovative health care models, providers will need to lead, follow, or be left behind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Impulsively Controlled Three-Species Prey-Predator Model with Stage Structure and Birth Pulse for Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic behaviors of a two-prey one-predator system with stage structure and birth pulse for predator. By using the Floquet theory of linear periodic impulsive equation and small amplitude perturbation method, we show that there exists a globally asymptotically stable two-prey eradication periodic solution when the impulsive period is less than some critical value. Further, we study the permanence of the investigated model. Our results provide valuable strategy for biological economics management. Numerical analysis is also inserted to illustrate the results.

  17. Effects of the coadministration of Huatuo Zaizao pills and aspirin on hemorrheology and blood coagulation in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    QU, SHUJUN; WANG, TIAN; ZHANG, JIANQIAO; SUN, XUE; YU, PENGFEI; KONG, LIANG; CHONG, YATING; QIU, XIAOLEI; FU, FENGHUA

    2013-01-01

    Huatuo Zaizao pills (HT) is a compound used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the coadministration of HT and aspirin on hemorrheology and blood coagulation in rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into the control, HT, aspirin and HT plus aspirin groups (n=5 animals per group). The rabbits were treated with HT at a dose of 1 g/kg, aspirin at a dose of 5 mg/kg or HT (1 g/kg) plus aspirin (5 mg/kg) administe...

  18. Fetal fibronectin testing for prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies with threatened preterm labor: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghella, Vincenzo; Saccone, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Fetal fibronectin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is produced by amniocytes and cytotrophoblasts and has been shown to predict spontaneous preterm birth. The aim of this systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized clinical trials was to evaluate the effect of the use of fetal fibronectin in the prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies with threatened preterm labor. The research was conducted with the use of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Sciences, Scopus, ClinicalTrial.gov, OVID, and Cochrane Library as electronic databases from the inception of each database to February 2016. Selection criteria included randomized clinical trials of singleton gestations with threatened preterm labor that were assigned randomly to management based on fetal fibronectin results (ie, intervention group) or not (ie, comparison group). Types of participants included women with singleton gestations at 23 0/7 to 34 6/7 weeks with threatened preterm labor. Studies that included management that was also based on the use of sonographic cervical length were excluded. The primary outcome was preterm birth at birth at control group. No differences were found in the number of women who delivered within 7 days (12.8% vs 14.5%; relative risk, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-1.21), in the mean of gestational age at delivery (mean difference, 0.20 week; 95% confidence interval, -0.26 to 0.67), in the rate of maternal hospitalization (27.4% vs 26.9%; relative risk, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.44), in the use of tocolysis (25.3% vs 28.2%; relative risk, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.24), antenatal steroids (29.2% vs 29.2%; relative risk, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.39), in the mean time in the triage unit (mean difference, 0.60 hour; 95% confidence interval, -0.03 to 1.23) and in neonatal outcomes that included respiratory distress syndrome (1.3% vs 1.5%; relative risk, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-14.06), and admission to the neonatal

  19. Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes and maternal depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Prasanta; Nair, Nirmala; Barnett, Sarah; Mahapatra, Rajendra; Borghi, Josephine; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Gope, Rajkumar; Mahto, Dipnath; Sinha, Rajesh; Lakshminarayana, Rashmi; Patel, Vikram; Pagel, Christina; Prost, Audrey; Costello, Anthony

    2010-04-03

    Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups might improve birth outcomes in poor rural communities. We therefore assessed this approach in a largely tribal and rural population in three districts in eastern India. From 36 clusters in Jharkhand and Orissa, with an estimated population of 228 186, we assigned 18 clusters to intervention or control using stratified randomisation. Women were eligible to participate if they were aged 15-49 years, residing in the project area, and had given birth during the study. In intervention clusters, a facilitator convened 13 groups every month to support participatory action and learning for women, and facilitated the development and implementation of strategies to address maternal and newborn health problems. The primary outcomes were reductions in neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and maternal depression scores. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN21817853. After baseline surveillance of 4692 births, we monitored outcomes for 19 030 births during 3 years (2005-08). NMRs per 1000 were 55.6, 37.1, and 36.3 during the first, second, and third years, respectively, in intervention clusters, and 53.4, 59.6, and 64.3, respectively, in control clusters. NMR was 32% lower in intervention clusters adjusted for clustering, stratification, and baseline differences (odds ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.59-0.78) during the 3 years, and 45% lower in years 2 and 3 (0.55, 0.46-0.66). Although we did not note a significant effect on maternal depression overall, reduction in moderate depression was 57% in year 3 (0.43, 0.23-0.80). This intervention could be used with or as a potential alternative to health-worker-led interventions, and presents new opportunities for policy makers to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in poor populations. Health Foundation, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust, and the Big Lottery Fund

  20. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teunissen, L P J; Daanen, H A M; De Haan, A; De Koning, J J

    2012-01-01

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The pill temperature (T pill ) was compared with the rectal temperature (T re ) and esophageal temperature (T es ). T pill corresponded well to T re during the entire trial, but deviated considerably from T es during the exercise and recovery periods. During maximal exercise, the average ΔT pill −T re and ΔT pill −T es were 0.13 ± 0.26 and −0.57 ± 0.53 °C, respectively. The response time from the start of exercise, the rate of change during exercise and the peak temperature were similar for T pill and T re. T es responded 5 min earlier, increased more than twice as fast and its peak value was 0.42 ± 0.46 °C higher than T pill . In conclusion, also during considerable temperature changes at a very high rate, T pill is still a representative of T re . The extent of the deviation in the pattern and peak values between T pill and T es (up to >1 °C) strengthens the assumption that T pill is unsuited to evaluate central blood temperature when body temperatures change rapidly. (paper)

  1. Emergency contraceptive pills: what you need to know. Brochure for programs providing combined ECPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This informational brochure was prepared for potential users of emergency contraceptive pills. In question-and-answer format, it presents facts on the mechanism of action, effectiveness, safety, and side effects of emergency contraception. It then outlines the regimen for method use. The brochure notes that emergency contraceptive pills cannot offer protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Finally, two other emergency contraceptive regimens--the copper T IUD and progestin-only pills--are discussed. The brochure may be reproduced by family planning and other health programs.

  2. Maintenance of ovulation inhibition with a new progestogen-only pill containing drospirenone after scheduled 24-h delays in pill intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique; Colli, Enrico; Skouby, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Traditional progestogen-only pills (POPs) have stringent daily timing and missed pill rules that might affect contraceptive reliability. A new-generation oestrogen-free pill has been developed, containing 4-mg drospirenone with a unique regimen of 24 active treatment days followed by four placebo tablets. A previous study showed that this new drospirenone-only pill effectively inhibited ovulation. Clinical efficacy, however, can be affected by compliance, and delayed or forgotten pill intake often occurs in daily life. The aim of this study was to investigate if inhibition of ovulation was maintained after four scheduled 24-h delays in tablet intake. One hundred thirty healthy women with proven ovulatory cycles were randomized, and 127 were treated with the drospirenone-only pill during two cycles. In treatment Group A (n=62), 24-h delays in tablet intake were scheduled on days 3, 6, 11 and 22 during Cycle 2 and, in treatment Group B (n=65) during Cycle 1, respectively. Ovulation was defined as disappearance or persistence of a large follicle and progesterone levels higher than 5 ng/mL for at least 5 consecutive days. The overall ovulation rate was 0.8%; only one subject in Group A fulfilled the ovulation criteria in Cycle 2. Follicular diameters in the regular-intake and the delayed-intake cycles were similar. Despite the 4-day hormone-free period and multiple intentional 24-h delays in tablet intake, ovulation inhibition was maintained. This property distinguishes this new-generation oestrogen-free pill from traditional POPs by allowing the same "safety window" or flexibility in intake as combined oral contraceptives without compromising contraceptive reliability. Delayed or forgotten pill intake is very common. Ovulation inhibition by the new-generation oestrogen-free pill, containing 4-mg drospirenone for 24 days followed by a 4-day treatment-free period, was maintained despite four 24-h delays in tablet intake, so the impact of delayed intake on contraceptive

  3. Sleep improvement for restless legs syndrome patients. Part IV: meta-analysis comparison of effect sizes of vibratory stimulation sham pads and placebo pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fred Burbank Salt Creek International Women's Health Foundation, San Clemente, CA, USA Purpose: To determine whether sham pads used as controls in randomized clinical trials of vibratory stimulation to treat patients with sleep loss associated with restless legs syndrome perform differently than placebo pills used in comparable restless legs syndrome drug trials. Patients and methods: Sham pad effect sizes from 66 control patients in two randomized clinical trials of vibratory stimulation were compared with placebo responses from 1,024 control patients in 12 randomized clinical drug trials reporting subjective sleep measurement scales. Control patient responses were measured as the standardized difference in means corrected for correlation between beginning and ending scores and for small sample sizes. Results: For parallel randomized clinical trials, sham effects in vibratory stimulation trials were not significantly different from placebo effects in drug trials (0.37 and 0.31, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =0.25, PQ≥0.62. Placebo effect sizes were significantly smaller in crossover drug trials than sham effect sizes in parallel vibratory stimulation trials (0.07 versus 0.37, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =4.59, PQ≤0.03 and placebo effect sizes in parallel drug trials (0.07 versus 0.31, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =5.50, PQ≤0.02. Conclusion: For subjective sleep loss assessments in parallel trials, sham pads in vibratory stimulation trials performed similarly to placebo pills in drug trials. Trial design (parallel versus crossover had a large influence on control effect sizes. Placebo pills in crossover drug trials had significantly smaller effect sizes than sham pads in parallel vibratory stimulation trials or placebo pills in parallel drug trials. Keywords: sham effect, placebo effect, trial design, crossover study, parallel study, counterstimulation

  4. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  5. Traditional birth attendants in an endemic area of tetanus neonatorum in Thailand: pitfalls in the control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, V; Bucharkorn, L; Treetrong, R

    1991-12-01

    A survey of the characteristics of traditional birth attendants in Krabi Province, Thailand, where the incidence rate of tetanus neonatorum was the highest in the country, was conducted in order to obtain background information necessary for planning a training curriculum and to evaluate previous training courses. Five second year medical students were used as research assistants. After the questionnaire was constructed and tested, the students went to visit a sample of 116 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to interview them about their personal backgrounds, techniques and practices in delivery and beliefs and attitudes towards midwifery. The study revealed that these TBAs were a mixture of Buddhist and Islamic females whose literacy rate was 53 percent. Ninety-one per cent knew about the availability of an injection for antenatal care at the health center, but only about half knew that it was for tetanus prevention. More than half provided antenatal care at their own home but 85 per cent conducted delivery at the client's home. About eighty per cent of the TBAs claimed that sterilization of instruments was performed. However, dressing of the umbilical cord was done inappropriately using various kinds of powders by about 40 per cent. The majority of TBAs had experience with complicated labors but only 30 per cent were referred, perhaps, due to excessive self-confidence and supernatural beliefs. The trained TBAs possessed a higher level of knowledge of immunization and sterile techniques for cord cutting and dressing of the stumps of the umbilical cord than the untrained group. However, knowledge of sterilization of instruments was not significantly different, indicating a need to improve teaching in this area.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Identification and determination of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Pill by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of twelve major compounds in Longdan Xiegan Pill. The chemical profile of the twelve compounds, including geniposidic acid (1, geniposide(2, gentiopicroside(3, liquiritin(4, crocin(5, baicalin(6, wogonoside(7, baicalein(8, glycyrrhizic acid (9, wogonin (10, oroxylin A (11 and aristolochic acid A (12, was acquired using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled with an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The analysis was performed on a Dikma Platisil ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm with a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile-0. 1% aqueous formic acid. The validation was carried out and the linearities (r > 0. 9996, repeatability (RSD<1. 8%, intra- and inter-day precision (RSD< 1. 3%, and recoveries (ranging from 96. 6% to 103. 4% were acceptable. The limits of detection (LOD of these compounds ranged from 0.29 to 4. 17 ng. Aristolochic acid A, which is the toxic ingredient, was not detected in all the batches of Longdan Xiegan Pill. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis was used to evaluate the variation of the herbal prescription. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for the quality control of this traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Keywords: Longdan Xiegan Pill, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled with an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, qualitative evaluation, aristolochic acid A, hierarchical cluster analysis

  7. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrative Staff Donate Contact MENU CLOSE back Accredited Birth Centers You are here: Home Accredited Birth Centers ... not CABC-accredited. How do you find a birth center here? Skip Instructions! Get to the Map… ...

  8. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... health problems new moms may have after giving birth? Chances are that you’ll be healthy after ...

  9. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  10. Effect of Compound Danshen Dripping Pill on circadian blood pressure, high sensitive C reactive protein and cardiac function in patients with non dipper hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-wei HE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Compound Danshen Dripping Pill on circadian blood pressure, high sensitive C reactive protein and cardiac function in patients with non dipper hypertension. Methods: According to ABPM nocturnal blood pressure decline rate < 10%, select 178 patients whose systolic pressure and diastolic pressure meet the standards, 88 cases were divided into treatment group, and the rest 90 cases were in control group. All patients were having the levoamlodipine maleate 2.5mg, 1 time a day, the blood pressure still > 140 / 90mmHg, the addition of Stan. The treatment group were treated with 10 Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, 3 times a day, June. ABPM and hs-CRP, ultrasonic Beckoning figure was examined before and after treatment.Results: All the patients completed the study in June, by antihypertensive drugs and compound Danshen dripping pills after treatment, consulting room (CSBP and CDBP and BP are parameters of ABPM increased significantly (P < 0.01. Partial parameters compared with the control group after treatment were significantly different (P < 0.05. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, circadian variation rate level, variation rate and high sensitive C reactive protein of the treatment group after treatment were significantly improved compared with the control group (P < 0.05. The treatment group after treatment of diastolic function improved significantly (P < 0.05, the control group after treatment had no obvious improvement. Systolic function of two groups before treatment increased slightly, no statistical significance (P > 0.05.Conclusion: Long-term use of Compound Danshen dripping pill can improve the circadian rhythm of blood pressure in patients with non dipper hypertension, reduce the high sensitive C reactive protein level, improve cardiac diastolic function.

  11. The influence of fish-oil lipid emulsions on retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beken, Serdar; Dilli, Dilek; Fettah, Nurdan Dinlen; Kabataş, Emrah Utku; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effect of two lipid emulsions on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. Randomized controlled study. Eighty very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition from the first day of life were evaluated. One of the two lipid emulsions were used in the study infants: Group 1 (n=40) received fish-oil based lipid emulsion (SmofLipid®) and Group 2 (n=40) soybean oil based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®). The development of retinopathy of prematurity and the need for laser photocoagulation were assessed. The maternal and perinatal characteristics were similar in both groups. The median (range) duration of parenteral nutrition [14days (10-28) vs 14 (10-21)] and hospitalization [34days (20-64) vs 34 (21-53)] did not differ between the groups. Laboratory data including complete blood count, triglyceride level, liver and kidney function tests recorded before and after parenteral nutrition also did not differ between the two groups. In Group 1, two patients (5.0%) and in Group 2, 13 patients (32.5%) were diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (OR: 9.1, 95% CI 1.9-43.8, p=0.004). One patient in each group needed laser photocoagulation, without significant difference. Multivariate analysis showed that only receiving fish-oil emulsion in parenteral nutrition decreased the risk of development of retinopathy of prematurity [OR: 0.76, 95% CI (0.06-0.911), p=0.04]. Premature infants with very low birth weight receiving an intravenous fat emulsion containing fish oil developed less retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of hospital-based video interaction guidance on parental interactive behavior, bonding, and stress after preterm birth: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenkamp, Hannah N; Tooten, Anneke; Hall, Ruby A S; Braeken, Johan; Eliëns, Marij P J; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of hospital-based Video Interaction Guidance (VIG; Eliëns, 2010; Kennedy, Landor, & Todd, 2011) for mothers and fathers of infants born preterm (25-37 weeks of gestation). VIG is a preventive video-feedback intervention to support the parent-infant relationship. One hundred fifty families (150 infants, 150 mothers, 144 fathers) participated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of VIG as adjunct to standard hospital care. Primary outcome was parental interactive behavior (sensitivity, intrusiveness, and withdrawal) as observed in videotaped dyadic parent-infant interaction. Secondary outcomes comprised parental bonding, stress responses, and psychological well-being based on self-report. The intervention effects were assessed at baseline, mid-intervention, 3-week, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, using multilevel modeling and analyses of covariance. VIG proved to be effective in enhancing sensitive behavior and diminishing withdrawn behavior in mothers (Cohen's d range = .24-.44) and in fathers (d range: .54-.60). The positive effects of VIG were particularly found in mothers who experienced the preterm birth as very traumatic (d range = .80-1.04). The intervention, however, did not change parents' intrusive behavior. Analyses additionally revealed positive effects on parental bonding, especially for fathers, yet no significant effects on stress and well-being were detected. The results indicate that VIG is a useful addition to standard hospital care, reducing the possible negative impact of preterm birth on the parent-infant relationship. VIG appeared particularly beneficial for fathers, and for mothers with traumatic birth experiences. High levels of parental intrusiveness, however, need complementary intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Low birth weight and prenatal exposure to indoor pollution from tobacco smoke and wood fuel smoke: a matched case-control study in Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusalah, Akram; Gavana, Magda; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Papadakis, Nikos; Papanikolaou, Alexis; Benos, Alexis

    2012-11-01

    Maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major health hazard as it contains lower doses of the toxins that smokers' inhale. Prenatal exposure to wood fuel smoke has been linked to delivering low birth weight (LBW) infants. The study aims to assess the association between prenatal exposure to ETS and wood fuel smoke and LBW. A case-control study in ratio 1:1 was conducted in two hospitals with obstetric services in Gaza Strip. Subjects were selected during May-June and July-August 2007 from attenders of Mbarak Hospital and Shifa Medical Centre, respectively. 184 (41.2%), and 79 (17.7%) out of 446 participants were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and wood fuel smoke, respectively. Adjusted maternal exposure to ETS (especially the number of cigarettes smoked, water pipe and wood fuel smoke) was associated with LBW infants. Cigarette smoke exhibits an independent dose-response risk of LBW after adjusting for confounders. Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke indoors is related to a reduction in birth weight of infants of -237 g (95% CI: -415, -58) for pregnant women exposed to 1-20 cigarettes per day and -391 g (95% CI: -642, -140) for exposure to more than 20 cigarettes per day. Exposure to wood fuel smoke exhibits a reduction of infants' adjusted mean birth weight by -186 g (95% CI: -354, -19). Prenatal exposure to passive smoking and wood fuel smoke are independently associated with LBW. Both these factors are modifiable exposures that could possibly lead to a reduction of delivering LBW infants.

  14. Impact of Decontamination Therapy on Ultrasound Visualization of Ingested Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bothwell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute toxic ingestion is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians (EP caring for overdose (OD patients are often required to make critical decisions with incomplete information. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS may have a role in assisting EPs manage OD patients. We evaluated the impact of different liquid adjuncts used for gastric decontamination on examiners’ ability to identify the presence of tablets using POCUS, and assessed examiners’ ability to quantify the numbers of tablets in a simulated massive OD. Methods: This prospective, blinded, pilot study was performed at an academic emergency department. Study participants were volunteer resident and staff EPs trained in POCUS. Five non-transparent, sealed bags were prepared with the following contents: 1 liter (L of water, 1 L of water with 50 regular aspirin (ASA tablets, 1 L of water with 50 enteric-coated aspirin tablets (ECA, 1 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG with 50 ECA, and 1 L of activated charcoal (AC with 50 ECA. After performing POCUS on each of the bags using a 10-5 MHz linear array transducer, participants completed a standardized questionnaire composed of the following questions: (1 Were pills present? YES/NO; (2 If tablets were identified, estimate the number (1-10, 11-25, >25. We used a single test on proportions using the binomial distribution to determine if the number of EPs who identified tablets differed from 50% chance. For those tablets identified in the different solutions, another test on proportions was used to determine whether the type of solution made a difference. Since 3 options were available, we used a probability of 33.3%. Results: Thirty-seven EPs completed the study. All (37/37 EP’s correctly identified the absence of tablets in the bag containing only water, and the presence of ECA in the bags containing water and PEG. For Part 2 of the study, most participants - 25/37 (67.5% using water, 23/37 (62.1% using PEG, and

  15. Effect of Guizhi Fuling Pill combined with GnRH analog on cell proliferation and invasion as well as MEK/ERK pathway in endometriosis lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qiong Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Guizhi Fuling Pill combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRH-a on cell proliferation and invasion as well as MEK/ERK pathway in endometriosis lesions. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with endometriosis in Bazhong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between November 2014 and March 2017 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, observation group received preoperative Guizhi Fuling Pill combined with GnRH analog therapy, and control group received preoperative GnRH analog monotherapy. After surgical resection, the endometriosis lesion was collected to determine the mRNA expression of proliferation and invasion-related genes as well as the protein expression of MEK/ERK pathway molecules. Results: Id-1, Sema3A, c-IAP1, OPN and uPA mRNA expression as well as p-MEK, p-EKR1/2, caspase-3 and MMP2 protein expression in endometriosis lesion of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while Bak, Smac, PAI-1, TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA expression as well as caspase-3 protein expression were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Guizhi Fuling Pill combined with GnRH analog can inhibit the cell proliferation and invasion as well as the MEK/ERK pathway activation in endometriosis lesions.

  16. Accuracy and safety of second-generation PillCam COLON capsule for colorectal polyp detection

    OpenAIRE

    Spada, Cristiano; De Vincentis, Fabio; Cesaro, Paola; Hassan, Cesare; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Minelli Grazioli, Leonardo; Bolivar, Santiago; Zurita, Andrade; Costamagna, Guido

    2012-01-01

    PillCam COLON capsule endoscopy (CCE) (Given Imaging Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) is one of the most recent diagnostic, endoscopic technologies designed to explore the colon. CCE is a noninvasive, patient-friendly technique that is able to explore the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. The first generation of CCE was released onto the market in 2006 and although it generated great enthusiasm, it showed suboptimal accuracy. Recently, a second-generation system (PillCam COLON 2) (C...

  17. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients

    OpenAIRE

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient m...

  18. Effect of Personalized Nutrition Guidance on the Birth Rate of Fetal Macrosomia in Chinese Population: A Meta-analysis of Nine Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jingling; Wang, Dajia; Fan, Ling

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of personalized nutrition guidance on birth rate of fetal macrosomia in the pooled studies. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible studies using the databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Wanfang, Chongqing Weipu Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and China National Knowledge Infrastructure and reference lists of relevant articles. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed based on the Jadad scale. We used risk ratios (RRs) to assess the strength of the association, and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the precision of the estimate. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were also explored. A total of nine RCT studies, including 7,458 pregnant women, were included in the present meta-analysis. The overall results showed that personalized nutrition guidance significantly reduced the birth rate of fetal macrosomia (RR 0.289, 95 % CI 0.184-0.453, P macrosomia. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, especially those with large sample size and multicenter that were quantitatively insufficient, further studies of high quality are required.

  19. Maternal and fetal insulin levels at birth in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: data from a randomized controlled study on metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Ragnhild; Vanky, Eszter; Stridsklev, Solhild; Vogt, Christina; Carlsen, Sven M

    2014-05-01

    Metformin is suggested to reduce pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin crosses the placenta and therapeutic concentrations are measured in the fetal circulation. Whether metformin treatment in pregnant PCOS women affects maternal and fetal insulin concentrations at birth is not clarified. To investigate the possible effect of metformin on insulin concentrations in umbilical cord blood and the possible association between maternal and fetal insulin concentrations. Post-hoc analysis of a subgroup of PCOS women participating in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. University hospital setting. Women with PCOS (n=118), aged 19-39 years. Maternal and umbilical cord insulin concentrations immediately after birth. At delivery women randomized to metformin had lower insulin concentrations than those randomized to placebo (259±209 vs 361±261 pmol/l; P=0.020). No difference was found in insulin concentrations in umbilical venous (P=0.95) and arterial (P=0.39) blood between the metformin and placebo groups. The arteriovenous difference was also equal between the groups (P=0.38). Insulin concentrations were higher in the umbilical vein than in the umbilical artery independent of randomization (70±51 vs 45±48 pmol/l; Pmetformin treatment during pregnancy resulted in lower maternal insulin concentrations at delivery. Metformin treatment did not affect fetal insulin concentrations. Higher insulin concentrations in the umbilical vein indicate that the placenta somehow secretes insulin to the fetus. The possibility of placental insulin secretion to the fetus deserves further investigations.

  20. Bringing smart pills to market: FDA regulation of ingestible drug/device combination products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Matthew; Liu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a pill that, after you swallow it, can track its position in your body. Or imagine a pill that can transmit a message to a doctor to tell him that you have taken your bitter medicine. Pills like this already exist. These so-called smart pills are an emerging type of medical therapy. However, this nascent technology has yet to reach the market and developers of these novel therapies face significant regulatory challenges. This article predicts how the Food and Drug Administration will regulate smart pills and shows how the current regulatory regime is inadequate. The article then proposes modifying the current regulatory regime to encourage development of smart pills and other innovative combination products by: (1) regulating combination products based on their "novel mode of action" rather than their "primary mode of action," (2) creating a marketing approval pathway specifically for combination products, and (3) eliminating regulations that require sponsors to get marketing approval from multiple centers within FDA and providing regulatory guidance specifically for ingestible drug/device combination products.

  1. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control group was randomly selected from the cases with normal live births. Blood tests were performed for children suspected to suffer from genetic blood disorders. The principal BD as per the ...

  3. Desogestrel mini pill: is this safe in lactating mother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dilip Kumar; Dutta, Indranil

    2013-08-01

    To find out the safety, effectiveness and tolerability of using desogestrel (75 microg/day), a progesterone only pill on lactating mother, a prospective clinical study was undertaken among 200 lactating women during the period from 1st January 2010 to 13th June 2011 at Gice Clinic, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal. The same number of cases were taken as placebo for comparison. Desogestrel was started after six weeks of delivery for six months. Patients were reviewed at 8th, 12th, 16th, 24th weeks and one year. The very interesting results were found from the follow-up study that desogestrel (75 microg/day) did not alter the amount and composition of breast milk, pregnancy was not reported as compared to placebo. The drug had good tolerability, less side-effects and did not affect the growth and development of breastfed babies. Due to the safety, good efficacy, tolerability and less side-effects it is concluded that desogestrel (75 microg/day) was well accepted in majority of women (97.5%) and provided good contraceptive efficacy during the lactating period. This treatment does not have any effect on the growth and development of breastfed baby.

  4. A case-control study to examine the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy and risk of a small-for-gestational-age birth in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Rossina G; Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Dixon, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    Excessive demands on maternal nutritional status may be a risk factor for poor birth outcomes. This study examined the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks) and the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, using a matched case-control design (78 SGA cases: birthweight <10th percentile for gestational age; 150 non-SGA controls: 50th percentile controls based on hospital, gestational age, and inter-gestational period. Mothers were interviewed and clinical chart extractions were completed. Factors associated with risk of SGA were assessed by their adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from conditional logistic regression. Exposure to an overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of having a SGA newborn [aOR=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-3.30]. However, increased risk was associated with having a previous low-birthweight birth (aOR=6.53; 95% CI: 1.43-29.70) and a low intake of animal source foods (<25th percentile; aOR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.01-5.04), and tended to be associated with being short (<150 cm; aOR=2.05; 95% CI: 0.92-4.54). This study found no evidence to support the hypothesis that breastfeeding during late pregnancy increases the risk for SGA; however, studies with greater statistical power are needed to definitively examine this possible association and clarify whether there are other risks to the new baby, the toddler and the pregnant woman. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Vaginal cytology pattern and birth features of female Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mating, pregnancy diagnosis and determination of birth parameters followed immediately after the end ... The average live birth weight of the neonates measured was observed to be highest for Group A with average live birth weight of 6.27g, followed by Groups B and the control with average live birth weight of 5.83g and ...

  6. [A case-control study on association between OAS1 polymorphism and susceptibility to spontaneous preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Wu, Zhi-Hao; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Li-Na; Wang, Yan

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between the genetic polymorphism of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and susceptibility to spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The case-control study consisted of 599 preterm infants including 171 cases of PPROM, and 673 full-term infants without maternal histories of SPTB and PPROM as controls. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at OAS1 intron 5, rs10774671, was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. No significant differences were observed between the case and control groups in the frequencies of genotypes (AA, GA, and GG) and alleles (A and G) of OAS1 rs10774671. When the case group was divided into two subgroups with or without PPROM, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were found between each subgroup and the control group. When the case group was divided into three subgroups with different gestational ages at SPTB, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were detected between each subgroup and the control group. No association is identified between OAS1 SNP and susceptibility to SPTB and PPROM.

  7. Enrichment from birth accelerates the functional and cellular development of a motor control area in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Simonetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that sensory experience in early life has a profound influence on the development of sensory circuits. Very little is known, however, about the role of experience in the early development of striatal networks which regulate both motor and cognitive function. To address this, we have investigated the influence of early environmental enrichment on motor development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were raised in standard or enriched housing from birth. For animals assessed as adults, half of the mice had their rearing condition reversed at weaning to enable the examination of the effects of pre- versus post-weaning enrichment. We found that exclusively pre-weaning enrichment significantly improved performance on the Morris water maze compared to non-enriched mice. The effects of early enrichment on the emergence of motor programs were assessed by performing behavioural tests at postnatal day 10. Enriched mice traversed a significantly larger region of the test arena in an open-field test and had improved swimming ability compared to non-enriched cohorts. A potential cellular correlate of these changes was investigated using Wisteria-floribunda agglutinin (WFA staining to mark chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs. We found that the previously reported transition of CSPG staining from striosome-associated clouds to matrix-associated perineuronal nets (PNNs is accelerated in enriched mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration that the early emergence of exploratory as well as coordinated movement is sensitive to experience. These behavioural changes are correlated with an acceleration of the emergence of striatal PNNs suggesting that they may consolidate the neural circuits underlying these behaviours. Finally, we confirm that pre-weaning experience can lead to life long changes in the learning ability of mice.

  8. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth

  9. Early History of Oral Contraceptive Pill in Finland: The Diffusion of the New Contraceptive and Fertility Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Pasila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s is often characterized as a decade of outstanding social and demographic changes in Western societies. The introduction of the contraceptive pill is assumed to have contributed to these changes. Yet the social as well as the demographic significance of the pill is ambiguous. This article has two aims: 1 to describe the early history of the pill in Finland in the 1960s and in the early 1970s and 2 to explore relationships between fertility and the pill. Surveys, pharmaceutical market data, and estimations are used to depict the diffusion of the pill. Based on calculated user percentages, the pill was adopted neither instantly nor extremely widely in Finland during the period under study. The results show that the diffusion coincided with fertility decline and other changes in fertility patterns. However, a causal connection of any kind cannot be established due to a lack of sufficient data.

  10. The Relationship between Maternal Diseases during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight: a Nested Case-Control Study in Rural Areas of Kurdistan Province (West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is considered as one of the important health indicators in evaluating prenatal care as well as determining scale of infants' health in the society. The study aimed to investigate maternal diseases during pregnancy and its impact on LBW in rural areas of Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in nested case-control study method in rural areas of Kurdistan province- Iran in 2015-2016. In this study, 182 infants less than 2,500gr as case and 364 infants weighing 2,500 g and more as control were entered the study. Information about case and control groups was extracted by investigating records of pregnant women care. Data was analyzed using software Stata-12 with point and interval estimation of odds ratio (OR using conditional logistic regression. Results: The results of single-variable analysis of conditional logistic regression showed that there is a statistical relationship between blood pressure during pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia, mother's thyroid problems, oral and dental problems, and history of bleeding during pregnancy in case and control groups (P

  11. Clinical efficacy of Zisheng pills in treatment of adverse reactions in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xiaping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical efficacy of Zisheng pills in the treatment of adverse reactions in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE. MethodsThis study included 72 patients with liver cancer hospitalized in the Department of Liver Diseases and Department of Oncology, Wenzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, from June 2011 to May 2014. These cases were randomly divided into treatment group (n=37 and control group (n=35. All the patients were treated with TACE, as well as conventional symptomatic and supportive treatment. In addition, the treatment group was given Zisheng pills (one bag three times a day for at least three consecutive months. Comparison of categorical data was made by chi-square test, while comparison of continuous data (expressed as mean±SD was made by t test. Survival comparison was made by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. ResultsAfter the first TACE, there were significant differences in poor appetite and abdominal distension between the treatment group and the control group (P<0.05; significant differences were also observed in CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes between the two groups (P<0.05. After the second TACE, there were significant differences in postoperative fatigue, poor appetite, and abdominal distension, as well as postoperative Karnofsky score, between the treatment group and the control group (P<0.05; significant differences were also found in CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes and CD4+/CD8+ ratio between the two groups (P<0.05. The median survival time showed no significant differences between the treatment group and the control group (82 vs 74 weeks, P>0.05, but the 2-year overall survival rate was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (43.2% vs 20%, P<0.05. ConclusionZisheng pills have good clinical efficacy in the treatment of adverse reactions in liver cancer patients after TACE

  12. Impact of a warning CPOE system on the inappropriate pill splitting of prescribed medications in outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Hsu

    Full Text Available Prescribing inappropriate pill splitting is not rare in clinical practice. To reduce inappropriate pill splitting, we developed an automatic warning system linked to a computerized physician order entry (CPOE system for special oral formulation drugs in outpatient settings. We examined the impact of the warning system on inappropriate prescribing of pill splitting and assess prescribers' responses to the warnings.Drugs with extended-release or enteric-coated formulations that were not originally intended to be split were recognized as "special oral formulations". A hard-stop system which could examine non-integer doses of drugs with special oral formulations, provide warnings to interrupt inappropriate prescriptions was integrated in CPOE in a medical center since June 2010. We designed an intervention study to compare the inappropriate splitting before and after the implementation of the warning system (baseline period 2010 January to May vs. intervention period 2010 June to 2011 August. During the intervention period, prescription changes in response to a warning were logged and analyzed.A total of 470,611 prescribed drug items with 34 different drugs with special oral formulations were prescribed in the study period. During the 15-month intervention period, 909 warnings for 26 different drugs were triggered among 354,523 prescribed drug items with special oral formulations. The warning rate of inappropriate splitting in the late intervention period was lower than those in baseline period (0.16% vs. 0.61%, incidence rate ratio 0.27, 95% CI 0.23-0.31, P<0.001. In respond to warnings, physicians had to make adjustments, of which the majority was changing to an unsplit pill (72.9%.The interruptive warning system could avoid the prescriptions with inappropriate pill splitting. Accordingly, physicians changed their behavior of prescribing special oral formulations regarding inappropriate pill splitting. We suggest the establishment of such system

  13. Effect of a "pill mill" law on opioid prescribing and utilization: The case of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapustina, Tatyana; Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Ramji, Alim F; Faul, Mark; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-02-01

    States have attempted to reduce prescription opioid abuse through strengthening the regulation of pain management clinics; however, the effect of such measures remains unclear. We quantified the impact of Texas's September 2010 "pill mill" law on opioid prescribing and utilization. We used the IMS Health LRx LifeLink database to examine anonymized, patient-level pharmacy claims for a closed cohort of individuals filling prescription opioids in Texas between September 2009 and August 2011. Our primary outcomes were derived at a monthly level and included: (1) average morphine equivalent dose (MED) per transaction; (2) aggregate opioid volume; (3) number of opioid prescriptions; and (4) quantity of opioid pills dispensed. We compared observed values with the counterfactual, which we estimated from pre-intervention levels and trends. Texas's pill mill law was associated with declines in average MED per transaction (-0.57 mg/month, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.09, -0.057), monthly opioid volume (-9.99 kg/month, CI -12.86, -7.11), monthly number of opioid prescriptions (-12,200 prescriptions/month, CI -15,300, -9,150) and monthly quantity of opioid pills dispensed (-714,000 pills/month, CI -877,000, -550,000). These reductions reflected decreases of 8.1-24.3% across the outcomes at one year compared with the counterfactual, and they were concentrated among prescribers and patients with the highest opioid prescribing and utilization at baseline. Following the implementation of Texas's 2010 pill mill law, there were clinically significant reductions in opioid dose, volume, prescriptions and pills dispensed within the state, which were limited to individuals with higher levels of baseline opioid prescribing and utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inadequate birth spacing is perceived as riskier than all family planning methods, except sterilization and abortion, in a qualitative study among urban Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Skinner, Joanna; Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Cobb, Lisa; Saad, Abdulmumin; Odeku, Mojisola

    2017-09-11

    Fertility is high in Nigeria and contraceptive use is low. Little is known about how urban Nigerians perceive the risk of contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and birth. This study examines and compares the risk perception of family planning methods and pregnancy related scenarios among urban Nigerians. A total of 26 focus group discussions with 243 participants were conducted in September and October 2010 in Ibadan and Kaduna. The groups were stratified by sex, age, family planning use, and city. Study participants were asked to identify the risk associated with six different family planning methods and four pregnancy related risks. The data were coded in ATLAS.ti 6 and analyzed using the thematic content analysis approach. The ten family planning and pregnancy related items ranked as follows from most to least risky: sterilization, abortion, getting pregnant soon after having a baby (no birth spacing), pill, IUD, injectable, having a birth under 18 years of age (teenage motherhood), condom use, having six children, and fertility awareness methods. Risk of family planning methods was often categorized in terms of side effects and complications. Positive perceptions of teenage motherhood and having many children influenced the low ranking of these items. Inadequate birth spacing was rated as more risky than all contraceptive methods and pregnancy related events except for sterilization and abortion. Some of the participants' risk perceptions of contraceptives and pregnancy related scenarios does not correspond to actual risk of methods and practices. Instead, the items' perceived riskiness largely correspond with prevailing social norms. However, there was a high level of understanding of the risks of inadequate birth spacing. This study is not a randomized control trial so the study has not been registered as such.

  15. Zinc supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality in very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates: a hospital-based randomized, placebo-controlled trial in an industrialized country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrin, Gianluca; Berni Canani, Roberto; Passariello, Annalisa; Messina, Francesco; Conti, Maria Giulia; Caoci, Stefano; Smaldore, Antonella; Bertino, Enrico; De Curtis, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Zinc plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases and in body growth. Preterm neonates have high zinc requirements. The objective of the study was to investigate the efficacy of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates and to promote growth. This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study of very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates randomly allocated on the seventh day of life to receive (zinc group) or not receive (control group) oral zinc supplementation. Total prescribed zinc intake ranged from 9.7 to 10.7 mg/d in the zinc group and from 1.3 to 1.4 mg/d in the placebo control group. The main endpoint was the rate of neonates with ≥ 1 of the following morbidities: late-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leucomalacia, and retinopathy of prematurity. Secondary outcomes were mortality and body growth. We enrolled 97 neonates in the zinc group and 96 in the control group. Morbidities were significantly lower in the zinc group (26.8% compared with 41.7%; P = 0.030). The occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis was significantly higher in the control group (6.3% compared with 0%; P = 0.014). Mortality risk was higher in the placebo control group (RR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.08, 5.18; P = 0.006). Daily weight gain was similar in the zinc (18.2 ± 5.6 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) and control (17.0 ± 8.7 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) groups (P = 0.478). Oral zinc supplementation given at high doses reduces morbidities and mortality in preterm neonates. This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register as ACTRN12612000823875.

  16. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Jonsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design: The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28 and from control families in the same rural area (n=37 was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results: Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions: Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings.

  17. Influence of timing of admission in labour and management of labour on method of birth: results from a randomised controlled trial of caseload midwifery (COSMOS trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Mary-Ann; McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della; Flood, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    to explore the relationship between the degree to which labour is established on admission to hospital and method of birth. a recent randomised controlled trial found fewer caesarean sections (CS) in women allocated to caseload midwifery (19.4%) compared with standard care (24.9%). There is interest in exploring what specific aspects of the care might have resulted in this reduction. a large tertiary-level maternity service in Melbourne, Australia. English-speaking women with no previous caesarean section at low risk of complications in pregnancy were recruited to a randomised controlled trial. Trial participants whose management did not include a planned caesarean and who were admitted to hospital in spontaneous labour were included in this secondary analysis of trial data (n=1532). this secondary analysis included women admitted to hospital in spontaneous labour who were randomised to caseload midwifery compared with those randomised to standard care with regard to timing of admission in labour, augmentation of labour and use of epidural analgesia. In a further analysis randomised groups were pooled to examine predictors of caesarean section for first births only using multiple logistic regression. nulliparous women randomised to standard care were more likely to have labour augmented than those having caseload care (54.2% and 45.5% respectively, p=0.008), but were no more likely to use epidural analgesia. They were admitted earlier in labour, spending 1.1 hours longer than those in the caseload arm in hospital before the birth (p=0.003). Parous women allocated to standard care were more likely than those in the caseload arm to use epidural analgesia (10.0% and 5.3% respectively, p=0.047), but were no more likely to have labour augmented. They were also admitted earlier in labour, with a median cervical dilatation of 4 cm compared with 5 cm in the caseload arm (p=0.012). Pooling the two randomised groups of nulliparous women, and after adjusting for randomised

  18. Clinical risk factors for venous thromboembolus in users of the combined oral contraceptive pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Corri; Kaye, James A; Jick, Hershel

    2002-01-01

    Aims To estimate the risk of venous thromboembolism among women prescribed the oral contraceptive pill who have acute clinical conditions such as lower limb fractures, compared with women with idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Methods A nested case-control analysis using the General Practice Research Database, January 1993 to December 1999 was carried out. The participants were women aged 15–39 years, prescribed third generation oral contraceptives (gestodene and desogestrel) or oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel. The main outcome measures were odds ratios as a measure of the relative risk estimate for venous thromboembolism in women with clinical conditions that predispose to VTE. Results The adjusted relative risk estimate for venous thromboembolism among patients with the acute clinical conditions, compared with those without such illness, and adjusted for oral contraceptive use, was 17 (95% CI 6.5, 46). Conclusions This paper documents the strong independent association between certain acute clinical conditions and venous thromboembolism in women prescribed oral contraceptives. Failure to accurately identify and exclude such patients from a study of the effect of oral contraceptives on the risk of venous thromboembolism would result in an underestimate of the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with oral contraceptives. PMID:12047488

  19. An Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Weight Gain of Very Low Birth Weight Babies with or without Addition of Coconut Oil to Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Sumitha; Kumar, Manish; Paul, Thomas; Thomas, Nihal; Mathai, Sarah; Rebekah, Grace; Thomas, Niranjan

    2018-03-23

    Nutritional guidelines involving the feeding of very low birth weight babies (VLBW) recommend addition of Human Milk Fortifiers to breast milk. Owing to financial constraints, it is a practice in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to add coconut oil to aid better weight gain. There are inadequate data on improvement of growth parameters with oral coconut oil supplementation of breast milk. In this randomized controlled trial, we measured growth parameters and body composition of 60 babies who received either breast milk with coconut oil or breast milk alone. Randomization was stratified according to intrauterine growth appropriate for gestational age (n = 30) and small for gestational age (n = 30). There was no difference in weight gain between the two groups. The weight gain velocity was 15 ± 3.6 and 14.4 ± 3.4 g/kg/day (p value = 0.49) in the breast milk alone and in the breast milk with coconut oil group, respectively. There was no difference in increase in head circumference and length. Triceps skinfold thickness (n = 56) was similar in both groups, but subscapular skinfold thickness was significantly more in the coconut oil group. Total body fat percentage did not differ between the groups (25.2 ± 4.3 vs. 25.5 ± 4.3%, p = 0.79). Oral supplementation of coconut oil along with breast milk did not increase growth parameters or result in change in body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) babies.

  20. A single-pill combination of amlodipine besylate and atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Roy

    2006-03-01

    This review describes the clinical profile and rationale for the development of a single-pill formulation of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine besylate, a blood pressure-lowering agent with pleiotropic effects, and atorvastatin calcium, a statin with lipid-lowering as well as pleiotropic anti-atherosclerotic properties. Amlodipine and atorvastatin have been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials to be highly effective in lowering blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, both amlodipine and atorvastatin have been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular events in a broad range of patients. The amlodipine/atorvastatin single pill has been shown to improve patients' achievement of national guideline-recommended blood pressure and lipid target levels and exhibits a safety profile consistent with its parent compounds. The combination pill is available in formulations appropriate for administration across therapeutic dose ranges targeted to a wide variety of hypertensive patients with additional risk factors and differing degrees of cardiovascular risk, or with manifest cardiovascular disease. Single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin has the potential to improve the management of hypertensive patients with additional cardiovascular risk factors, especially dyslipidemia, by reducing pill burden and prescription costs. This potential has important implications because hypertensive patients with additional risk factors represent a large proportion of those at risk for cardiovascular events. Copyright 2006 Prous Science.

  1. Protocol of the Low Birth Weight South Asia Trial (LBWSAT), a cluster-randomised controlled trial testing impact on birth weight and infant nutrition of Participatory Learning and Action through women's groups, with and without unconditional transfers of fortified food or cash during pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Naomi M; Shrestha, Bhim P; Style, Sarah; Harris-Fry, Helen; Beard, B James; Sengupta, Aman; Jha, Sonali; Rai, Anjana; Paudel, Vikas; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Copas, Andrew; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Bhandari, Bishnu; Neupane, Rishi; Morrison, Joanna; Gram, Lu; Sah, Raghbendra; Basnet, Machhindra; Harthan, Jayne; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2016-10-21

    Low birth weight (LBW, third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial (non-blinded). PLA comprises women's groups that discuss, and form strategies about, nutrition in pregnancy, low birth weight and hygiene. Women receive up to 7 monthly transfers per pregnancy: cash is NPR 750 (~US$7) and food is 10 kg of fortified sweetened wheat-soya Super Cereal per month. The unit of randomisation is a rural village development committee (VDC) cluster (population 4000-9200, mean 6150) in southern Dhanusha or Mahottari districts. 80 VDCs are randomised to four arms using a participatory 'tombola' method. Twenty clusters each receive: PLA; PLA plus food; PLA plus cash; and standard care (control). Participants are (mostly Maithili-speaking) pregnant women identified from 8 weeks' gestation onwards, and their infants (target sample size 8880 birth weights). After pregnancy verification, mothers may be followed up in early and late pregnancy, within 72 h, after 42 days and within 22 months of birth. Outcomes pertain to the individual level. Primary outcomes include birth weight within 72 h of birth and infant weight-for-age Z-score measured cross-sectionally on children born of the study. Secondary outcomes include prevalence of LBW, eating behaviour and weight during pregnancy, maternal and newborn illness, preterm delivery, miscarriage, stillbirth or neonatal mortality, infant Z-scores for length-for-age and weight-for-length, head circumference, and postnatal maternal BMI and mid-upper arm

  2. Moderate hypothermia within 6 h of birth plus inhaled xenon versus moderate hypothermia alone after birth asphyxia (TOBY-Xe): a proof-of-concept, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Denis; Robertson, Nicola J; Bainbridge, Alan; Cady, Ernest; Charles-Edwards, Geoffrey; Deierl, Aniko; Fagiolo, Gianlorenzo; Franks, Nicholas P; Griffiths, James; Hajnal, Joseph; Juszczak, Edmund; Kapetanakis, Basil; Linsell, Louise; Maze, Mervyn; Omar, Omar; Strohm, Brenda; Tusor, Nora; Edwards, A David

    2016-02-01

    Moderate cooling after birth asphyxia is associated with substantial reductions in death and disability, but additional therapies might provide further benefit. We assessed whether the addition of xenon gas, a promising novel therapy, after the initiation of hypothermia for birth asphyxia would result in further improvement. Total Body hypothermia plus Xenon (TOBY-Xe) was a proof-of-concept, randomised, open-label, parallel-group trial done at four intensive-care neonatal units in the UK. Eligible infants were 36-43 weeks of gestational age, had signs of moderate to severe encephalopathy and moderately or severely abnormal background activity for at least 30 min or seizures as shown by amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), and had one of the following: Apgar score of 5 or less 10 min after birth, continued need for resuscitation 10 min after birth, or acidosis within 1 h of birth. Participants were allocated in a 1:1 ratio by use of a secure web-based computer-generated randomisation sequence within 12 h of birth to cooling to a rectal temperature of 33·5°C for 72 h (standard treatment) or to cooling in combination with 30% inhaled xenon for 24 h started immediately after randomisation. The primary outcomes were reduction in lactate to N-acetyl aspartate ratio in the thalamus and in preserved fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and MRI, respectively, within 15 days of birth. The investigator assessing these outcomes was masked to allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00934700, and with ISRCTN, as ISRCTN08886155. The study was done from Jan 31, 2012, to Sept 30, 2014. We enrolled 92 infants, 46 of whom were randomly assigned to cooling only and 46 to xenon plus cooling. 37 infants in the cooling only group and 41 in the cooling plus xenon group underwent magnetic resonance assessments and were included in the analysis of

  3. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  4. Age, relationship status, and the planning status of births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hayford

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the United States historically, births to older mothers have been more likely to be planned than births to younger mothers, and births to unmarried women have been less likely to be planned than births to married women. As the average age of mothers has increased and more births have occurred outside of marriage in the United States, the intersection of these trends may have weakened the traditional linkage between age and birth planning status. In this article, we examine differences by maternal age in planning status of births using The 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. We find that age is strongly associated with planning status, but the association is reduced in magnitude when controlling for relationship status and is stronger for first and second births than for higher-parity births. Further, the association between union status and the planning status of births varies by race-ethnicity.

  5. Quality control and statistical modeling for environmental epigenetics: a study on in utero lead exposure and DNA methylation at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Sánchez, Brisa N; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Peterson, Karen E; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation data assayed using pyrosequencing techniques are increasingly being used in human cohort studies to investigate associations between epigenetic modifications at candidate genes and exposures to environmental toxicants and to examine environmentally-induced epigenetic alterations as a mechanism underlying observed toxicant-health outcome associations. For instance, in utero lead (Pb) exposure is a neurodevelopmental toxicant of global concern that has also been linked to altered growth in human epidemiological cohorts; a potential mechanism of this association is through alteration of DNA methylation (e.g., at growth-related genes). However, because the associations between toxicants and DNA methylation might be weak, using appropriate quality control and statistical methods is important to increase reliability and power of such studies. Using a simulation study, we compared potential approaches to estimate toxicant-DNA methylation associations that varied by how methylation data were analyzed (repeated measures vs. averaging all CpG sites) and by method to adjust for batch effects (batch controls vs. random effects). We demonstrate that correcting for batch effects using plate controls yields unbiased associations, and that explicitly modeling the CpG site-specific variances and correlations among CpG sites increases statistical power. Using the recommended approaches, we examined the association between DNA methylation (in LINE-1 and growth related genes IGF2, H19 and HSD11B2) and 3 biomarkers of Pb exposure (Pb concentrations in umbilical cord blood, maternal tibia, and maternal patella), among mother-infant pairs of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort (n = 247). Those with 10 μg/g higher patella Pb had, on average, 0.61% higher IGF2 methylation (P = 0.05). Sex-specific trends between Pb and DNA methylation (P < 0.1) were observed among girls including a 0.23% increase in HSD11B2 methylation with 10

  6. A controlled trial of the effect of aromatherapy on birth outcomes using "Rose essential oil" inhalation and foot bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Kheirkhah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Aromatherapy is the art and science of using essential oils extracted from aromatic plants, and is concerned with natural balance, coordination and promotion of health. This study was designed to determine the effect of "rose (Rosa damascena essential oil" inhalation and foot bath on the improvement of maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Material and methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, conducted on 80 primiparous women in Shahid Akbar Abadi Maternity Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Subjects were randomly assigned to aromatherapy and control groups. Aromatherapy group received methods of inhalation and foot bath with rose essential oil for 10 minutes at the beginning of the active phase and then at the onset of the transitional phase of labor. Control group received the routine care of the delivery room. The measured variables in this study included episiotomy in the second stages of labor, Apgar score, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and maternal satisfaction with the administration of pain relievers. Statistical analysis of the extracted data was performed using SPSS version 16 with Chi-square and t student test. Results: Two groups were significantly different in terms of the second stage of labor duration (P

  7. Home-based walking during pregnancy affects mood and birth outcomes among sedentary women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Chie; Sato, Chifumi

    2016-10-01

    We examined the effects of home-based walking on sedentary Japanese women's pregnancy outcomes and mood. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, involving 118 women aged 22-36 years. Participants were randomly assigned to walking intervention (n = 60) or control (n = 58) groups. The walking group was instructed to walk briskly for 30 min, three times weekly from 30 weeks' gestation until delivery. Both groups counted their daily steps using pedometers. Pregnancy and delivery outcomes were assessed, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, and we used the intention-to-treat principle. Groups showed no differences regarding pregnancy or delivery outcomes. The walking group exhibited decreased scores on the depression-dejection and confusion subscales of the Profile of Mood States. Five of the 54 women in the intervention group who remained in the study (9.2%) completed 100% of the prescribed walking program; 32 (59.3%) women completed 80% or more. Unsupervised walking improves sedentary pregnant women's mood, indicating that regular walking during pregnancy should be promoted in this group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  9. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...

  10. Safety, efficacy, actions, and patient acceptability of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive pills in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley L Breech

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Lesley L Breech, Paula K BravermanDivision of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD is estimated to affect 3%–8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 µg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality.Keywords: drospirenone, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, premenstrual syndrome, oral contraceptive pill

  11. Effect of Zuogui Pill () on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with panic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effects of Chinese medicine prescription Zuogui Pill (, ZGP) on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with induced panic attacks. Forty-eight climacteric female rats were randomized into 6 groups with 8 rats in each group: the control group, the model group, the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups and the alprazolam group. Rats in the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups were administered 4.725, 9.45, or 18.9 g/kg ZGP by gastric perfusion, respectively. The alprazolam group was treated by gastric perfusion with 0.036 mg/kg alprazolam. The control and model groups were treated with distilled water. The animals were pretreated once daily for 8 consecutive weeks. The behaviors of rats in the open fifield test and the elevated T-maze (ETM) were observed after induced panic attack, and the levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and the plasma levels of sex hormones were measured. Compared with the control group, the mean ETM escape time and the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenalin (NE) of the model group were signifificantly reduced (P<0.05), Compared with the model group, the mean ETM escape time and the 5-HT and NE levels of all the ZGP groups increased signifificantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, no signifificant difference was observed in the levels of sex hormones between the groups. Pretreatment with ZGP in climacteric rats may improve the behavior of panic attack, which may be related to increased 5-HT and NE in the brain.

  12. Cranial birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de

  13. [Risk factors of birth obstetric trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía-González, Alejandrina; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Nava-Bermea, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    The proper prenatal care for pregnant women is crucial to quickly identify risk factors for birth trauma. To identify risk factors for neonatal birth trauma. Case-control study that included a patient in the case group for every two controls. The following risk factors were identified: cephalopelvic disproportion, macrosomia, use of forceps, precipitated or prolonged labor, malpresentation, and the most common types of birth trauma. We used descriptive statistics and odds ratios. Statistically significant risk factors for birth trauma were: maternal age or = 30 years (OR = 2.5), first pregnancy (OR = 4.0), cephalopelvic disproportion (OR = 8.3), forceps delivery (OR = 9.4), birth weight greater than 3,800 g (OR = 6.6), and non-cephalic presentation (OR = 8.3). Found birth trauma types were: ecchymosis (40.4%), caput succedaneum (25%), erosion (15.4%), clavicle fracture (5.9%), brachial plexus paralysis (4.7%), inter alia. The perinatal outcome of 79 infants with birth trauma were compared to 158 healthy newborns. Risk factors associated with birth injuries were: Maternal (age, pregnancy), newborn (weight), and birth care (presentation, instrumentation and pelvic sufficiency).

  14. Unannounced telephone pill counts for assessing varenicline adherence in a pilot clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nia Thompson1, Niaman Nazir1, Lisa Sanderson Cox1,2, Babalola Faseru1,2, Kathy Goggin3, Jasjit S Ahluwalia4, Nicole L Nollen1,21University of Kansas School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Kansas City, KS, USA; 2University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Psychology, Kansas City, MO, USA; 4University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of Medicine and Center for Health Equity, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Despite consistent evidence linking smoking cessation pharmacotherapy adherence to better outcomes, knowledge about objective adherence measures is lacking and little attention is given to monitoring pharmacotherapy use in smoking cessation clinical trials.Objectives: To examine unannounced telephone pill counts as a method for assessing adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy.Research design: Secondary data analysis of a randomized pilot study.Participants: 46 moderate-to-heavy (>10 cigarettes per day African-American smokers.Main measures: Smokers received 1 month of varenicline (Pfizer Global Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY in a pill box at baseline. Unannounced pill counts were completed by telephone 4 days prior to an in-person pill count conducted at Month 1. At both counts, each compartment of the pill box was opened and the number of remaining pills was recorded.Results: Participants were a mean age of 48 years (SD = 13, predominately female (59%, low income (60% < $1800 monthly family income, and smoked an average of 17 (SD = 7 cigarettes per day. A high degree of concordance was observed between the number of pills counted by phone and in-person (rs = 0.94, P < 0.001. Participants with discordant counts (n = 7 had lower varenicline adherence (mean [SD] = 77% [18%] vs 95% [9%], P < 0.0005, but reported better medication adherence in the past (1.0 [0.8] vs 2.8 [1.0], P < 0.0004 than participants with matching phone and in

  15. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  16. Micro-blogs, online forums, and the birth-control policy: social media and the politics of reproduction in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2014-03-01

    In June 2012, the news of a Chinese woman's forced late-term abortion quickly spread across the internet in China. Graphic photos of the woman with the aborted fetus provoked public outrage and widespread condemnation on social media sites. In the aftermath, local authorities apologized, seven officials were given demerits, and the couple received monetary compensation. This case was put under the spotlight mainly because of the exposure of the story by family members of the woman through social media and the resulting public outcry in cyberspace. Following the disclosure of this story and public reactions online, this article explores the complex interplays among different layers of state power, the individual, and the public in reproductive politics, and discusses the ways in which social media has been utilized to resist state control of reproduction. By delving into the nuanced interactions among layers of state authorities, this article sheds light on the study of state-society relations in reproductive politics. It also calls attention to the role that social media plays in reproductive issues.

  17. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abdali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p=0.001 and p=0.01. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  18. Evaluation of a telemetric gastrointestinal pill for continuous monitoring of gastrointestinal temperature in horses at rest and during exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegaal, Elisabeth Lidwien J.M.M.; Delesalle, Catherine; Caraguel, Charles G.B.; Folwell, Louise E.; McWhorter, Todd J.; Howarth, Gordon S.; Franklin, Samantha H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of a telemetric gastrointestinal (GI) pill to continuously monitor GI temperature in horses at rest and during exercise and to compare time profiles of GI temperature and rectal temperature. ANIMALS 8 Standardbred horses. PROCEDURES Accuracy and precision of the GI pill and

  19. Kino Kosmos Imax restaureerimine = Restoration of the Kino Kosmos as an Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45, hoone valminud 1964, restaureeritud 2014. Hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi, restaureerimisprojekt Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo, sisearhitektid Kerli Lepp, Pille Lausmäe (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuribüroo). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  20. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  1. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword"

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2015-01-01

    The article by Potts et al, “The Pill is Mightier than the Sword,” points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women’s empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservat...

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  3. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  4. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...

  5. Danqi Pill regulates lipid metabolism disorder induced by myocardial ischemia through FATP-CPTI pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Wang, Qiyan; Shi, Tianjiao; Wang, Jing; Chen, Hui; Wu, Yan; Han, Jing; Guo, Shuzhen; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-21

    Danqi Pill (DQP), which contains Chinese herbs Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Panax notoginseng, is widely used in the treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI) in China. Its regulatory effects on MI-associated lipid metabolism disorders haven't been comprehensively studied so far. We aimed to systematically investigate the regulatory mechanism of DQP on myocardial ischemia-induced lipid metabolism disorders. Myocardial ischemia rat model was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. The rat models were divided into three groups: model group with administration of normal saline, study group with administration of DanQi aqueous solution (1.5 mg/kg) and positive-control group with administration of pravastatin aqueous solution (1.2 mg/kg). In addition, another sham-operated group was set as negative control. At 28 days after treatment, cardiac function and degree of lipid metabolism disorders in rats of different groups were measured. Plasma lipid disorders were induced by myocardial ischemia, with manifestation of up-regulation of triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), Apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). DQP could down-regulate the levels of TG, LDL, Apo-B and HMGCR. The Lipid transport pathway, fatty acids transport protein (FATP) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) were down-regulated in model group. DQP could improve plasma lipid metabolism by up-regulating this lipid transport pathway. The transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which regulate lipid metabolism, were also up-regulated by DQP. Furthermore, DQP was able to improve heart function and up-regulate ejection fraction (EF) by increasing the cardiac diastolic volume. Our study reveals that DQP would be an ideal alternative drug for the treatment of dyslipidemia which is induced by myocardial ischemia.

  6. Use of the Oral Contraceptive Pill by Austrian Adolescents with Emphasis on the Age of Onset, Side Effects, Compliance and Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnhuber, S.; Kirchengast, S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of the oral contraceptive pill in 880 Austrian high school girls. All participants filled in a questionnaire on lifestyle and menarche. Furthermore, subjects on the pill were asked about their preparation, age at first use, reasons why they take it, side effects and oral contraceptive compliance. All 139 subjects on the pill used low dose monophasic preparations. The girls started the pill at a mean age of 16.0 0.9 years for contraceptive ...

  7. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  8. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both......Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...

  9. Parental External Locus of Control in Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Teacher Ratings of Negative Behavior in Primary School: Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Nowicki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine whether parents’ locus of control (LOC obtained before the birth of their child predicts the child’s behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7–8 and 6 (ages 10–11. A modified version of the adult Nowicki–Strickland internal–external locus of control scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman’s strengths and difficulties’ questionnaire completed by the children’s class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, it was found that the greater the presence of externality in the parents, the greater the increased risk of the child’s adverse behavior as rated by teachers. The risk was generally greatest if both parents were external and lowest if both were internal. There was a consistent relationship at both Year 3 and Year 6 between maternal externality in pregnancy and children’s emotional difficulties. However, for other behaviors, the pattern of associations varied depending on whether the mother or father was external, the type of adverse behavior, and the School Year in which children were assessed. Prenatal parental externality appears to be significantly associated with a variety of children’s negative behaviors. Of note was the finding that fathers’ as well as mothers’ LOC was important in determining children’s outcomes. Implications of the complexity of the results for the role parents may play in children’s personality and adjustment are discussed.

  10. The novice birthing: theorising first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Barclay, Lesley M; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-02-01

    to explore first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia. a grounded theory methodology was used. Data were generated from in-depth interviews with women in their own homes. Sydney, Australia. 19 women were interviewed. Seven women who gave in a public hospital and seven women who gave birth for the first time at home were interviewed and their experiences were contrasted with two mothers who gave birth for the first time in a birth centre, one mother who gave birth for the first time in a private hospital and two women who had given birth more than once. three categories emerged from the analysis: preparing for birth, the novice birthing and processing the birth. These women shared a common core experience of seeing that they gave birth as 'novices'. The basic social process running through their experience of birth, regardless of birth setting, was that, as novices, they were all 'reacting to the unknown'. The mediating factors that influenced the birth experiences of these first-time mothers were preparation, choice and control, information and communication, and support. The quality of midwifery care both facilitated and hindered these needs, contributing to the women's perceptions of being 'honoured'. The women who gave birth at home seemed to have more positive birth experiences. identifying the novice status of first-time mothers and understanding the way in which they experience birth better explains previous research that reports unrealistic expectations and fear that may be associated with first-time birthing. It demonstrates how midwives can contribute to positive birth experiences by being aware that first-time mothers, irrespective of birth setting, are essentially reacting to the unknown as they negotiate the experience of birth. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Digital Pills to Measure Opioid Ingestion Patterns in Emergency Department Patients With Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Rosen, Rochelle K; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a novel digital pill system to measure as-needed opioid ingestion patterns in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) after an acute bony fracture. Methods We used a digital pill with individuals who presented to a teaching hospital ED with an acute extremity fracture. The digital pill consisted of a digital radiofrequency emitter within a standard gelatin capsule that encapsulated an oxycodone tablet. When ingested, the gastric chloride ion gradient activated the digital pill, transmitting a radiofrequency signal that was received by a hip-worn receiver, which then transmitted the ingestion data to a cloud-based server. After a brief, hands-on training session in the ED, study participants were discharged home and used the digital pill system to ingest oxycodone prescribed as needed for pain for one week. We conducted pill counts to verify digital pill data and open-ended interviews with participants at their follow-up appointment with orthopedics or at one week after enrollment in the study to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding digital pills. We analyzed open-ended interviews using applied thematic analysis. Results We recruited 10 study participants and recorded 96 ingestion events (87.3%, 96/110 accuracy). Study participants

  12. Improving combined contraceptive pill/oral contraceptives prescribing in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sophie; Wiles, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Eighty per cent of contraceptive care occurs in the general practice setting. UK Medical Eligibility Criteria provides clear guidelines for the safe provision of appropriate contraception. The Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Health and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence offer further recommendations for initiation and continuation of the combined contraceptive pill/oral contraceptives. Using the Egton Medical Information Systems database of an inner city, average size general practice we performed a retrospective analysis of combined contraceptive pill/oral contraceptives consultations to identify areas of substandard prescribing. Through three subsequent improvement cycles we demonstrated that the safety of combined contraceptive pill/oral contraceptives prescribing could be enhanced by consistent application of UK Medical Eligibility Criteria. By encouraging general practitioners to promote safe sex and use local long-acting reversible contraception options we were able to enhance the quality of consultations as dictated by national guidelines. Regular education and use of an amended EMIS template (to include UK Medical Eligibility Criteria) enabled us to improve both the safety and quality of community-combined contraceptive pill/oral contraceptives prescribing in a sustainable fashion.

  13. Antiretroviral pill count and clinical outcomes in treatment-naive patients with HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, J.; Smith, C.; Teira, R.; Reiss, P.; Jarrín Vera, I.; Crane, H.; Miro, J. M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Saag, M.; Zangerle, R.; Bucher, H. C.; Boulle, Andrew; Stephan, Christoph; Cavassini, Matthias; del Amo, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Gill, John; Guest, Jodie; Hans-Ulrich Haerry, David; Hogg, Robert; Justice, Amy; Shepherd, Leah; Obel, Neils; Sterling, Tim; Williams, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    ObjectivesTreatment guidelines recommend single-tablet regimens for patients with HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy. These regimens might be as effective and cost less if taken as separate drugs. We assessed whether the one pill once a day combination of efavirenz, emtricitabine and

  14. [Optimize dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills by using design space approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. The quad pill, a once-daily combination therapy for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leonard B; Saravolatz, Louis D

    2014-01-01

    The quad pill is the newest single-pill, once-daily option for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. In addition to tenofovir difumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC), the quad pill includes cobicistat (COBI; an inactivator of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A without anti-HIV activity) and a new integrase inhibitor, elvitegravir (EVG). The quad does not have drug interactions with H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors, does not cause central nervous system (CNS) side effects, and is pregnancy category B. It does have substantial drug interactions with medications that are metabolized using CYP3A and causes reversible declines in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) owing to inhibition of renal tubule transport of creatinine. In clinical trials, the virologic and immunologic efficacy of the quad pill is equivalent to that of other comparator regimens with low rates of discontinuation. The major side effect is nauseam which is self-limited, and the primary mutations associated with treatment failure frequently lead to cross-resistance with raltegravir (RAL).

  16. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  17. Can We Pop a Pill to Cure Obesity? Genetic Studies of a Complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Can We Pop a Pill to Cure Obesity? Genetic Studies of a Complex Trait. Sujatha Byravan. Research News Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 69-72. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Biochemical composition of two giant pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Cheviri N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many invertebrates have an unexpected nutraceutical potential and are of nutritional or ethnomedicinal significance to many tribals throughout the world. The giant pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera are traditionally used as natural medicines by tribals in the Western Ghats of India. In this study, two species of pill-millipedes (Arthrosphaera fumosa and A. magna were subjected to proximate and biochemical analysis to ascertain their nutritional potential. Bodies of A. fumosa and A. magna (after removal of their intestines had a low protein content (8-15% and high quantity of carbohydrates (40-41%. They were rich in many essential elements, especially in calcium. The essential amino acids of pillmillipedes were in high quantities. The level of glycine was the highest, followed by lysine and serine. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs of males and females consist of high quantities of unsaturated fatty acids. The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were more abundant than poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Palmitic and oleic acids were dominant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The study has revealed for the first time that pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India constitute a good source of essential minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. Being valuable contributors of organic manure by processing recalcitrant plant lignocellulosic wastes, pill-millipedes become part and parcel of organic farming as well as future nutraceutical sources.

  19. How to illustrate science - a lesson from the 1970s / Pille-Triin Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Pille-Triin

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna IV rakenduskunsti triennaali Pille-Riin Männiku ja Anneli Porri kureeritud satelliitnäitusest "Teadus ja tänapäev" A-galeriis, Draakoni galeriis ja Hobusepea galeriis. Suure osa näitusest moodustavad Tõnis Vindi illustratsioonid 1979. a. ilmunud Juhan Kivi raamatule "Teadus ja tänapäev". Fotod Ene Kull

  20. A single-pill combination of amlodipine besylate and atorvastatin calcium (update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Roy; Hobbs, F D Richard; Zamorano, Jose; Girerd, Xavier

    2007-03-01

    This review describes the clinical profile and rationale for the development of a single-pill formulation of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine besylate, a blood-pressure--lowering agent, and atorvastatin calcium, a statin with lipid-lowering antiatherosclerotic properties. Amlodipine and atorvastatin have been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials to be highly effective in lowering blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, both amlodipine and atorvastatin have been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular events in a broad range of patients' in hypertensive patients with three concomitant cardiovascular risk factors but normal to mildly elevated cholesterol levels, amlodipine combined with atorvastatin demonstrated a reduction in cardiovascular events. The amlodipine/atorvastatin single pill has been shown to improve patients; achievement of national-guideline-recommended blood pressure and lipid target levels and exhibits a safety profile consistent with its parent compounds. The combination pill is now available in parts of Europe in formulations containing either 5 or 10 mg amlodipine and 10 mg atorvastatin. Amlodipine combined with atorvastatin has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk, and the single-pill formulation has the potential to improve adherence and decrease prescription costs. These potential benefits are associated with important implications because hypertensive patients with additional risk factors represent a large proportion of those at risk for cardiovascular events. (c) 2007 Prous Science.

  1. Rein Pill võitis Venemaal kõrgetasemelise võistluse / Maarja Värv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värv, Maarja

    2008-01-01

    Ratsutaja Rein Pill tegi Venemaal Tsherjahovskis CS14* taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix' 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites seega Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  2. Oral contraceptive pills induced hemichorea in an adolescent female with polycystic ovarian disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmila, Vijayan; Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun

    2015-01-01

    Chorea is a neurological adverse effect of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). The onset of chorea following OCPs usage varies widely from few weeks to several years. We report a rare case of chorea which developed within a week of starting OCPs in an adolescent girl with polycystic ovarian disease.

  3. Oral contraceptive pills induced hemichorea in an adolescent female with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmila, Vijayan; Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun

    2015-01-01

    Chorea is a neurological adverse effect of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). The onset of chorea following OCPs usage varies widely from few weeks to several years. We report a rare case of chorea which developed within a week of starting OCPs in an adolescent girl with polycystic ovarian disease.

  4. Pills that swallow policy: clinical ethnography of a Community Mental Health Program in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sumeet; Jadhav, Sushrut

    2009-03-01

    India's National Mental Health Program (NMHP) was initiated in 1982 with the objective of promoting community participation and accessible mental health services. A key component involves central government calculation and funding for psychotropic medication. Based on clinical ethnography of a community psychiatry program in north India, this article traces the biosocial journey of psychotropic pills from the centre to the periphery. As the pill journeys from the Ministry of Health to the clinic, its symbolic meaning transforms from an emphasis on accessibility and participation to the administration of a discrete ;treatment.' Instead of embodying participation and access, the pill achieves the opposite: silencing community voices, re-enforcing existing barriers to care, and relying on pharmacological solutions for psychosocial problems. The symbolic inscription of NMHP policies on the pill fail because they are undercut by more powerful meanings generated from local cultural contexts. An understanding of this process is critical for the development of training and policy that can more effectively address local mental health concerns in rural India.

  5. Birth control and family planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the World Health Organization selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2nd edition. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013;62(RR-05):1-60. PMID: 23784109 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23784109 . Committee On Adolescence. Emergency contraception. Pediatrics. 2012;130(6):1174-1182. PMID: ...

  6. From Kaua'i to Hawai'i Island: Interisland Differences in Emergency Contraceptive Pill Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Holly; Tschann, Mary; Elia, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Salcedo, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are medications used after unprotected intercourse, underprotected intercourse, or sexual assault to decrease the risk of pregnancy. Availability of ECPs in Hawai'i's retail pharmacies was last assessed in 2007, following over-the-counter access to levonorgestrel ECPs (LNG-ECP) for women age 18 years or older and prior to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of prescription-only ulipristal acetate (UPA). We conducted a county-by-county subanalysis from a larger observational population-based study on statewide availability of ECPs in Hawai'i's pharmacies. In the original study, researchers called all 198 unique retail pharmacies in Hawai'i between December 2013 and June 2014. Only 3% of pharmacies had UPA immediately available on-site in the state, with UPA available on Kaua'i and O'ahu only. At least one form of LNG-ECPs was available in 82% of pharmacies in 2013-2014, roughly the same as 2007 (81%) (P=0.9) when Lana'i and Moloka'i lacked access. Currently, only Moloka'i lacks retail pharmacy access to ECPs. When controlling for general inflation, the 2013-2014 mean price for name brand LNG-ECP fell within the reported range of 2007 prices. Generic LNG-ECPs were substantially lower in price than name brand LNG-ECPs in 2007 and 2013-2014. Availability of UPA is limited and significantly lower compared to LNG-ECPs. Availability of LNG-ECPs statewide has remained stable and the arrival of generics has decreased prices.

  7. Efficacy of a combined contraceptive regimen consisting of condoms and emergency contraception pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhou, Ying; Ji, Hong-Lei; Li, Yi-Ran

    2014-04-14

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the combined regimen (consisting of condoms and emergency contraception pills (ECP)) and using condoms only for the purpose of preventing pregnancy. One-thousand-five-hundred-and-sixty-two (1,562) couples as volunteers enrolled at nine centers in Shanghai. Eight-hundred-and-twelve (812) were randomized to use male condoms and ECP (i.e., Levonorgestrel) as a back-up to condoms (the intervention group) and 750 to use male condoms only(the control group), according to their working unit. Participants were visited at admission and at the end of 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The cumulative life table rates were calculated for pregnancy and other reasons for discontinuation. The gross cumulative life table rates showed that the cumulative discontinuation rates for all reasons during the year of follow-up in the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 7.76 ± 0.94 and 6.61 ± 0.91, respectively, per 100 women (χ2 = 0.41, p = 0.5227). The cumulative gross pregnancy rate of the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 2.17 ± 0.52 and 1.25 ± 0.41, respectively, per 100 women (χ2 = 1.93, p = 0.1645). The Pearl Index in the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 2.21% and 1.26%, respectively. Male condoms remain a highly effective contraceptive method for a period of one year while consistently and correctly used. In addition, the lowest pregnancy rate followed from perfect use condom.

  8. Treatment of Premenstrual Breakthrough of Depression With Adjunctive Oral Contraceptive Pills Compared With Placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Whitney; Freeman, Marlene P; Kim, Semmie; Cohen, Lee S; Joffe, Hadine

    2017-10-01

    Two-thirds of women with depressive disorders report reemergence of depression premenstrually, or premenstrual exacerbation (PME), despite effective treatment of the underlying mood disorder during the remainder of the cycle. There is a paucity of studies that rigorously assess treatments targeting PME. Open-label data suggest that augmentation of antidepressants with the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol (DRSP/EE) improves depressive symptoms that break through treatment premenstrually. We now report results of a randomized placebo-controlled OCP augmentation trial. Women with unipolar depressive disorders in remission on stable antidepressant doses with a 30% increase in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores from the follicular to luteal phase were randomized to double-blind augmentation of antidepressant with either DRSP/EE or placebo for 2 months. The MADRS and Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) measures were anchored to the menstrual cycle phase. Of 32 women randomized, 25 (n = 12 DRSP/EE, n = 13 placebo) completed the trial. Premenstrual MADRS scores declined by a median of 43.6% and 38.9% (P = 0.59), and premenstrual DRSP scores declined by a median of 23.5% and 20.9% (P = 0.62) in the DRSP/EE and placebo groups, respectively. There was a trend toward greater improvement in premenstrual DRSP scores for women with fewer lifetime depressive episodes (r = -0.40, P = 0.06). Findings from this small randomized trial suggest that OCP augmentation of antidepressants may not be effective for treating premenstrual breakthrough of depression. Future studies should target women established to have hormonal sensitivity prior to antidepressant therapy and those with fewer lifetime depressive episodes.

  9. Eczema, birth order, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ann Maree; Crouch, Simon; Lightfoot, Tracy; Ansell, Pat; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve

    2008-05-15

    The association between infections occurring in the first 2 years of life and development of eczema was investigated in 1,782 control children from a national population-based case-control study in the United Kingdom conducted over the period 1991-1996. Dates of eczema and infectious diagnoses were ascertained from contemporaneously collected primary care records. Children diagnosed with eczema before the age of 2 years had more prior clinically diagnosed infections recorded than did children without eczema (rate ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). The difference in infection rates between children with and without eczema was apparent from birth and throughout the first 2 years of life. As expected, compared with children of second or higher birth order, those firstborn were at increased risk of eczema (p = 0.020); however, the relation between eczema and prior infection was evident only among children of second or higher birth order and not among firstborn children (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.59, and rate ratio = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.20, respectively). The authors' results are consistent with the notion that the association between birth order and eczema is unlikely to be attributable to variations in early infectious exposure.

  10. Maternal Age at Child Birth, Birth Order, and Suicide at a Young Age: A Sibling Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars Johan; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967–1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families wit...

  11. Successful treatment of pill-swallowing difficulties with head posture practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Steiger, Roberta A; Pope, Jamie; Marsh, Ashley; Sharp, Maegan; Crawford, Susan G

    2010-05-01

    Clinics often encounter neurologically intact patients who are unable to swallow pills. All of the interventions published previously have used traditional behavioural techniques, which are time consuming and often not helpful. To determine whether children who had never been able to swallow a whole pill could become successful as a result of an intervention based on head posture. A novel intervention was developed based on published research showing that changing head position alters swallowing dynamics. The method was developed in two studies of 240 adults and children, pilot tested in a study of 108 university students with very mild pill-swallowing discomfort, and then evaluated in a study of 41 children who had never successfully swallowed a pill in spite of much instruction and coaxing. Children were recruited from a tertiary paediatric hospital: 34 were clinic patients, four were their siblings or friends, and three were children of hospital staff. The primary intervention involved teaching five head positions (centre, up, down, left and right) followed by a two-week period of daily practice. EIGHT CHILDREN (ALL CLINIC REFERRALS) WITHDREW WITHOUT PRACTICING: four were too ill to practice (primarily due to sedation or nausea) and four simply refused to do the homework practice. All 33 of the children who were able and willing to practice daily were successful. Practice with head posture variations was successful in treating pill-swallowing difficulties in all 33 children who practiced for 14 days. A training video can be viewed at www.ucalgary.ca/research4kids/pillswallowing.

  12. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroutan N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Methods: Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Results: Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3% visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 % visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43% pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%. Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14% pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists’ gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048. Conclusion: The quality of the pharmacists’ consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement.

  13. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attend the birth. Some family doctors also offer prenatal care and deliver babies. Anesthesia, if needed, will be administered by an anesthesiologist . A variety of pain-control measures — including pain medicine and local, epidural , and ...

  14. A randomised controlled double-blind clinical trial of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate for the prevention of preterm birth in twin gestation (PROGESTWIN): evidence for reduced neonatal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, J; Usta, I M; Ghazeeri, G; Yacoub, N; Succar, J; Hayek, S; Saasouh, W; Nassar, A H

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) prolongs gestation beyond 37 weeks of gestation (primary outcome) and reduces neonatal morbidity (secondary outcome) in twin pregnancy. Randomised controlled double-blind clinical trial. Tertiary-care university medical centre. Unselected women with twin pregnancies. Participants received weekly injections of 250 mg 17OHPC (n = 194) or placebo (n = 94), from 16-20 to 36 weeks of gestation. Randomisation was performed using the permuted-block randomisation method. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Preterm birth (PTB) rate before 37 weeks of gestation. There were no significant differences in the average gestational age at delivery, or in the rates of PTB before 37, 32, and 28 weeks of gestation, between the two groups. The proportion of very-low-birthweight neonates (<1500 g) was significantly lower in the 17OHPC group (7.6%) compared with placebo (14.3%) (relative risk, RR 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.3-0.9; P = 0.01). Progestogen-treated neonates had a significantly lower composite neonatal morbidity (19.1%) compared with placebo (30.9%) (odds ratio, OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.31-0.90; P = 0.02), with significantly lower odds for respiratory distress syndrome (14.4 versus 23.4%; OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.31-0.98; P = 0.04), retinopathy of prematurity (1.1 versus 4.6%; OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.05-0.96; P = 0.04), and culture-confirmed sepsis (3.4 versus 12.8%; OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.57; P = 0.00). Intramuscular 17OHPC therapy did not reduce PTB before 37 weeks of gestation in unselected twin pregnancies. Nonetheless, 17OHPC significantly reduced neonatal morbidity parameters and increased birthweight. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Treatment with Riluzole Restores Normal Control of Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles during Locomotion in Adult Rats after Sciatic Nerve Crush at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmysłowski, Wojciech; Cabaj, Anna M; Sławińska, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN) and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S) or Riluzole (R) after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R) or 2nd (2S and 2R) day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs) identified in investigated muscles. S rats with 2-8 and 10-28 MUs that survived in Sol and EDL muscles respectively showed increases in the duration and duty factor of muscle EMG activity and a loss of correlation between the duty factors of muscle activity, and abnormal flexor-extensor co-activation 3 months after SNC. R rats with 5, 6 (Sol) and 15-29 MUs (EDL) developed almost normal EMG activity of both Sol and control EDL muscles, whereas EDL muscles with SNC showed a lack of recovery. R rats with 8 (Sol) and 23-33 (EDL) MUs developed almost normal EMG activities of all four muscles. A subgroup of S rats with a lack of recovery and R rats with almost complete recovery that had similar number of MUs (8 and 24-28 vs 8 and 23-26), showed that the number of MUs was not the only determinant of treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated that rats with SNC failed to develop normal muscle activity due to malfunction of neuronal circuits attenuating EDL muscle activity during the stance phase, whereas treatment with Riluzole enabled almost normal EMG activity of Sol and EDL muscles during locomotor movement.

  16. Treatment with Riluzole Restores Normal Control of Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles during Locomotion in Adult Rats after Sciatic Nerve Crush at Birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Zmysłowski

    Full Text Available The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S or Riluzole (R after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R or 2nd (2S and 2R day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs identified in investigated muscles. S rats with 2-8 and 10-28 MUs that survived in Sol and EDL muscles respectively showed increases in the duration and duty factor of muscle EMG activity and a loss of correlation between the duty factors of muscle activity, and abnormal flexor-extensor co-activation 3 months after SNC. R rats with 5, 6 (Sol and 15-29 MUs (EDL developed almost normal EMG activity of both Sol and control EDL muscles, whereas EDL muscles with SNC showed a lack of recovery. R rats with 8 (Sol and 23-33 (EDL MUs developed almost normal EMG activities of all four muscles. A subgroup of S rats with a lack of recovery and R rats with almost complete recovery that had similar number of MUs (8 and 24-28 vs 8 and 23-26, showed that the number of MUs was not the only determinant of treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated that rats with SNC failed to develop normal muscle activity due to malfunction of neuronal circuits attenuating EDL muscle activity during the stance phase, whereas treatment with Riluzole enabled almost normal EMG activity of Sol and EDL muscles during locomotor movement.

  17. Metformin improves pregnancy and live-birth rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Papunen, Laure; Rantala, Anni S; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Tiitinen, Aila; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Perheentupa, Antti; Tinkanen, Helena; Bloigu, Risto; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Tapanainen, Juha S

    2012-05-01

    The role of metformin in the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still controversial. OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES: We investigated whether metformin decreases the early miscarriage rate and improves the pregnancy rates (PR) and live-birth rates (LBR) in PCOS. This was a multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three hundred twenty women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility were randomized to metformin (n = 160, Diformin; obese women, 1000 mg two times daily; nonobese subjects, 500 mg + 1000 mg daily) or identical doses of placebo (n = 160). After 3 months' treatment, another appropriate infertility treatment was combined if necessary. If pregnancy occurred, metformin/placebo was continued up to the 12th week. Miscarriage rates were low and similar in the two groups (metformin 15.2% vs. placebo 17.9%, P = 0.8). Intent-to-treat analysis showed that metformin significantly improved PR and LBR (vs. placebo) in the whole study population (PR: 53.6 vs. 40.4%, P = 0.006; LBR: 41.9 vs. 28.8%, P = 0.014) and PR in obese women (49.0 vs. 31.4%, P = 0.04), and there was a similar trend in nonobese (PR: 58.6 vs. 47.6%, P = 0.09; LBR: 46.7 vs. 34.5%, P = 0.09) and in obese women with regard to LBR (35.7 vs. 21.9%, P = 0.07). Cox regression analysis showed that metformin plus standard infertility treatment increased the chance of pregnancy 1.6 times (hazard rate 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.27). Obese women especially seem to benefit from 3 months' pretreatment with metformin and its combination thereafter with routine ovulation induction in anovulatory infertility.

  18. Recruitment and retention of women in a large randomized control trial to reduce repeat preterm births: the Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Ian M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment and retention of patients for randomized control trial (RCT studies can provide formidable challenges, particularly with minority and underserved populations. Data are reported for the Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project (PCPPP, a large RCT targeting risk factors for repeat preterm births among women who previously delivered premature ( Methods Design of the PCPPP incorporated strategies to maximize recruitment and retention. These included an advanced database system tracking follow-up status and assessment completion rates; cultural sensitivity training for staff; communication to the community and eligible women of the benefits of participation; financial incentives; assistance with transportation and supervised childcare services; and reminder calls for convenient, flexibly scheduled appointments. Analyses reported here: 1 compare recruitment projections to actual enrollment 2 explore recruitment bias; 3 validate the randomization process 4 document the extent to which contact was maintained and complete assessments achieved 5 determine if follow-up was conditioned upon socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, or other factors. Results Of eligible women approached, 1,126 (77.7% agreed to participate fully. Of the 324 not agreeing, 118 (36.4% completed a short survey. Consenting women were disproportionately from minority and low SES backgrounds: 71.5% consenting were African American, versus 38.8% not consenting. Consenting women were also more likely to report homelessness during their lifetime (14.6% vs. 0.87% and to be unmarried at the time of delivery (81.6% versus 47.9%. First one-month postpartum assessment was completed for 83.5% (n = 472 of the intervention group (n = 565 and 76% (426 of the control group. Higher assessment completion rates were observed for the intervention group throughout the follow-up. Second, third, fourth and fifth postpartum assessments were 67.6% vs. 57.5%, 60

  19. Postpartum anxiety and adjustment disorders in parents of infants with very low birth weight: Cross-sectional results from a controlled multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Nadine; Barkmann, Claus; Ehrhardt, Stephan; von der Wense, Axel; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Bindt, Carola

    2016-04-01

    Both preterm delivery and survival rates of very low birth weight (VLBW: anxiety in parents after VLBW birth. Parents with VLBW infants and parents with term infants were recruited into the longitudinal HaFEn-study at the three largest centers of perinatal care in Hamburg, Germany. State anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory and anxiety and adjustment disorders with a clinical interview one month postpartum. Psychiatric lifetime diagnoses, social support, trait anxiety, stress during birth, socioeconomic status, risks during pregnancy, and mode of delivery were also evaluated. To examine predictors of postpartum state anxiety in both parents simultaneously a multiple random coefficient model was used. 230 mothers and 173 fathers were included. The risk for minor/major anxiety symptoms and adjustment disorders was higher in parents with VLBW infants compared to the term group. The risk for anxiety disorders was not higher in parents with VLBW infants. The most important predictors for postpartum state anxiety were high trait anxiety, the birth of a VLBW infant, high stress during birth, and low social support. Data reported here are cross-sectional. Thus, temporal relationships cannot be established. Our results emphasize the importance of early screening for postpartum anxiety in both parents with VLBW infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiology of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.