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Sample records for birth control method

  1. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  2. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  3. Use of Modern Birth Control Methods Among Rural Communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    ABSTRACT. This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in ... respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. ..... School of Public Health.

  4. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even if you aren’t going for birth control. What doesn’t work to prevent pregnancy? top It’s ... and taking care of a baby’s many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...

  5. Methods of Preventives to keep Birth Control in the Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is mainly concerned about the methods set by the Quran for preserving the human breeding, which is regarded the main pillar not only for the future survival of the humankind, but also for assuring its permanence and continuity. Taking this into consideration, the Quran has addressed this issue by setting solid preventive tools that ensure the continuity and prosperity of the human offspring in a normal manner. The objective of the research is to shed light on the importance of protecting the human offspring in the Quran, since neglecting its importance could lead to the corruption of the whole society and its members. The research attempts also to tackle the various preventive tools that the Quran has adopted for protecting the normal continuity and prosperity of the human offspring. The research proposes to study the Quranic verses that address the protection of the human offspring and the various preventive tools that should be adopted, along with the accredited analysis and statements of purpose of the Quranic verses, with reference to the approved sources of interpretation. Apart of the findings are that the Quran has set two main methods for protecting the human offspring that is; the preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control, and the preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control. The preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control include the forbidding of being monastic, the prohibiting of killing children for fear of poverty, and the forbidding of falling into immorality, either outwardly or inwardly. They also include the establishment of prayer, giving charity, reciting Dhikr (remembrance and asking of forgiveness. The preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control, however, include not approaching adultery, prohibiting adoption, and forbidding incest, the people of shirk and immorality and blasphemy.

  6. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Home For Patients Search ... Format Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Contraception What are barrier ...

  7. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methods - English PDF How to Switch Birth Control Methods - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) ... Reproductive Health Access Project Non-Contraceptive Indications for Hormonal Contraceptive Products - English PDF Non- ...

  8. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  9. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  10. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's ...

  11. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's ...

  12. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's ...

  13. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Patch KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Patch What's ...

  14. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where medically...

  15. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  16. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing features ... estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  17. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Birth Control Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  18. Migration and its influence on the knowledge and usage of birth control methods among Afghan women who stay behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, I; Siegel, M

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the link between migration and knowledge and use of birth control methods among female household members (of migrants) who stay behind in Afghanistan. Migrants can remit birth control information received in the destination country to non-migrants staying in the origin country, who may as a consequence adjust their health behaviour accordingly. The consequences of this interaction for knowledge and use are what we aim to test. Population-based secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. This study used cross-sectional data from the Afghan Mortality Survey (2010). Using ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching, this research studies to what extent having a migrant in the household influences the knowledge and use of birth control among non-migrant Afghan women. Women who stay behind are defined in this research as those with a migrant household member who moved between 2005 and 2010. Results indicated that non-Pashtun women with a migrant household member showed greater knowledge of contraceptive methods using injectables, birth control pill and lactational amenorrhea method compared to those women without a migrant household member. Less knowledge of male sterilisation and emergency contraception is observed for all women (both Pashtun and non-Pashtun) with a migrant in their household on male sterilisation and emergency contraception compared to the women without a migrant in the household. In addition, we show that Pashtun women with a migrant in the household had lower levels of overall knowledge and were less likely to use birth control methods than women without a migrant household member. In Afghanistan, given the proximity, religious similarity and sociocultural customs mainly men migrate either to Pakistan or Iran. The findings suggest that migrants in different destination countries transfer different information (or fail to successfully transfer information) about birth control methods

  19. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  20. Progestin-Only Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this problem. Things to consider There is no contraceptive method that is perfect, even when used correctly. ... and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control ...

  1. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu Sex Ed Ask Us Anything Videos Games & Quizzes Connect Search About Find a Health Center X Sort by Advanced Search Show/Hide Content Types Article Game Poll Q&A Series Quiz Video Leave un-checked to search all types Search Sex Ed by Topic show topics hide topics Birth ...

  2. Birth control and family planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Birth Control Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  3. Birth control methods (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t allow egg implantation. The hormones in oral contraceptives and hormone implants fool the ovaries into refraining ... egg, pregnancy will not occur. IUDs and oral contraceptives and hormones may be used as emergency contraception ...

  4. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  5. Birth Control: How to Use Your Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens ... MoreBMI Calculator Vasectomy: What to ExpectProgestin-Only Birth Control PillsDepo-Provera: An Injectable ContraceptiveTubal Sterilization (Tubal Ligation) ...

  6. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiang; Zhi Qijun; Zhang Xiaoping; Ren Zhongzhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qutrit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth. (authors)

  7. Birth Control in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M. Francoise

    2014-01-01

    It was carried out a case study of pregnancies and contraceptive methods used by a random sample of 500 women in Lima, Peru . During the five years preceding the interview, the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortions was 19 , 20 and 15 % in the socio- economic middle and lower respectively upper levels . Although the percentage of induced abortions was admitted as low , the rate of abortions was considered relatively high , and it was thought that probably included many whose provocatio...

  8. [The new policies of natural birth control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J H; Reich, J

    1986-01-01

    International agency donors have in recent years become increasingly interested in natural family planning (NFP). The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has made an increasing amount of funds available annually for NFP, and at 1 point, in the case of NFP, relaxed the requirement that donor agencies offer more than 1 contraceptive method, despite the argument that developing country populations do not benefit from enough information for informed consent to be guaranteeable by 1-method agency. NFP has evolved from simple counting of days to observation of changes in cervical mucus and body temperature. The self-observation and learning generally required contribute to difficulties experienced in recruitment and retention of acceptors. At a 1986 meeting in Ottawa, Canada, sponsored by the International Federation for Family Life Promotion, it was revealed that calendar (but not the more effective sympto-thermal) method of NFP is fairly common in some developing countries (it is used by 41% of Peruvian and 24% of Filipino and Sri Lankan women), and even in developed countries. The hypothesized connection between the phenomenon of "old gametes" and birth defects, feared to be a side effect of NFP, was touched on, as was the possibility of using NFP to control the sex of the fetus. It was stressed that the effect of breastfeeding on fecundability constituted NFP in many countries. Other speakers cited religious and moral reasons for promotion of NFP, adding that NFP aids marital communication. It is possible increased popularity of NFP could depend in the near future on medical and legal problems associated with artificial methods as well as the US political situation.

  9. Differential impact of contraceptive methods on seizures varies by antiepileptic drug category: Findings of the Epilepsy Birth Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Andrew G; Mandle, Hannah B; Cahill, Kaitlyn E; Fowler, Kristen M; Hauser, W Allen

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether categories of contraception differ in their impact on seizures in women with epilepsy and whether the impact varies by antiepileptic drug category. Retrospective survey data came from 2712 contraceptive experiences reported by 1144 women with epilepsy. We compared risk ratios for reports of increase and decrease in seizure frequency on hormonal versus nonhormonal contraception, stratified by antiepileptic drug categories. More women with epilepsy reported a change in seizures on hormonal (28.2%) than on nonhormonal contraception (9.7%) (pcontraception (4.2%) was 4.47 (pcontraception (5.5%) was 1.71, pcontraception, the risk ratio for seizure increase was greater than for decrease (1.98, pmethod with a greater risk ratio for seizure decrease than combined pills. Seizure increase was greater for hormonal than nonhormonal contraception for each antiepileptic drug category (pcontraception, relative to the non-enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug category which had the lowest rate, each of the other categories had significantly greater risks for seizure increase, especially the enzyme-inhibiting (valproate) category (risk ratio=2.53, p=0.0002). The findings provide community-based, epidemiological survey evidence that contraceptive methods may differ in their impact on seizures and that this impact may vary by antiepileptic drug category. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...

  11. A hugh marketing research task: birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1968-02-01

    Research in underdeveloped countries to sell family planning is discussed. The article also aims at pinpointing other possible research areas. Census reports were actually the earliest work relevant to birth control. Later came the research on psychosocial factors affecting family size in developed countries. After World War I, client oriented research into family planning began. The history of this type of research is discussed with more emphasis on the surveys of the knowledge, attitude and contraception practices (KAP) in various countries. The author claims the KAP surveys to be the largest worldwide market research job ever done. Propagands campaigns, contraceptive costs, bonuses for contraceptive practices, and effectiveness of persuasion techniques are discussed.

  12. FastStats: Births -- Method of Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1990–2013 [PDF – 423 KB] Primary Cesarean Delivery Rates, by State: Results From the Revised Birth Certificate, 2006–2012 [PDF – 274 KB] Related Links Vital Statistics downloadable public use data files American College of ...

  13. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. Methods A questionnaire was administered in family practice and obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Participants included women ages 18–50 presenting for any reason and women under age 18 presenting for family planning or pregnancy care. Analyses were based on key questions addressing beliefs about whether specific birth control methods may act after fertilization, beliefs about when human life begins, intention to use a method that may act after fertilization, and reported use of specific methods. The questionnaire contained no information about the mechanism of action of any method of birth control. Responses were considered inconsistent if actual use contradicted intentions, if one intention contradicted another, or if intentions contradicted beliefs. Results Of all respondents, 38% gave consistent responses about intention to not use or to stop use of any birth control method that acted after fertilization, while 4% gave inconsistent responses. The corresponding percentages for birth control methods that work after implantation were 64% consistent and 2% inconsistent. Of all respondents, 34% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization and would not use any birth control method that acts after fertilization (a consistent response, while 3% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization but would use a birth control method that acts after fertilization (inconsistent. For specific methods of birth control, less than 1% of women gave inconsistent responses. A majority of women (68% or greater responded accurately about the

  14. Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, D T

    1995-01-01

    This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support

  15. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are considering using one, keep these guidelines in mind: Don't mix smoking and "the pill." If you smoke cigarettes, make a serious effort to quit. If you cannot quit, choose a different form of birth control. Cigarette smoking boosts the risk of serious health problems from birth ...

  16. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  17. Emergency contraception – a neglected option for birth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka R. Gunardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception (EC is any method of contraception which is used after intercourse and before the potential time of implantation, in order to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected sexual intercourse, or cases of rape. Use of emergency contraception could halve the number of unintended pregnancies and the consequent need for abortion, but unfortunately many medical professionals and the public are not aware of it. Two methods are available for emergency contraception, namely emergency contraception pills (ECPs and copper-bearing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs. There are two regimens of ECP, the levonorgestrel regimen and combined regimen. The levonorgestrel regimen is preferred as it is more effective and causes less side effects. ECPs should be administered as soon as possible after unprotected or inadequately protected sex, being most effective if initiated within 24 hours. Cu-IUDs can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sexual intercourse. Emergency contraception mainly works by preventing fertilization, and does not interrupt and established pregnancy. Emergency contraception is very safe, therefore can be offered to women who have had unprotected intercourse and wish to prevent pregnancy. It must only be used as a backup method of birth control. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:248-52. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.609Keywords: Birth control, copper-IUD, emergency contraception, emergency contraceptive pills, levonorgestrel

  18. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  19. Expertise in physiological breech birth: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shawn; Parker, Pam; Scamell, Mandie

    2018-06-01

    The safety of vaginal breech birth depends on the expertise of birth attendants, yet the meaning of "expertise" remains unclear and subjectively defined. The objective of this study was to define expertise and the roles experts may play in expanding access to this service. We performed an integrative analysis of two strands of data concerning expertise in physiological breech birth, including the following: survey data from a Delphi study involving 26 very experienced clinicians (mean experience = 135 breech births) and 2 service user representatives, and interviews from a grounded theory study of 14 clinicians more moderately experienced with physiological methods (5-30 upright breech births). Data were pooled and analyzed using constant comparative methods. Expertise is defined by its ongoing function, the generation of comparatively good outcomes, and confidence and competence among colleagues. Although clinical experience is important, expertise is developed and expressed in social clinical roles, which expand as experience grows: clinician, mentor, specialist, and expert. To develop expertise within a service, clinicians who have an interest in breech birth should be supported to perform these roles within specialist teams. Specialist breech teams may facilitate the development of expertise within maternity care settings. Evaluation of expertise based on enablement of women and colleagues, as well as outcomes, will potentially avoid the pitfalls of alienation produced by some forms of specialist authority. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. birth complications control between midwives among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The study adopted was survey design. The sample .... traditional midwives, policy makers, women in general, government and ... mal-presentation of the fetal head ii) ..... in minimizing maternal trauma and ensuring an optimal birth for ...

  1. Folklore information from Assam for family planning and birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K C; Majumder, R; Bhattacharjee, S

    1982-11-01

    The author collected folklore information on herbal treatments to control fertility from different parts of Assam, India. Temporary methods of birth control include Cissampelos pareira L. in combination with Piper nigrum L., root of Mimosa pudica L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Plants used for permanent sterilization include Plumbago zeylanica L., Heliotropium indicum L., Salmalia malabrica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Plumeria rubra L., Bambusa rundinacea. Abortion is achieved through use of Osbeckia nepalensis or Carica papaya L. in combination with resin from Ferula narthex Boiss. It is concluded that there is tremendous scope for the collection of folklore about medicine, family planning agents, and other treatments from Assam and surrounding areas. Such a project requires proper understanding between the survey team and local people, tactful behavior, and a significant amount of time. Monetary rewards can also be helpful for obtaining information from potential respondents.

  2. The birth control movement before Roe v. Wade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J W

    1995-01-01

    This essay synthesizes the history of the birth control movement in the US and describes changes in sexual behavior, social values, and public policy in order to provide a context for the changes in human reproductive public policy. After an introduction, the essay outlines the history of contraception from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth centuries. Part 3 covers the period of World War I to the Depression when civil libertarians and eugenicists began to question the suppression of contraception and Margaret Sanger organized her clinics. The fourth part of the essay carries the history forward to the end of World War II, a period in which Dr. Clarence J. Gamble began to expose the marketing of defective contraceptive methods and to illustrate the willingness of poor women to accept contraceptives. The social changes which began in the 1950s are the subject of the fifth section of the essay. During this period, Roman Catholic opposition to contraception lessened, and social scientists began to focus world attention on overpopulation. Frank Notestein was appointed the first head of the Office of Population Research at Princeton, and John D. Rockefeller III founded the Population Council which conducted research into the IUD and began to attempt to influence population growth in nonindustrialized countries. This period also saw the development of the oral contraceptive. The changes of this era were institutionalized in 1967 when the federal government took a positive stance towards family planning in its Social Security Amendments. The decade of the 1970s is the subject of the last part of this essay. This period saw the Supreme Court assign a constitutionally protected right to abortion and Congress pass the Helms Amendment which denied the use of foreign aid funds for abortions. Challenges to the right to individual birth control practice continued during this period, and debate centered around the specter of overpopulation, the threat of adolescent

  3. Birth complications control between midwives among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Independent t-test and contingency chi-square were used in testing the null hypotheses. Results: The result showed that women delivered by traditional midwives have more negative control of delivery pain caused by birth complication than their counterparts who are delivered by western trained midwives; On the basis of ...

  4. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloog Itai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008. Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01–1.13 for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in

  5. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008). Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births) and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.13) for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in infants. PMID:22709681

  6. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy PM₂.₅ exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven J; Ridgway, William L; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-06-18

    Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM₂.₅) levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000-2008). Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM₂.₅ at the spatial resolution of a 10x10 km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM₂.₅ exposure and birth weight (among full term births) and PM₂.₅ exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Birth weight was negatively associated with PM₂.₅ across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m³ increase of PM₂.₅ exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = -21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.13) for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM₂.₅ exposure during the entire pregnancy period. The presented study suggests that exposure to PM₂.₅ during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in infants.

  7. Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Ross R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a well recognized risk of complications for both women and infants of a twin pregnancy, increasing beyond 37 weeks gestation. Preterm birth prior to 37 weeks gestation is a recognized complication of a twin pregnancy, however, up to 50% of twins will be born after this time. The aims of this randomised trial are to assess whether elective birth at 37 weeks gestation compared with standard care in women with a twin pregnancy affects the risk of perinatal death, and serious infant complications. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred randomised trial. Inclusion Criteria: women with a twin pregnancy at 366 weeks or more without contraindication to continuation of pregnancy. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Following written informed consent, eligible women will be randomised from 36+6 weeks gestation. The randomisation schedule uses balanced variable blocks, with stratification for centre of birth and planned mode of birth. Women will be randomised to either elective birth or standard care. Treatment Schedules: Women allocated to the elective birth group will be planned for elective birth from 37 weeks gestation. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve induction of labour. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section. For women allocated to standard care, birth will be planned for 38 weeks gestation or later. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve either awaiting the spontaneous onset of labour, or induction of labour if required. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section (after 38 and as close to 39 weeks as possible. Primary Study Outcome: A composite of perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity. Sample Size: 460 women with a twin pregnancy to show a reduction in the composite outcome from 16.3% to 6.7% with adjustment for the clustering of twin infants within mothers (p = 0.05, 80% power. Discussion This

  8. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschlagl, H

    1991-01-01

    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  9. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...

  10. Tacit consent: the Church and birth control in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2011-01-01

    This article employs novel documentation to examine ways in which the Church's moral rules on contraception were (or were not) communicated to parishioners in a predominantly Catholic context in a period of rapid fertility decline: the diocese of Padua, in the northeastern Italian region of Veneto, during the first half of the twentieth century. The account is based on documents that have until now been overlooked: the moral cases discussed during the periodic meetings among Padua priests in the years 1916–58, and the written answers provided by priests in response to a question asked of them concerning their efforts to combat the limiting of births. This documentation reveals the limited effect on the reproductive behavior of the position of the Catholic Church against birth control.

  11. Birth preference in women undergoing treatment for childbirth fear: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Birgitta; Karlström, Annika; Rubertsson, Christine; Ternström, Elin; Ekdahl, Johanna; Segebladh, Birgitta; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2017-12-01

    Childbirth fear is the most common underlying reason for requesting a caesarean section without medical reason. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to investigate birth preferences in women undergoing treatment for childbirth fear, and to investigate birth experience and satisfaction with the allocated treatment. Pregnant women classified with childbirth fear (≥60 on the Fear Of Birth Scale) (n=258) were recruited at one university hospital and two regional hospitals over one year. The participants were randomised (1:1) to intervention (Internet-based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (ICBT)) (n=127) or standard care (face-to-face counselling) (n=131). Data were collected by questionnaires in pregnancy week 20-25 (baseline), week 36 and two months after birth. Caesarean section preference decreased from 34% to 12% in the ICBT group and from 24% to 20% in the counselling group. Two months after birth, the preference for caesarean increased to 20% in the ICBT group and to 29% in the counselling group, and there was no statistically significant change over time. Women in the ICBT group were less satisfied with the treatment (OR 4.5). The treatment had no impact on or worsened their childbirth fear (OR 5.5). There were no differences between the groups regarding birth experience. Women's birth preferences fluctuated over the course of pregnancy and after birth regardless of treatment method. Women felt their fear was reduced and were more satisfied with face-to-face counselling compared to ICBT. A higher percentage were lost to follow-up in ICBT group suggesting a need for further research. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh Mannem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n = 52 had term labor (infants ≥37 weeks and the case group (n = 52 had preterm labor (infants <37 weeks. Plaque index, bleeding index, and birth weight were measured. Results: The data of plaque index (cases 1.21±0.56; controls 0.63±0.31, bleeding index (cases, 2.08±0.62; controls, 1.52±0.61, birth weight (cases, 2.01±0.36; controls 2.87±0.32, and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD ≥4mm and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL ≥3mm in at least 4 teeth (odds ratio 137.50, P value < 0.0001 revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups P< 0.05. Conclusions: A noticeable relationship between periodontal health and duration of pregnancy; periodontal disease could be a risk factor for preterm labor. Oral hygiene maintenance should be a part of prenatal care protocol.

  13. Migrated Essure permanent birth control device: sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khati, Nadia Juliet; Gorodenker, Joseph; Brindle, Kathleen Ann

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a migrated Essure permanent birth control device. The correct diagnosis was made on conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional pelvic sonography 7 years after placement of the device when the patient presented with persistent right-sided pain. The 3-month post placement hysterosalpingogram had shown an appropriately occluded right fallopian tube but had overlooked the abnormal position of the right Essure device, which was too proximal and extending slightly in the uterine cavity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Swedish fathers' experiences of childbirth in relation to maternal birth position: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Margareta; Thies-Lagergren, Li

    2015-12-01

    Fathers often want to be involved in labour and birth. To investigate how maternal birth position during second stage of labour may influence fathers' experience of childbirth. Mixed method study with 221 Swedish fathers completing an on-line questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis were used. In total 174 (78.7%) had a positive overall birth experience. The theme An emotional life-changing event influenced by the birth process and the structure of obstetrical care was revealed and included the categories; Midwives ability to be professional, The birth process' impact, and Being prepared to participate. The most frequently utilised birth position during a spontaneous vaginal birth was birth seat (n=83; 45.1%), and the fathers in this group were more likely to assess the birth position as very positive (n=40; 54.8%) compared to other upright and horizontal birth positions. Fathers with a partner having an upright birth position were more likely to have had a positive birth experience (p=0.048), to have felt comfortable (p=0.003) and powerful (p=0.019) compared to women adopting a horizontal birth position during a spontaneous vaginal birth. When the women had an upright birth position the fathers deemed the second stage of labour to have been more rapid (mean VAS 7.01 vs. 4.53) compared to women in a horizontal birth position. An upright birth position enhances fathers' experience of having been positively and actively engaged in the birth process. Midwives can enhance fathers' feelings of involvement and participation by attentiveness through interaction and communicating skills. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiza Cesar Nhoncanse

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants, cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047. A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001 and cesarean delivery (p=0.004 was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs.

  16. Time Delayed Stage-Structured Predator-Prey Model with Birth Pulse and Pest Control Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally, chemical pesticides kill not only pests but also their natural enemies. In order to better control the pests, two-time delayed stage-structured predator-prey models with birth pulse and pest control tactics are proposed and analyzed by using impulsive differential equations in present work. The stability threshold conditions for the mature prey-eradication periodic solutions of two models are derived, respectively. The effects of key parameters including killing efficiency rate, pulse period, the maximum birth effort per unit of time of natural enemy, and maturation time of prey on the threshold values are discussed in more detail. By comparing the two threshold values of mature prey-extinction, we provide the fact that the second control tactic is more effective than the first control method.

  17. Predicting high risk births with contraceptive prevalence and contraceptive method-mix in an ecologic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Perin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased contraceptive use has been associated with a decrease in high parity births, births that occur close together in time, and births to very young or to older women. These types of births are also associated with high risk of under-five mortality. Previous studies have looked at the change in the level of contraception use and the average change in these types of high-risk births. We aim to predict the distribution of births in a specific country when there is a change in the level and method of modern contraception. Methods We used data from full birth histories and modern contraceptive use from 207 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys covering 71 countries to describe the distribution of births in each survey based on birth order, preceding birth space, and mother’s age at birth. We estimated the ecologic associations between the prevalence and method-mix of modern contraceptives and the proportion of births in each category. Hierarchical modelling was applied to these aggregated cross sectional proportions, so that random effects were estimated for countries with multiple surveys. We use these results to predict the change in type of births associated with scaling up modern contraception in three different scenarios. Results We observed marked differences between regions, in the absolute rates of contraception, the types of contraceptives in use, and in the distribution of type of birth. Contraceptive method-mix was a significant determinant of proportion of high-risk births, especially for birth spacing, but also for mother’s age and parity. Increased use of modern contraceptives is especially predictive of reduced parity and more births with longer preceding space. However, increased contraception alone is not associated with fewer births to women younger than 18 years or a decrease in short-spaced births. Conclusions Both the level and the type of contraception are important factors in

  18. Predicting high risk births with contraceptive prevalence and contraceptive method-mix in an ecologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Jamie; Amouzou, Agbessi; Walker, Neff

    2017-11-07

    Increased contraceptive use has been associated with a decrease in high parity births, births that occur close together in time, and births to very young or to older women. These types of births are also associated with high risk of under-five mortality. Previous studies have looked at the change in the level of contraception use and the average change in these types of high-risk births. We aim to predict the distribution of births in a specific country when there is a change in the level and method of modern contraception. We used data from full birth histories and modern contraceptive use from 207 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys covering 71 countries to describe the distribution of births in each survey based on birth order, preceding birth space, and mother's age at birth. We estimated the ecologic associations between the prevalence and method-mix of modern contraceptives and the proportion of births in each category. Hierarchical modelling was applied to these aggregated cross sectional proportions, so that random effects were estimated for countries with multiple surveys. We use these results to predict the change in type of births associated with scaling up modern contraception in three different scenarios. We observed marked differences between regions, in the absolute rates of contraception, the types of contraceptives in use, and in the distribution of type of birth. Contraceptive method-mix was a significant determinant of proportion of high-risk births, especially for birth spacing, but also for mother's age and parity. Increased use of modern contraceptives is especially predictive of reduced parity and more births with longer preceding space. However, increased contraception alone is not associated with fewer births to women younger than 18 years or a decrease in short-spaced births. Both the level and the type of contraception are important factors in determining the effects of family planning on changes in distribution of

  19. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A. J.; van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Benders, Manon J. N.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. A case control study was performed at the University

  20. Birth ball or heat therapy? A randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of birth ball usage with sacrum-perineal heat therapy in labor pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Sheikhan, Fatemeh; Abdolahian, Somayeh; Ghavi, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    Labor pain and its management is a major concern for childbearing women, their families and health care providers. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two non-pharmacological methods such as birth ball and heat therapy on labor pain relief. This randomized control trial was undertaken on 90 primiparous women aged 18-35 years old who were randomly assigned to two intervention (birth ball and heat) and control groups. The pain score was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before the intervention and every 30 min in three groups until cervical dilatation reached 8 cm. The mean pain severity score in the heat therapy group was less than that of in control group at 60 and 90 min after intervention (p pain scores in the birth ball group after all three investigated times in comparison to control group. Both heat therapy and birth ball can use as inexpensive complementary and low risk treatment for labor pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Update on the Essure System for Permanent Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    In 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the Essure system for permanent birth control. Implantation with this device offers a minimally invasive option for permanent female contraception that is placed during a brief office visit. Unlike laparoscopic tubal sterilization, the Essure procedure requires no hospitalization or general anesthesia, resulting in minimal recovery time. After a decade of stability in the report of adverse effects, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration noted a sharp increase in patient-reported adverse events, including chronic pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, allergic reactions, and autoimmune-like reactions. In response to this increase in complaints, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued updated guidelines for patient education and counseling. This article discusses those updates, as well as implications for nurses who provide health care to women seeking permanent contraception. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. Maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpalatha Govindaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Preterm birth (PTB is an important issue in public health and is a major cause for infant mortality and morbidity. There is a growing consensus that systemic diseases elsewhere in the body may influence PTB. Recent studies have hypothesized that maternal periodontitis could be a high-risk factor for PTB. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maternal periodontitis on PTB. Materials and Methods: Forty systemically healthy primiparous mothers aged 18–35 years were recruited for the study. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, they were categorized into PTB group as cases and full term birth group (FTB as controls. PTB cases (n = 20 defined as spontaneous delivery before/<37 completed weeks of gestation. Controls (FTB were normal births at or after 37 weeks of gestation. Data on periodontal status, pregnancy outcome variables, and information on other factors that may influence adverse pregnancy outcomes were collected within 2 days of labor. Data were subjected to Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference with respect to the gestational period at the time of delivery and birth weight of the infants in (PTB group (<0.001 compared to (FTB group was observed. Overall, there was statistically significant poor periodontal status in the (PTB group compared to (FTB group. The statistical results also showed a positive correlation between gestational age and clinical parameters. Conclusion: An observable relationship was noticed between periodontitis and gestational age, and a positive correlation was found with respect to PTB and periodontitis. Further studies should be designed to establish periodontal disease as an independent risk factor for PTB/preterm low birth weight.

  3. Use of birth control pills, condoms, and withdrawal among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S A; Warren, C W; Santelli, J S; Kann, L; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-08-01

    To examine the use of contraception at last sexual intercourse among currently sexually active adolescents. We analyzed data from national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997. The YRBS is a self-administered, anonymous survey which uses a national probability sample of U.S. students in public and private schools from grades 9 through 12. From 1991 to 1997, condom use significantly increased (from 46% to 57%), birth control pill use decreased (from 21% to 17%), and use of withdrawal significantly decreased (from 18% to 13%). In 1997, although more students were using condoms, 13% reported using withdrawal and 15% reported using no method to prevent pregnancy at last sexual intercourse. In 1997, condom use among females was significantly lower in the 9th grade than in the 12th grade (p birth control pill use was higher (p birth control pill use by their partner increased (p schools, and other influential societal institutions should promote the correct and continued use of condoms as essential protection against sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  4. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-02-03

    To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers' homes, in rural village settings. 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by intervention birth attendants (0.37, 0.17 to 0.81) and by 81% within the first two days

  5. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  6. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  7. Access to the Birth Control Pill and the Career Plans of Young Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...

  8. Adequacy of antenatal care and its relationship with low birth weight in Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Cátia Regina Branco da [UNESP; Louzada Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Carvalho, Lidia Raquel de [UNESP; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Birth weight reflects gestational conditions and development during the fetal period. Low birth weight (LBW) may be associated with antenatal care (ANC) adequacy and quality. the purpose of this study was to analyze ANC adequacy and its relationship with LBW in the Unified Health System in Brazil.Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, 2004 to 2008. Data were collected from secondary sources (the Live Birth Certificate), and primary sources (the...

  9. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village s...

  10. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Norum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami and 23% (controls, respectively. Results. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94 or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82. Conclusions. Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  11. Testing the association between psychosocial job strain and adverse birth outcomes - design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulstrup Ane M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated with the risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small for gestational age. Methods and design We will use the Danish National Birth Cohort where 100.000 children are included at baseline. In the present study 49,340 pregnancies will be included. Multinomial logistic regression will be applied to estimate odds ratios for the outcomes: preterm; full term but small for gestational age; full term but large for gestational age, as a function of job-strain (high strain, active and passive versus low strain. In the analysis we control for maternal age, Body Mass Index, parity, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, coffee consumption, type of work (manual versus non-manual, maternal serious disease and parents' heights as well as gestational age at interview. Discussion The prospective nature of the design and the high number of participants strengthen the study. The large statistical power allows for interpretable results regardless of whether or not the hypotheses are confirmed. This is, however, not a controlled study since all kinds of 'natural' interventions takes place throughout pregnancy (e.g. work absence, medical treatment and job-redesign. The analysis will be performed from a public health perspective. From this perspective, we are not primarily interested in the effect of job strain per se but if there is residual effect of job strain after naturally occurring preventive measures have been taken.

  12. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  13. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M.; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented. PMID:27065486

  14. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight - a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T; Köhler, M; Philippi, M

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented.

  15. Testing the association between psychosocial job strain and adverse birth outcomes--design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann D; Hannerz, Harald; Obel, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated with the r......A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated...... with the risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small for gestational age....

  16. Intimate partner violence and postpartum contraceptive use: the role of race/ethnicity and prenatal birth control counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Susan; Chapman, Derek A; Wan, Wen; Burton, Candace W; Masho, Saba W

    2015-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major problem that could affect reproductive decision making. The aim of this study is to examine the association between IPV and contraceptive use and assess whether the association varies by receipt of prenatal birth control counseling and race/ethnicity. This study analyzed the 2004-2008 national Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) that included 193,310 women with live births in the United States. IPV was determined by questions that asked about physical abuse by a current or former partner in the 12 months before or during pregnancy. The outcome was postpartum contraceptive use (yes vs. no). Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of experiencing IPV at different periods (preconception IPV, prenatal IPV, both preconception and prenatal IPV, preconception and/or prenatal IPV). Data were stratified to assess differential effects by race/ethnicity and receipt of birth control counseling. Approximately 6.2% of women reported IPV, and 15.5% reported no postpartum contraceptive use. Regardless of the timing of abuse, IPV-exposed women were significantly less likely to report contraceptive use after delivery. This was particularly true for Hispanic women who reported no prenatal birth control counseling and women of all other racial/ethnic groups who received prenatal birth control counseling. IPV victimization adversely affects the use of contraceptive methods following delivery in women with live births. Birth control counseling by health providers may mitigate these effects; however, the quality of counseling needs further investigation. Better integration of violence prevention services and family planning programs is greatly needed. Consistent with national recommendations by the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force, clinicians and public health workers are strongly encouraged to screen for IPV. Health providers should educate women on effective contraceptive options and

  17. 76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-768] In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain vaginal ring birth control... investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders. ADDRESSES: The complaint, except for any...

  18. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (pdogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Method of controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochihara, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactivity controlling characteristics by artificially controlling the leakage of neutron from a reactor and providing a controller for controlling the reactivity. Method: A reactor core is divided into several water gaps to increase the leakage of neutron, its reactivity is reduced, a gas-filled control rod or a fuel assembly is inserted into the gap as required, the entire core is coupled in a system to reduce the leakage of the neutron, and the reactivity is increased. The reactor shutdown is conducted by the conventional control rod, and to maintain critical state, boron density varying system is used together. Futher, a control rod drive is used with that similar to the conventional one, thereby enabling fast reactivity variation, and the positive reactivity can be obtained by the insertion, thereby improving the reactivity controlling characteristics. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. [Transition in the midwifery profession. 25. The prewar birth control movement and the concept of eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, M

    1987-08-01

    The concept of eugenics played a significant role in the pre-war birth control movement. Some favored birth control from the standpoint of an individual's right to happiness, while others were against it from the standpoint of preservation of good stock for the nation. Yamamoto, Nobuharu (1889-1929), who translated Margaret Sanger's speech and her book in 1922, advocated birth control purely from a biologist's point of view. Birth control is necessary for the survival of strong healthy human beings capable of overcoming all the difficulties in their lives. Birth control is a form of natural selection consciously done to avoid overburdening and wasting individual lives. Nagai, Sen (1876-1957) was opposed to birth control from eugenicc' point of view. He became the 1st president of Japan Racial Hygiene Society in 1930 and founded Eugenics/Marriage Counseling Clinic in 1933. In his book on eugenics published in 1936 he stressed the importance of continuation of race by protecting good stock and eliminating poor stock by sterilization. Birth control was opposed because it will shorten the life of an ethnic group or a race. Furuya, Yoshio (1890-1974), also a racial hygiene major, supported population policies based on eugenics. He studied a trend in childbirth among women of different professions and geographical areas. Educated and cultured urban upper-middle class women showed a sudden decline in childbirth in their later years of marriage, suggesting the prevalence of birth control among them, while less educated low-income women continued to reproduce. He opposed to birth control but was in favor of sterilization for eliminating poor stock.

  1. Who has the right to advise children on birth control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, P; Rahemtula, A

    1986-04-14

    recognized that there was some age below which a child was incapable, as a matter of law, of giving a valid consent or making a valid decision for itself in regard to its custody or upbringing, and the provisions of the criminal law showed that, in the matter of sexual intercourse, that age was 16 years for a girl; and that the circular which had been issued by the Department that stated a doctor could prescribe contraceptive agents for a girl 16 years of age without first informing her parents was illegal. A majority of the House of Lords concluded that the question of birth control for minors was essentially a medicosocial issue which, in exceptional circumstances, was best left to the clinical judgment of the appropriate health professionals, and that there was nothing in any statutory enactment which vested the exclusive right in a parent or guardian to permit or prohibit a girl below the age of 16 years to obtain professional advice or treatment relating to contraception. As the position in Australia remains fluid, and the decisions of the House of Lords are not binding, it is still possible that the statute-by-statute approach adopted by the Court of Appeal may find favor in Australia. A table sets out the relevant position on a State-by-State basis. It is concluded that the "right" to contraceptive advice and treatment involves the decision whether or not to have a child, and if the right of privacy means anything, it is the right of the individual to be free of unwarranted governmental intrusion in these matters, as held in a 1972 US Supreme Court decision.

  2. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097

  3. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-09-18

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty.

  4. Nursing, social contexts, and ideologies in the early United States birth control movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerwey, M D

    1999-12-01

    Using historical discourse analysis, this study provides a thematic analysis of writings of nursing and birth control as found in The Birth Control Review from 1917 to 1927. The author contrasts this publication with the official journal of the American Nurses Association, the American Journal of Nursing from the same years to explore nursing voices and silences in early birth control stories. In dialogue with social contexts, nursing endeavors and inactivity have played important yet conflicting roles in the birth control movement in the United States. Nursing writings from the early twentieth century reflect eugenic beliefs, national fears of immigrants, and ambivalence about women's roles in society and the home. Nurses simultaneously empowered women to choose when to become pregnant and reinforced nativist and paternalistic views of the poor.

  5. Analytic Methods for Evaluating Patterns of Multiple Congenital Anomalies in Birth Defect Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Evans, Jane A; Lupo, Philip J

    2018-01-15

    It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs. This article reviews the literature with regard to analytic methods that have been used to evaluate patterns of MCAs, in particular those using birth defect registry data. A popular method for MCA assessment involves a comparison of the observed to expected ratio for a given combination of MCAs, or one of several modified versions of this comparison. Other methods include use of numerical taxonomy or other clustering techniques, multiple regression analysis, and log-linear analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, as well as specific applications, were outlined. Despite the availability of multiple analytic approaches, relatively few MCA combinations have been assessed. The availability of large birth defects registries and computing resources that allow for automated, big data strategies for prioritizing MCA patterns may provide for new avenues for better understanding co-occurrence of birth defects. Thus, the selection of an analytic approach may depend on several considerations. Birth Defects Research 110:5-11, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Risk factors for pre-term birth in Iraq: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbagh Samim A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTBis a major clinical problem associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors associated with PTB in Mosul, Iraq. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Mosul, Iraq, from 1st September, 2003 to 28th February, 2004. Results A total of 200 cases of PTB and 200 controls of full-term births were screened and enrolled in the study. Forward logistic regression analysis was used in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between PTB and the following risk factors were identified: poor diet (OR = 4.33, heavy manual work (OR = 1.70, caring for domestic animals (OR = 5.06, urinary tract infection (OR = 2.85, anxiety (OR = 2.16, cervical incompetence (OR = 4.74, multiple pregnancies (OR = 7.51, direct trauma to abdomen (OR = 3.76 and abortion (OR = 6.36. Conclusion The main determinants of PTB in Iraq were low socio-economic status and factors associated with it, such as heavy manual work and caring for domestic animals, in addition to urinary tract infections and poor obstetric history.

  7. A Case–Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. Methods This case–control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012–2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164–169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202 PMID:26009470

  8. Female Gynecologists and Their Birth Control Clinics: Eugenics in Practice in 1920s-1930s China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mirela

    2018-01-01

    Yang Chao Buwei, the first Chinese translator of Margaret Sanger's What Every Girl Should Know, was the first female gynecologist to open up a birth control clinic in China. By the 1930s, other female gynecologists, like Guo Taihua, had internalized and combined national and eugenic concerns of race regeneration to focus on the control of women's reproduction. This symbiosis between racial regeneration and birth control is best seen in Yang Chongrui's integration of birth control into her national hygiene program. This article traces the efforts of pioneer gynecologists in giving contraceptive advice at their birth control clinics, which they framed as a humanitarian effort to ease the reproductive burden of working-class women. It also examines their connections with Sanger's international birth control movement, and their advocacy of contraception as practitioners, translators, and educators. The author argues that these Chinese female gynecologists not only borrowed, but adapted, Western scientific knowledge to Chinese social conditions through their writings and translations and in their clinical work.

  9. The Birth and Death of the Audio-Lingual Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillo, Frank

    This general review of the development and demise in popularity of the "audiolingual" method of teaching second languages in America underscores the impact of World War II on the changing needs of the country's manpower resources in the field of international relations. The author develops the thesis that the urgent need for speakers of second…

  10. Talking about Birth Control in 1877: Gender, Class, and Ideology in the Knowlton Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Flore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the debate around widening access to birth control information in the late nineteenth century through a case study of Annie Besant’s participation in the 1877 Knowlton Trial. Examining Besant’s rhetoric at the trial and in related publications, it highlights the public and performative nature of her campaign to facilitate access to birth control information for working-class married couples. With reference to the representation of issues of gender and social class and the shifting focus from the private to the public in Besant’s rhetoric, the article argues that the late nineteenth-century debate around birth control access was a middle-class debate about working-class life and experience.

  11. Feminism, biomedicine and the 'reproductive destiny' of women in clinical texts on the birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Andrea

    2018-07-01

    The birth control pill is one of the most popular forms of contraception in North America and has been a key player in women's rights activism for over 50 years. In this paper, I conduct a feminist deconstructive analysis of 12 biomedical texts on the birth control pill, published between 1965 and 2016. This study is situated amongst the feminist scholarship that challenges the representation of women's bodies in biomedicine. Findings suggest that clinical texts on the birth control pill continue to universalise women's lives and experiences, and essentialise them based on their reproductive capacities. One way the texts accomplish this is by making women absent or passive in the literature thereby losing concern for the diversity of their lives, interpretations and identities as more than reproductive beings. The consequence of such representations is that biomedical texts disseminate limited forms of knowledge, in particular concerning definitions of 'natural' and 'normal' behaviour, with important consequences for the embodied experiences of women.

  12. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  13. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Kristen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of preterm birth. Methods We used a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design. Pregnant women presenting at Candida were randomized to 6-days of clotrimazole vaginal pessaries (100mg or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment. The primary outcomes were the rate of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis, participation and follow-up. The proposed primary trial outcome of spontaneous preterm birth Results Of 779 women approached, 500 (64% participated in candidiasis screening, and 98 (19.6% had asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis and were randomized to clotrimazole or usual care. Women were not inconvenienced by participation in the study, laboratory testing and medication dispensing were problem-free, and the follow-up rate was 99%. There was a tendency towards a reduction in spontaneous preterm birth among women with asymptomatic candidiasis who were treated with clotrimazole RR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.04-3.03. Conclusions A large, adequately powered, randomized trial of clotrimazole to prevent preterm birth in women with asymptomatic candidiasis is both feasible and warranted. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12609001052224

  14. Birth attendance and magnitude of obstetric complications in Western Kenya: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liambila, Wilson N; Kuria, Shiphrah N

    2014-09-08

    Skilled birth attendance is critical in the provision of child birth related services. Yet, literature is scanty on the outcomes of child birth related complications in situations where majority of women deliver under the care of non-skilled birth attendants compared to those who are assisted by skilled providers. The study sought to assess the nature of childbirth related complications among the skilled and the non-skilled birth attendants in Western Kenya. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 15-49 years at the household. Controls were individually matched to cases on the basis of age and socio-economic status. A total of 294 cases and 291 controls were interviewed. Data were collected on various demographic and socio-economic characteristics and women's perception on the quality of care. All independent variables were analysed initially in bivariate models and those that were significantly associated with obstetric complications were included in multiple logistic regression model in order to control for confounding factors. Odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals, were computed to show the association between the occurrence, magnitude and the extent to which child birth related complications were managed. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the cases and controls were similar. About 52% of the deliveries were assisted by skilled birth attendants while non-skilled providers attended to 48% of them. The odds of the occurrence of obstetric complications were greater among the women who were attended to by skilled providers in health facilities: adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.32 (CI 0.95, 1.84) than among those who were assisted by unskilled birth attendants, AOR 0.76 (CI 0.55, 1.06). Undignified care, high delivery and transport costs and fear of hospital procedures such as HIV tests and mishandling of the placenta were cited as some of the barriers to facility deliveries. Skilled birth attendants in facilities were associated

  15. A lost chance? Birth control policies in the Mao's China (1949-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the birth control policies in China during the Maoist era (1949- 1976. Considering Chinese and foreign sources, it is explained how the different campaigns of family planning took place and how these campaigns were subjected positively and negatively to the policies of the supreme leader Mao Zedong. Although only the last one had a real impact on the fight against overpopulation, all campaigns helped to promote the necessity of confronting this phenomenon. More importantly, they laid the foundations of the birth control policies that currently take place in China.

  16. Month of birth, vitamin D and risk of immune-mediated disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disanto Giulio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A season of birth effect in immune-mediated diseases (ID such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes has been consistently reported. We aimed to investigate whether season of birth influences the risk of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and systemic lupus erythematosus in addition to multiple sclerosis, and to explore the correlation between the risk of ID and predicted ultraviolet B (UVB light exposure and vitamin D status during gestation. Methods The monthly distribution of births of patients with ID from the UK (n = 115,172 was compared to that of the general population using the Cosinor test. Predicted UVB radiation and vitamin D status in different time windows during pregnancy were calculated for each month of birth and correlated with risk of ID using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results The distributions of ID births significantly differed from that of the general population (P = 5e-12 with a peak in April (odds ratio = 1.045, 95% confidence interval = 1.024, 1.067, P P P = 0.00005 and third trimester vitamin D status (Spearman's rho = -0.44, P = 0.0003. Conclusions The risk of different ID in the UK is significantly influenced by the season of birth, suggesting the presence of a shared seasonal risk factor or factors predisposing to ID. Gestational UVB and vitamin D exposure may be implicated in the aetiology of ID.

  17. Intraventricular hemorrhage risk factors in very low birth weight newborns: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of variables that affect the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Methods: Analytic case-control study, in a population consisting of all VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a maternity hospital, between January 2002 and December 2007. The authors considered as cases all VLBW newborns with severe IVH (grade ≥ 3, and control all VLBW newborns without IVH. Independent variables included obstetric, perinatal and neonatal diagnosis and therapy. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Rresults: During this period, of the 864 VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 9.7% had severe IVH. With bivariate analysis an association between severe IVH, gestational age and birth weight was found. Prenatal care and pre-eclampsia were associated with a decrease in the incidence of severe IVH. Amnionitis, being outborn, vaginal delivery, male gender, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC perforation and oscillatory high frequency ventilation were associated with an increased incidence of severe IVH. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with increased risk of severe IVH were: pneumothorax (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 1.7-8.3, NEC with perforation (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 1.7-45.0, vaginal delivery (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.0-4.1 and high frequency ventilation (OR = 4.8; 95%CI = 1.3-17.3. The following were protective of severe IVH: gestational age (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.52-0.72, patent ductus arteriosus treatment with indomethacin (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.11-0.6 and fertility treatment (OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.06-0.94. Cconclusion: These data outline the importance of improvement of pre and neonatal care to reduce severe IVH.

  18. Adolescents' Interpretations of the Birth Control Behavior of a Soap Opera Couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Childers, Kim

    A study investigated whether adolescents' schemas about contraceptive use would influence their perceptions that a soap opera couple used birth control during sex. The study also examined the effects of increasing explicitness of characters' conversations about contraceptives on viewers' perceptions of the couple's contraceptive use. Thirty-six…

  19. Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing factors and early neonatal outcome. ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 3 (2017) > ... Independent predictors of macrosomia were parental high social class (P = 0.000), gestational weight gain of ≥15 kg (P = 0.000), and previous history of macrosomia (P = 0.002).

  20. Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Why ...

  1. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS; however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a case-control study including 155 MS cases and 155 controls matched for age, sex, and residential status. The participants were selected randomly, using a systematic method, from the MS patients referred to the MS Society of Khuzestan (Iran. The data collection tool was a standardized questionnaire designed by the authors to assess demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean, frequency, and standard deviation and inferential statistical tests including χ2, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression using SPSS version 19. Results In both cases and controls, no significant associations were found between Arab ethnicity and incidence of MS, marital status and risk of MS in Ahvaz, or more than 15-year residency in Ahvaz, birth in Khuzestan, and month of birth and the risk of MS (P > 0.05. However, there was a marginally significant association between living from birth to age 15 years in Ahvaz and MS (P = 0.05. Furthermore, there was an association between a family history of MS and the risk of MS in Ahvaz (P = 0.02, which was significant in univariate logistic regression (P = 0.006. Conclusions The findings suggested that according to the ecological conditions of Ahvaz, a family history of MS may increase the risk of developing MS.

  2. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  3. A comparison of different methods for decomposition of changes in expectation of life at birth and differentials in life expectancy at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Murthy

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Several methods were proposed to decompose the difference between two life expectancies at birth into the contribution by different age groups. In this study an attempt has been made to compare different methods with that of Chandra Sekar (1949 method. The methodologies suggested by Arriaga, Lopez and Ruzicka and Pollard have been extended. It is shown that all the three methods and also Chandra Sekar method in their modified (symmetrical form will be seen to produce the same result as that of United Nations, Pollard, Andreev and Pressat. Finally it is suggested to use symmetric formulae of the above methods because the percent contribution of total of the interaction terms to the difference in the life expectancy at birth is observed to be very negligible.

  4. Coastal Erosion Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, V.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal erosion is bad because the ecosystem there will be washed away and the animals could drown or be displaced and have to adapt to a new ecosystem that they are not prepared for. I'm interested in this problem because if there aren't beaches when I grow up I won't be able to do the things I would really like to do. I would like to be a marine biologist. Secondly, I don't want to see beach houses washed away. I would like to see people live in harmony with their environment. So, to study ways in which to preserve beaches I will make and use models that test different erosion controls. Two different ideas for erosion control I tested are using seaweed or a rock berm. I think the rock berm will work better than the model of seaweed because the seaweed is under water and the waves can carry the sand over the seaweed, and the rock berm will work better because the rocks will help break the waves up before they reach the shore and the waves can not carry the sand over the rocks that are above the water. To investigate this I got a container to use to model the Gulf of Mexico coastline. I performed several test runs using sand and water in the container to mimic the beach and waves from the Gulf of Mexico hitting the shoreline. I did three trials for the control (no erosion control), seaweed and a rock berm. Rock berms are a border of a raised area of rock. The model for seaweed that I used was plastic shopping bags cut into strips and glued to the bottom of my container to mimic seaweed. My results were that the control had the most erosion which ranged from 2.75 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The seaweed was a little better than the control but was very variable and ranged from 1.5 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The rock berm worked the best out of all at controlling erosion with erosion ranging from 1.5 - 2 inches. My hypothesis was correct because the rock berm did best to control erosion compared to the control which had no erosion control and the model with seaweed.

  5. THE EFFECT OF KANGAROO METHOD APPLICATION TO BODY TEMPERATURE OF BABY WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika, Kadek Ayu Erika

    2012-01-01

    - Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW) care in Indonesia is still prioritizing the use of incubators but its presence is still very limited. Kangaroo method is now starting to be used as an alternative to incubator that is economically efficient and effective. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of the application of the kangaroo method to body temperature of baby with LBW. Method: This research was conducted at the Hospital Prof. DR. W.Z. Johannes Kupang with a sample of 25 lo...

  6. Servo-control for maintaining abdominal skin temperature at 36C in low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J C

    2002-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown that the neonatal mortality rate of low birth-weight babies can be reduced by keeping them warm. For low birth-weight babies nursed in incubators, warm conditions may be achieved either by heating the air to a desired temperature, or by servo-controlling the baby's body temperature at a desired set-point. In low birth weight infants, to determine the effect on death and other important clinical outcomes of targeting body temperature rather than air temperature as the end-point of control of incubator heating. Standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Searches were made of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) (Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2001) and MEDLINE, 1966 to November 2001. Randomized or quasi-randomized trials which test the effects of having the heat output of the incubator servo-controlled from body temperature compared with setting a constant incubator air temperature. Trial methodologic quality was systematically assessed. Outcome measures included death, timing of death, cause of death, and other clinical outcomes. Categorical outcomes were analyzed using relative risk and risk difference. Meta-analysis assumed a fixed effect model. Two eligible trials were found. In total, they included 283 babies and 112 deaths. Compared to setting a constant incubator air temperature of 31.8C, servo-control of abdominal skin temperature at 36C reduces the neonatal death rate among low birth weight infants: relative risk 0.72 (95% CI 0.54, 0.97); risk difference -12.7% (95% CI -1.6, -23.9). This effect is even greater among VLBW infants. During at least the first week after birth, low birth weight babies should be provided with a carefully regulated thermal environment that is near the thermoneutral point. For LBW babies in incubators, this can be achieved by adjusting incubator temperature to maintain an anterior abdominal skin temperature of at least 36C, using either servo-control or frequent manual

  7. Month and Season of Birth as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Nationwide Nested Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maija Tolppanen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Season of birth, an exogenous indicator of early life environment, has been related to higher risk of adverse psychiatric outcomes but the findings for Alzheimer’s disease (AD have been inconsistent. We investigated whether the month or season of birth are associated with AD. Methods: A nationwide nested case-control study including all community-dwellers with clinically verified AD diagnosed in 2005 to 2012 (n=70 719 and up to four age- sex- and region of residence-matched controls (n=282 862 residing in Finland. Associations between month and season of birth and AD were studied with conditional logistic regression. Results: Month of birth was not associated with AD (p=0.09. No strong associations were observed with season (p=0.13, although in comparison to winter births (December-February summer births (June-August were associated with higher odds of AD (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.05. However, the absolute difference in prevalence in winter births was only 0.5% (prevalence of those born in winter were 31.7% and 32.2% for cases and controls, respectively. Conclusions: Although our findings do not support the hypothesis that season of birth is related to AD/dementia risk, they do not invalidate the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis in late-life cognition. It is possible that season does not adequately capture the early life circumstances, or that other (postnatal risk factors such as lifestyle or socioeconomic factors overrule the impact of prenatal and perinatal factors.

  8. Mollified birth in natural-age-grid Galerkin methods for age-structured biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayati, Bruce P; Dupont, Todd F

    2009-01-01

    We present natural-age-grid Galerkin methods for a model of a biological population undergoing aging. We use a mollified birth term in the method and analysis. The error due to mollification is of arbitrary order, depending on the choice of mollifier. The methods in this paper generalize the methods presented in [1], where the approximation space in age was taken to be a discontinuous piecewise polynomial subspace of L 2 . We refer to these methods as 'natural-age-grid' Galerkin methods since transport in the age variable is computed through the smooth movement of the age grid at the natural dimensionless velocity of one. The time variable has been left continuous to emphasize this smooth motion, as well as the independence of the time and age discretizations. The methods are shown to be superconvergent in the age variable

  9. Chemical control methods and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller

    2011-01-01

    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  10. The influence of cold pack on labour pain relief and birth outcomes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Ganji, Zhila

    2014-09-01

    (1) To evaluate the influence of local cold on severity of labour pain and (2) to identify the effect of local cold on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Fear of labour pain results in an increase in pain and duration of labour, maternal discontent and demand for caesarean section. Regarding maternal and foetal complications of analgesic medications, the attention to application of nonpharmacological methods including cold therapy is increased. Randomised controlled trial. Sixty-four pregnant women, at initiation of active phase of labour, were allocated randomly to cold therapy and control groups (n = 64). Null parity, term pregnancy, presence of single foetus, cephalic presentation and completing informed consent were considered as inclusion criteria. Administration of analgesic and anaesthesia, foetal distress, skin lesions in regions of cold therapy and high-risk pregnancy provided exclusion criteria. Cold pack was applied over abdomen and back, for 10 minutes every 30 minutes during first phase of labour. Additionally, cold pack was placed over perineum, for 5 minutes every 15 minutes during second phase. Pain severity was assessed based on the visual analogue scale. The two groups were not significantly different considering demographic data, gestational age, foetal weight, rupture of membranes and primary severity of pain. Degree of pain was lower in cold therapy group during all parts of active phase and second stage. Duration of all phases was shorter in cold therapy group in all phases. Foetal heart rate, perineal laceration, type of birth, application of oxytocin and APGAR score were not significantly different between two groups. Labour pain is probably reduced based on gate theory using cold. Pain control by cold maybe improves labour progression without affecting mother and foetus adversely. Local cold therapy could be included in labour pain management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Rapid multiplex high resolution melting method to analyze inflammatory related SNPs in preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereyra Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex traits like cancer, diabetes, obesity or schizophrenia arise from an intricate interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Complex disorders often cluster in families without a clear-cut pattern of inheritance. Genomic wide association studies focus on the detection of tens or hundreds individual markers contributing to complex diseases. In order to test if a subset of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from candidate genes are associated to a condition of interest in a particular individual or group of people, new techniques are needed. High-resolution melting (HRM analysis is a new method in which polymerase chain reaction (PCR and mutations scanning are carried out simultaneously in a closed tube, making the procedure fast, inexpensive and easy. Preterm birth (PTB is considered a complex disease, where genetic and environmental factors interact to carry out the delivery of a newborn before 37 weeks of gestation. It is accepted that inflammation plays an important role in pregnancy and PTB. Methods Here, we used real time-PCR followed by HRM analysis to simultaneously identify several gene variations involved in inflammatory pathways on preterm labor. SNPs from TLR4, IL6, IL1 beta and IL12RB genes were analyzed in a case-control study. The results were confirmed either by sequencing or by PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results We were able to simultaneously recognize the variations of four genes with similar accuracy than other methods. In order to obtain non-overlapping melting temperatures, the key step in this strategy was primer design. Genotypic frequencies found for each SNP are in concordance with those previously described in similar populations. None of the studied SNPs were associated with PTB. Conclusions Several gene variations related to the same inflammatory pathway were screened through a new flexible, fast and non expensive method with the purpose of analyzing

  12. The origins of the birth control movement in England in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W L

    1975-01-01

    The origins of the birth control movement in England in the 19th cen tury are discussed. The impact of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population" and the activities of such thinkers and reformers as Jermy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, Francis Plance, Richard Carlile, Robert Dale Owen, and Charles Knowlton are discussed. The social debate that arose during the century is discussed.

  13. Fifty Shades: ambivalence about birth control in an erotic bestseller and its cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierhofer, Waltraud; Israel, Emanuella

    2017-04-01

    The Fifty Shades trilogy by E.L. James has taken the world by storm and become a cultural phenomenon. The lack of contraceptive use in the erotic fiction, first pointed out by bloggers, is analysed in this article and compared to medical information. James may be praised for sexualising condom use. However, her protagonist makes poor choices in terms of hormonal contraception and is negligent about its use, resulting in an unintended pregnancy and resolved in marital bliss and motherhood. What is of more interest here than a possible message about contraceptive use, is the outcome that the fiction's negligence in birth control and responsibility affirms an ideology in which female sexuality and sexual experimentation can only be tolerated within the context of procreation and affirmation of motherhood. Subsequently, the cultural significance of the trilogy's popularity and its tension between sexual exploration, birth control and fertility is explored. In a globally popular fantasy published more than five decades after the introduction of the pill, the protagonist's lack of attention to reliable birth control leads to a telling dichotomy that combines adventurous exploration of female sexuality and affirmation of the nuclear family.

  14. Use of Modern Birth Control Methods Among Rural Communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBCM) among rural dwellers in Imo State Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty households were randomly selected and data were obtained from them with the use of questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion. The results showed that only 30% of ...

  15. Higher Prevalence of Left-Handedness in Twins? Not After Controlling Birth Time Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Kauko; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Saari-Kemppainen, Aulikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Haukka, Jari; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Iivanainen, Matti

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy- and birth-related factors may have an effect on handedness. Compared with singletons, twins have a lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and are at higher risk for birth complications. We tested whether the prevalence of left-handedness is higher among twins than singletons, and if so, whether that difference is fully explained by pregnancy and birth-related differences between twins and singletons. We analyzed Finnish population-based datasets; included were 8,786 twins and 5,892 singletons with information on birth weight (n = 12,381), Apgar scores (n = 11,129), and gestational age (n = 11,811). Two twin cohorts were involved: FinnTwin12 included twins born during 1983-1987, and FinnTwin16 included twins born during 1974-1979. We had two comparison groups of singletons: 4,101 individuals born during 1986-1988 and enrolled in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial, and 1,791 individuals who were partners of FinnTwin16 twins. We used logistic regression models with writing hand as the outcome for comparison and evaluating effects of covariates. Left-handedness was more common in twins (9.67%) than in singletons (8.27%; p = .004). However, Apgar scores were associated with handedness, and after controlling for covariates, we found no difference in the prevalence of left-handedness between twins and singletons. Increased left-handedness among twins, often reported by others, was evident in our data, but only among our older twin cohorts, and that association disappeared after removing effects of perinatal covariates.

  16. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS: T...

  17. Divergent trends in abortion and birth control practices in belarus, Russia and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris P Denisov

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. METHODS: Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. CONCLUSION: Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia.

  18. Divergent Trends in Abortion and Birth Control Practices in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Boris P.; Sakevich, Victoria I.; Jasilioniene, Aiva

    2012-01-01

    Context The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. Methods Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. Results The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. Conclusion Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia. PMID:23349656

  19. Birth order and sibship size: evaluation of the role of selection bias in a case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, F K; Willett, E V; Simpson, J; Smith, A G; Roman, E

    2007-09-15

    Substantial heterogeneity has been observed among case-control studies investigating associations between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and familial characteristics, such as birth order and sibship size. The potential role of selection bias in explaining such heterogeneity is considered within this study. Selection bias according to familial characteristics and socioeconomic status is investigated within a United Kingdom-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed during 1998-2001. Reported distributions of birth order and maternal age are each compared with expected reference distributions derived using national birth statistics from the United Kingdom. A method is detailed in which yearly data are used to derive expected distributions, taking account of variability in birth statistics over time. Census data are used to reweight both the case and control study populations such that they are comparable with the general population with regard to socioeconomic status. The authors found little support for an association between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and birth order or family size and little evidence for an influence of selection bias. However, the findings suggest that between-study heterogeneity could be explained by selection biases that influence the demographic characteristics of participants.

  20. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely

  1. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandel Megan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.

  2. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Kristen R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design, we aim to evaluate whether treating women with asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis early in pregnancy is effective in preventing spontaneous preterm birth. Pregnant women presenting for antenatal care The study protocol draws on the usual antenatal care schedule, has been pilot-tested and the intervention involves only a minor modification of current practice. Women who agree to participate will self-collect a vaginal swab and those who are culture positive for Candida will be randomised (central, telephone to open-label treatment or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment, routine antenatal care. Outcomes will be obtained from population databases. A sample size of 3,208 women with Candida colonisation (1,604 per arm is required to detect a 40% reduction in the spontaneous preterm birth rate among women with asymptomatic candidiasis from 5.0% in the control group to 3.0% in women treated with clotrimazole (significance 0.05, power 0.8. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Discussion For our hypothesis, a placebo-controlled trial had major disadvantages: a placebo arm would not represent current clinical practice; knowledge of vaginal colonisation with Candida may change participants' behaviour; and a placebo with an alcohol preservative may have an independent affect on vaginal flora. These disadvantages can be overcome by the PROBE study design. This trial will provide definitive evidence on whether screening for and treating asymptomatic candidiasis in

  3. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma

    2012-01-01

    of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies......OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk...

  4. Developing a Pictorial Sisterhood Method in collaboration with illiterate Maasai traditional birth attendants in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggeveen, Yadira; Schreuder, Renske; Zweekhorst, Marjolein; Manyama, Mange; Hatfield, Jennifer; Scheele, Fedde; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2016-10-01

    To study whether data on maternal mortality can be gathered while maintaining local ownership of data in a pastoralist setting where a scarcity of data sources and a culture of silence around maternal death amplifies limited awareness of the magnitude of maternal mortality. As part of a participatory action research project, investigators and illiterate traditional birth attendants (TBAs) collaboratively developed a quantitative participatory tool-the Pictorial Sisterhood Method-that was pilot-tested between March 12 and May 30, 2011, by researchers and TBAs in a cross-sectional study. Fourteen TBAs interviewed 496 women (sample), which led to 2241 sister units of risk and a maternal mortality ratio of 689 deaths per 100000 live births (95% confidence interval 419-959). Researchers interviewed 474 women (sample), leading to 1487 sister units of risk and a maternal mortality ratio of 484 (95% confidence interval 172-795). The Pictorial Sisterhood Method is an innovative application that might increase the participation of illiterate individuals in maternal health research and advocacy. It offers interesting opportunities to increase maternal mortality data ownership and awareness, and warrants further study and validation. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inadequate birth spacing is perceived as riskier than all family planning methods, except sterilization and abortion, in a qualitative study among urban Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Skinner, Joanna; Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Cobb, Lisa; Saad, Abdulmumin; Odeku, Mojisola

    2017-09-11

    Fertility is high in Nigeria and contraceptive use is low. Little is known about how urban Nigerians perceive the risk of contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and birth. This study examines and compares the risk perception of family planning methods and pregnancy related scenarios among urban Nigerians. A total of 26 focus group discussions with 243 participants were conducted in September and October 2010 in Ibadan and Kaduna. The groups were stratified by sex, age, family planning use, and city. Study participants were asked to identify the risk associated with six different family planning methods and four pregnancy related risks. The data were coded in ATLAS.ti 6 and analyzed using the thematic content analysis approach. The ten family planning and pregnancy related items ranked as follows from most to least risky: sterilization, abortion, getting pregnant soon after having a baby (no birth spacing), pill, IUD, injectable, having a birth under 18 years of age (teenage motherhood), condom use, having six children, and fertility awareness methods. Risk of family planning methods was often categorized in terms of side effects and complications. Positive perceptions of teenage motherhood and having many children influenced the low ranking of these items. Inadequate birth spacing was rated as more risky than all contraceptive methods and pregnancy related events except for sterilization and abortion. Some of the participants' risk perceptions of contraceptives and pregnancy related scenarios does not correspond to actual risk of methods and practices. Instead, the items' perceived riskiness largely correspond with prevailing social norms. However, there was a high level of understanding of the risks of inadequate birth spacing. This study is not a randomized control trial so the study has not been registered as such.

  6. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P = 0.05, 80% power

  7. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET. Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P

  8. Thomas Scharping, Birth Control in China, 1949-2000. Population policy and demographic development

    OpenAIRE

    Allès, Élisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Family policy and the growth of the population in China have been the subject of continuous attention for many years, but there was no research which provided an overall view of the policies and outcomes for these areas. This remarkable work by the German demographer Thomas Scharping, on birth control and demography in China from 1949 to 2000, fills this gap. It recounts and analyses demographic growth, the policies of the Chinese state in this field and the reactions of the population over t...

  9. Ascertaining year of birth/age at death in forensic cases: A review of conventional methods and methods allowing for absolute chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, H; Zweihoff, R

    2010-01-01

    Based on an actual case, where we were able to ascertain the year of birth of three dead babies found in a deep-freezer to within 1–2 years (1986, 1988 and 2004, respectively), we review the current state of forensic age determination/year of birth determination. The age of an individual (year...... of birth) is often a fundamental piece of data in connection with forensic identification of unidentified bodies. The methods most often used are based on determining various morphological, age-related, changes on the skeleton (or teeth, although odontological methods are not reviewed in this paper...

  10. Transactional price of an expected child and its application in birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X

    1993-01-01

    The theoretical presentation of the impact of the transactional price of an expected child (TPEC) on birth control led to the conclusion that successful birth control was a combination of birth utility theory and TPEC theory. In a hypothetical market, the assumption can be made that an expected price can be attached to a desired child or a transactional price can be attached for giving up the reproductive right to have an excess child. A consumer equilibrium model can characterize the changes in financial resources necessary in deciding on an appropriate number of children. In a general equilibrium model, couples would have to be compensated a certain amount as an inducement to forgo the right to have a second child. Prices of children can be determined by a distributional curve of this transactional price of expected excess children and the estimated marginal price for couples with two children. Under circumstances of limited resources, it would be cheaper to buy some couple's rights to forgo a child, and this price would vary with parity. The exact transactional price of each child by parity by each couple could be theoretically determined, if all couples told the truth about desired number of children. However, the complication is that this condition may not be possible, and couples may charge more for forgoing the right to a subsequent child that what they would actually accept. Also, the seller could ask one price and then charge more. A compromise would be to set prices only for lower parities and to set prices subject to the total funds available to the buyer. Very low prices would also decrease the effectiveness of birth control. The government could be a buyer or seller. Taxing couples for additional children would make the government a seller. When the government is the buyer, couples would be compensated for not having an additional child. Another possibility is a reward for having only a certain number of children and a tax for excess children, which

  11. Low birth weight at term and its determinants in a tertiary hospital of Nepal: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Raj Sharma

    Full Text Available Birth weight of a child is an important indicator of its vulnerability for childhood illness and chances of survival. A large number of infant deaths can be averted by appropriate management of low birth weight babies and prevention of factors associated with low birth weight. The prevalence of low birth weight babies in Nepal is estimated to be about 12-32%.Our study aimed at identifying major determinants of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal. A hospital-based retrospective case control study was conducted in maternity ward of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from February to July 2011. A total of 155 LBW babies and 310 controls were included in the study. Mothers admitted to maternity ward during the study period were interviewed, medical records were assessed and anthropometric measurements were done. Risk factors, broadly classified into proximal and distal factors, were assessed for any association with birth of low-birth weight babies. Regression analysis revealed that a history of premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio; aOR5.24, CI 1.05-26.28, hard physical work during pregnancy (aOR1.48, CI 0.97-2.26, younger age of mother (aOR1.98, CI 1.15-3.41, mothers with haemoglobin level less than 11gm/dl (aOR0.51, CI0.24-1.07 and lack of consumption of nutritious food during pregnancy (aOR1.99, CI 1.28-3.10 were significantly associated with the birth of LBW babies. These factors should be addressed with appropriate measures so as to decrease the prevalence of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal.

  12. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202.

  14. Developmental origins of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a case control study comparing birth weight in women with PCOS and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrzadeh, Sheda; Painter, Rebecca C; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2016-10-01

    Evidence from various epidemiological studies and experimental animal studies has linked adverse intrauterine circumstances with health problems in adult life. This field of investigation is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Studies investigating the relation between developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adulthood and birth weight have yielded inconsistent results: PCOS is described more often in women with low birth weight and high birth weight, while other studies have failed to establish any relation. In this retrospective case-control study, we evaluated whether women diagnosed with PCOS had lower birth weight compared to women with a regular menstrual cycle (controls). Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the data and correct for known confounders. About 65 women with PCOS and 96 controls were recruited for this purpose. The average birth weight of PCOS women (3357 g) did not differ from the average birth weight of controls (3409 g). Mean age at menarche differed significantly between groups, 13.7  years and 12.8  years (p = 0.006), respectively, for PCOS women and controls. In conclusion, we could not confirm the effect of adverse intrauterine conditions, reflected in birth weight, on developing PCOS.

  15. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE METHOD AND LULLABY MUSIC THERAPY ON VITAL SIGN CHANGE IN INFANTS WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuuva Yusuf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC and lullaby music methods have been considered as the alternative treatment for vital sign changes in low birth weight infants. However, little is known about the combination of the two methods. Objective: To identify effectiveness of combinations of Kangaroo mother care and Lullaby music methods on changes in vital signs in low birth weight infants. Methods: A quasi experiment with non-equivalent control group design. This study was conducted on October– December 2016 at the General Hospital of Ambarawa and General Hospital of Ungaran, Semarang. There were 36 samples selected using consecutive sampling divided into three groups, namely: 1 a group of LBW infants with the combination of KMC and lullaby music, 2 a LBW infant group with the lullaby music intervention, and 3 a control group given standard care in LBW infants by KMC method. Paired t-test and MANOVA test were used to analyzed the data. Results: Findings revealed that there were significant differences between the combination group, lullaby music group, and control group in temperature (p=0.003, pulse (p=0.001, respiration (p=0.001, and oxygen saturation (p=0.014 with significant value of <0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in vital sign changes among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of KMC method and Lullaby music intervention was effective on vital sign changes (temperature, pulse, respiration, and oxygen saturation compared with the lullaby music group alone and control group with KMC method in low birth weight infants. It is suggested that the combination of KMC and Lullaby music methods can be used as an alternative to improve LBW care for mothers in the NICU and at home and to reach the stability of the baby's vital signs.

  16. Testing survey-based methods for rapid monitoring of child mortality, with implications for summary birth history data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Eoghan; Hill, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Under-five mortality estimates are increasingly used in low and middle income countries to target interventions and measure performance against global development goals. Two new methods to rapidly estimate under-5 mortality based on Summary Birth Histories (SBH) were described in a previous paper and tested with data available. This analysis tests the methods using data appropriate to each method from 5 countries that lack vital registration systems. SBH data are collected across many countries through censuses and surveys, and indirect methods often rely upon their quality to estimate mortality rates. The Birth History Imputation method imputes data from a recent Full Birth History (FBH) onto the birth, death and age distribution of the SBH to produce estimates based on the resulting distribution of child mortality. DHS FBHs and MICS SBHs are used for all five countries. In the implementation, 43 of 70 estimates are within 20% of validation estimates (61%). Mean Absolute Relative Error is 17.7.%. 1 of 7 countries produces acceptable estimates. The Cohort Change method considers the differences in births and deaths between repeated Summary Birth Histories at 1 or 2-year intervals to estimate the mortality rate in that period. SBHs are taken from Brazil's PNAD Surveys 2004-2011 and validated against IGME estimates. 2 of 10 estimates are within 10% of validation estimates. Mean absolute relative error is greater than 100%. Appropriate testing of these new methods demonstrates that they do not produce sufficiently good estimates based on the data available. We conclude this is due to the poor quality of most SBH data included in the study. This has wider implications for the next round of censuses and future household surveys across many low- and middle- income countries.

  17. Young males' perspectives on pregnancy, fatherhood and condom use: Where does responsibility for birth control lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer L; Fenwick, Jennifer; Skinner, Rachel; Merriman, Gareth; Hallett, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To improve our understanding of males' role in contraceptive practices, this paper explores the relationship between young males' perspectives on pregnancy and fatherhood and their attitudes, beliefs and practices in relation to condom use and birth control. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 42 males aged 15-25 years. A systematic process of thematic analysis was used to reduce and organise the narrative data around the focus areas of relationships, sex, condom use, STIs and pregnancy/fatherhood. To facilitate the emergence of key patterns in the data, new data was constantly compared with existing ideas to formulate and refine codes and descriptive categories. The analysis revealed a clear discrepancy between young males' desire to prevent pregnancy and the level of control they assumed over this. Despite pregnancy emerging as the overriding concern for participants, this failed to motivate continued use of condoms when STI risk was perceived as low and a partner was using birth control. Reliance on a partner's use of hormonal contraceptives and in several cases, beliefs of low personal responsibility for pregnancy prevention reduced young males' participation in fertility control. Young males' unfavourable attitudes toward immediate pregnancy and fatherhood provide a unique opportunity for safe sex promotion by encouraging greater ownership over sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, this requires a shift in the meanings associated with condoms, from a disease prevention only orientation to one that promotes condom use as a positive act for self and partner protection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The right to have a family: 'legal trafficking of children', adoption and birth control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarello, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on one of the 'child-trafficking scandals' that occurred in Brazil in the 1990s. Ethnographic research was carried out between 2000 and 2001 within a movement of poor families formed in São Paulo to put pressure on the authorities to review the legal procedures that had led to their children being placed for national and international adoption. Fieldwork was supplemented by other data, including reports by legislative bodies, articles in the press, and case files involving the termination of parental rights. This paper explores views on international adoption among members of the Brazilian elites such as judges, agents in the field of child protection and journalists, in the context of old but persistent neo-Malthusian ideas. Although the Brazilian birth rate is now below the replacement level, it is still common to blame 'irresponsible' reproduction among the urban poor for violence in large cities. Drawing a parallel with the routine sterilization of women that prevailed for decades and was encouraged by Brazilian physicians, the paper examines how, in a 'struggle against poverty', judicial agents took it upon themselves to enforce 'birth control' through adoption, bypassing family consent and the law in the process. The paper concludes by arguing that discrimination against poor families who are viewed as disorganized, immoral and irresponsible - characteristics frequently associated with criminality by a sector of the elites - has contributed to the view that lower-class families do not have the right to bear children, or to keep them.

  19. Spontaneous vaginal delivery in the birth-chair versus in the conventional dorsal position: a matched controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, H S; Benedicic, C; Arikan, M G; Haas, J; Petru, E

    2001-09-17

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a birth-chair on obstetric outcome. We reviewed the hospital records of 220 consecutive pregnant women who gave birth on a birth-chair at our institution. The control group consisted of 440 pregnant women who preceded and followed the index cases and who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries in the conventional dorsal supine position. The controls were matched for parity and for the attending mid-wife. Patients who delivered in the birth-chair had significantly lower rates of episiotomy and manual separation of the placenta. The umbilical blood cord pH was significantly higher in neonates of the birth-chair group. The duration of labour, rate of perineal and vaginal injury, Apgar scores and rate of admission to a neonatal intermediate care unit were not influenced by the mode of delivery. Our data support previous studies that a birth-chair delivery may be a safe alternative to conventional delivery in the supine position.

  20. Optimal control linear quadratic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2007-01-01

    This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the

  1. Method for controlling powertrain pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Karl Andrew; Spohn, Brian L; Demirovic, Besim; Martini, Ryan D; Miller, Jean Marie

    2013-10-22

    A method of controlling a pump supplying a fluid to a transmission includes sensing a requested power and an excess power for a powertrain. The requested power substantially meets the needs of the powertrain, while the excess power is not part of the requested power. The method includes sensing a triggering condition in response to the ability to convert the excess power into heat in the transmission, and determining that an operating temperature of the transmission is below a maximum. The method also includes determining a calibrated baseline and a dissipation command for the pump. The calibrated baseline command is configured to supply the fluid based upon the requested power, and the dissipation command is configured to supply additional fluid and consume the excess power with the pump. The method operates the pump at a combined command, which is equal to the calibrated baseline command plus the dissipation command.

  2. Birth characteristics and the risk of childhood leukaemias and lymphomas in New Zealand: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dockerty John D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have found that lower parity and higher or lower social class (depending on the study are associated with increased risks of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. Such findings have led to suggestions that infection could play a role in the causation of this disease. An earlier New Zealand study found a protective effect of parental marriage on the risk of childhood ALL, and studies elsewhere have reported increased risks in relation to older parental ages. This study aimed to assess whether lower parity, lower social class, unmarried status and older parental ages increase the risk of childhood ALL (primarily. These variables were also assessed in relation to the risks of childhood acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease. Methods A case control study was conducted. The cases were 585 children diagnosed with leukaemias or lymphomas throughout New Zealand over a 12 year period. The 585 age and sex matched controls were selected at random from birth records. Birth records from cases (via cancer registration record linkage and from controls provided accurate data on maternal parity, social class derived from paternal occupation, maternal marital status, ages of both parents, and urban status based on the address on the birth certificate. Analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Results There were no statistically significant associations overall between childhood ALL and parity of the mother, social class, unmarried maternal status, increasing parental ages (continuous analysis, or urban status. We also found no statistically significant associations between the risks of childhood acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, or Hodgkin's disease and the variables studied. Conclusion This study showed no positive results though of reasonable size, and its record linkage design minimised bias. Descriptive studies (eg of time trends of ALL show that

  3. Radiological assessment of placement of the hysteroscopically inserted Essure permanent birth control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Ramos, R M; Azpeitia Armán, J; Aparicio Rodríguez-Miñón, P; Salazar Arquero, F J; Albillos Merino, J C

    2015-01-01

    Essure is a permanent birth control device that is inserted through the cervix by hysteroscopy. The device is placed in the fallopian tubes, where it causes occlusion by stimulating fibrosis. Patients can be followed up with plain-film X-rays, hysterosalpingography, and ultrasonography, although the devices can also be identified incidentally on CT and MRI. The follow-up of Essure is based on checking the criteria for appropriate positioning and correct functioning (tubal occlusion) and on diagnosing complications. The most common complications are perforation, migration (toward the uterine or peritoneal cavity), and occlusion failure. In hysterosalpingography, vascular intravasation is the most common cause of diagnostic error. Radiologists need to know how to recognize the device on different imaging techniques, how to check that it is correctly placed and functioning, and how to diagnose complications. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth outcomes of cases with isolated atrial septal defect type II--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-07-01

    In general, epidemiological studies have evaluated cases with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities together. The aim of this study is to describe the birth outcomes of cases with isolated/single atrial septal defect type II (ASD-II, i.e. only a fossa ovalis defect) after surgical correction or lethal outcome in the light of maternal sociodemographic data. Comparison of birth outcomes and maternal characteristics of cases with ASD-II and controls without defect. The population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Hungarian newborn infants with or without ASD-II. Medically recorded birth outcomes, maternal age and birth order were evaluated. Marital and employment status was based on maternal information. The lifestyle factors were analyzed in a subsample of mothers visited at home based on a personal interview with mothers and their close relatives, and the family consensus was accepted. Mean gestational age at delivery and birthweight, rate of preterm birth and low birthweight, maternal age, birth order, marital and employment status. The evaluation of 471 cases with ASD-II and 38,151 controls without any defects showed a female excess in cases with ASD-II, having shorter gestational age and lower mean birthweight, and thus a higher rate of preterm births and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction and shorter gestational age were found in cases with ASD-II, particularly in female children. These factors may have a general developmental process in which there was not closure of the foramen ovale, thus echocardiographic screening of these babies might be of value. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Features of Somatic and Reproductive Status of Women, who Gave Birth to a Child with Congenital Malformations, and Their Identifiсation Using «Case — Control» Method According to Data of Lviv Regional Clinical Perinatal Center in 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zborovska N.V. Zborovska N.V.

    2012-04-01

    While comparing a range of reproductive anamnesis indices there was noticed a higher percentage of dead children, stillbirths, anemia in pregnancy, gestosis in the first half of pregnancy, gestosis in the second half of pregnancy, abnormal labors in mothers who gave birth to a child with congenital malformations than in women of control group. According to ultrasound diagnosis congenital abnormalities in pregnancy were detected in 31.6 % of cases. There were diagnosed 4 cases of Arnold — Chiari syndrome (spina bifida and internal hydrocephalus; and 3 cases of each: hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, small intestinal atresia, and 2 cases of each: congenital malformations, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Down’s syndrome, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, congenital rectal atresia, and 1 case of each: spina bifida, congenital absence of forearm and hand, left ventricular rabdomioma, encephalocele.

  6. A New Method for Deriving the Stellar Birth Function of Resolved Stellar Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, M.; Tchernyshyov, K.; Brown, T. M.; Gordon, K. D.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method for deriving the stellar birth function (SBF) of resolved stellar populations. The SBF (stars born per unit mass, time, and metallicity) is the combination of the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history (SFH), and the metallicity distribution function (MDF). The framework of our analysis is that of Poisson Point Processes (PPPs), a class of statistical models suitable when dealing with points (stars) in a multidimensional space (the measurement space of multiple photometric bands). The theory of PPPs easily accommodates the modeling of measurement errors as well as that of incompleteness. Our method avoids binning stars in the color-magnitude diagram and uses the whole likelihood function for each data point; combining the individual likelihoods allows the computation of the posterior probability for the population's SBF. Within the proposed framework it is possible to include nuisance parameters, such as distance and extinction, by specifying their prior distributions and marginalizing over them. The aim of this paper is to assess the validity of this new approach under a range of assumptions, using only simulated data. Forthcoming work will show applications to real data. Although it has a broad scope of possible applications, we have developed this method to study multi-band Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Milky Way Bulge. Therefore we will focus on simulations with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic Bulge. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  7. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries: a register-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Pal, Niklas; Stokland, Tore; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression analysis. We observed a distinct association between Wilms tumor and high birth weight (≥4 kg) for girls (OR 1.97, CI 1.50-2.59) but not for boys (1.04, 0.78-1.38); overall, the OR was 1.43 (1.17-1.74). Among girls, risk increased by 28% (15-42%) per 500 g increase in birth weight. Large-for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min birth order. In our large-scale, registry-based study, we confirmed earlier observations of an association between high birth weight and risk of Wilms tumor, but we found an effect only in girls. The higher risk of infants with low Apgar score might reflect hypoxia causing cell damage, adverse side effects of neonatal treatment or reverse causation as low Apgar score might indicate the presence of a tumor. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  8. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were...... complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents....

  9. Control method for prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  10. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, A., E-mail: goelanju23@gmail.com; Gakkhar, S., E-mail: sungkfma@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2016-04-06

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  11. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, A.; Gakkhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  12. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  13. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  14. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita

    2010-08-09

    To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills. This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation. The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation. The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis), fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women's desires for fewer and shorter menses) and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding). Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.

  15. Maternal Locus of Control and Perception of Family Status at Entry and Exit of Birth to Three Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffaro, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Birth to three early intervention is unique time in the life of a family of a child with a disability in that confidence and competence of the parents can be addressed as part of the intervention goals and objectives. Locus of control is a quality measure of a parent's perception of their ability to be their child's teacher, advocate, and champion…

  16. Cost Analysis of the Dutch Obstetric System: low-risk nulliparous women preferring home or short-stay hospital birth - a prospective non-randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, Marijke JC; Evers, Silvia MAA; Basten, Marloes CM; Nijhuis, Jan G; Severens, Johan L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Netherlands, pregnant women without medical complications can decide where they want to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting with a midwife. However, a decrease in the home birth rate during the last decennium may have raised the societal costs of giving birth. The objective of this study is to compare the societal costs of home births with those of births in a short-stay hospital setting. Methods This study is a cost analysis based on the finding...

  17. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  18. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin B; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-04-01

    A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Cost Analysis of the Dutch Obstetric System: low-risk nulliparous women preferring home or short-stay hospital birth - a prospective non-randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhuis Jan G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, pregnant women without medical complications can decide where they want to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting with a midwife. However, a decrease in the home birth rate during the last decennium may have raised the societal costs of giving birth. The objective of this study is to compare the societal costs of home births with those of births in a short-stay hospital setting. Methods This study is a cost analysis based on the findings of a multicenter prospective non-randomised study comparing two groups of nulliparous women with different preferences for where to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting. Data were collected using cost diaries, questionnaires and birth registration forms. Analysis of the data is divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. Results In the group of home births, the total societal costs associated with giving birth at home were €3,695 (per birth, compared with €3,950 per birth in the group for short-stay hospital births. Statistically significant differences between both groups were found regarding the following cost categories 'Cost of contacts with health care professionals during delivery' (€138.38 vs. €87.94, -50 (2.5-97.5 percentile range (PR-76;-25, p Conclusion The total costs associated with pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care are comparable for home birth and short-stay hospital birth. The most important differences in costs between the home birth group and the short-stay hospital birth group are associated with maternity care assistance, hospitalisation, and travelling costs.

  20. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hawken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  1. Maternal oral health status and preterm low birth weight at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manji Karim P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined the relationship between oral health status (periodontal disease and carious pulpal exposure (CPE and preterm low-birth-weight (PTLBW infant deliveries among Tanzanian-African mothers at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Tanzania. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted, involving 373 postpartum mothers aged 14–44 years (PTLBW – 150 cases and at term normal-birth-weight (TNBW – 223 controls, using structured questionnaire and full-mouth examination for periodontal and dentition status. Results The mean number of sites with gingival bleeding was higher in PTLBW than in TNBW (P = 0.026. No significant differences were observed for sites with plaque, calculus, teeth with decay, missing, filling (DMFT between PTLBW and TNBW. Controlling for known risk factors in all post-partum (n = 373, and primiparaous (n = 206 mothers, no significant differences were found regarding periodontal disease diagnosis threshold (PDT (four sites or more that had probing periodontal pocket depth 4+mm and gingival bleeding ≥ 30% sites, and CPE between cases and controls. Significant risk factors for PTLBW among primi- and multiparous mothers together were age ≤ 19 years (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 2.09, 95% Confidence interval (95% CI: 1.18 – 3.67, P = 0.011, hypertension (aOR = 2.44, (95% CI: 1.20 – 4.93, P = 0.013 and being un-married (aOR = 1.59, (95% CI: 1.00 – 2.53, P = 0.049. For primiparous mothers significant risk factors for PTLBW were age ≤ 19 years (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.13 – 3.81, P = 0.019, and being un-married (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.42 – 4.67, P = 0.002. Conclusions These clinical findings show no evidence for periodontal disease or carious pulpal exposure being significant risk factors in PTLBW infant delivery among Tanzanian-Africans mothers at MNH, except for young age, hypertension, and being unmarried. Further research incorporating periodontal pathogens is recommended.

  2. A "shotgun" method for tracing the birth locations of sheep from flock tags, applied to scrapie surveillance in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Colin P D; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Chikukwa, Ambrose C

    2010-09-01

    Movement records are often used to identify animal sample provenance by retracing the movements of individuals. Here we present an alternative method, which uses the same identity tags and movement records as are used to retrace movements, but ignores individual movement paths. The first step uses a simple query to identify the most likely birth holding for every identity tag included in a database recording departures from agricultural holdings. The second step rejects a proportion of the birth holding locations to leave a list of birth holding locations that are relatively reliable. The method was used to trace the birth locations of sheep sampled for scrapie in abattoirs, or on farm as fallen stock. Over 82% of the sheep sampled in the fallen stock survey died at the holding of birth. This lack of movement may be an important constraint on scrapie transmission. These static sheep provided relatively reliable birth locations, which were used to define criteria for selecting reliable traces. The criteria rejected 16.8% of fallen stock traces and 11.9% of abattoir survey traces. Two tests provided estimates that selection reduced error in fallen stock traces from 11.3% to 3.2%, and in abattoir survey traces from 8.1% to 1.8%. This method generated 14,591 accepted traces of fallen stock from samples taken during 2002-2005 and 83,136 accepted traces from abattoir samples. The absence or ambiguity of flock tag records at the time of slaughter prevented the tracing of 16-24% of abattoir samples during 2002-2004, although flock tag records improved in 2005. The use of internal scoring to generate and evaluate results from the database query, and the confirmation of results by comparison with other database fields, are analogous to methods used in web search engines. Such methods may have wide application in tracing samples and in adding value to biological datasets. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Optimum approach to delivery for control of premature birth (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, J; Lattorff, E

    1980-01-01

    Foetal condition and neonatal mortality of 637 prematurely born children with birth weights below 2,501 g were analysed, depending on modes of delivery, such as spontaneous birth, speculum delivery, use of forceps, manual support, and caesarean section. The clinical condition of the newborn, assessed five minutes from parturition by Apgar score 1, was found to depend primarily on birth weight rather than on the mode of delivery. The average Apgar values were lower for less mature newborns. While Apgar scores were worst for newborns after caesarean section delivery, the differences between approaches to delivery could not be statistically secured. Neonatal mortality went up, according to expectation, along with dropping birth weight. The mortality rate of premature births below 1,501 g was not affected by delivery modes. Prophylactic use of Shute forceps and speculum delivery appeared to be superior to spontaneous birth in the medium weight class, between 1,501 g and 2,000 g. Yet, not even here were the differences between clear postnatal mortality rates statistically secured. -Lowest mortality figures were recorded from spontaneous birth in the weight class between 2,001 g and 2,500 g, but significant differences were established only to speculum delivery. Premature newborns after caesarean section had poorer prospects than all variants of vaginal birth, but among the latter premature births from breech presentation were more endangered than others. Decisions as to vaginal, abdominal, spontaneous proprophylactically surgical approaches to premature deliveries should be taken for every individual case and due consideration of many factors.

  4. Resonant power processors. II - Methods of control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruganti, R.; Lee, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of resonant converter control is discussed. Employing the state-portrait, different control methods for series resonant converter are identified and their performance evaluated based on their stability, response to control and load changes and range of operation. A new control method, optimal-trajectory control, is proposed which, by utilizing the state trajectories as control laws, continuously monitors the energy level of the resonant tank. The method is shown to have superior control properties especially under transient operation.

  5. Methods for developing useful estimates of the costs associated with birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amy P; Canfield, Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Cost estimates for birth defects are useful to policy makers in deciding the best use of resources to prevent these conditions. Much of the effort in this area has focused on spina bifida, in part because cost savings can be estimated from folic acid-preventable cases. However, comprehensive cost-of-illness estimates for this condition may be too outdated, too general, or not applicable to individual states' environments. Using the live birth prevalence for spina bifida in Texas, we applied recent spina bifida cost estimates to approximate total lifetime medical and other costs for an average live birth cohort of spina bifida cases in Texas. In addition, we queried various government programs that provide services for persons with spina bifida to provide program-specific annual costs for this condition. Applying a recently published average lifetime medical cost of $635,000 per case of spina bifida to the average annual birth cohort of 120 Texas cases, an estimated $76 million in direct and indirect medical and other costs will be incurred in Texas over the life span of that cohort. Examples of estimated medical costs for one year are $5 million for infants using actual employer-paid insurance claims data and $6 million combined for children in two public sector programs. Stakeholders and state policy makers may look to state birth defects registries for useful cost data. Although comprehensive state-specific figures are not available, applying prevalence data to existing estimates and obtaining actual claims and program expenditures may help close this information gap.

  6. Progesterone for preterm birth prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Lucovnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone is important in maintaining pregnancy. Progesterone supplementation may reduce risk of preterm birth in certain populations of pregnant women. The objective of this review was to develop evidence-based clinical recommendation for progesterone treatment in the prevention of preterm birth.Methods: A search in the Medline database was performed using keywords: progesterone, pregnancy, preterm birth, preterm labour, preterm delivery, randomized trial, and randomized controlled trial. We only included studies of vaginal progesterone treatments for the prevention of preterm birth and excluded studies on 17-α-hydroksiprogesterone caproate.Results: We report findings from twelve randomized trials conducted since 2003. These trials differ regarding inclusion criteria, progesterone dose, vehicle used, and duration of treatment. Inclusion criteria were: short uterine cervix (two trials, history of previous preterm birth (two trials, signs and symptoms of preterm labour (three trials, twin pregnancies (three trials, and multiple risk factors (among these history of previous preterm birth was the most common (two trials. Six of these twelve trials showed a significant reduction in preterm birth in the progesterone groups.Conclusions: Based on current evidence we recommend treatment with 200 mg of micronized progesterone daily, administered vaginally, in pregnant women found to have a short cervix (≤ 25 mm at 19-24 weeks. The treatment should be continued until 37 weeks.

  7. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    OpenAIRE

    Vienneau Danielle; Infanger Denis; Feychting Maria; Schüz Joachim; Schmidt Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti Giorgio; Klæboe Lars; Kuehni Claudia E; Tynes Tore; Von der Weid Nicolas; Lannering Birgitta; Röösli Martin

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight length maternal age) birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction preterm delivery birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking working dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7 19 year olds. The multinational case control study in Denmark Sweden Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (particip...

  8. Marathon maternity oral history project: Exploring rural birthing through narrative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Oral history research. The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project's findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women's voices. The project's narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon's stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada.

  9. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-08-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs.

  10. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Klæboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Lannering, Birgitta; Röösli, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Delaying second births among adolescent mothers: a randomized, controlled trial of a home-based mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Bentley, Margaret E; Papas, Mia A; Oberlander, Sarah; Teti, Laureen O; McNary, Scot; Le, Katherine; O'Connell, Melissa

    2006-10-01

    Rates of rapid second births among low-income black adolescent mothers range from 20% to 50%. Most efforts to prevent rapid second births have been unsuccessful. There were 4 objectives: (1) to examine whether a home-based mentoring intervention was effective in preventing second births within 2 years of the adolescent mother's first delivery; (2) to examine whether greater intervention participation increased the likelihood of preventing a second birth; (3) to examine whether second births were better predicted from a risk practice perspective or a family formation perspective, based on information collected at delivery; and (4) to examine how risk practices or family formation over the first 2 years of parenthood were related to a second birth. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of a home-based intervention curriculum, based on social cognitive theory, and focused on interpersonal negotiation skills, adolescent development, and parenting. The curriculum was delivered biweekly until the infant's first birthday by college-educated, black, single mothers who served as mentors, presenting themselves as "big sisters." The control group received usual care. Follow-up evaluations were conducted in the homes 6, 13, and 24 months after recruitment. Participants were recruited from urban hospitals at delivery and were 181 first time, black adolescent mothers ( or = 2 intervention visits increased the odds of not having a second infant more than threefold. Only 1 mother who completed > or = 6 visits had a second infant. At delivery of their first infant, mothers who had a second infant were slightly older (16.7 vs 16.2 years) and were more likely to have been arrested (30% vs 14%). There were no differences in baseline contraceptive use or other measures of risk or family formation. At 24 months, mothers who had a second infant reported high self-esteem, positive life events, and romantic involvement and residence with the first infant's father. At 24 months, there

  12. Periodontal Disease And Risk For Pre-Term Birth: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andonova Irena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal periodontal infection has been recognizsed as a risk factor for preterm and low birth weight infants. It is hypothesized that pathogens causing periodontal disease might translocate to the amniotic cavity and contribute to triggering an adverse pregnancy outcome. The growing evidence that an infection remote from the foetal-placental unit might have a role in preterm delivery has led to an increased awareness of the potential role of chronic bacterial infections in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of chronic periodontitis might influence the incidence of preterm labour and preterm birth.

  13. Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Shinde, Mayura U; Zhan, F Benjamin; Gong, Xi; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-11-19

    Some studies have noted an association between maternal occupational exposures to chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring, but data are lacking on the potential impact of industrial air emissions of these solvents on birth defects. With data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for births occurring in 1996-2008, we examined the relation between maternal residential proximity to industrial air releases of chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring of 60,613 case-mothers and 244,927 control-mothers. Maternal residential exposures to solvent emissions were estimated with metrics that took into account residential distances to industrial sources and annual amounts of chemicals released. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between residential proximity to emissions of 14 chlorinated solvents and selected birth defects, including neural tube, oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. All risk estimates were adjusted for year of delivery and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence. Relative to exposure risk values of 0, neural tube defects were associated with maternal residential exposures (exposure risk values >0) to several types of chlorinated solvents, most notably carbon tetrachloride (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.86); chloroform (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04, 1.87); ethyl chloride (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08, 1.79); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11, 2.18); and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08, 2.06). Significant associations were also noted between a few chlorinated solvents and oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. We observed stronger associations between some emissions and neural tube, oral cleft, and heart defects in offspring of mothers 35 years or older, such as spina bifida with carbon tetrachloride (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.09, 5.72), cleft palate

  14. Nifedipine versus atosiban for threatened preterm birth (APOSTEL III): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Nijman, Tobias A. J.; Schuit, Ewoud; Heida, Karst Y.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Kok, Marjolein; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Porath, Martina M.; Woiski, Mallory; Bax, Caroline J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Jacquemyn, Yves; van Beek, Erik; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Franssen, Maureen T. M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.; Kok, Joke H.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Franx, Arie; Mol, Ben W.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    In women with threatened preterm birth, delay of delivery by 48 h allows antenatal corticosteroids to improve neonatal outcomes. For this reason, tocolytics are often administered for 48 h; however, there is no consensus about which drug results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes. In the

  15. Nifedipine versus atosiban for threatened preterm birth (APOSTEL III) : A multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vliet, Elvira O G; Nijman, Tobias A J; Schuit, Ewoud; Heida, Karst Y.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Kok, Marjolein; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Porath, Martina M.; Woiski, Mallory; Bax, Caroline J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Jacquemyn, Yves; Beek, Erik Van; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Franssen, Maureen T M; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.; Kok, Joke H.; Van Der Post, Joris A M; Franx, Arie; Mol, Ben W.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In women with threatened preterm birth, delay of delivery by 48 h allows antenatal corticosteroids to improve neonatal outcomes. For this reason, tocolytics are often administered for 48 h; however, there is no consensus about which drug results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  16. Nifedipine versus atosiban for threatened preterm birth (APOSTEL III) : a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Nijman, Tobias A. J.; Schuit, Ewoud; Heida, Karst Y.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Kok, Marjolein; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Porath, Martina M.; Woiski, Mallory; Bax, Caroline J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Jacquemyn, Yves; van Beek, Erik; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Franssen, Maureen T. M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.; Kok, Joke H.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Franx, Arie; Mol, Ben W.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In women with threatened preterm birth, delay of delivery by 48 h allows antenatal corticosteroids to improve neonatal outcomes. For this reason, tocolytics are often administered for 48 h; however, there is no consensus about which drug results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  17. Nifedipine versus atosiban for threatened preterm birth (APOSTEL III): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, E.O. van; Nijman, T.A.; Schuit, E.; Heida, K.Y.; Opmeer, B.C.; Kok, M. de; Gyselaers, W.; Porath, M.M.; Woiski, M.D.; Bax, C.J.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Scheepers, H.C.; Jacquemyn, Y.; Beek, E. van; Duvekot, J.J.; Franssen, M.T.; Papatsonis, D.N.; Kok, J.H.; Post, J.A. van der; Franx, A.; Mol, B.W.; Oudijk, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In women with threatened preterm birth, delay of delivery by 48 h allows antenatal corticosteroids to improve neonatal outcomes. For this reason, tocolytics are often administered for 48 h; however, there is no consensus about which drug results in the best maternal and neonatal

  18. The impact of postpartum contraception on reducing preterm birth: findings from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria I; Chang, Richard; Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    2015-11-01

    Family planning is recommended as a strategy to prevent adverse birth outcomes. The potential contribution of postpartum contraceptive coverage to reducing rates of preterm birth is unknown. In this study, we examine the impact of contraceptive coverage and use within 18 months of a birth on preventing preterm birth in a Californian cohort. We identified records for second or higher-order births among women from California's 2011 Birth Statistical Master File and their prior births from earlier Birth Statistical Master Files. To identify women who received contraceptive services from publicly funded programs, we applied a probabilistic linking methodology to match birth files with enrollment records for women with Medi-Cal or Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment Program (PACT) claims. The length of contraceptive coverage was determined through applying an algorithm based on the specified method and the quantity dispensed. Preterm birth was defined as a birth occurring birth using subcategories defined by the World Health Organization: extremely preterm (birth and control for key covariates. The cohort consisted of 111,948 women who were seen at least once by a Medi-Cal or Family PACT provider within 18 months of delivery. Of the cohort, 9.75% had a preterm birth. Contraceptive coverage was found to be protective against preterm birth. For every month of contraceptive coverage, odds of a preterm birth confidence interval, 0.986-0.993). Improving postpartum contraceptive use has the potential to reduce preterm births. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control after they have given birth. Although teen birth rates have been falling for the last two decades, ... effective forms of birth control. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, teens, ages 15–19, 2010 Larger image ...

  20. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  1. A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of an early-intervention program in reducing parenting stress after preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Rønning, John A; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz B

    2006-07-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with increased parenting stress in early infancy, and some reports have found this to be a risk factor for later behavioral problems. There are, however, few studies and conflicting results. Information about the fathers is scarce. Our goal was to study the effects of an early-intervention program on parenting stress after a preterm birth until 1 year corrected age. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted including infants with a birth weight effects of a modified version of the Mother-Infant Transaction Program on parenting stress measured by the Parenting Stress Index. A term control group was also recruited. The Parenting Stress Index was administered to the mothers at 6 and 12 months' corrected age and to the fathers at 12 months' corrected age. The intervention consisted of 8 sessions shortly before discharge and 4 home visits by specially trained nurses focusing on the infant's unique characteristics, temperament, and developmental potential and the interaction between the infant and the parents. Seventy-one infants were included in the preterm intervention group, and 69 were included in the preterm control group. The preterm groups were well balanced. Seventy-four infants were included in the term control group. Compared with the preterm controls, both the mothers and fathers in the preterm intervention group reported significant lower scores in child domain, parent domain, and total stress on all occasions except the mother-reported child domain at 12 months. These differences were not related to birth weight or gestational age. The level of stress among the preterm intervention group was comparable to their term peers. Both parents in the intervention group reported consistently lower scores within the distractibility/hyperactivity, reinforces parents, competence, and attachment subscales compared with the preterm control group. There were no differences in mean summary stress scores between the mothers and fathers in

  2. Spectral shift reactor control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method of operating a nuclear reactor having a core and coolant displacer elements arranged in the core wherein is established a reator coolant temperature set point at which it is desired to operate said reactor and first reactor coolant temperature band limits are provided within which said set point is located and it is desired to operate said reactor charactrized in that said reactor coolant displacer elements are moved relative to the reactor core for adjusting the volume of reactor coolant in said core as said reactor coolant temperature approaches said first band limits thereby to maintain said reactor coolant temperature near said set point and within said first band limits

  3. Birthweight, parental age, birth order and breast cancer risk in African-American and white women: a population-based case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Newman, Beth; Millikan, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Much recent work has focused on hypotheses that very early life exposures influence adult cancer risk. For breast cancer it has been hypothesized that high in utero estrogen exposure may increase risk. Methods We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study of incident breast cancer in North Carolina, to examine associations for three possible surrogates of high prenatal estrogen exposure: weight at birth, maternal age, and birth order. We also examined paternal age. Birthweight analyses were conducted for white and African-American women born in North Carolina on or after 1949 (196 cases, 167 controls). Maternal age was analyzed for US born participants younger than 49 years of age (280 cases, 236 controls). Results There was a weak inverse association between birthweight in the highest tertile and breast cancer overall (odds ratio [OR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–1.2), although associations differed by race (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–1.0, and OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5–2.1 for African-American and white women, respectively). For maternal age there was an approximately threefold increase in risk in women whose mothers were older than 22 years of age, relative to 19–22 years of age, when the women were born. After adjustment for maternal age, older paternal age increased risk in the oldest and youngest age categories (relative to 23–27 years of age at the woman's birth: OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.1 for age 15–22 years; OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7–2.2 for age 28–34 years; and OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7–3.2 for age 35–56 years). There was no association with older paternal age for white women alone. After adjustment for maternal age (265 cases, 224 controls), a birth order of fifth or higher relative to first had an inverse association with breast cancer for women younger than 49 years old (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3–1.3). Conclusion Although the CIs are wide, these results lend support to the possibility that the prenatal

  4. Adaptive Control Methods for Soft Robots

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — I propose to develop methods for soft and inflatable robots that will allow the control system to adapt and change control parameters based on changing conditions...

  5. Spectral shift reactor control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impink, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of operating a nuclear reactor having a core and coolant displacer elements arranged in the core where there is established a reactor coolant temperature set point at which it is desired to operate the reactor and first reactor coolant temperature band limits within which the set point is characterized. The reactor coolant displacer elements are moved relative to the reactor core for adjusting the volume of reactor coolant in the core as the reactor coolant temperature approaches the first band limits to maintain the reactor coolant temperature near the set point and within the first band limits. The reactivity charges associated with movement of respective coolant displacer element clusters is calculated and compared with a calculated derived reactivity charge in order to select the cluster to be moved. (author)

  6. Poverty, partner discord, and divergent accounts; a mixed methods account of births before arrival to health facilities in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shannon A; Chase, Rachel P; Winch, Peter J; Chebet, Joy J; Besana, Giulia V R; Mosha, Idda; Sheweji, Zaina; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-09-27

    Births before arrival (BBA) to health care facilities are associated with higher rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality compared to facility deliveries or planned home births. Research on such births has been conducted in several high-income countries, but there are almost no studies from low-income settings where a majority of maternal and newborn deaths occur. Drawing on a household survey of women and in-depth interviews with women and their partners, we examined the experience of BBA in rural districts of Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Among survey respondents, 59 births (4 %) were classified as BBAs. Most of these births occurred in the presence of a family member (47 %) or traditional birth attendant (24 %). Low socioeconomic status was the strongest predictor of BBA. After controlling for wealth via matching, high parity and a low number of antenatal care (ANC) visits retained statistical significance. While these variables are useful indicators of which women are at greater risk of BBA, their predictive power is limited in a context where many women are poor, multiparous, and make multiple ANC visits. In qualitative interviews, stories of BBAs included themes of partner disagreement regarding when to depart for facilities and financial or logistical constraints that underpinned departure delays. Women described wanting to depart earlier to facilities than partners. As efforts continue to promote facility birth, we highlight the financial demands associated with facility delivery and the potential for these demands to place women at a heightened risk for BBAs.

  7. Bypass flow rate control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyama, Yoichi.

    1997-01-01

    In a PWR type reactor, bypass flow rate is controlled by exchanging existent jetting hole plugs of a plurality of nozzles disposed to the upper end of incore structures in order to flow a portion of primary coolants as a bypass flow to the upper portion of the pressure vessel. Two kinds of exchange plugs, namely, a first plug and a second plug each having a jetting out hole of different diameter are used as exchange plugs. The first plug has the diameter as that of an existent plug and the second plug has a jetting out hole having larger diameter than that of the existent plug. Remained extent plugs are exchanged to a combination of the first and the second plugs without exchanging existent plugs having seizing with the nozzles, in which the number and the diameter of the jetting out holes of the second plugs are previously determined based on predetermined total bypass flow rate to be jetted from the entire plugs after exchange of plugs. (N.H.)

  8. Fuzzy logic control to be conventional method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eker, Ilyas [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Torun, Yunis [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Technical Vocational School of Higher Education

    2006-03-01

    Increasing demands for flexibility and fast reactions in modern process operation and production methods result in nonlinear system behaviour of partly unknown systems, and this necessitates application of alternative control methods to meet the demands. Fuzzy logic (FL) control can play an important role because knowledge based design rules can easily be implemented in systems with unknown structure, and it is going to be a conventional control method since the control design strategy is simple and practical and is based on linguistic information. Computational complexity is not a limitation any more because the computing power of computers has been significantly improved even for high speed industrial applications. This makes FL control an important alternative method to the conventional PID control method for use in nonlinear industrial systems. This paper presents a practical implementation of the FL control to an electrical drive system. Such drive systems used in industry are composed of masses moving under the action of position and velocity dependent forces. These forces exhibit nonlinear behaviour. For a multi-mass drive system, the nonlinearities, like Coulomb friction and dead zone, significantly influence the operation of the systems. The proposed FL control configuration is based on speed error and change of speed error. The feasibility and effectiveness of the control method are experimentally demonstrated. The results obtained from conventional FL control, fuzzy PID and adaptive FL control are compared with traditional PID control for the dynamic responses of the closed loop drive system. (author)

  9. Fuzzy logic control to be conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eker, Ilyas; Torun, Yunis

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demands for flexibility and fast reactions in modern process operation and production methods result in nonlinear system behaviour of partly unknown systems, and this necessitates application of alternative control methods to meet the demands. Fuzzy logic (FL) control can play an important role because knowledge based design rules can easily be implemented in systems with unknown structure, and it is going to be a conventional control method since the control design strategy is simple and practical and is based on linguistic information. Computational complexity is not a limitation any more because the computing power of computers has been significantly improved even for high speed industrial applications. This makes FL control an important alternative method to the conventional PID control method for use in nonlinear industrial systems. This paper presents a practical implementation of the FL control to an electrical drive system. Such drive systems used in industry are composed of masses moving under the action of position and velocity dependent forces. These forces exhibit nonlinear behaviour. For a multi-mass drive system, the nonlinearities, like Coulomb friction and dead zone, significantly influence the operation of the systems. The proposed FL control configuration is based on speed error and change of speed error. The feasibility and effectiveness of the control method are experimentally demonstrated. The results obtained from conventional FL control, fuzzy PID and adaptive FL control are compared with traditional PID control for the dynamic responses of the closed loop drive system

  10. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Biotoxin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the pathogen methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  11. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Radiochemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the radiochemistry methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  12. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Pathogen Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the biotoxin methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  13. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the chemistry methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  14. Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii on necrotizing enterocolitis or sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serce, Ozge; Benzer, Derya; Gursoy, Tugba; Karatekin, Guner; Ovali, Fahri

    2013-12-01

    Probiotics have strain specific effects and the effects of fungi in preventing diseases in preterm infants have been investigated poorly. Saccharomyces boulardii is a yeast which acts both as a probiotic and a polyamine producer. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of S. boulardii in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis in very low birth weight infants. A prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted in preterm infants (≤ 32 GWs, ≤ 1500 g birth weight). They were randomized either to receive feeding supplementation with S. boulardii 50 mg/kg every 12 h or placebo, starting with the first feed until discharged. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis and NEC or death. Birth weight and gestational age of the study (n = 104) and the control (n = 104) groups were 1126 ± 232 vs 1162 ± 216 g and 28.8 ± 2.2 vs 28.7 ± 2.1 weeks, respectively. Neither the incidence of stage ≥ 2 NEC or death nor stage ≥ 2 NEC or late onset culture proven sepsis was significantly lower in the study group when compared with the control group (9.6% vs 7.7%, p = 0.62; 28.8% vs 23%, p = 0.34). Time to reach 100 mL/kg/day of enteral feeding (11.9 ± 7 vs 12.6 ± 7 days, p = 0.37) was not different between the groups. Saccharomyces boulardii did not decrease the incidence of NEC or sepsis. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Obstacles to condom use: the combination of other forms of birth control and short-term monogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, J W; Suire, D M

    1998-03-01

    Two hundred thirty-seven college students involved in heterosexual relationships were surveyed to determine the effects of relationship type and use of forms of contraception other than condoms on condom use. Findings indicated that in the context of a short-term, monogamous relationship, the use of another form of birth control was associated with decreased condom use. In addition, 20% of the participants reported that they had wanted to use a condom for disease prevention on at least one occasion but had decided not to do so because they were using another form of contraception. Implications for preventive health are discussed.

  16. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter J

    2013-03-21

    Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. For this population-based case-control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (>30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.

  17. Acupuncture and Clomiphene Citrate for Live Birth in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Study Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an alternative therapy to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but there is no study reporting the live birth rate following ovulation induction by acupuncture or its potential as an adjuvant treatment to clomiphene citrate (CC. We assess the efficacy of acupuncture with or without CC in achieving live births among 1000 PCOS women in Mainland China. This paper reports the methodology of an ongoing multicenter randomized controlled trial. The randomization scheme is coordinated through the central mechanism and stratified by the participating sites. Participants will be randomized into one of the four treatment arms: (A true acupuncture and CC, (B control acupuncture and CC, (C true acupuncture and placebo CC, and (D control acupuncture and placebo CC. To ensure the quality and integrity of the trial we have developed a unique multinational team of investigators and Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Up to the end of April 2013, 326 subjects were recruited. In conclusion, the success of this trial will allow us to evaluate the additional benefit of acupuncture beyond the first line medicine for fertility treatment in PCOS women in an unbiased manner.

  18. Adaptive Method Using Controlled Grid Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin FRUNZULICA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an adaptive method using the controlled grid deformation over an elastic, isotropic and continuous domain. The adaptive process is controlled with the principal strains and principal strain directions and uses the finite elements method. Numerical results are presented for several test cases.

  19. Methods for control over learning individual trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsel, A. A.; Cherniaeva, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    The article discusses models, methods and algorithms of determining student's optimal individual educational trajectory. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects.

  20. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  1. Computationally efficient methods for digital control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro Tome Antunes, D.J.; Hespanha, J.P.; Silvestre, C.J.; Kataria, N.; Brewer, F.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of designing a digital controller is considered with the novelty of explicitly taking into account the computation cost of the controller implementation. A class of controller emulation methods inspired by numerical analysis is proposed. Through various examples it is shown that these

  2. The Robust Control Mixer Module Method for Control Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    into a LTI dynamical system, and furthermore multiple dynamical control mixer modules can be employed in our consideration. The H_{\\infty} control theory is used for the analysis and design of the robust control mixer modules. Finally, one practical robot arm system as benchmark is used to test the proposed......The control mixer concept is efficient in improving an ordinary control system into a fault tolerant one, especially for these control systems of which the real-time and on-line redesign of the control laws is very difficult. In order to consider the stability, performance and robustness...... of the reconfigurated system simultaneously, and to deal with a more general controller reconfiguration than the static feedback mechanism by using the control mixer approach, the robust control mixer module method is proposed in this paper. The form of the control mixer module extends from a static gain matrix...

  3. Novel magnetic controlled plasma sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelevich, A.; Rabinovich, E.; Golan, G.

    1996-01-01

    A novel method to improve thin film vacuum sputtering is presented. This method is capable of controlling the sputtering plasma via an external set of magnets, in a similar fashion to the tetrode sputtering method. The main advantage of the Magnetic Controlled Plasma Sputtering (MCPS) is its ability to independently control all deposition parameters without any interference or cross-talk. Deposition rate, using the MCPS, is found to be almost twice the rate of triode and tetrode sputtering techniques. Experimental results using the MCPS to deposit Ni layers are described. It was demonstrated that using the MCPS method the ion beam intensity at the target is a result of the interaction of a homogeneous external magnetic field and the controlling magnetic fields. The MCPS method was therefore found to be beneficial for the production of pure stoichiometric thin solid films with high reproducibility. This method could be used for the production of compound thin films as well. (authors)

  4. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized cont...

  5. Higher gestational weight gain is associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of maternal glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna L; Parellada, Clara B; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    ; P = 0.02) and birth weight SD score (β = 0.06; P = 0.008) when adjusted for prepregnancy BMI, HbA1c at 36 weeks, smoking, parity, and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher gestational weight gain in women with type 1 diabetes was associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of glycemic......OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the association between gestational weight gain and offspring birth weight in singleton term pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen consecutive women referred at ... (prepregnancy BMI Women...

  6. Heredity, pet ownership, and confounding control in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Catarina; Egmar, Ann-Charlotte; van Hage-Hamsten, Marianne; Berglind, Niklas; Pershagen, Göran; Nordvall, S Lennart; Svartengren, Magnus; Hedlin, Gunilla; Wickman, Magnus

    2003-04-01

    The association between pet ownership in childhood and subsequent allergic disease is controversial. Bias related to selection of pet exposure has been suggested as a reason for contradictory study results. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate how pet exposure depends on family history of allergic disease, smoking, and socioeconomic factors in a prospective birth cohort. Parents of 4089 two-month-old children answered a questionnaire that included detailed questions about family history of asthma (maternal, paternal, and sibling), rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome, pollen and pet allergy, smoking habits, parental occupation, and family pet ownership (cat and dog). Dust samples collected from the mothers' beds were analyzed for Fel d 1 and Can f 1 in a subgroup of the cohort. Cats were less frequently kept in families with parental asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, or pet or pollen allergy (3.5% to 5.8%) than in families without parental allergic disease (10.8% to 11.8%). Dogs were less common in families with (3.3%) than in families without (5.9%) parental atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Families with smoking mothers and those with low socioeconomic index kept cats and dogs more frequently. Cat allergen levels were lower in homes with than in homes without maternal pet allergy, and this tended to hold true even for homes without a cat. Cat ownership decreased from birth to 2 years of age, especially in families with parental history of allergic diseases. There seems to be a selection of pet exposure based on parental history of allergy, maternal smoking, and socioeconomic factors. This has to be taken into consideration in evaluations of risk associations between pet exposure and allergic disease in childhood.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  8. Suicide Method Runs in Families: A Birth Certificate Cohort Study of Adolescent Suicide in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal…

  9. Birth order and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus: a case-control study in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Yusuke; Lemoine, Maud; Bottomley, Christian; Njai, Harr Freeya; Ndow, Gibril; Jatta, Abdoulie; Tamba, Saydiba; Bojang, Lamin; Taal, Makie; Nyan, Ousman; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark; Hall, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Early age at infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases the risk of chronic infection. Moreover, early HBV infection may further independently increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond its effect on chronicity. The distribution of birth order, a proxy for mode and timing of HBV transmission, was compared in The Gambia between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases recruited from hospitals (n = 72) and two HBsAg-positive control groups without HCC: population-based controls from a community HBV screening (n = 392) and hospital-based controls (n = 63). HCC risk decreased with increasing birth order in the population-based case-control analysis. Using first birth order as the reference, the odds ratios were 0.52 (95% CI: 0.20-1.36), 0.52 (0.17-1.56), 0.57 (0.16-2.05) and 0.14 (0.03-0.64) for second, third, fourth and greater than fourth birth order respectively (P = 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed in the hospital-based case-control comparison (P = 0.04). Compared to controls, HCC cases had earlier birth order, a proxy for young maternal age and maternal HBV viraemia at birth. This finding suggests that in chronic HBV carriers perinatal mother-to-infant transmission may increase HCC risk more than horizontal transmission. Providing HBV vaccine within 24 h of birth to interrupt perinatal transmission might reduce the incidence of HCC in The Gambia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement.

  11. Statistical learning methods: Basics, control and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: zimmerm@mppmu.mpg.de

    2006-04-01

    The basics of statistical learning are reviewed with a special emphasis on general principles and problems for all different types of learning methods. Different aspects of controlling these methods in a physically adequate way will be discussed. All principles and guidelines will be exercised on examples for statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics. These examples prove in addition that statistical learning methods very often lead to a remarkable performance gain compared to the competing classical algorithms.

  12. Statistical learning methods: Basics, control and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.

    2006-01-01

    The basics of statistical learning are reviewed with a special emphasis on general principles and problems for all different types of learning methods. Different aspects of controlling these methods in a physically adequate way will be discussed. All principles and guidelines will be exercised on examples for statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics. These examples prove in addition that statistical learning methods very often lead to a remarkable performance gain compared to the competing classical algorithms

  13. Health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with Jamkesmas health insurance in Indonesia: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mohamad I; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Fox, Matthew P; Wirtz, Veronika J; Feeley, Frank G; Sabin, Lora L

    2017-02-02

    The growing momentum for quality and affordable health care for all has given rise to the recent global universal health coverage (UHC) movement. As part of Indonesia's strategy to achieve the goal of UHC, large investments have been made to increase health access for the poor, resulting in the implementation of various health insurance schemes targeted towards the poor and near-poor, including the Jamkesmas program. In the backdrop of Indonesia's aspiration to reach UHC is the high rate of maternal mortality that disproportionally affects poor women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with and without Jamkesmas and explore perceived barriers to health insurance membership and maternal health service utilization. We used a mixed-methods design. Utilizing data from the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (n = 45,607), secondary analysis using propensity score matching was performed on key outcomes of interest: health facility delivery (HFD) and skilled birth delivery (SBD). In-depth interviews (n = 51) were conducted in the provinces of Jakarta and Banten among poor women, midwives, and government representatives. Thematic framework analysis was performed on qualitative data to explore perceived barriers. In 2012, 63.0% of women did not have health insurance; 19.1% had Jamkesmas. Poor women with Jamkesmas were 19% (OR = 1.19 [1.03-1.37]) more likely to have HFD and 17% (OR = 1.17 [1.01-1.35]) more likely to have SBD compared to poor women without insurance. Qualitative interviews highlighted key issues, including: lack of proper documentation for health insurance registration; the preference of pregnant women to deliver in their parents' village; the use of traditional birth attendants; distance to health facilities; shortage of qualified health providers; overcrowded health facilities; and lack of health facility accreditation. Poor women with

  14. The multinational birth cohort of EuroPrevall: background, aims and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keil, T.; McBride, D.; Grimshaw, K.; Niggemann, B.; Xepapadaki, P.; Zannikos, K.; Sigurdardottir, S. T.; Clausen, M.; Reche, M.; Pascual, C.; Stanczyk, A. P.; Kowalski, M. L.; Dubakiene, R.; Drasutiene, G.; Roberts, G.; Schoemaker, A.-F. A.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Fiocchi, A.; Martelli, A.; Dufour, S.; Hourihane, J.; Kulig, M.; Wjst, M.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Szépfalusi, Z.; van Ree, R.; Willich, S. N.; Wahn, U.; Mills, E. N. C.; Beyer, K.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background/aim: The true prevalence and risk factors of food allergies in children are not known because estimates were based predominantly on subjective assessments and skin or serum tests of allergic sensitization to food. The diagnostic gold standard, a double-blind placebo-controlled food

  15. Two optimal control methods for PWR core control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karppinen, J.; Blomsnes, B.; Versluis, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Multistage Mathematical Programming (MMP) and State Variable Feedback (SVF) methods for PWR core control are presented in this paper. The MMP method is primarily intended for optimization of the core behaviour with respect to xenon induced power distribution effects in load cycle operation. The SVF method is most suited for xenon oscillation damping in situations where the core load is unpredictable or expected to stay constant. Results from simulation studies in which the two methods have been applied for control of simple PWR core models are presented. (orig./RW) [de

  16. The Relationship between Maternal Diseases during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight: a Nested Case-Control Study in Rural Areas of Kurdistan Province (West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is considered as one of the important health indicators in evaluating prenatal care as well as determining scale of infants' health in the society. The study aimed to investigate maternal diseases during pregnancy and its impact on LBW in rural areas of Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in nested case-control study method in rural areas of Kurdistan province- Iran in 2015-2016. In this study, 182 infants less than 2,500gr as case and 364 infants weighing 2,500 g and more as control were entered the study. Information about case and control groups was extracted by investigating records of pregnant women care. Data was analyzed using software Stata-12 with point and interval estimation of odds ratio (OR using conditional logistic regression. Results: The results of single-variable analysis of conditional logistic regression showed that there is a statistical relationship between blood pressure during pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia, mother's thyroid problems, oral and dental problems, and history of bleeding during pregnancy in case and control groups (P

  17. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbunova A. V.; Maximova O. N.; Ekova V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding eva...

  18. The APPLe study: a randomized, community-based, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin for the prevention of preterm birth, with meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in both high- and low-income countries. The causes of preterm labour are multiple but infection is important. We have previously described an unusually high incidence of preterm birth (20% in an ultrasound-dated, rural, pregnant population in Southern Malawi with high burdens of infective morbidity. We have now studied the impact of routine prophylaxis with azithromycin as directly observed, single-dose therapy at two gestational windows to try to decrease the incidence of preterm birth.We randomized 2,297 pregnant women attending three rural and one peri-urban health centres in Southern Malawi to a placebo-controlled trial of oral azithromycin (1 g given at 16-24 and 28-32 wk gestation. Gestational age was determined by ultrasound before 24 wk. Women and their infants were followed up until 6 wk post delivery. The primary outcome was incidence of preterm delivery, defined as 6,200 pregnancies shows no effect on preterm birth (relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.22.This study provides no support for the use of antibiotics as routine prophylaxis to prevent preterm birth in high risk populations; prevention of preterm birth requires alternative strategies.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN84023116

  19. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.

  20. Developing a Pictorial Sisterhood Method in collaboration with illiterate Maasai traditional birth attendants in northern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggeveen, Yadira; Schreuder, Renske; Zweekhorst, Marjolein; Manyama, Mange; Hatfield, Jennifer; Scheele, Fedde; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether data on maternal mortality can be gathered while maintaining local ownership of data in a pastoralist setting where a scarcity of data sources and a culture of silence around maternal death amplifies limited awareness of the magnitude of maternal mortality. Methods As part

  1. Strike Point Control on EAST Using an Isoflux Control Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhe; Xiao Bingjia; Luo Zhengping; Walker, M. L.; Humphreys, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    For the advanced tokamak, the particle deposition and thermal load on the divertor is a big challenge. By moving the strike points on divertor target plates, the position of particle deposition and thermal load can be shifted. We could adjust the Poloidal Field (PF) coil current to achieve the strike point position feedback control. Using isoflux control method, the strike point position can be controlled by controlling the X point position. On the basis of experimental data, we establish relational expressions between X point position and strike point position. Benchmark experiments are carried out to validate the correctness and robustness of the control methods. The strike point position is successfully controlled following our command in the EAST operation. (paper)

  2. Methods of determining information needs for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Work has begun in the Main Data Center in the field of mining (Poland) on estimation in improvement of methods of determining information requirements necessary for control. Existing methods are briefly surveyed. Their imperfection is shown. The complexity of characteristics for this problem is pointed out.

  3. Effectiveness of weed control methods on pavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Verwijs, B.R.; Kempenaar, C.

    2007-01-01

    The policy in the Netherlands is to signifiantly reduce the use of herbicides, also on pavements. Existing non-chemical methods to control weeds are much less effective than spot spraying, the usual method at this moment. Therefore, the cost of non-chemical weed management is often estimated to be 4

  4. Method of controlling chaos in laser equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong-van, M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of controlling chaotic to laminar flows in the Lorenz equations using fixed points dictated by minimizing the Lyapunov functional was proposed by Singer, Wang, and Bau [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1123 (1991)]. Using different fixed points, we find that the solutions in a chaotic regime can also be periodic. Since the laser equations are isomorphic to the Lorenz equations we use this method to control chaos when the laser is operated over the pump threshold. Furthermore, by solving the laser equations with an occasional proportional feedback mechanism, we recover the essential laser controlling features experimentally discovered by Roy, Murphy, Jr., Maier, Gills, and Hunt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1259 (1992)

  5. Method of controlling chaos in laser equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-van, Minh

    1993-01-01

    A method of controlling chaotic to laminar flows in the Lorenz equations using fixed points dictated by minimizing the Lyapunov functional was proposed by Singer, Wang, and Bau [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1123 (1991)]. Using different fixed points, we find that the solutions in a chaotic regime can also be periodic. Since the laser equations are isomorphic to the Lorenz equations we use this method to control chaos when the laser is operated over the pump threshold. Furthermore, by solving the laser equations with an occasional proportional feedback mechanism, we recover the essential laser controlling features experimentally discovered by Roy, Murphy, Jr., Maier, Gills, and Hunt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1259 (1992)].

  6. LED lamp color control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  7. Method for control-room display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, R.

    1988-01-01

    This document describes a method for control-room displays design. It can be used either for isolated display to add to an existing system either for the design of a full system of operator aids. The method is a top-down design with steps of possible iteration. The emphasis is put on display design rather than on system design; system aspects are just mentioned. Advantages of using a method are described [fr

  8. Method of controlling the reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Akira; Nakakura, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To moderate vibratory response due to delayed operation thereby obtain stable controlled response in the operation control for a PWR type reactor. Method: the reactor operation is controlled by the axial power distribution control by regulating the boron concentration in primary coolants with a boron density control system and controlling the average temperature for the primary coolants with the control rod control system. In this case, the control operation and the control response become instable due to transmission delay, etc. of aqueous boric acid injection to the primary coolant circuits to result in vibratory response. In the present invention, signals are prepared by adding the amount in proportion to the variation coefficient with time of xenone concentration obtained from the measured value for the reactor power added to the conventional axial power distribution parameter deviation and used as the input signals for the boron concentration control system. As a result, the instability due to the transmission delay of the aqueous boric acid injection is improved by the preceding control by the amount in proportion with the variation coefficient with time of the xenone concentration. An advantageous effect can be expected for the load following operation during day time according to the present invention. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Robustness analysis method for orbit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Yang, Keying; Qi, Rui; Zhao, Shuge; Li, Yanyan

    2017-08-01

    Satellite orbits require periodical maintenance due to the presence of perturbations. However, random errors caused by inaccurate orbit determination and thrust implementation may lead to failure of the orbit control strategy. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the robustness of the orbit control methods. Feasible strategies which are tolerant to errors of a certain magnitude can be developed to perform reliable orbit control for the satellite. In this paper, first, the orbital dynamic model is formulated by Gauss' form of the planetary equation using the mean orbit elements; the atmospheric drag and the Earth's non-spherical perturbations are taken into consideration in this model. Second, an impulsive control strategy employing the differential correction algorithm is developed to maintain the satellite trajectory parameters in given ranges. Finally, the robustness of the impulsive control method is analyzed through Monte Carlo simulations while taking orbit determination error and thrust error into account.

  10. The association of birth model with resilience variables and birth experience: Home versus hospital birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Zacks, Arni; Levy, Sigal

    2016-05-01

    to study home, natural hospital, and medical hospital births, and the association of these birth models to resilience and birth experience. cross-section retrospective design. participants were recruited via an online survey system. Invitations to participate were posted in five different Internet forums for women on maternity leave, from September 2014 to August 2015. the sample comprised 381 post partum healthy women above the age of 20, during their maternity leave. Of the participants: 22% gave birth at home, 32% gave birth naturally in a hospital, and 46% of the participants had a medical birth at the hospital. life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R), General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sense of Mastery Scale, Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). women having had natural births, whether at home or at the hospital, significantly differed from women having had medical births in all aspects of the birth experience, even when controlling for age and optimism. Birth types contributed to between 14% and 24% of the explained variance of the various birth experience aspects. home and natural hospital births were associated with a better childbirth experience. Optimism was identified as a resilience factor, associated both with preference as well as with childbirth experience. physically healthy and resilient women could be encouraged to explore the prospect of home or natural hospital births as a means to have a more positive birth experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pregnancy prevention among American Indian men ages 18 to 24: the role of mental health and intention to use birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kris; Medicine Elk, Jarrett; Dick, Rebecca; Jewett, Lacey; Gesink, Dionne

    2012-01-01

    The Fort Peck Sexual Health Project: A Contextual Analysis of Native American Men is a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that explores the extent to which knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sex, intimate relationships, and mental health influence sexual and reproductive health. For the purpose of this study, the influence of age, fatherhood, and mental health factors related to historical trauma and loss on young American Indian (AI) men's intention to use birth control was examined. In-depth interviews were conducted with 112 Native American men between the ages of 18 and 24 years. The mean age reported was 21 years. Thirty-eight percent of the young men reported having children. The young men reported experiences of historical trauma during their lifetime as well as emotional responses due to historical losses. Ninety-five percent reported that it was very important that they use some form of birth control to prevent their partner from getting pregnant within the next year. Logistic regression analysis indicated that, as age increased, young men were less likely to use birth control to prevent pregnancy. The young men who reported feelings of loss due to experiences related to historical trauma and loss were more likely to use birth control. Findings from this study suggest that public health efforts to educate AI men about planned pregnancies and the use of birth control may be most effective in adolescence. Public health programs that address mental health concerns such as the emotional responses due to historical losses may assist young AI men in their decision to use birth control.

  12. Protocol of the Low Birth Weight South Asia Trial (LBWSAT), a cluster-randomised controlled trial testing impact on birth weight and infant nutrition of Participatory Learning and Action through women's groups, with and without unconditional transfers of fortified food or cash during pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Naomi M; Shrestha, Bhim P; Style, Sarah; Harris-Fry, Helen; Beard, B James; Sengupta, Aman; Jha, Sonali; Rai, Anjana; Paudel, Vikas; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Copas, Andrew; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Bhandari, Bishnu; Neupane, Rishi; Morrison, Joanna; Gram, Lu; Sah, Raghbendra; Basnet, Machhindra; Harthan, Jayne; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2016-10-21

    Low birth weight (LBW, nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial (non-blinded). PLA comprises women's groups that discuss, and form strategies about, nutrition in pregnancy, low birth weight and hygiene. Women receive up to 7 monthly transfers per pregnancy: cash is NPR 750 (~US$7) and food is 10 kg of fortified sweetened wheat-soya Super Cereal per month. The unit of randomisation is a rural village development committee (VDC) cluster (population 4000-9200, mean 6150) in southern Dhanusha or Mahottari districts. 80 VDCs are randomised to four arms using a participatory 'tombola' method. Twenty clusters each receive: PLA; PLA plus food; PLA plus cash; and standard care (control). Participants are (mostly Maithili-speaking) pregnant women identified from 8 weeks' gestation onwards, and their infants (target sample size 8880 birth weights). After pregnancy verification, mothers may be followed up in early and late pregnancy, within 72 h, after 42 days and within 22 months of birth. Outcomes pertain to the individual level. Primary outcomes include birth weight within 72 h of birth and infant weight-for-age Z-score measured cross-sectionally on children born of the study. Secondary outcomes include prevalence of LBW, eating behaviour and weight during pregnancy, maternal and newborn illness, preterm delivery, miscarriage, stillbirth or neonatal mortality, infant Z-scores for length-for-age and weight-for-length, head circumference, and postnatal maternal BMI and mid-upper arm circumference. Exposure to women's groups, food or cash transfers, home visits, and group interventions are measured. Determining the relative importance to birth weight and early childhood nutrition of adding food or cash transfers to PLA women's groups

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Preterm Birth in Tehran, Iran: A Comparison between Logistic Regression and Decision Tree Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Payam; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Samani, Reza Omani; Hamidi, Omid; Sepidarkish, Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal death and the second biggest cause of death in children under five years of age. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PTB and its associated factors using logistic regression and decision tree classification methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4,415 pregnant women in Tehran, Iran, from July 6-21, 2015. Data were collected by a researcher-developed questionnaire through interviews with mothers and review of their medical records. To evaluate the accuracy of the logistic regression and decision tree methods, several indices such as sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve were used. The PTB rate was 5.5% in this study. The logistic regression outperformed the decision tree for the classification of PTB based on risk factors. Logistic regression showed that multiple pregnancies, mothers with preeclampsia, and those who conceived with assisted reproductive technology had an increased risk for PTB ( p logistic regression model for the classification of risk groups for PTB.

  14. Modifying effects of maternal Hb concentration on infant birth weight in women receiving prenatal iron-containing supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Mei, Zuguo; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Jianmeng; Serdula, Mary K

    2016-02-28

    Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe-folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006-2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95% CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95% CI 21·98, 193·28) g (PHb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation.

  15. The birth of experimental psychology in Germany between psychophysical methods and physiological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation.

  16. Preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes; antenatal corticosteroids; antibiotic treatment; bed rest; beta mimetics; calcium-channel blockers; elective caesarean; enhanced antenatal care programmes; magnesium sulphate; oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban); progesterone

  17. The role, practice and training of unregulated birth workers in Australia: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Elizabeth C; Schmied, Virginia; Peters, Kath; Dahlen, Hannah G

    2018-05-23

    In Australia, the provision of homebirth services by unregulated birthworkers (doulas, ex-registered midwives, traditional midwives and lay workers) has increased. Accessing a homebirth with a registered midwife via mainstream services is limited. Concern is growing that new legislation aimed at prohibiting unregulated birthworkers practice may result in homebirth going underground. To explore the role, practice and training of unregulated birthworkers in Australian and establish what they would do if legislation prohibited their practice. This study used a mixed methods sequential exploratory design to explore the practice, training and role of unregulated birthworkers in Australia. In phase one, four unregulated birthworkers were interviewed in-depth and the findings informed the development of a survey in phase two. This was distributed nationally through two consumer websites, social media, Facebook and email. Data from both phases were integrated. Unregulated birthworkers in Australia provide homebirth services to women with high and low-risk pregnancies when this choice is unavailable or unacceptable within mainstream services. They operate covertly to protect their practice and avoid the scrutiny of authorities. Unregulated birthworkers can be experienced and trained in childbirth care and practice, much like a midwife working within a holistic paradigm of care. Unregulated birthworkers believe they provide women with the homebirth service they want but cannot access. Mainstream service providers need to listen to consumer criticisms, as women seek answers outside the system. Change is needed to improve and align services with women's expectations of homebirth. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methods and basic data of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphona among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.J.; Hall, A.J.; Snee, M.P.; Downes, S.; Powell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The methods and basic data of a case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield are examined for reliability. Fifty-two cases of leukaemia, 22 of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 23 of Hodgkins disease occurring in people born in the area and diagnosed there in 1950-85 under the age of 25, and 1001 controls matched for sex and date of birth taken from the same birth registers were used in the study. (author)

  19. A survey of quantum Lyapunov control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shuang; Meng, Fangfang

    2013-01-01

    The condition of a quantum Lyapunov-based control which can be well used in a closed quantum system is that the method can make the system convergent but not just stable. In the convergence study of the quantum Lyapunov control, two situations are classified: nondegenerate cases and degenerate cases. For these two situations, respectively, in this paper the target state is divided into four categories: the eigenstate, the mixed state which commutes with the internal Hamiltonian, the superposition state, and the mixed state which does not commute with the internal Hamiltonian. For these four categories, the quantum Lyapunov control methods for the closed quantum systems are summarized and analyzed. Particularly, the convergence of the control system to the different target states is reviewed, and how to make the convergence conditions be satisfied is summarized and analyzed.

  20. A brief review on newborn screening methods for hemoglobinopathies and preliminary results selecting beta thalassemia carriers at birth by quantitative estimation of the HbA fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantikou, Eleni; Arkesteijn, Sandra G; Beckhoven van, Jaqueline M; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Giordano, Piero Carlo

    2009-12-01

    We present in a brief summary the basic aspects of the most rational technologies used for new born screening (NBS) of the hemoglobinopathies and we report the preliminary results for the identification of beta-thalassemia carriers at birth by measuring the expression of the HbA fraction. Separation and measurement of the Hb fractions in 1.500 cord blood samples collected among the multi-ethnic Dutch population using different methods. By using a cut of thalassemia can be preselected at birth with a reasonable degree of sensitivity and be confirmed by parent analysis.

  1. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  2. [Home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welffens, K; Kirkpatrick, C; Daelemans, C; Derisbourg, S

    In Belgium, very few women give birth outside the delivery room. In the United Kingdom and in the Netherlands, they are more numerous. Several studies evaluated obstetric and neonatal outcomes of home births compared with hospital births. We selected seven recent and large studies (with cohorts of more than 5.000 women) using PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Several questions were examined. Is there any difference in maternal and neonatal outcomes depending on the intended place of birth? Does parity affect outcomes ? What are the characteristics of women who choose to deliver at home ? We conclude that giving birth at home improves obstetric outcomes but is riskier for the baby, especially for the first one. The women delivering at home are mainly white Europeans, between 25 and 35 years old, in a relationship, multiparous and wealthier. In order to avoid this increased risk for the baby while preserving the obstetric advantages, alongside birth centers offer an intermediate solution. They combine the reassuring home-like atmosphere with the safety of the hospital. In Belgium, the first alongside birth center " Le Cocon " (a low technicity unit distinct from the delivery room) offers now this type of alternative place of birth for women in Hôpital Erasme in Brussels.

  3. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Steven; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Ducharme, Robin; Manuel, Douglas G; Wilson, Kumanan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st), 2006 and March 31(st), 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI) of events among 1(st)-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR). For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st)-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57), which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st)-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99), representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st) vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48), or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21), or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st)-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  4. Feedwater control method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Mitsugu; Ichikawa, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Tanikawa, Naoshi; Mizuki, Fumio.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for easily changing the constitution of feedwater systems without causing change in the water level of a reactor even when a plurality of feedwater systems have imbalance points. Namely, a feedwater control device comprises at least two feedwater systems capable of feeding water to tanks independently respectively and a controller capable of controlling water level in the tanks by controlling these feedwater systems. There is disposed a means for outputting gradually increasing driving signals to other feedwater systems, when the water level controller automatically controls one of the feedwater systems. There is also disposed a means for switching from automatic control for one of the feedwater systems to automatic control for the other feedwater system by a water level controller when the other feedwater system is in a stable operation region. As a result, entire feedwater flow rate is not temporarily changed and the water level in the tanks can be maintained constant. (N.H.)

  5. Selection of controls in case-control studies on maternal medication use and risk of birth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.; Dequito, A.; van den Berg, P.B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    BACKGROUND:: In case-control studies on teratogenic risks of maternal drug use during pregnancy, the use of normal or malformed controls may lead to recall-bias or selection bias. This can be avoided by using controls with a genetic disorder. However, researchers are hesitant to use these as

  6. Materials, methods and quality control, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vader, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the chemical reagents, the 125 I-labelled angiotensin I, the antiserum and the standards is given. A modified measuring method with the New England Nuclear kit for angiotensin I radioimmunoassay is presented as well as the quality control data

  7. Automatic temperature control method of shipping can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Kaoru.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of rapidly and accurately controlling the temperature of a shipping can, which is used upon shipping inspection for a nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a measured temperature value of the shipping can is converted to a gas pressure setting value in a jacket of the shipping can by conducting a predetermined logic calculation by using a fuzzy logic. A gas pressure control section compares the pressure setting value of a fuzzy estimation section and the measured value of the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can, and conducts air supply or exhaustion of the jacket gas so as to adjust the measured value with the setting value. These fuzzy estimation section and gas pressure control section control the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can to control the water level in the jacket. As a result, the temperature of the shipping can is controlled. With such procedures, since the water level in the jacket can be controlled directly and finely, temperature of the shipping can is automatically controlled rapidly and accurately compared with a conventional case. (I.S.)

  8. Method of inspecting control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomomi; Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro; Hasegawa, Hidenobu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct inspection for control rod drives and fuel handling operations in parallel without taking out the entire fuel, while maintaining the reactor in a subcritical state. Method: Control rod drives are inspected through the release of connection between control rods and control rod drives, detachment and dismantling of control rod drives, etc. In this case, structural materials having neutron absorbing power equal to or greater than the control rods are inserted into the gap after taking out fuels. Since the structural materials have neutron absorbing portion, subcriticality is maintained by the neutron absorbing effect. Accordingly, there is no requirement for taking out all of the fuels, thereby enabling to check the control rod drives and conduct handling for the fuels in parallel. As a result, the number of days required for the inspection can be shortened and it is possible to improve the working efficiency for the decomposition, inspection, etc. of the control rod drives and, thus, improve the operation efficiency of the nuclear power plant thereby attaining the predetermined purpose. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Fuzzy logic controller using different inference methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; De Keyser, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the design of fuzzy controllers by using different inference methods is introduced. Configuration of the fuzzy controllers includes a general rule-base which is a collection of fuzzy PI or PD rules, the triangular fuzzy data model and a centre of gravity defuzzification algorithm. The generalized modus ponens (GMP) is used with the minimum operator of the triangular norm. Under the sup-min inference rule, six fuzzy implication operators are employed to calculate the fuzzy look-up tables for each rule base. The performance is tested in simulated systems with MATLAB/SIMULINK. Results show the effects of using the fuzzy controllers with different inference methods and applied to different test processes

  10. Methods of control the machining process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Petrakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Presents control methods, differentiated by the time of receipt of information used: a priori, a posteriori and current. When used a priori information to determine the mode of cutting is carried out by simulation the process of cutting allowance, where the shape of the workpiece and the details are presented in the form of wireframes. The office for current information provides for a system of adaptive control and modernization of CNC machine, where in the input of the unit shall be computed by using established optimization software. For the control by a posteriori information of the proposed method of correction of shape-generating trajectory in the second pass measurement surface of the workpiece formed by the first pass. Developed programs that automatically design the adjusted file for machining.

  11. ANTI-FERTILITY EFFECTS OF SOME PLANTS USED BY THE STREET HERBAL VENDORS FOR BIRTH CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajiv K.; Nathawat, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Herbal Vendors are the descendants of ancient mobile tribal medicine men. Now –a –days they sell crude Herbal Drugs on the streets of India. They have knowledge of medicinal plants – a skill which inherited from their forefathers. Also they are aware of the medicinal value of certain locally growing plants which are administered and control fertility and, do help family planning.

  12. An economic evaluation of planned immediate versus delayed birth for preterm prelabour rupture of membranes: findings from the PPROMT randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, S J; Roberts, C L; Bond, D M; Smith, J; Morris, J M

    2017-03-01

    This study is an economic evaluation of immediate birth compared with expectant management in women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes near term (PPROMT). A cost-effectiveness analysis alongside the PPROMT randomised controlled trial. Obstetric departments in 65 hospitals across 11 countries. Women with a singleton pregnancy with ruptured membranes between 34 +0 and 36 +6 weeks gestation. Women were randomly allocated to immediate birth or expectant management. Costs to the health system were identified and valued. National hospital costing data from both the UK and Australia were used. Average cost per recruit in each arm was calculated and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using bootstrap re-sampling. Averages costs during antenatal care, delivery and postnatal care, and by country were estimated. Total mean cost difference between immediate birth and expectant management arms of the trial. From 11 countries 923 women were randomised to immediate birth and 912 were randomised to expectant management. Total mean costs per recruit were £8852 for immediate birth and £8740 for expectant delivery resulting in a mean difference in costs of £112 (95% CI: -431 to 662). The expectant management arm had significantly higher antenatal costs, whereas the immediate birth arm had significantly higher delivery and neonatal costs. There was large variation between total mean costs by country. This economic evaluation found no evidence that expectant management was more or less costly than immediate birth. Outpatient management may offer opportunities for cost savings for those women with delayed delivery. For women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes, the relative benefits and harms of immediate and expectant management should inform counselling as costs are similar. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Estimating the impact of birth control on fertility rate in Sub-Saharan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contrary to our expectation other variables (methods) like the use of pills, injection, intra uterine device(IUD), condom/diaphragm and cervical cap, female sterilization and periodic abstinence/rhythm fulfilled our a-priori expectations. These results notwithstanding, the paper suggests measures, such as the need for massive ...

  14. Control and estimation methods over communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous framework in which to study problems in the analysis, stability and design of networked control systems. Four dominant sources of difficulty are considered: packet dropouts, communication bandwidth constraints, parametric uncertainty, and time delays. Past methods and results are reviewed from a contemporary perspective, present trends are examined, and future possibilities proposed. Emphasis is placed on robust and reliable design methods. New control strategies for improving the efficiency of sensor data processing and reducing associated time delay are presented. The coverage provided features: ·        an overall assessment of recent and current fault-tolerant control algorithms; ·        treatment of several issues arising at the junction of control and communications; ·        key concepts followed by their proofs and efficient computational methods for their implementation; and ·        simulation examples (including TrueTime simulations) to...

  15. The effect of participatory women's groups on birth outcomes in Bangladesh: does coverage matter? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fottrell Edward F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress on neonatal survival has been slow in most countries. While there is evidence on what works to reduce newborn mortality, there is limited knowledge on how to deliver interventions effectively when health systems are weak. Cluster randomized trials have shown strong reductions in neonatal mortality using community mobilisation with women's groups in rural Nepal and India. A similar trial in Bangladesh showed no impact. A main hypothesis is that this negative finding is due to the much lower coverage of women's groups in the intervention population in Bangladesh compared to India and Nepal. For evidence-based policy making it is important to examine if women's group coverage is a main determinant of their impact. The study aims to test the effect on newborn and maternal health outcomes of a participatory women's group intervention with a high population coverage of women's groups. Methods A cluster randomised trial of a participatory women's group intervention will be conducted in 3 districts of rural Bangladesh. As we aim to study a women's group intervention with high population coverage, the same 9 intervention and 9 control unions will be used as in the 2005-2007 trial. These had been randomly allocated using the districts as strata. To increase coverage, 648 new groups were formed in addition to the 162 existing groups that were part of the previous trial. An open cohort of women who are permanent residents in the union in which their delivery or death was identified, is enrolled. Women and their newborns are included after birth, or, if a woman dies during pregnancy, after her death. Excluded are women who are temporary residents in the union in which their birth or death was identified. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality in the last 24 months of the study. A low cost surveillance system will be used to record all birth outcomes and deaths to women of reproductive age in the study population. Data on home

  16. Birth weight differences between those offered financial voucher incentives for verified smoking cessation and control participants enrolled in the Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), employing an intuitive approach and a Complier Average Causal Effects (CACE) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnachie, Alex; Haig, Caroline; Sinclair, Lesley; Bauld, Linda; Tappin, David M

    2017-07-20

    The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), which offered financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement in cessation. However, infant birth weight was not seen to be affected. This study re-examines birth weight using an intuitive and a complier average causal effects (CACE) method to uncover important information missed by intention-to-treat analysis. CPIT offered financial incentives up to £400 to pregnant smokers to quit. With incentives, 68 women (23.1%) were confirmed non-smokers at primary outcome, compared to 25 (8.7%) without incentives, a difference of 14.3% (Fisher test, p financial incentives to quit. Viewed in this way, the overall birth weight gain with incentives is attributable only to potential quitters. We compared an intuitive approach to a CACE analysis. Mean birth weight of potential quitters in the incentives intervention group (who therefore quit) was 3338 g compared with potential quitters in the control group (who did not quit) 3193 g. The difference attributable to incentives, was 3338 - 3193 = 145 g (95% CI -617, +803). The mean difference in birth weight between the intervention and control groups was 21 g, and the difference in the proportion who managed to quit was 14.3%. Since the intervention consisted of the offer of incentives to quit smoking, the intervention was received by all women in the intervention group. However, "compliance" was successfully quitting with incentives, and the CACE analysis yielded an identical result, causal birth weight increase 21 g ÷ 0.143 = 145 g. Policy makers have great difficulty giving pregnant women money to stop smoking. This study indicates that a small clinically insignificant improvement in average birth weight is likely to hide an important clinically significant increase in infants born to pregnant smokers who want to stop but cannot achieve smoking cessation without the addition of financial

  17. Birth of a megaproject: Political economy of flood control in bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, James K.

    1990-07-01

    A major flood control initiative has been launched in Bangladesh under the coordination of the World Bank. The bank's five-year Action Plan is intended to initiate a long-term investment program, the specifics of which remain to be determined. Long-term proposals under consideration include the construction of massive embankments along the great rivers of the Bangladesh delta. The wisdom of such a “structural solution” to Bangladesh's flood problems can be questioned on economic, environmental, and technical grounds. Regrettably, the decision-making process has not encouraged wide debate on these questions.

  18. Methods of algebraic geometry in control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Falb, Peter

    1999-01-01

    "Control theory represents an attempt to codify, in mathematical terms, the principles and techniques used in the analysis and design of control systems. Algebraic geometry may, in an elementary way, be viewed as the study of the structure and properties of the solutions of systems of algebraic equations. The aim of this book is to provide access to the methods of algebraic geometry for engineers and applied scientists through the motivated context of control theory" .* The development which culminated with this volume began over twenty-five years ago with a series of lectures at the control group of the Lund Institute of Technology in Sweden. I have sought throughout to strive for clarity, often using constructive methods and giving several proofs of a particular result as well as many examples. The first volume dealt with the simplest control systems (i.e., single input, single output linear time-invariant systems) and with the simplest algebraic geometry (i.e., affine algebraic geometry). While this is qui...

  19. [A co-twin control study on birth weight, overweight and obesity among children younger than 18 years old in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Yu, Canqing; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lyu, Jun; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the associations between birth weight and overweight/obesity among children. A total of 8 267 twin pairs younger than 18 years old from the Chinese National Twin Registry were included in the study. Associations between birth weight, childhood BMI and overweight/obesity were explored by this co-twin control study. After adjusting for sex and zygosity, when birth weight had an increase of 0.5 kg per fold, the OR values for overweight and obesity were 1.87(95%CI: 1.40-2.48) for 2-6 year olds, 1.69 (95%CI: 1.16-2.46) for 6-12 year olds and 1.28 (95%CI: 0.80-2.07) for 12-18 year olds. from the stratified analysis in the 2-6 year-olds, statistically significant differences were seen. When birth weight increased 0.5 kg per fold, the risk of overweight and obesity increased by 0.87 times among the dizygotic twins, more than that of the monozygotic twins (OR=1.86, 95%CI:1.24-2.81). The risk for male twins was 1.12 times higher than that of female twins (OR=1.65, 95%CI:1.11-2.44). Birth weight seemed associated with overweight and obesity for kids at early childhood or at age for schools. However, guidance on the implementation of public health interventions is still needed on these children.

  20. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Behavioral Voice Therapy for Dysphonia Related to Prematurity of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2017-03-01

    Dysphonia is a potential complication of prematurity. Preterm children may sustain iatrogenic laryngeal damage from medical intervention in the neonatal period, and further, adopt compensatory, maladaptive voicing behaviors. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of a voice therapy protocol on voice quality in school-aged, very preterm (VP) children. Twenty-seven VP children with dysphonia were randomized to an immediate intervention group (n = 7) or a delayed-intervention, waiting list control group (n = 14). Following analysis of these data, a secondary analysis was conducted on the pooled intervention data (n = 21). Six participants did not complete the trial. Change to voice quality was measured via pre- and posttreatment assessments using the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. The intervention group did not demonstrate statistically significant improvements in voice quality, whereas this was observed in the control group (P = 0.026). However, when intervention data were pooled including both the immediate and delayed groups following intervention, dysphonia severity was significantly lower (P = 0.026) in the treatment group. Dysphonia in most VP children in this cohort was persistent. These pilot data indicate that some participants experienced acceptable voice outcomes on spontaneous recovery, whereas others demonstrated a response to behavioral intervention. Further research is needed to identify the facilitators of and barriers to intervention success, and to predict those who may experience spontaneous recovery. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  1. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing

  2. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Health Care Providers For Health Care Providers: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Pregnancy CDC Activities Resources ... births and improving neonatal outcomes. View the archived presentation and publication Related Links Is It Worth It? ...

  3. Gambling on the Protestants: the Pathfinder Fund and birth control in Peru, 1958-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, L Necochea

    2014-01-01

    Among the agencies involved in population control activities in the mid-twentieth century, none scored as many early victories in Latin America as did the Pathfinder Fund, founded by Procter & Gamble scion Clarence Gamble. This article analyzes a style in the delivery of family planning assistance in the developing world through the work of the Pathfinder Fund in Peru, the organization's hub in South America, and shows how Pathfinder personnel collaborated with local Protestant institutions. Its Protestant allies helped Pathfinder set up and manage rapid interventions such as the production of pamphlets, the smuggling of contraceptives, and the enrollment of physicians as advocates of the use of intrauterine devices. Although these rapid interventions helped quickly disseminate information and certain technologies among a fortunate few, they also weakened legitimate state agencies, neglected the monitoring of the safety of the drugs supplied, and alienated allies with their high-handed boldness.

  4. Factors relating to pregnancy and birth and the risk of childhood brain tumors: results from an Australian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Blair, Eve M; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the leading cause of cancer death in children, yet their causes are largely known. This study investigated the association between maternal and birth characteristics and risk of CBT. Cases families were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers between 2005 and 2010. Control families were recruited via random-digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on the basis of child's age, sex, and State of residence. Maternal and birth characteristics of children were ascertained by questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant confounders. For this analysis, data on 319 case children and 1,079 control children were available. No association was found between risk of CBT and birth weight, fetal growth, birth order, gestational age, or maternal body mass index. The ORs for inadequate and excessive maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) (Institute of Medicine 2009 guidelines) were 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-2.1), respectively; similar findings for GWG were seen across categories of child's age, fetal growth, maternal body mass index and height, maternal smoking, and parental education. Risk of low grade glioma appeared increased with preterm birth (OR 1.6 (95% CI 0.8-3.1) and admission to neonatal intensive care (NICU) for >2 days (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-3.6). We found little evidence of associations between risk of CBT and most birth characteristics. The associations we observed with GWG, prematurity and NICU admission require corroboration in other studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The statistical process control methods - SPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floreková Ľubica

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of statistical evaluation of quality – SPC (item 20 of the documentation system of quality control of ISO norm, series 900 of various processes, products and services belong amongst basic qualitative methods that enable us to analyse and compare data pertaining to various quantitative parameters. Also they enable, based on the latter, to propose suitable interventions with the aim of improving these processes, products and services. Theoretical basis and applicatibily of the principles of the: - diagnostics of a cause and effects, - Paret analysis and Lorentz curve, - number distribution and frequency curves of random variable distribution, - Shewhart regulation charts, are presented in the contribution.

  6. Birth outcomes of male and female patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, Gabor; Mátrai, Ákos; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor

    2016-01-01

    Most of the patients are affected by isolated infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) beyond the polygenic predisposition, the other factors in the multifactorial etiology are largely unknown. The main characteristic of IHPS is the robust male predominance, thus the aim of this study was to analyze birth outcomes in males and females whether they are different or not. The study samples included 241 cases with IHPS, 357 matched, and 38,151 population controls without any defect in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The findings of this case-control study confirmed the well-known strong male excess (85.5%). The mean gestational age was somewhat longer and it is associated with a lower rate of preterm births. Mean birth weight did not show significant differences among the study groups, but the rate of low birthweight was higher in cases with IHPS. However, these differences were found only in males. Thus, intrauterine fetal growth restriction is characteristic only for male cases with IHPS. Our study confirmed the well-known obvious male excess of cases with IHPS, but our findings suggest some differences in birth outcomes of male and female cases. Male cases with IHPS had intrauterine fetal growth restriction while females did not. These data may indicate some differences in the pathogenesis of IHPS in males and females.

  7. Economic implications of home births and birth centers: a structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Petrou, Stavros

    2008-06-01

    It is widely perceived that home births and birth centers may help decrease the costs of maternity care for women with uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries. This structured review examines the literature relating to the economic implications of home births and birth center care compared with hospital maternity care. The bibliographic databases MEDLINE (from 1950), CINAHL (from 1982), EMBASE (from 1980), and an "in-house" database, Econ2, were searched for relevant English language publications using MeSH and free text terms. Data were extracted with respect to the study design, inclusion criteria, clinical and cost results, and details of what was included in the cost calculations. Eleven studies were included from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and Canada. Two studies focused on home births versus other forms and locations of care, whereas nine focused on birth centers versus other forms and locations of care. Resource use was generally lower for women cared for at home and in birth centers due to lower rates of intervention, shorter lengths of stay, or both. However, this fact did not always translate into lower costs because, in the U.K. where many studies were conducted, more midwives of a higher grade were employed to manage the birth centers than are usually employed in maternity units, and because of costs of converting existing facilities into delivery rooms. The quality of much of the literature was poor, although no studies were excluded for this reason. Selection bias was likely to be a problem in those studies not based on randomized controlled trials because, even where birth center eligibility was applied throughout, women who choose to deliver at home or in a birth center are likely to be different in terms of expectations and approach from women choosing to deliver in hospital. This review highlights the paucity of economic literature relating to home births and birth centers. Differences in results between studies may be

  8. Cascade plant control by timer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiguchi, Takashi; Inoue, Kotaro; Kawai, Toshio; Senoo, Makoto.

    1970-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of controlling uranium flow rate through a cascaded centrifuge plant for the purpose of enriching uranium 235. Such a cascade includes multiple gas separation stage each of which consists of a plurality of centrifuges. The product gas usually includes a large amount of He gas, and a cold trap is used to eliminate the He from UF 6 . The cold trap is operated periodically in such a way that the mixed gas of He and UF 6 is cooled to solidify only UF 6 and then warmed to obtain UF 6 by gasification. In order to operate the plant continuously, parallel multiple cold traps are operated alternatively. The operating conditions in such a complex cascade system are difficult to alter by conventional control methods. The present invention provides a rapid method of controlling the system when a certain percentage of the centrifuges in one stage malfunction. The control system consists of timers which are provided one for each cold trap to control the operational period of the trap. For example, if 20% of the centrifuges in a particular stage malfunction, the timer period of the cold traps attached to the normally operating centrifuge within the stage is maintained, and the period of all the other centrifuges are changed to 10/8 times that of the initial value. In this way the flow volume through all centrifuges except that in the particular stage is reduced to 80% of the initial value and the operation of the system can be continued with reduced efficiency. (Masui, R.)

  9. GPS User Devices Parameter Control Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Klūga, A; Kuļikovs, M; Beļinska, V; Zeļenkovs, A

    2007-01-01

    In our day’s wide assortment of GPS user devices is manufacture. How to verify that parameters of the real device corresponds to parameters that manufacture shows. How to verify that parameters have not been changed during the operation time. The last one is very important for aviation GPS systems, which must be verified before the flight, but the values of parameter in time of repair works. This work analyses GPS user devices parameters control methods.

  10. Are oral emergency contraceptives a safe and effective form of long-term birth control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Connie; Hooper-Lane, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Yes, but not as effective as some other methods. Annual pregnancy rates in women using pericoital levonorgestrel 150 mcg to 1 mg range from 4.9% to 8.9%; menstrual irregularity is the most common adverse effect (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, Cochrane review of lower-quality trials). In women younger than 35 years who have sexual intercourse 6 or fewer times per month, correct and consistent use of pericoital levonorgestrel 1.5 mg results in an annual pregnancy rate of 11% (SOR: B, one large prospective, open-label trial). Pericoital contraception is less effective than long-acting reversible contraceptives (annual pregnancy rates of 0.05%-0.8%) or perfect use of combined oral contraceptives (0.3% annual pregnancy rate), but similar to, or better than, typical use of combined oral contraception (9%) and condoms (18%).

  11. Older teen attitudes toward birth control access in pharmacies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tracey A; Miller, Courtney; Rafie, Samantha; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Rafie, Sally

    2018-03-01

    To examine adolescent attitudes toward accessing contraception through a new pharmacist prescribing model in the State of California. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted in summer 2015 with 30 females ages 18 to 19 in California. Participants were recruited using a social media advertisement. Semi-structured interviews utilized open-ended questions to understand teens' experiences with pharmacies, experiences obtaining contraception, and views on pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Responses were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using an independent-coder method to identify salient themes. Participants were ethnically diverse and primarily living in suburban areas. All participants had completed high school and many had completed one year of college. Nearly all participants were supportive of California's new law allowing pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Thematic analyses revealed that while participants were satisfied with traditional service providers and valued those relationships, they appreciated the benefit of increased access and convenience of going directly to a pharmacy. Participants expected increased access to contraception in pharmacies would lead to both personal and societal benefits. They expressed concerns regarding parental involvement, as well as confidentiality in the pharmacy environment and with insurance disclosures. Older teens in California are very supportive of pharmacies and pharmacists as direct access points for contraception, but confidentiality concerns were noted. Policy makers and pharmacies can incorporate study findings when designing policies, services, and physical pharmacy spaces to better serve teens. Further research is warranted after pharmacies implement this new service to assess teen utilization and satisfaction as well as outcomes. Several states recently passed legislation enabling pharmacists to prescribe contraception and other states are considering similar legislation. Older teens are

  12. New method of control of tooth whitening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, I.; Mantareva, V.; Gisbrecht, A.; Valkanov, S.; Uzunov, Tz.

    2010-10-01

    New methods of control of tooth bleaching stages through simultaneous measurements of a reflected light and a fluorescence signal are proposed. It is shown that the bleaching process leads to significant changes in the intensity of a scattered signal and also in the shape and intensity of the fluorescence spectra. Experimental data illustrate that the bleaching process causes essential changes in the teeth discoloration in short time as 8-10 min from the beginning of the application procedure. The continuation of the treatment is not necessary moreover the probability of the enamel destroy increases considerably. The proposed optical back control of tooth surface is a base for development of a practical set up to control the duration of the bleaching procedure.

  13. Power controlling method for BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reactor operation exactly following after an aimed curve in the high power resuming and maintaining period without failures in cladding tubes. Method: Upon recovery of the reactor power to a high power level after changing the reactor power from the high power to the low power level, control rod is operated under such conditions that the linear power density after operation of the control rod does not exceed the PC envelope in the low power period, and the core flow rate is coordinated to the control rod operation. The linear power density can be suppressed within an allowable linear power density by the above operation during high power resuming and maintaining period and, as the result, PCI failures can be prevented. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding evaluation criteria in the quality management system of enterprises is introduced. Authors also introduce the method of controlling quality costs and propose it for the practical application, which allows them to determine useful and unnecessary costs at the existing operating plant. Implementing the proposed recommendations in the system of cost management at an enterprise will allow to improve productivity of processes operating and reduce wasted expense on the quality of the process on the basis of determining values of useful and useless costs of quality according to criteria of processes functioning in the system of quality management.

  15. The Effect of Vitamin D and Calcium plus Vitamin D during Pregnancy on Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidence suggests a high prevalence of calcium and vitamin D deficiencies exists in both pregnant women and babies. Adequate intake of micronutrients has great importance especially during pregnancy and lactation period. Thus, the present study aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin D and calcium-vitamin D on pregnancy and birth outcomes (including duration of pregnancy, type of delivery and infant anthropometric indicators. Methods: A randomized, controlled, clinical, triple-blind trial conducted on 126 pregnant women referring to Tabriz health centers in 2013-14. Subjects were allocated into three groups using block randomization. Interventional groups received vitamin D, calcium-vitamin D and placebo pills daily for 60 days. ANCOVA and Chi-square tests were used for data analysis. Results: By controlling BMI before and during pregnancy, there were no significant differences between the group in average neonatal weight, height and head circumference, duration of pregnancy, type of delivery and gestational age at the time of delivery. Conclusion: The results show that calcium-vitamin D and vitamin D have no effect on duration of pregnancy, type of delivery and infant anthropometric indicators.

  16. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karema Corine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence decreased over the last six years (2002–2007. Therefore, the impact of malaria on birth outcomes is also expected to vary over time and space. Methods Obstetric indicators (birth weight and pregnancy outcome and malaria incidence were compared and analyzed to their association over time (2002–2007 and space. Birth data from 12,526 deliveries were collected from maternity registers of 11 different primary health centers located in different malaria endemic areas. Malaria data for the same communities were collected from the National Malaria Control Programme. Associations were sought with mixed effects models and logistic regression. Results In all health centres, a significant increase of birth weight over the years was observed (p Conclusion In Rwanda, birth weight and pregnancy outcome are not directly influenced by malaria, which is in contrast to many other studied areas. Although malaria incidence overall has declined and mean birth weight increased over the studied period, no direct association was found between the two. Socio-economic factors and improved nutrition could be responsible for birth weight changes in recent years.

  17. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N E; Torrance, H L; Mol, F; Laven, J S E; Scheenjes, E; Traas, M A F; Janssen, C; Cohlen, B; Teklenburg, G; de Bruin, J P; van Oppenraaij, R; Maas, J W M; Moll, E; Fleischer, K; van Hooff, M H; de Koning, C; Cantineau, A; Lambalk, C B; Verberg, M; Nijs, M; Manger, A P; van Rumste, M; van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A; Visser, J; Brinkhuis, E; den Hartog, J E; Sluijmer, A; Jansen, F W; Hermes, W; Bandell, M L; Pelinck, M J; van Disseldorp, J; van Wely, M; Smeenk, J; Pieterse, Q D; Boxmeer, J C; Groenewoud, E R; Eijkemans, M J C; Kasius, J C; Broekmans, F J M

    2017-07-21

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle on live birth rates in women with a failed first IVF/ICSI cycle. Multicenter randomized controlled trial in Dutch academic and non-academic hospitals. A total of 900 women will be included of whom half will undergo an endometrial scratch in the luteal phase of the cycle prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using an endometrial biopsy catheter. The primary endpoint is the live birth rate after the 2 nd fresh IVF/ICSI cycle. Secondary endpoints are costs, cumulative live birth rate (after the full 2 nd IVF/ICSI cycle and over 12 months of follow-up); clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate; multiple pregnancy rate; miscarriage rate and endometrial tissue parameters associated with implantation failure. Multiple studies have been performed to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching on live birth rates in women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. Due to heterogeneity in both the method and population being scratched, it remains unclear which group of women will benefit from the procedure. The SCRaTCH trial proposed here aims to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in a large group of women undergoing a second IVF/ICSI cycle. NTR 5342 , registered July 31 st , 2015. Version 4.10, January 4th, 2017.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-12-09

    Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has examined if treating periodontal disease before pregnancy reduces adverse birth outcomes. This study aims to examine if the pre-conception treatment of periodontal disease will lead to improved periodontal status during late pregnancy and subsequent birth outcomes. A sample of 470 (235 in each arm of the study) pre-conception women who plan to conceive within one year and with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. All participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention group will receive free therapy including dental scaling and root planning (the standard therapy), supragingival prophylaxis, and oral hygiene education. The control group will only receive supragingival prophylaxis and oral hygiene education. Women will be followed throughout their pregnancy and then to childbirth. The main outcomes include periodontal disease status in late pregnancy and birth outcomes measured such as mean birth weight (grams), and mean gestational age (weeks). Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through a dental examination by measuring probing depth, clinical attachment loss and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) between gestational age of 32 and 36 weeks. Local and systemic inflammatory mediators are also included as main outcomes. This will be the first RCT to test whether treating periodontal disease among pre-conception women reduces periodontal disease during pregnancy and prevents adverse birth outcomes. If

  19. Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Following Icsi- Pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Aygül Demirol; Süleyman Güven; Timur Gürgan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report preterm birth and low birth weight rate of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) related pregnancies and to compare our data with literature findings. STUDY DESIGN: Three-hundred and eighty-nine pregnancies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection were retrospectively evaluated. Patients’ characteristics including age, gestational age at delivery and birth weight were noted from special clinic files. Women with early pregnanc...

  20. Effects of prolonged second stage, method of birth, timing of caesarean section and other obstetric risk factors on postnatal urinary incontinence: an Australian nulliparous cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S J; Gartland, D; Donath, S; MacArthur, C

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of prolonged labour, method of birth, timing of caesarean section and other obstetric risk factors to postpartum urinary incontinence. Prospective pregnancy cohort. Six metropolitan public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. A total of 1507 nulliparous women recruited to the maternal health study in early pregnancy (≤24 weeks). Data from hospital medical records and self-administered questionnaires/telephone interviews at ≤24 and 30-32 weeks of gestation and 3 months postpartum analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Urinary incontinence 3 months postpartum in women continent before the index pregnancy. Of the women continent before pregnancy, 26% reported new incontinence at 3 months postpartum. Compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal birth, women who had a caesarean section before labour (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5) or in the first stage of labour (adjusted OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4) were less likely to be incontinent 3 months postpartum. Adjusted OR for incontinence after caesarean section in the second stage of labour compared with spontaneous vaginal birth was 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-1.0). Prolonged second stage labour was associated with increased likelihood of postpartum incontinence in women who had a spontaneous vaginal birth (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4) or operative vaginal birth (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). In addition to pregnancy itself, physiological changes associated with the second stage of labour appear to play a role in postpartum urinary incontinence. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  1. Maternal characteristics and birth outcomes of pregnant women who had offspring with congenital ear abnormalities - a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paput, László; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2011-09-01

    To describe the maternal characteristics and birth outcomes of newborn infants affected with isolated ear congenital abnormalities (IECA), mainly isolated anotia/microtia and unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities (CAs) including anotia/microtia (UMAM). Cases with IECA and UMAM were compared with their matched controls and all controls without any defect and malformed controls affected with other defects in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. The mothers of 354 cases with IECA did not show significant difference in age, but their mean birth order was higher while their socio-economic status based on the maternal employment status was lower compared to the figures of their matched controls. There was a male excess among cases with microtia and mainly with UMAM. The evaluation of birth outcomes of newborns affected with IECA indicated intrauterine fetal growth retardation. Newborn infants with isolated microtia had intrauterine growth retardation and the association of this developmental defect localized for a small region of head with the general fetal development raises interesting theoretical question.

  2. Births: preliminary data for 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2006-12-28

    This report presents preliminary data for 2005 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight (LBW) are also presented. Data in this report are based on 99.2 percent of births for 2005. The records are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2005. Comparisons are made with 2004 data. The crude birth rate in 2005 was 14.0 births per 1,000 total population, unchanged from 2004. The general fertility rate, however, rose to 66.7 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years in 2005, the highest level since 1993. The birth rate for teenagers declined by 2 percent in 2005, falling to 40.4 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, the lowest ever recorded in the 65 years for which a consistent series of rates are available. The rate declined for teenagers 15-17 years to 21.4 births per 1,000, but was essentially stable for older teenagers 18-19 years. The birth rate for women aged 20-24 years rose in 2005, whereas the rate for women aged 25-29 years was essentially unchanged. The birth rates for women aged 30 years and over rose to levels not seen in almost 40 years. Childbearing by unmarried women increased to record levels for the Nation in 2005. The birth rate rose 3 percent to 47.6 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years; the proportion of all births to unmarried women increased to 36.8 percent. The cesarean delivery rate rose by 4 percent in 2005 to 30.2 percent of all births, another record high for the Nation. The preterm birth rate continued to rise (to 12.7 percent in 2005) as did the rate for LBW births (8.2 percent).

  3. Method for controlling FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamano, Toyomi; Iwashita, Tsuyoshi; Sakuragi, Masanori

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a controlling method for moderating thermal transient upon trip in an FBR type reactor. A flow channel for bypassing an intermediate heat exchanger is disposed in a secondary Na system. Then, bypassing flow rate is controlled so as to suppress fluctuations of temperature at a primary exit of the intermediate heat exchanger. Bypassing operation by using the bypassing flow channel is started at the same time with plant trip, to reduce the flow rate of secondary Na flown to the intermediate heat exchanger, so that the imbalance between the primary and the secondary Na flowrates is reduced. Accordingly, fluctuations of the temperature at the primary exit of the intermediate heat exchanger upon trip is suppressed. In view of the above, thermal transient applied to the reactor container upon plant trip can be moderated. As a result, the working life of the reactor can be extended, to improve plant integrity and safety. (I.S.)

  4. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Legislation and Public Policy (OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific Branches Grants Management Branch (GMB) Office of Committee Management ( ...

  5. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  6. Does planning of births affect childhood undernutrition? Evidence from demographic and health surveys of selected South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Juel; Goli, Srinivas

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of child undernutrition in South Asia is high, as is also the unmet need for family planning. In previous literature, the biodemographic relationship of family planning, particularly birth order and birth spacing, and nutritional status of children have been assessed separately. The aim of this study was to work on the hypothesis that the planning of births comprising timing, spacing, and number of births improves child undernutrition, especially in the areas with high prevalence of stunting and underweight. We used recent Demographic and Health Survey data from four selected South Asian countries. Binary logistic regression models were applied to estimate the adjusted percentage of stunting and underweight by identified independent factors. Findings suggested that after controlling for other socioeconomic factors, children in the first birth order with >24 mo of interval between marriage and first birth have a lower risk for stunting (20%; p planning of births. The probability of child undernutrition is lower among children born with >24 mo of birth spacing than its counterpart in all birth orders, but the significance of birth spacing reduces with increasing birth orders. Appropriate planning of births using family planning methods in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce childhood undernutrition. Thus, the planning of births emerges as an important biodemographic approach to eradicate childhood undernutrition especially in developing regions like South Asia and thereby to achieve sustainable development goals by 2030. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Autism in Association with Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances: A Nested Case–Control Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. Objectives: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Methods: Among 83,389 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child’s sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother’s PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. Conclusions: In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children. Citation: Liew Z, Ritz B, von Ehrenstein OS, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Fei CY

  8. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from “partner” communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala—an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access to referral care is facilitated. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study in San Sebastian Coatán municipality to assess the contribution of 2 Casas Maternas to health facility deliveries among partner and non-partner communities, with particular emphasis on equity in access. We surveyed all women who delivered in the study area between April 2013 and March 2014, the first full year in which both Casas Maternas in the study area were operating. In addition, using purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 women who delivered and 6 focus group discussions with 42 community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and Casas Maternas staff members. We analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statstics and the qualitative data with descriptive content analysis. Results: Of the 321 women eligible for inclusion in the study, we surveyed 275 women (14.3% could not be located or refused to participate). Between April 2013 and March 2014, 70% of women living in partner communities delivered in a health facility (54% in a Casa Materna) compared with 30% of women living in non-partner communities (17% in a Casa Materna). There was no statistically significant difference in uptake of the Casa Materna by maternal education and only a weak effect by household wealth. In contrast, distance from the Casa Materna had a pronounced effect. Traditional birth attendants were strong advocates for utilization of the Casa Materna and played an important role in the

  9. Measuring and controlling method for organic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Igarashi, Hiroo

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns measurement and control for organic impurities contained in ultrapurified water for use in a nuclear power plant. A specimen containing organic impurities leached out of anionic exchange resins and cationic exchange resins is introduced to an organic material decomposing section to decompose organic impurities into organic carbon and other decomposed products. Sulfate ions, nitrate ions, nitrite ions and carbon dioxide are produced by the decomposition of the organic impurities. As a next step, carbon dioxide in the decomposed products is separated by deaerating with a nitrogen gas or an argon gas and then a TOC concentration is measured by a non-dispersion-type infrared spectrometer. Further, a specimen from which carbon dioxide was separated is introduced to a column filled with ion exchange resins and, after concentrating inorganic ion impurities, the inorganic ion impurities are identified by using a measuring theory of an ion chromatographic method of eluting and separating inorganic ion impurities and detecting them based on the change of electroconductivity depending on the kinds of the inorganic ion impurities. Organic impurities can be measured and controlled, to improve the reliability of water quality control. (N.H.)

  10. Method for enhanced control of welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Donald A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tung, David M.; Schroder, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Method and system for producing high quality welds in welding processes, in general, and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, in particular by controlling weld penetration. Light emitted from a weld pool is collected from the backside of a workpiece by optical means during welding and transmitted to a digital video camera for further processing, after the emitted light is first passed through a short wavelength pass filter to remove infrared radiation. By filtering out the infrared component of the light emitted from the backside weld pool image, the present invention provides for the accurate determination of the weld pool boundary. Data from the digital camera is fed to an imaging board which focuses on a 100.times.100 pixel portion of the image. The board performs a thresholding operation and provides this information to a digital signal processor to compute the backside weld pool dimensions and area. This information is used by a control system, in a dynamic feedback mode, to automatically adjust appropriate parameters of a welding system, such as the welding current, to control weld penetration and thus, create a uniform weld bead and high quality weld.

  11. Control system and method for prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the movable body part through the full-shrug position of the movable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the movable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective movable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  12. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  13. Young, low-birth-weight men are not more susceptible to the diabetogenic effects of a prolonged free fatty acid exposure than matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    a prolonged physiological lipid load could unmask or augment existing metabolic defects in otherwise healthy young LBW subjects. Forty 19-year-old men (LBW [n = 20], controls [normal birth weight, NBW] [n = 20]) without a family history of diabetes underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test (0.3 g kg(-1......Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Progression from normal to impaired glucose tolerance and overt diabetes may depend, to some extent, on elevation of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs). We undertook this study to elucidate whether...... with normal glucose tolerance and in NBW controls. We reproduced our previous finding of lower insulin-stimulated glycolysis in this population....

  14. METHODS OF CONTROL DIPHTHERIA VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isayenko Ye. Yu

    2016-12-01

    of toxin it's examined the WHO's proposal to use an intradermal method on guinea pigs and tests on cell cultures. Attention is drawn to the fact that the determination of specific toxicity in cell culture can be carried out at presence of the approval of this method of a national control authority and sensitivity rates no less than in experiments on guinea pigs. The determining of specific toxicity of ready vaccine by subcutaneous method is described. The publication gave a test for elevated toxicity of the final product by intraperitoneal infection of mice and guinea pigs. It’s cited the WHO recommendations aimed at removing the possibility of recovery of the refined toxin toxicity. Checking vaccines toxicity, pyrogenicity, sterility, allergenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity and immunogenicity mainly performed on laboratory animals. The review examined the unreliability of animal experiments and the need to find alternative methods for determining the toxicity without their use particularly in light of the “3R”concept. Methods for determining diphtherial toxin using cell cultures is considered, namely, colony overlay test (COT, tests using a monolayer of HeLa cell culture, a culture of Vero cells (kidney cells of african green monkeys , a culture of CHO cells (cells of Chinese hamster ovary, which are based on the toxin cytopathic effect on sensitive cell culture. Their advantages and disadvantages are listed. An alternative method for the quantitative detection of C. diphtheriae toxin using the polystyrene plate coated with monoclonal antibody to the part of the diphtheria toxin which defines its binding to the cell, is described. It’s regarded the cytotoxic effect of diphtheria toxin on cells of the immune system of mice and guinea pigs: splenocytes, adhesive phagocytes i B- lymphocytes.

  15. Exercise during pregnancy in normal-weight women and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mascio, Daniele; Magro-Malosso, Elena Rita; Saccone, Gabriele; Marhefka, Gregary D; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality in the United States. In the past, pregnant women have been recommended to not exercise because of presumed risks of preterm birth. Physical activity has been theoretically related to preterm birth because it increases the release of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine, which might stimulate myometrial activity. Conversely, exercise may reduce the risk of preterm birth by other mechanisms such as decreased oxidative stress or improved placenta vascularization. Therefore, the safety of exercise regarding preterm birth and its effects on gestational age at delivery remain controversial. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of exercise during pregnancy on the risk of preterm birth. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Sciences, Scopus, ClinicalTrial.gov, OVID, and Cochrane Library were searched from the inception of each database to April 2016. Selection criteria included only randomized clinical trials of pregnant women randomized before 23 weeks to an aerobic exercise regimen or not. Types of participants included women of normal weight with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies without any obstetric contraindication to physical activity. The summary measures were reported as relative risk or as mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. The primary outcome was the incidence of preterm birth exercise group and 1037 (50.4%) to the control group. Aerobic exercise lasted about 35-90 minutes 3-4 times per week. Women who were randomized to aerobic exercise had a similar incidence of preterm birth of exercise group had a significantly higher incidence of vaginal delivery (73.6% vs 67.5%; relative risk, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.15) and a significantly lower incidence of cesarean delivery (17.9% vs 22%; relative risk, 0.82, 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.97) compared with controls. The incidence of operative vaginal delivery (12.9% vs 16.5%; relative risk, 0.78, 95% confidence interval, 0

  16. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  17. Gastro-oesophageal reflux: a mixed methods study of infants admitted to hospital in the first 12 months following birth in NSW (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Foster, Jann P; Psaila, Kim; Spence, Kaye; Badawi, Nadia; Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Thornton, Charlene

    2018-02-12

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is common in infants. When the condition causes pathological symptoms and/or complications it is considered gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). It appears to be increasingly diagnosed and causes great distress in the first year of infancy. In New South Wales (NSW), residential parenting services support families with early parenting difficulties. These services report a large number of babies admitted with a label of GOR/GORD. The aim of this study was to explore the maternal and infant characteristics, obstetric interventions, and reasons for clinical reporting of GOR/GORD in NSW in the first 12 months following birth (2000-2011). A three phase, mixed method sequential design was used. Phase 1 included a linked data population based study (n = 869,188 admitted babies). Phase 2 included a random audit of 326 medical records from admissions to residential parenting centres in NSW (2013). Phase 3 included eight focus groups undertaken with 45 nurses and doctors working in residential parenting centres in NSW. There were a total of 1,156,020 admissions recorded of babies in the first year following birth, with 11,513 containing a diagnostic code for GOR/GORD (1% of infants admitted to hospitals in the first 12 months following birth). Babies with GOR/GORD were also more likely to be admitted with other disorders such as feeding difficulties, sleep problems, and excessive crying. The mothers of babies admitted with a diagnostic code of GOR/GORD were more likely to be primiparous, Australian born, give birth in a private hospital and have: a psychiatric condition; a preterm or early term infant (37-or-38 weeks); a caesarean section; an admission of the baby to SCN/NICU; and a male infant. Thirty six percent of infants admitted to residential parenting centres in NSW had been given a diagnosis of GOR/GORD. Focus group data revealed two themes: "It is over diagnosed" and "A medical label is a quick fix, but what else could be

  18. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-03-01

    An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from "partner" communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala-an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access to referral care is facilitated. We conducted a mixed-methods study in San Sebastian Coatán municipality to assess the contribution of 2 Casas Maternas to health facility deliveries among partner and non-partner communities, with particular emphasis on equity in access. We surveyed all women who delivered in the study area between April 2013 and March 2014, the first full year in which both Casas Maternas in the study area were operating. In addition, using purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 women who delivered and 6 focus group discussions with 42 community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and Casas Maternas staff members. We analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statstics and the qualitative data with descriptive content analysis. Of the 321 women eligible for inclusion in the study, we surveyed 275 women (14.3% could not be located or refused to participate). Between April 2013 and March 2014, 70% of women living in partner communities delivered in a health facility (54% in a Casa Materna) compared with 30% of women living in non-partner communities (17% in a Casa Materna). There was no statistically significant difference in uptake of the Casa Materna by maternal education and only a weak effect by household wealth. In contrast, distance from the Casa Materna had a pronounced effect. Traditional birth attendants were strong advocates for utilization of the Casa Materna and played an important role in the decision regarding where the birth would take

  19. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks) and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR) and Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02), inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls) (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001), absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001), history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005). Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  20. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  1. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy (STOPPIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jane E; Mackenzie, Fiona; Owen, Philip; Mactier, Helen; Hanretty, Kevin; Cooper, Sarah; Calder, Andrew; Mires, Gary; Danielian, Peter; Sturgiss, Stephen; MacLennan, Graeme; Tydeman, Graham; Thornton, Steven; Martin, Bill; Thornton, James G; Neilson, James P; Norrie, John

    2009-06-13

    Women with twin pregnancy are at high risk for spontaneous preterm delivery. Progesterone seems to be effective in reducing preterm birth in selected high-risk singleton pregnancies, albeit with no significant reduction in perinatal mortality and little evidence of neonatal benefit. We investigated the use of progesterone for prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 500 women with twin pregnancy were recruited from nine UK National Health Service clinics specialising in the management of twin pregnancy. Women were randomised, by permuted blocks of randomly mixed sizes, either to daily vaginal progesterone gel 90 mg (n=250) or to placebo gel (n=250) for 10 weeks from 24 weeks' gestation. All study personnel and participants were masked to treatment assignment for the duration of the study. The primary outcome was delivery or intrauterine death before 34 weeks' gestation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Additionally we undertook a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data to establish the efficacy of progesterone in prevention of early (<34 weeks' gestation) preterm birth or intrauterine death in women with twin pregnancy. This study is registered, number ISRCTN35782581. Three participants in each group were lost to follow-up, leaving 247 analysed per group. The combined proportion of intrauterine death or delivery before 34 weeks of pregnancy was 24.7% (61/247) in the progesterone group and 19.4% (48/247) in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 1.36, 95% CI 0.89-2.09; p=0.16). The rate of adverse events did not differ between the two groups. The meta-analysis confirmed that progesterone does not prevent early preterm birth in women with twin pregnancy (pooled OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.89-1.51). Progesterone, administered vaginally, does not prevent preterm birth in women with twin pregnancy. Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorate.

  2. Periodontal disease and oral health-related behavior as factors associated with preterm birth: a case-control study in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, J F; Ribeiro, R A; Machado, F C; Assis, N M S P; Alves, R T; Oliveira, A S; Ribeiro, L C

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have suggested a link between periodontal disease and preterm birth, but the mechanism of how this occurs remains controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether periodontal disease, defined according to two commonly used clinical definitions, is associated with preterm birth and to examine the association regarding oral health-related behaviors during pregnancy. This case-control study included women 18-40 years of age. Demographic and socio-economic data, information on current and previous pregnancies, and data on dental health-related behaviors and periodontal clinical parameters were collected within 48 h postpartum. Periodontal disease was assessed according to two definitions: four or more teeth with at least one site showing a probing depth of ≥ 4 mm and clinical attachment level of ≥ 3 mm (Definition 1); or at least one site with probing depth and clinical attachment level of ≥ 4 mm (Definition 2). The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the proportion of categorical variables. Bivariate analysis was performed to analyze the proportion of preterm births with respect to independent variables. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between periodontal disease and preterm birth. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 296 postpartum women met the inclusion criteria. The case group included 74 women who delivered a preterm neonate (Periodontal disease according to Definition 1 was not associated with fewer weeks of gestation (adjusted OR (OR adjusted ) = 1.62; 95% CI = 0.80-3.29; p = 0.178). However, a significant association was found between periodontal disease, according to Definition 2, and preterm birth (OR adjusted = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.14-3.43; p = 0.015). Increased appetite and a low number of daily toothbrushings were associated with preterm birth, regardless of the definition of periodontal disease used. Periodontal

  3. Efficacy of an Ergonomic Ankle Support Aid for Squatting Position in Improving Pushing Skills and Birth Outcomes During the Second Stage of Labor: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Gau, Meei-Ling; Kao, Ghi-Hwei; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2018-03-16

    The physical positions that are adopted by women during childbirth significantly impact their childbirth outcomes and experiences. Literature studies have associated using a squatting position with reduced childbirth pain and increased comfort and pushing efficiency. However, the major disadvantage of the squatting position is that women may lack the muscular fitness and stamina necessary to sustain this position for a long period. The aim of this study was to compare the pushing experiences and birth outcomes of three different pushing positions during the second stage of labor. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. Data were collected from 168 primiparous women during the 38th to 42nd gestational weeks. None of the participants received epidural analgesia during labor, and all were free of pregnancy and labor-related complications. During labor, after full cervical dilation and when the fetal head had descended to at least the +1 station and had turned to the occiput anterior position, the experimental group was asked to push in the squatting position while using the ergonomically designed ankle support. For purposes of comparison, Comparison Group A was asked to push in the squatting position without the use of the support, and Comparison Group B was asked to push in a standard semirecumbent position. All of the participants completed a demographic and obstetrics data sheet, the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Labor Pushing Experience scale within 4 hours postpartum. In terms of delivery time, the duration between the start of pushing to crowning for the experimental group (squatting with ankle supports) averaged 25.79 minutes less (F = 6.02, p pushing to infant birth averaged 25.21 minutes less for the experimental group than for Comparison Group B (F = 6.14, p pushing experiences than the comparison groups (F = 14.69, p pushing, squatting with the aid of ergonomically designed ankle

  4. Maternal age, birth order, and race: differential effects on birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Edwards, Sharon; Gelfand, Alan; James, Sherman A; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies examining the influence of maternal age and birth order on birthweight have not effectively disentangled the relative contributions of each factor to birthweight, especially as they may differ by race. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of North Carolina births from 1999 to 2003 was performed. Analysis was restricted to 510 288 singleton births from 28 to 42 weeks’ gestation with no congenital anomalies. Multivariable linear regression was used to model maternal age and birth order on birthweight, adjusting for infant sex, education, marital status, tobacco use and race. Results Mean birthweight was lower for non-Hispanic black individuals (NHB, 3166 g) compared with non-Hispanic white individuals (NHW, 3409 g) and Hispanic individuals (3348 g). Controlling for covariates, birthweight increased with maternal age until the early 30s. Race-specific modelling showed that the upper extremes of maternal age had a significant depressive effect on birthweight for NHW and NHB (35+ years, p<0.001), but only age less than 25 years was a significant contributor to lower birthweights for Hispanic individuals, p<0.0001. Among all racial subgroups, birth order had a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with the largest incremental increase from first to second births. Among NHB, birth order accounted for a smaller increment in birthweight than for NHW and Hispanic women. Conclusion Birth order exerts a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with signficantly different effects across racial subgroups. PMID:21081308

  5. Knowledge-based methods for control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis consists of three projects which combine artificial intelligence and control. The first part describes an expert system interface for system identification, using the interactive identification program Idpac. The interface works as an intelligent help system, using the command spy strategy. It contains a multitude of help system ideas. The concept of scripts is introduced as a data structure used to describe the procedural part of the knowledge in the interface. Production rules are used to represent diagnostic knowledge. A small knowledge database of scripts and rules has been developed and an example run is shown. The second part describes an expert system for frequency response analysis. This is one of the oldest and most widely used methods to determine the dynamics of a stable linear system. Though quite simple, it requires knowledge and experience of the user, in order to produce reliable results. The expert system is designed to help the user in performing the analysis. It checks whether the system is linear, finds the frequency and amplitude ranges, verifies the results, and, if errors should occur, tries to give explanation and remedies for them. The third part describes three diagnostic methods for use with industrial processes. They are measurement validation, i.e., consistency checking of sensor and measurement values using any redundancy of instrumentation; alarm analysis, i.e. analysis of multiple alarm situations to find which alarms are directly connected to primary faults and which alarms are consequential effects of the primary ones; and fault diagnosis, i.e., a search for the causes of and remedies for faults. The three methods use multilevel flow models, (MFM), to describe the target process. They have been implemented in the programming tool G2, and successfully tested on two small processes. (164 refs.) (au)

  6. Possible association of first and high birth order of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Induced abortion in Denmark: effect of socio-economic situation and country of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2007-01-01

    study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. RESULTS: The strongest factor...

  8. Symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy and their association with low birth weight in Chinese women: a nested case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaoping; Yang, Rong; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Jing; Weaver, Nancy L; Hu, Ke; Hu, Ronghua; Trevathan, Edwin; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Yiming; Yin, Ting; Chang, Jen Jen; Zhao, Jinzhu; Shen, Longjiao; Dong, Guanghui; Zheng, Tongzhang; Xu, Shunqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    This study is a nested case control study from a population-based cohort study conducted in Wuhan, China. The aim is to estimate the association between symptoms of depression during pregnancy (DDP), anxiety during pregnancy(ADP), and depression with anxiety during pregnancy (DADP) and low birth weight (LBW) and to examine the extent to which preterm birth (PTB) moderates these associations. Logistic regression analyses were used to model associations between DDP, ADP, and DADP and LBW. Models were stratified by the presence or absence of PTB to examine moderating effects. From the cohort study, 2853 had a LBW baby (cases); 5457 pregnant women served as controls. Women with DDP or ADP only were not at higher risk of having a LBW baby, but DADP was associated with increased risk of LBW (crude OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.17-1.70; adjusted OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07-1.57), and the significant association was particularly evident between DADP and LBW in PTB, but not in full-term births. Our data suggests that DADP is related to an increased risk of LBW and that this association is most present in PTBs.

  9. Antihypertensive treatment and control according to gender, education, country of birth and psychiatric disorder: the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database (SPCCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, C; Kahan, T; Schiöler, L; Hjerpe, P; Wettermark, B; Boström, K B; Manhem, K

    2015-06-01

    The reasons why women and men are treated with different antihypertensive drugs are not clear. Whether socioeconomic factors influence prescription patterns and blood pressure control differently in women and men has not been investigated. This cross-sectional study performed in a cohort of hypertensive patients from the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database (SPCCD) examined the influence of educational level, country of birth, gender and concomitant psychiatric disorder on prescription pattern and blood pressure control in 40,825 hypertensive patients. Men were more often than women treated with calcium channel blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), irrespective of education, country of birth and psychiatric disorder. Educational level influenced the prescription pattern to some extent, where the gender differences were reduced in patients with a higher educational level. In women, but not in men, high educational level and concomitant psychiatric disorder were associated with a higher proportion reaching target blood pressure. The predominant use of ACEI and calcium channel blockers in men is not influenced by educational level, country of birth or psychiatric disorder. Thus other explanations must be considered such as gender differences in side effects. Educational level seems to have a greater impact on reaching target blood pressure in women compared with men.

  10. Teaching attachment behaviors to pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of effects on infant mental health from birth to the age of three months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Dokuhaki, Akram; Joker, Azam; Pishva, Narges; Zare, Najaf

    2016-01-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment, which forms as soon as pregnancy starts, is essential to an infant's mental development. This study aimed to explore the effect of teaching attachment behaviors to pregnant women on infant mental health from birth to 3 months of age. Randomized controlled trial. Hafiz Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from February to November 2014. The participants were randomly divided into an intervention and a control group at 28-34 weeks gestation. The participants in the intervention group attended six educational sessions each lasting for 60-90 minutes. After delivery, the infants of mothers in each group were compared in terms of mental health indexes (total mean scores and scores derived from a checklist of questions for infant mental health with results categorized as low, average and high). Maternal anxiety levels were also recorded at birth and at 3 months. Infant mental health index. In 190 pregnant women (96 in the intervention group and 94 in the control group), the total mean (SD) scores for infant mental health at birth were 16.66 (1.51) in the intervention group and 16.07 (1.74) in the control group (P=.013). At 3 months, the total mental health scores infants were 31.05 (1.88) in the intervention group and 30.25 (2.10) in the control group (P=.007). Differences in checklist scores between the groups at 3 months were not statistically significant, except for crying intensity at 3 months (P=.021). Women in the control group had higher anxiety levels at 3 months (P=.01). Teaching attachment skills to mothers increased the attachment between the mothers and their infants, and consequently, improved infant mental health. Thus, teaching attachment skills should be incorporated into routine prenatal care. Use of phone calls by the researcher to assess mental health.

  11. Birth characteristics of women with Marfan syndrome, obstetric and neonatal outcomes of their pregnancies-A nationwide cohort and case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernell, Kristina; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Josefsson, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to investigate birth characteristics, obstetric and neonatal outcomes of the first childbirth in women with Marfan syndrome by use of Swedish national registers since pregnancy-related outcomes in women with Marfan syndrome have only been sparsely investigated. In this national population-based cohort study and matched case-control study of Swedish women born 1973-1993, women with Marfan syndrome (n=273) were compared to women without the condition (n=1 017 265). The study population was followed until 2013. A total of 364 553 mother-firstborn-offspring pairs were analyzed. Sixty-one women with Marfan syndrome became mothers. Women with Marfan syndrome were also compared to 543 healthy controls. Women with Marfan syndrome were more often born preterm (pMarfan syndrome had no increased risk of giving birth by cesarean section (p=0.079). No increased neonatal risks in their children were found. Women with Marfan syndrome were less likely to give birth than those without (pMarfan syndrome were more likely to be born preterm, SGA and by cesarean section. These increased risks of preterm birth and SGA babies were not found in connection with their own first childbirth. Pregnancies with known fetal Marfan syndrome have to be carefully monitored. The results are important for obstetricians giving preconception counseling and treating women with Marfan syndrome. Further studies are needed to evaluate risks during pregnancy and long-term effects of pregnancy on the cardiovascular status of women with Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synchronous Control Method and Realization of Automated Pharmacy Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Quan

    Firstly, the control method of elevator's synchronous motion is provided, the synchronous control structure of double servo motor based on PMAC is accomplished. Secondly, synchronous control program of elevator is implemented by using PMAC linear interpolation motion model and position error compensation method. Finally, the PID parameters of servo motor were adjusted. The experiment proves the control method has high stability and reliability.

  13. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  14. Successful water birth in a woman with vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraloğlu, O; Engin-Ustün, Y; Ozakşit, G; Mollamahmutoğlu, L

    2011-01-01

    Vaginismus is a common sexual dysfunction. The case of a successful water birth in a woman with vaginismus is presented. Water birth should be considered as an alternative method of birth in women with vaginismus.

  15. Method of controlling radioactive waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Sato, Takao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the pellet production amount, maximize the working life of a solidifying device and maintaining the mechanical strength of pellets to a predetermined value irrespective of the type and the cycle of occurrence of the secondary waste in the secondary waste solidifying device for radioactive waste processing systems in nuclear power plants. Method: Forecasting periods for the type, production amount and radioactivity level of the secondary wastes are determined in input/output devices connected to a control system and resulted signals are sent to computing elements. The computing elements forecast the production amount of regenerated liquid wastes after predetermined days based on the running conditions of a condensate desalter and the production amounts of filter sludges and liquid resin wastes after predetermined days based on the liquid waste processing amount or the like in a processing device respectively. Then, the mass balance between the type and the amount of the secondary wastes presently stored in a tank are calculated and the composition and concentration for the processing liquid are set so as to obtain predetermined values for the strength of pellets that can be dried to solidify, the working life of the solidifying device itself and the radioactivity level of the pellets. Thereafter, the running conditions for the solidifying device are determined so as to maximize the working life of the solidifying device. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Method and device for controlling ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To accomplish reactor cooling without exposing fuel assemblies out of the coolant and also without inducing counter-current flow (CCFL) brake likely to be caused by excess injection of water even in case of malfunction of one system in a loss-of-coolant accident. Method: In a BWR type reactor having more than two independent ECCS, the lower plenum water level is measured and when the lower plenum is full of water, the ECCS are kept in a fully closed state, and reversely when the lower plenum is not full of water, more coolant than the lost quantity of water will be injected into the plenum at a higher pressure than a pressure at which fuel rods just begin to be exposed to the steam phase. The subcool energy of the emergency coolant to be injected is determined by the decay heat of the core and the change rate of a container pressure. However, the quantity of the emergency coolant is controlled such that the subcool energy will always become less than the overheating energy in the core range and the lower plenum range, thus improving safety and enabling the removal of a prior-art ECCS. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Reactor power control method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Atsushi; Ishii, Yoshihiko; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Kiyoharu, Norihiko; Aizawa, Yuko.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a device suitable to rise the temperature and increase the pressure of the reactor to an aimed pressure in accordance with an aimed value for a reactor water temperature changing rate in the course of rising temperature and increasing pressure of the reactor upon start up of a BWR type power plant. Namely, neutron fluxes in the reactor and the temperature of reactor water are detected respectively. The maximum value among the detected values for the neutron fluxes is detected. The reactor water temperature changing rate is calculated based on the detected values of the reactor water temperature, from which the maximum value of the reactor water temperature changing rate is detected. An aimed value for the neutron flux is calculated in accordance with both detected maximum values and the aimed value of the reactor water temperature changing rate. The position of control rods is adjusted in accordance with the aimed value for the calculated neutron flux. Then, an aimed value for the neutron flux for realizing the aimed value for the reactor water temperature changing rate can be obtained accurately with no influence of the sensitivity of the detected values of the neutron fluxes and the time delay of the reactor water temperature changing rate. (I.S.)

  18. Modeling The Effects of Mother’s Age at First Birth on Child Health at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-01-01

    This study models the impact of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth in Cameroon. The objectives are: (1) investigate the implication of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth; (2) examine the impact of mother’s age groups on birth weight, and (3) suggest economic policies to ameliorate the mother’s age – child health relationship. We make used of the control function approach to determine the relationship between mother’s age at first birth and birth...

  19. Optimization of Inventories for Multiple Companies by Fuzzy Control Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kawase, Koichi; Konishi, Masami; Imai, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this research, Fuzzy control theory is applied to the inventory control of the supply chain between multiple companies. The proposed control method deals with the amountof inventories expressing supply chain between multiple companies. Referring past demand and tardiness, inventory amounts of raw materials are determined by Fuzzy inference. The method that an appropriate inventory control becomes possible optimizing fuzzy control gain by using SA method for Fuzzy control. The variation of ...

  20. Efficacy of Probiotics Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, T.; Ali, M.M.; Hossain, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study Design: Arandomized double blind controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The Paediatrics Department of Sylhet M.A.G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet Bangladesh, from July 2012 to June 2015. Methodology: Preterm (28 - 33 weeks gestation) VLBW (birth weight 1000 - 1499 g) neonates were enrolled. The study group was fed with probiotics once daily with breast milk from first feeding, and the control group with only breast milk without the addition of probiotics. Both the groups received other standard care. The primary outcome was the development of NEC (stage II and III), categorized by modified Bell's classification. Result: In 108 neonates, development of NEC was significantly lower in the study group than that of control group [1 (1.9 percent) vs. 6 (11.5 percent); p=0.044]. Age of achievement of full oral feeding was significantly earlier in the study group than that in the control group (14.88 ±3.15 and 18.80 ±4.32 days; p < 0.001). Duration of hospital stay was significantly short in the study group compared to the control group (15.82 ±2.94 days vs. 19.57 ±4.26 days; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation reduces the frequency of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm neonates with very low birth weight. It is also associated with faster achievement of full oral feeding and short duration of hospital stay. (author)

  1. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  2. Women's social networks and use of facility delivery services for uncomplicated births in North West Ethiopia: a community-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrese, Kerebih; Adamek, Margaret E

    2017-12-28

    High maternal mortality has remained an unmet public health challenge in the developing world. Maternal mortality in Ethiopia is among the highest in the world. Since most maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, facility delivery with skilled birth attendants is recommended to reduce maternal mortality. Nonetheless, the majority of women in Ethiopia give birth at home. Individual attributes and availability and accessibility of services deter service utilization. The role of social networks that may facilitate or constrain service use is not well studied. Community-based case-control study was conducted between February and March 2014 in Jabi Tehinan District, North West Ethiopia. Retrospective data were collected from 134 women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 140 women who had uncomplicated births at home within a year preceding the survey. Interviews were held with eight women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 11 who had uncomplicated births at home. The quantitative data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for Windows versions 16.0 and hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and data were used to substantiate the quantitative data. The results indicated that social network variables were significantly associated with the use of health facilities for delivery. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of facility use for delivery services over women's individual attributes. Women embedded within homogeneous network members (Adjusted OR 2.53; 95% CI: 1.26-5.06) and embedded within high SBA endorsement networks (Adjusted OR 7.97; 95% CI: 4.07-12.16) were more likely to deliver at health facilities than their counterparts. Women living in urban areas (Adjusted OR 3.32; 95% CI: 1.37-8.05) and had better knowledge of obstetric complications (Adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46-6.18) were more likely to

  3. Cabbage compression early breast care on breast engorgement in primiparous women after cesarean birth: a controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A-Reum; Song, Ji-Ah; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of cabbage compression early breast care (CCEBC) and early breast care (EBC) on breast pain, breast hardness with general nursing breast care (GNBC) in primiparous women after cesarean birth. Sixty participants were divided to three groups including CCEBC, EBC and GNBC. Each group was treated with its intervention respectively more than 10 minutes before breast feeding from day two to day four after delivery. The primary outcomes were breast pain and breast hardness. Both CCEBC and EBC showed significantly lower pain level than GNBC at day 4 after delivery. There are significant differences of breast hardness among three groups. CCEBC group showed significantly lower breast hardness compared with EBC and GNBC. Neither core body temperature nor breast skin temperature was significantly different among the three groups. In conclusion, CCEBC may effective in relieving breast pain and breast hardness compared with EBC alone and GNBC in primiparous women after a cesarean birth. PMID:26885074

  4. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... at determining whether there was a difference in rates of LBW in areas of varying malaria transmission intensity in Korogwe, Tanzania. Retrospective data for one year (June 2004-May 2005) in three maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in the district were analysed. Villages were stratified into three strata...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  5. Feedwater temperature control methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Noonan, Jack Patrick; Saha, Pradip

    2014-04-22

    A system for controlling the power level of a natural circulation boiling water nuclear reactor (NCBWR) is disclosed. The system, in accordance with an example embodiment of the present invention, may include a controller configured to control a power output level of the NCBWR by controlling a heating subsystem to adjust a temperature of feedwater flowing into an annulus of the NCBWR. The heating subsystem may include a steam diversion line configured to receive steam generated by a core of the NCBWR and a steam bypass valve configured to receive commands from the controller to control a flow of the steam in the steam diversion line, wherein the steam received by the steam diversion line has not passed through a turbine. Additional embodiments of the invention may include a feedwater bypass valve for controlling an amount of flow of the feedwater through a heater bypass line to the annulus.

  6. Method and device for controlling reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, Masahisa; Masuda, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load following-up operation of a reactor adapted to perform power conditioning by the control of the liquid poison density in the core and by the control rods. Constitution: In a case where the reactor power is repeatedly changed in a reactor having a liquid poison density control device and control rods, the time period for the power control is divided depending on the magnitude of the change with time in the reactivity and the optimum values are set for the injection and removal amount of the liquid poison within the divided period. Then, most parts of the control required for the power change are alloted to the liquid poison that gives no effect on the power distribution while minimizing the movement of the control rods, whereby the power change in the reactor as in the case of the load following-up operation can be practiced with ease. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Quality assessment of home births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrina; Colmorn, Lotte B.; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The safety of home births has been widely debated. Observational studies examining maternal and neonatal outcomes of home births have become more frequent, and the quality of these studies has improved. The aim of the present study was to describe neonatal outcomes of home births...... compared with hospital births and to discuss which data are needed to evaluate the safety of home births. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. Data on all births in Denmark (2003-2013) were collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (DMBR). The cohort included healthy women...... with uncomplicated pregnancies and no medical interventions during delivery. A total of 6,395 home births and 266,604 hospital births were eligible for analysis. Comparative analyses were performed separately in nulliparous and multiparous women. The outcome measures were neonatal mortality and morbidity. RESULTS...

  8. Quality assessment of home births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrina; Colmorn, Lotte B.; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    by nulliparous at home. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that home births in Denmark are characterized by a high level of safety owing to low rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Missing registration on intrapartum transfers and planned versus unplanned home births in the DMBR are, however, major......INTRODUCTION: The safety of home births has been widely debated. Observational studies examining maternal and neonatal outcomes of home births have become more frequent, and the quality of these studies has improved. The aim of the present study was to describe neonatal outcomes of home births...... compared with hospital births and to discuss which data are needed to evaluate the safety of home births. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. Data on all births in Denmark (2003-2013) were collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (DMBR). The cohort included healthy women...

  9. Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Early, High-Dose Parenteral Amino Acid Intake in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Maya; Jennings, Alishia; Przystac, Lynn; Phornphutkul, Chanika; Tucker, Richard; Vohr, Betty; Stephens, Bonnie E; Bliss, Joseph M

    2017-03-01

    Administration of high-dose parenteral amino acids (AAs) to premature infants within hours of delivery is currently recommended. This study compared the effect of lower and higher AA administration starting close to birth on short-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-24 months corrected gestational age (CGA). Infants Toddler Development, Third Edition at 18-24 months CGA. Secondary outcomes were growth parameters at 36 weeks CGA among infants surviving to hospital discharge, serum bicarbonate, serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, AA profiles in the first week of life, and incidence of major morbidities and mortality. No differences in neurodevelopmental outcome were detected between the high and low AA groups. Infants in the high AA group had significantly lower mean weight, length, and head circumference percentiles than those in the standard AA group at 36 weeks CGA and at hospital discharge. These differences did not persist after controlling for birth growth parameters, except for head circumference. Infants in the high AA group had higher mean serum urea nitrogen than the standard group on each day throughout the first week. Current recommendations for high-dose AA starting at birth are not associated with improved growth or neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  10. Birth planning and sterilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, S E; Linmao, M; Wentao, Y

    2000-11-01

    Sterilization is the most prevalent method of contraception in China. Approximately half of all women of reproductive age report that they or their husbands are sterilized. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey we describe patterns of sterilization in eight Chinese provinces. With a discrete-time event history model we investigate the link between characteristics of local birth planning policy and the risk of sterilization. After controlling for parity, the risk of sterilization is highest in communities where birth planning policy is least strong as measured by exceptions to the one-child policy. These results suggest that couples with more flexibility in family building may have less control over contraceptive method use. Other factors affecting the risk of sterilization are a woman's age, parity, and whether or not she has a son. Our results emphasize the importance of taking into account multiple dimensions of reproductive behaviour when assessing one-child policy changes.

  11. General Quality Control (QC) Guidelines for SAM Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  12. System and method for controlling microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sumit [Niskayuna, NY; Achilles, Alfredo Sebastian [Bavaria, DE; Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Ahmed, Emad Ezzat [Munich, DE; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2011-07-19

    A system for controlling a microgrid includes microgrid assets and a tieline for coupling the microgrid to a bulk grid; and a tieline controller coupled to the tieline. At least one of the microgrid assets comprises a different type of asset than another one of the microgrid assets. The tieline controller is configured for providing tieline control signals to adjust active and reactive power in respective microgrid assets in response to commands from the bulk grid operating entity, microgrid system conditions, bulk grid conditions, or combinations thereof.

  13. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2016-07-21

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor is grounded (80), a pressure sensor (82) coupled to the combustor and configured to detect pressure in the combustor, and an instability controlling assembly coupled to the pressure sensor and to an alternating current power supply (86), where, the instability controlling assembly can control flame instability of a flame in the system based on pressure detected by the pressure sensor.

  14. Cost analysis of the Dutch obstetric system: low-risk nulliparous women preferring home or short-stay hospital birth--a prospective non-randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Marijke Jc; Evers, Silvia Maa; Basten, Marloes Cm; Nijhuis, Jan G; Severens, Johan L

    2009-11-19

    In the Netherlands, pregnant women without medical complications can decide where they want to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting with a midwife. However, a decrease in the home birth rate during the last decennium may have raised the societal costs of giving birth. The objective of this study is to compare the societal costs of home births with those of births in a short-stay hospital setting. This study is a cost analysis based on the findings of a multicenter prospective non-randomised study comparing two groups of nulliparous women with different preferences for where to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting. Data were collected using cost diaries, questionnaires and birth registration forms. Analysis of the data is divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. In the group of home births, the total societal costs associated with giving birth at home were euro3,695 (per birth), compared with euro3,950 per birth in the group for short-stay hospital births. Statistically significant differences between both groups were found regarding the following cost categories 'Cost of contacts with health care professionals during delivery' (euro138.38 vs. euro87.94, -50 (2.5-97.5 percentile range (PR)-76;-25), p home' (euro1,551.69 vs. euro1,240.69, -311 (PR -485; -150), p home birth are euro4,364 per birth, and euro4,541 per birth for short-stay hospital births. The total costs associated with pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care are comparable for home birth and short-stay hospital birth. The most important differences in costs between the home birth group and the short-stay hospital birth group are associated with maternity care assistance, hospitalisation, and travelling costs.

  15. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  16. Home birth and barriers to referring women with obstetric complications to hospitals: a mixed-methods study in Zahedan, southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Tabatabaie Mahmoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One factor that contributes to high maternal mortality in developing countries is the delayed use of Emergency Obstetric-Care (EmOC facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that hinder midwives and parturient women from using hospitals when complications occur during home birth in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran, where 23% of all deliveries take place in non- hospital settings. Methods In the study and data management, a mixed-methods approach was used. In the quantitative phase, we compared the existing health-sector data with World Health Organization (WHO standards for the availability and use of EmOC services. The qualitative phase included collection and analysis of interviews with midwives and traditional birth attendants and twenty-one in-depth interviews with mothers. The data collected in this phase were managed according to the principles of qualitative data analysis. Results The findings demonstrate that three distinct factors lead to indecisiveness and delay in the use of EmOC by the midwives and mothers studied. Socio-cultural and familial reasons compel some women to choose to give birth at home and to hesitate seeking professional emergency care for delivery complications. Apprehension about being insulted by physicians, the necessity of protecting their professional integrity in front of patients and an inability to persuade their patients lead to an over-insistence by midwives on completing deliveries at the mothers' homes and a reluctance to refer their patients to hospitals. The low quality and expense of EmOC and the mothers' lack of health insurance also contribute to delays in referral. Conclusions Women who choose to give birth at home accept the risk that complications may arise. Training midwives and persuading mothers and significant others who make decisions about the value of referring women to hospitals at the onset of life-threatening complications are central

  17. Home birth and barriers to referring women with obstetric complications to hospitals: a mixed-methods study in Zahedan, southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One factor that contributes to high maternal mortality in developing countries is the delayed use of Emergency Obstetric-Care (EmOC) facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that hinder midwives and parturient women from using hospitals when complications occur during home birth in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran, where 23% of all deliveries take place in non- hospital settings. Methods In the study and data management, a mixed-methods approach was used. In the quantitative phase, we compared the existing health-sector data with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for the availability and use of EmOC services. The qualitative phase included collection and analysis of interviews with midwives and traditional birth attendants and twenty-one in-depth interviews with mothers. The data collected in this phase were managed according to the principles of qualitative data analysis. Results The findings demonstrate that three distinct factors lead to indecisiveness and delay in the use of EmOC by the midwives and mothers studied. Socio-cultural and familial reasons compel some women to choose to give birth at home and to hesitate seeking professional emergency care for delivery complications. Apprehension about being insulted by physicians, the necessity of protecting their professional integrity in front of patients and an inability to persuade their patients lead to an over-insistence by midwives on completing deliveries at the mothers' homes and a reluctance to refer their patients to hospitals. The low quality and expense of EmOC and the mothers' lack of health insurance also contribute to delays in referral. Conclusions Women who choose to give birth at home accept the risk that complications may arise. Training midwives and persuading mothers and significant others who make decisions about the value of referring women to hospitals at the onset of life-threatening complications are central factors to increasing the use

  18. Primary birthing attendants and birth outcomes in remote Inuit communities—a natural “experiment” in Nunavik, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, F; Wilkins, R; Labranche, E; Smylie, J; Heaman, M; Martens, P; Fraser, W D; Minich, K; Wu, Y; Carry, C; Luo, Z-C

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a lack of data on the safety of midwife-led maternity care in remote or indigenous communities. In a de facto natural “experiment”, birth outcomes were assessed by primary birthing attendant in two sets of remote Inuit communities. Methods A geocoding-based retrospective birth cohort study in 14 Inuit communities of Nunavik, Canada, 1989–2000: primary birth attendants were Inuit midwives in the Hudson Bay (1529 Inuit births) vs western physicians in Ungava Bay communities (1197 Inuit births). The primary outcome was perinatal death. Secondary outcomes included stillbirth, neonatal death, post-neonatal death, preterm, small-for-gestational-age and low birthweight birth. Multilevel logistic regression was used to obtain the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) controlling for maternal age, marital status, parity, education, infant sex and plurality, community size and community-level random effects. Results The aORs (95% confidence interval) for perinatal death comparing the Hudson Bay vs Ungava Bay communities were 1.29 (0.63 to 2.64) for all Inuit births and 1.13 (0.48 to 2.47) for Inuit births at ≥28 weeks of gestation. There were no statistically significant differences in the crude or adjusted risks of any of the outcomes examined. Conclusion Risks of perinatal death were somewhat but not significantly higher in the Hudson Bay communities with midwife-led maternity care compared with the Ungava Bay communities with physician-led maternity care. These findings are inconclusive, although the results excluding extremely preterm births are more reassuring concerning the safety of midwife-led maternity care in remote indigenous communities. PMID:19286689

  19. Accelerated Training of Skilled Birth Attendants in a Marginalized Population on the Thai-Myanmar Border: A Multiple Methods Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Adrienne Lynne; Min, Thaw Htwe; Gross, Mechthild M; Kajeechiwa, Ladda; Thwin, May Myo; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Than, Hla Hla; Zin, Thet Wai; Rijken, Marcus J; Hoogenboom, Gabie; McGready, Rose

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a skilled birth attendant (SBA) training program in a neglected population on the Thai-Myanmar border, we used multiple methods to show that refugee and migrant health workers can be given effective training in their own environment to become SBAs and teachers of SBAs. The loss of SBAs through resettlement to third countries necessitated urgent training of available workers to meet local needs. All results were obtained from student records of theory grades and clinical log books. Qualitative evaluation of both the SBA and teacher programs was obtained using semi-structured interviews with supervisors and teachers. We also reviewed perinatal indicators over an eight-year period, starting prior to the first training program until after the graduation of the fourth cohort of SBAs. Four SBA training programs scheduled between 2009 and 2015 resulted in 79/88 (90%) of students successfully completing a training program of 250 theory hours and 625 supervised clinical hours. All 79 students were able to: achieve pass grades on theory examination (median 80%, range [70-89]); obtain the required clinical experience within twelve months; achieve clinical competence to provide safe care during childbirth. In 2010-2011, five experienced SBAs completed a train-the-trainer (TOT) program and went on to facilitate further training programs. Perinatal indicators within Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU), such as place of birth, maternal and newborn outcomes, showed no significant differences before and after introduction of training or following graduate deployment in the local maternity units. Confidence, competence and teamwork emerged from qualitative evaluation by senior SBAs working with and supervising students in the clinics. We demonstrate that in resource-limited settings or in marginalized populations, it is possible to accelerate training of skilled birth attendants to provide safe maternity care. Education needs to be tailored to local needs to ensure

  20. Accelerated Training of Skilled Birth Attendants in a Marginalized Population on the Thai-Myanmar Border: A Multiple Methods Program Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Lynne White

    Full Text Available To evaluate a skilled birth attendant (SBA training program in a neglected population on the Thai-Myanmar border, we used multiple methods to show that refugee and migrant health workers can be given effective training in their own environment to become SBAs and teachers of SBAs. The loss of SBAs through resettlement to third countries necessitated urgent training of available workers to meet local needs.All results were obtained from student records of theory grades and clinical log books. Qualitative evaluation of both the SBA and teacher programs was obtained using semi-structured interviews with supervisors and teachers. We also reviewed perinatal indicators over an eight-year period, starting prior to the first training program until after the graduation of the fourth cohort of SBAs.Four SBA training programs scheduled between 2009 and 2015 resulted in 79/88 (90% of students successfully completing a training program of 250 theory hours and 625 supervised clinical hours. All 79 students were able to: achieve pass grades on theory examination (median 80%, range [70-89]; obtain the required clinical experience within twelve months; achieve clinical competence to provide safe care during childbirth. In 2010-2011, five experienced SBAs completed a train-the-trainer (TOT program and went on to facilitate further training programs. Perinatal indicators within Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU, such as place of birth, maternal and newborn outcomes, showed no significant differences before and after introduction of training or following graduate deployment in the local maternity units. Confidence, competence and teamwork emerged from qualitative evaluation by senior SBAs working with and supervising students in the clinics.We demonstrate that in resource-limited settings or in marginalized populations, it is possible to accelerate training of skilled birth attendants to provide safe maternity care. Education needs to be tailored to local needs to

  1. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Fric, Thomas Frank [Greer, SC; Lyons, James Patrick Francis [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Holley, William Edwin [Greer, SC; Barbu, Corneliu [Guilderland, NY

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  2. Making birthing safe for Pakistan women: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two out of three neonatal deaths occur in just 10 countries and Pakistan stands third among them. Maternal mortality is also high with most deaths occurring during labor, birth, and first few hours after birth. Enhanced access and utilization of skilled delivery and emergency obstetric care is the demonstrated strategy in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. This trial aims to compare reduction in neonate mortality and utilization of available safe birthing and Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care services among pregnant mothers receiving ‘structured birth planning’, and/or ‘transport facilitation’ compared to routine care. Methods A pragmatic cluster randomized trial, with qualitative and economic studies, will be conducted in Jhang, Chiniot and Khanewal districts of Punjab, Pakistan, from February 2011 to May 2013. At least 29,295 pregnancies will be registered in the three arms, seven clusters per arm; 1 structured birth planning and travel facilitation, 2 structured birth planning, and 3 control arm. Trial will be conducted through the Lady Health Worker program. Main outcomes are difference in neonatal mortality and service utilization; maternal mortality being the secondary outcome. Cluster level analysis will be done according to intention-to-treat. Discussion A nationwide network of about 100,000 lady health workers is already involved in antenatal and postnatal care of pregnant women. They also act as “gatekeepers” for the child birthing services. This gate keeping role mainly includes counseling and referral for skill birth attendance and travel arrangements for emergency obstetric care (if required. The review of current arrangements and practices show that the care delivery process needs enhancement to include adequate information provision as well as informed “decision” making and planned “action” by the pregnant women. The proposed three-year research is to develop, through national

  3. Set-theoretic methods in control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchini, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this monograph describes the set-theoretic approach for the control and analysis of dynamic systems, both from a theoretical and practical standpoint.  This approach is linked to fundamental control problems, such as Lyapunov stability analysis and stabilization, optimal control, control under constraints, persistent disturbance rejection, and uncertain systems analysis and synthesis.  Completely self-contained, this book provides a solid foundation of mathematical techniques and applications, extensive references to the relevant literature, and numerous avenues for further theoretical study. All the material from the first edition has been updated to reflect the most recent developments in the field, and a new chapter on switching systems has been added.  Each chapter contains examples, case studies, and exercises to allow for a better understanding of theoretical concepts by practical application. The mathematical language is kept to the minimum level necessary for the adequate for...

  4. Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...

  5. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor

  6. Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...

  7. Pattern recognition methods in air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauber, S

    1978-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition methods for predicting air pollution developments is discussed. Computer analysis of historical pollution data allows comparison in graphical form. An example of crisis prediction for carbon monoxide concentrations, using the pattern recognition method of analysis, is presented. Results of the analysis agreed well with actual CO conditions. (6 graphs, 4 references, 1 table)

  8. [Outcomes after planned home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Ellen; Øian, Pål; Kumle, Merethe

    2008-11-06

    About 150 planned home births take place in Norway annually. Professionals have different opinions on whether such births are safe or not. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic literature review on maternal and neonatal outcomes after planned home births. A review was performed of literature retrieved from searches in MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and The Cochrane Library and relevant references found in the articles. The searches were limited to studies published in 1985 and later. 10 studies with data from 30 204 women who had planned and were selected to home birth at the onset of labour were included. Three of the studies had control groups including women with planned hospital births. All included studies were assessed to be of medium quality. Between 9.9 and 23.1 % of women and infants were transferred to hospital during labour or after birth. There were few caesarean sections, other interventions or complications in the studies assessed; the total perinatal mortality rate was 2.9/1000 and the intrapartum mortality rate 0.8/1000. There is no sound basis for discouraging low-risk women from planning a home birth. Results from the included studies do not directly apply to Norwegian conditions. Outcomes and transfers after planned home births should be systematically registered.

  9. Association between Breastfeeding Duration and Type of Birth Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn T. Wallenborn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Healthcare providers play an integral role in breastfeeding education and subsequent practices; however, the education and support provided to patients may differ by type of provider. The current study aims to evaluate the association between type of birth attendant and breastfeeding duration. Methods. Data from the prospective longitudinal study, Infant Feeding Practices Survey II, was analyzed. Breastfeeding duration and exclusive breastfeeding duration were defined using the American Academy of Pediatrics’ national recommendations. Type of birth attendant was categorized into obstetricians, other physicians, and midwife or nurse midwife. If mothers received prenatal care from a different type of provider than the birth attendant, they were excluded from the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results. Compared to mothers whose births were attended by an obstetrician, mothers with a family doctor or midwife were twice as likely to breastfeed at least six months. Similarly, mothers with a midwife birth attendant were three times as likely to exclusively breastfeed less than six months and six times more likely to exclusively breastfeed at least six months compared to those who had an obstetrician birth attendant. Conclusions. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of birth attendants in breastfeeding decisions. Interventions are needed to overcome barriers physicians encounter while providing breastfeeding support and education. However, this study is limited by several confounding factors that have not been controlled for as well as by the self-selection of the population.

  10. A controlled trial of the effect of aromatherapy on birth outcomes using "Rose essential oil" inhalation and foot bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Kheirkhah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Aromatherapy is the art and science of using essential oils extracted from aromatic plants, and is concerned with natural balance, coordination and promotion of health. This study was designed to determine the effect of "rose (Rosa damascena essential oil" inhalation and foot bath on the improvement of maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Material and methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, conducted on 80 primiparous women in Shahid Akbar Abadi Maternity Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Subjects were randomly assigned to aromatherapy and control groups. Aromatherapy group received methods of inhalation and foot bath with rose essential oil for 10 minutes at the beginning of the active phase and then at the onset of the transitional phase of labor. Control group received the routine care of the delivery room. The measured variables in this study included episiotomy in the second stages of labor, Apgar score, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and maternal satisfaction with the administration of pain relievers. Statistical analysis of the extracted data was performed using SPSS version 16 with Chi-square and t student test. Results: Two groups were significantly different in terms of the second stage of labor duration (P

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine administered at birth or in infancy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Danchin, Margaret; Jackson, Pamela; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Lee, Katherine J; West, Amanda; Cowley, Daniel; Chen, Mee-Yew; Barnes, Graeme L; Justice, Frances; Buttery, Jim P; Carlin, John B; Bishop, Ruth F; Taylor, Barry; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2015-12-01

    Despite the success of rotavirus vaccines, suboptimal vaccine efficacy in regions with a high burden of disease continues to present a challenge to worldwide implementation. A birth dose strategy with a vaccine developed from an asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus strain has the potential to address this challenge and provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. This phase 2a randomised, double-blind, three-arm, placebo-controlled safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken at a single centre in New Zealand between Jan 13, 2012, and April 17, 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥36 weeks gestation) babies, who weighed at least 2500 g, and were 0-5 days old at the time of randomisation were randomly assigned (1:1:1; computer-generated; telephone central allocation) according to a concealed block randomisation schedule to oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 days after birth (neonatal schedule), to vaccine with the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to placebo. The primary endpoint was cumulative vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) after three doses. The immunogenicity analysis included all randomised participants with available outcome data. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611001212943. 95 eligible participants were randomised, of whom 89 were included in the primary analysis. A cumulative vaccine take was detected in 27 (90%) of 30 participants in the neonatal schedule group after three doses of RV3-BB vaccine compared with four (13%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·78, 95% CI 0·55-0·88; pvaccine take after three doses compared with eight (25%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·68, 0·44-0·81; pvaccine was not associated with an increased frequency of fever or gastrointestinal symptoms compared with placebo. RV3-BB vaccine was

  12. Method of driving control rod in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osa, Hirotaka.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve security and safety of the reactor by reducing reactor output automatically and quickly when circulation of cooling water is stopped. Constitution: When the circulating pump is under operation, fluid pressure in the discharge pipe is transferred to the fluid room of fluid pressure cylinder via the control rod drive pipe and lift up the piston, and then the control rod is drawn out of the reactor core. When the circulating pump is lowered in its functions, discharge pipe fluid pressure decreases, fluid pressure in the fluid room decreases, and with less force of piston movement, the control rod gets lowered by its own weight. At this time, the blocked state of the opening by the piston is released, fluid flows into the room. Lowering of pressure and the control rod is promoted by transferring out fluid below the piston in the fluid room to the upper part of the piston via a small gap when the control rod falls by gravity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Metabolomic profiling in blood from umbilical cords of low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivorra Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight has been linked to an increased risk to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adult life, although the mechanisms underlying the association are not well understood. The objective was to determine whether the metabolomic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between low and normal birth weight newborns. Methods Fifty healthy pregnant women and their infants were selected. The eligibility criteria were being born at term and having a normal pregnancy. Pairs were grouped according to their birth weight: low birth weight (LBW, birth weight th percentile, n = 20 and control (control, birth weight between the 75th-90th percentiles, n = 30. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR was used to generate metabolic fingerprints of umbilical cord plasma samples. Simultaneously, the metabolomic profiles of the mothers were analysed. The resulting data were subjected to chemometric, principal component and partial least squares discriminant analyses. Results Umbilical cord plasma from LBW and control newborns displayed a clearly differentiated metabolic profile. Seven metabolites were identified that discriminate the LBW from the control group. LBW newborns had lower levels of choline, proline, glutamine, alanine and glucose than did the control newborns, while plasma levels of phenylalanine and citrulline were higher in LBW newborns (p Conclusions Low birth weight newborns display a differential metabolomic profile than those of normal birth weight, a finding not present in the mothers. The meaning and the potential utility of the findings as biomarkers of risk need to be addressed in future studies.

  14. The impact of low-dose aspirin on preterm birth: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, A A; Jessel, R H; Heyborne, K D

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether low-dose aspirin (LDA) reduced the rate of preterm birth (PTB) in a cohort of women at high risk for preeclampsia. Secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units High-Risk Aspirin trial. Preterm births were categorized by phenotype: indicated, spontaneous or due to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROMs). Of 1789 randomized women, 30.5% delivered before 37 weeks (18.5% indicated, 5.8% spontaneous and 6.2% following preterm PPROMs). Among women randomized to LDA, we observed a trend favoring fewer PTBs due to spontaneous preterm labor and preterm PPROMs, odds ratio (OR: 0.826 (0.620, 1.099)); the incidence of indicated PTBs appeared unchanged, OR: 0.999 (0.787, 1.268). Although not reaching significance, we observed an effect size similar to other studies of both low- and high-risk women. These results support findings from other studies assessing LDA as a PTB prevention strategy.

  15. Parallel control method for a bilateral master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tomohiro; Hagihara, Shiro

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a new control method for a bilateral master-slave manipulator is proposed. The proposed method yields stable and fast response of the control system. These are essential to obtain a precise position control and a sensitive force reflection control. In the conventional position-force control method, each control loop of the master and the slave arms are connected in series to construct a bilateral control loop. Therefore the total phase lag through the bilateral control loop becomes twice as much as that of one arm control. Such phase lag makes the control system unstable and control performance worse. To improve the stability and the control performance, we propose 'parallel control method.' In the proposed method, the control loops of the master and the slave arms are connected in parallel so that the total phase lag is reduced to as much as that of one arm. The stability condition of the proposed method is studied and it is proved that the stability of this method can be guaranteed independent of the rigidness of a reaction surface and the position/force ratio between the master and the slave arms while the stability of the conventional method depends on them. (author)

  16. A control method for manipulators with redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Junji; Usui, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Redundant manipulators have more ability than nonredundant ones in many aspects such as avoiding obstacles, avoiding singular states, etc. In this paper, a control algorithm for redundant manipulators working under the circumstance in the presence of obstacles is presented. First, the measure of manipulability for robot manipulators under obstacle circumstances is defined. Then, the control algorithm for the obstacle avoidance is derived by using this measure of manipulability. The obstacle avoidance and the maintenance of good posture are simultaneously achieved by this algorithm. Lastly, an experiment and simulation results using an eight degree of freedom manipulator are shown. (author)

  17. A keyboard control method for loop measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a keyboard control mode based on the DEC VAX computer. The VAX Keyboard code can be found under running of a program was developed. During the loop measurement or multitask operation, it ables to be distinguished from a keyboard code to stop current operation or transfer to another operation while previous information can be held. The combining of this mode, the author successfully used one key control loop measurement for test Dual Input Memory module which is used in a rearrange Energy Trigger system for LEP 8 Bunch operation

  18. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  19. Relationship between Maternal Serum Copper Level and Birth Weight Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzarahimi M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem. LBW is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether maternal copper nutrition is associated with pregnancy outcome or fetal growth. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at Alavi Hospital in Ardabil between August 2008 and August 2009. 56 women who had delivered low-birth- weight infants (<2500gr were taken as the case group, and from the mothers who had delivered normal birth weight infants (≥2500gr, 56 were selected at random as the control group. Venous blood samples were obtained from the mothers. Serum zinc level was determined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method.Results: Mean of birth weight in infants, maternal age, body mass index in mothers and socioeconomic or demographic factors did not differ between cases and control groups. Maternal copper concentration (μg/dl differed between Cases and Controls; 231.75±38.12μg/dl vs. 204.42±31.30μg/dl respectively. There is a significant difference (p<0.001 in the serum copper concentration between the two groups.Conclusion: There is a negative relation between low infant birth weight and maternal copper concentration.

  20. Augmented Lagrangian Method For Discretized Optimal Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we are concerned with one-dimensional time invariant optimal control problem, whose objective function is quadratic and the dynamical system is a differential equation with initial condition .Since most real life problems are nonlinear and their analytical solutions are not readily available, we resolve to ...

  1. Asynchronous electromotor controlled tuned through CARLA method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březina, Tomáš; Turek, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2004, 8-9 (2004), s. 27-30 ISSN 0033-2089. [Mechatronics 2004. Warsaw, 23.09.2004-25.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : CARLA * control Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  2. Method and device for controlling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    A device which will control radiation emanating from colour television sets is described. It consists of two transparent plates the same size as a television screen, with a thin layer of transparent mineral oil sealed between them. The device may be installed by the manufacturer or bought separately and installed by the user. (LL)

  3. Evaluation of Controller Tuning Methods Applied to Distillation Column Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; W. Andersen, Henrik; Kümmel, Professor Mogens

    A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope of this is to ex......A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope...

  4. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji

    1998-01-01

    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  5. A case-control study to examine the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy and risk of a small-for-gestational-age birth in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Rossina G; Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Dixon, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    Excessive demands on maternal nutritional status may be a risk factor for poor birth outcomes. This study examined the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks) and the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, using a matched case-control design (78 SGA cases: birthweight project midwives visited daily three government hospitals in Lima, Peru and identified cases and matched controls based on hospital, gestational age, and inter-gestational period. Mothers were interviewed and clinical chart extractions were completed. Factors associated with risk of SGA were assessed by their adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from conditional logistic regression. Exposure to an overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of having a SGA newborn [aOR=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-3.30]. However, increased risk was associated with having a previous low-birthweight birth (aOR=6.53; 95% CI: 1.43-29.70) and a low intake of animal source foods (power are needed to definitively examine this possible association and clarify whether there are other risks to the new baby, the toddler and the pregnant woman. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Association of stress and depression with chronic facial pain: A case-control study based on the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Netta; Lähdesmäki, Raija; Mäki, Pirjo; Ek, Ellen; Taanila, Anja; Pesonen, Paula; Sipilä, Kirsi

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to study the association between stress level and chronic facial pain, while controlling for the effect of depression on this association, during a three-year follow-up in a general population-based birth cohort. In the general population-based Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, information about stress level, depression and facial pain were collected using questionnaires at the age of 31 years. Stress level was measured using the Work Ability Index. Depression was assessed using the 13-item depression subscale in the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Three years later, a subsample of 52 subjects (42 women) with chronic facial pain and 52 pain-free controls (42 women) was formed. Of the subjects having high stress level at baseline, 73.3% had chronic facial pain, and 26.7% were pain-free three years later. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that high stress level at 31 years increased the risk for chronic facial pain (crude OR 6.1, 95%, CI 1.3-28.7) three years later. When including depression in a multivariate model, depression associated statistically significantly with chronic facial pain (adjusted OR 2.5, 95%, CI 1.0-5.8), whereas stress level did not (adjusted OR 2.3, 95%, CI 0.6-8.4). High stress level is connected with increased risk for chronic facial pain. This association seems to mediate through depression.

  7. Births: preliminary data for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J A; Hamilton, B E; Ventura, S J

    2001-07-24

    This report presents preliminary data for 2000 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on more than 96 percent of births for 2000. The records are weighted to independent control counts of births received in State vital statistics offices in 2000. Comparisons are made with 1999 final data. The number of births rose 3 percent between 1999 and 2000. The crude birth rate increased to 14.8 per 1,000 population in 2000, 2 percent higher than the 1999 rate. The fertility rate rose 3 percent to 67.6 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years between 1999 and 2000. The birth rate for teenagers, which has been falling since 1991, declined 2 percent in 2000 to 48.7 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years, another historic low. The rate for teenagers 15-17 years fell 4 percent, and the rate for 18-19 year olds was down 1 percent. Since 1991, rates have fallen 29 percent for teenagers 15-17 years and 16 percent for teenagers 18-19 years. Birth rates for all of the older age groups increased for 1999-2000: 1 percent among women aged 20-24 years, 3 percent for women aged 25-29 years, and 5 percent for women in their thirties. Rates for women aged 40-54 years were also up for 2000. The birth rate for unmarried women increased 2 percent to 45.2 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years in 2000, but was still lower than the peak reached in 1994. The number of births to unmarried women was up 3 percent, the highest number ever reported in the United States. However, the number of births to unmarried teenagers declined. The proportion of women who began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (83.2 percent) did not improve for 2000, nor did the rate of low birthweight (7.6 percent). The total cesarean rate rose for the fourth consecutive year to 22.9 percent, the result of both a

  8. Preventive Methods for ATM Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Baronak; Robert Trska

    2004-01-01

    Broadband transfer mode ATM represent one of alternative solutions for growing requirements on transfer capabilities. Its advantage is an effort for provisions of guaranteed quality of transport services with preservations of high transfer rate. This property is covered by several mechanisms, which role is to control not only the traffic of existing connections, but also the admission of new ones and prevent the violation of requirements on transport quality of existing and new connections.

  9. Method of controlling a control rod drive exchange apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Kanji; Hirano, Shigeo; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oowada, Masataka.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To move the mountings means for control rod drives to an aimed position easily in a short time by alternately rotating a rotational moving means and radially moving a lateral transfer means. Constitution: Positions for a rotational moving vehicle and a lateral moving vehicle are inspected respectively by synchro generators A and B. The positional signals detected by the synchro generator A is transformed into an angle by a transducer C and the positional signals detected by the synchro generator B is transformed into a radial distance by a transducer D, whereafter each of the data is transmitted to a computer. The computer controls motors to operate the rotational moving means and the lateral moving means alternately. (Seki, T.)

  10. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  11. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  12. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  13. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  14. Traditional birth attendants in an endemic area of tetanus neonatorum in Thailand: pitfalls in the control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, V; Bucharkorn, L; Treetrong, R

    1991-12-01

    A survey of the characteristics of traditional birth attendants in Krabi Province, Thailand, where the incidence rate of tetanus neonatorum was the highest in the country, was conducted in order to obtain background information necessary for planning a training curriculum and to evaluate previous training courses. Five second year medical students were used as research assistants. After the questionnaire was constructed and tested, the students went to visit a sample of 116 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to interview them about their personal backgrounds, techniques and practices in delivery and beliefs and attitudes towards midwifery. The study revealed that these TBAs were a mixture of Buddhist and Islamic females whose literacy rate was 53 percent. Ninety-one per cent knew about the availability of an injection for antenatal care at the health center, but only about half knew that it was for tetanus prevention. More than half provided antenatal care at their own home but 85 per cent conducted delivery at the client's home. About eighty per cent of the TBAs claimed that sterilization of instruments was performed. However, dressing of the umbilical cord was done inappropriately using various kinds of powders by about 40 per cent. The majority of TBAs had experience with complicated labors but only 30 per cent were referred, perhaps, due to excessive self-confidence and supernatural beliefs. The trained TBAs possessed a higher level of knowledge of immunization and sterile techniques for cord cutting and dressing of the stumps of the umbilical cord than the untrained group. However, knowledge of sterilization of instruments was not significantly different, indicating a need to improve teaching in this area.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Epidemiologic methods in mastitis treatment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, M C

    1993-11-01

    Methods and concepts of epidemiology offer means whereby udder health can be monitored and evaluated. Prerequisite to a sound epidemiologic approach is development of measures of mastitis that minimize biases and that account for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests. Mastitis surveillance offers an ongoing and passive system for evaluation of udder health, whereas clinical and observational trials offer a more proactive and developmental approach to improving udder health.

  16. Control Method for Variable Speed Wind Turbines to Support Temporary Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haijiao; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Quanyuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a control method for variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) to support temporary primary frequency control of power system. The control method contains two parts: (1) up-regulate support control when a frequency drop event occurs; (2) down-regulate support control when a frequen...

  17. Influence of discretization method on the digital control system performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futás József

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of control system can be divided into two steps. First the process or plant have to be convert into mathematical model form, so that its behavior can be analyzed. Then an appropriate controller have to be design in order to get the desired response of the controlled system. In the continuous time domain the system is represented by differential equations. Replacing a continuous system into discrete time form is always an approximation of the continuous system. The different discretization methods give different digital controller performance. The methods presented on the paper are Step Invariant or Zero Order Hold (ZOH Method, Matched Pole-Zero Method, Backward difference Method and Bilinear transformation. The above mentioned discretization methods are used in developing PI position controller of a dc motor. The motor model was converted by the ZOH method. The performances of the different methods are compared and the results are presented.

  18. The influence of fish-oil lipid emulsions on retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beken, Serdar; Dilli, Dilek; Fettah, Nurdan Dinlen; Kabataş, Emrah Utku; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effect of two lipid emulsions on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. Randomized controlled study. Eighty very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition from the first day of life were evaluated. One of the two lipid emulsions were used in the study infants: Group 1 (n=40) received fish-oil based lipid emulsion (SmofLipid®) and Group 2 (n=40) soybean oil based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®). The development of retinopathy of prematurity and the need for laser photocoagulation were assessed. The maternal and perinatal characteristics were similar in both groups. The median (range) duration of parenteral nutrition [14days (10-28) vs 14 (10-21)] and hospitalization [34days (20-64) vs 34 (21-53)] did not differ between the groups. Laboratory data including complete blood count, triglyceride level, liver and kidney function tests recorded before and after parenteral nutrition also did not differ between the two groups. In Group 1, two patients (5.0%) and in Group 2, 13 patients (32.5%) were diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (OR: 9.1, 95% CI 1.9-43.8, p=0.004). One patient in each group needed laser photocoagulation, without significant difference. Multivariate analysis showed that only receiving fish-oil emulsion in parenteral nutrition decreased the risk of development of retinopathy of prematurity [OR: 0.76, 95% CI (0.06-0.911), p=0.04]. Premature infants with very low birth weight receiving an intravenous fat emulsion containing fish oil developed less retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Helical type thermonuclear device and control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional helical type thermonuclear device, electric current flows in the toroidal direction under magnetic fields of helical coils and vertical magnetic coils, by which a circulating electric field is caused. Therefore, there is a problem that electrons as a seed are generated by cosmic rays, etc., the electrons are confined in a magnetic field boundary, are accelerated by the circulating electric field, to reach a high energy level, collide against structures in a vacuum vessel and emit a great amount of X-rays. Then, compensation coils for offsetting the magnetic fields generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils and the power source therefor are disposed at the positions opposing to each other on both sides of the vertical magnetic coils for controlling the variation coefficient rate of electric current upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils. Since the compensation coils also offset the magnetic field generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic field coils by this control, the circulating magnetic field is not caused in the vacuum vessel to reduce the X-ray radiation by electrons at high energy level. (N.H.)

  20. Global warming and climate change: control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laal, M.; Aliramaie, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aimed at finding causes of global warming and ways to bring it under control. Data based on scientific opinion as given by synthesis reports of news, articles, web sites, and books. global warming is the observed and projected increases in average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Burning fossil fuels is the main factor of pollution. As average temperature increases, habitats, species and people are threatened by drought, changes in rainfall, altered seasons, and more violent storms and floods. Indeed the life cycle of nuclear power results in relatively little pollution. Energy efficiency, solar, wind and other renewable fuels are other weapons against global warming . Human activity, primarily burning fossil fuels, is the major driving factor in global warming . Curtailing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by reducing use of oil, gasoline, coal and employment of alternate energy, sources are the tools for keeping global warming under control. global warming can be slowed and stopped, with practical actions thal yield a cleaner, healthier atmosphere

  1. Comparison of acupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone on live birth in anovulatory infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hu, Zhenxing; Wu, Wanting; Lai, Maohua; Wu, Taixiang; Ma, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered to be one of the major pathophysiological changes in PCOS that leads to anovulatory infertility. We hypothesise that electroacupuncture pretreatment improves insulin sensitivity and leads to a higher ovulation rate and greater chances of live birth after the induction of ovulation. The effect of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by ovulation induction in women with anovulatory PCOS has not been investigated before, and we present here a randomised controlled trial to test this hypothesis by comparing electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone in anovulatory women with PCOS. Methods/analysis This is a multicentre, randomised,and controlled trial. A total of 384 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomly allocated by a central randomisation system to the treatment group or the control group in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment group will undergo 16 weeks of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by 4 cycles of letrozole, and the control group will only undergo 4 cycles of letrozole. The primary outcome will be the live birth rate. All statistical analyses will be performed using the SPSS program V.21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA), and a p value <0.05 will be considered statistically significant. Ethics/dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committees of each participating centre. Written consent will be obtained from each patient and her husband before any study procedure is performed. Adverse events will be categorised, and the percentage of patients experiencing adverse events or serious adverse events during the treatment period will be documented. The results of this trial will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international meetings. Trial registration number NCT02491333. PMID:27855085

  2. Stirling engine control mechanism and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, John J.

    1983-01-01

    A reciprocating-to-rotating motion conversion and power control device for a Stirling engine includes a hub mounted on an offset portion of the output shaft for rotation relative to the shaft and for sliding motion therealong which causes the hub to tilt relative to the axis of rotation of the shaft. This changes the angle of inclination of the hub relative to the shaft axis and changes the axial stroke of a set of arms connected to the hub and nutating therewith. A hydraulic actuating mechanism is connected to the hub for moving its axial position along the shaft. A balancing wheel is linked to the hub and changes its angle of inclination as the angle of inclination of the hub changes to maintain the mechanism in perfect balance throughout its range of motion.

  3. METHODS OF AUTOMATIC QUALITY CONTROL OF AGGLUTINANTSANDS IN FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to comparative analysis of the well-known methods of automatic quality control of agglutinant sands in process of their preparation and to the problems of automation control of the mix preparation processes.

  4. Method for automatic control rod operation using rule-based control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kiguchi, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    An automatic control rod operation method using rule-based control is proposed. Its features are as follows: (1) a production system to recognize plant events, determine control actions and realize fast inference (fast selection of a suitable production rule), (2) use of the fuzzy control technique to determine quantitative control variables. The method's performance was evaluated by simulation tests on automatic control rod operation at a BWR plant start-up. The results were as follows; (1) The performance which is related to stabilization of controlled variables and time required for reactor start-up, was superior to that of other methods such as PID control and program control methods, (2) the process time to select and interpret the suitable production rule, which was the same as required for event recognition or determination of control action, was short (below 1 s) enough for real time control. The results showed that the method is effective for automatic control rod operation. (author)

  5. Associations of neonatal high birth weight with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain: a case-control study in women from Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Peng, Rong; Han, Lingli; Zhou, Xiaoli; Xiong, Zhengai; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Junnan; Yao, Ruoxue; Li, Tingyu; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-16

    To examine the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with neonatal high birth weight (HBW) in a sample of Chinese women living in southwest China. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 221 mothers who delivered HBW babies (>4.0 kg) were recruited as cases and 221 age-matched (2-year interval) mothers with normal birth weight babies (2.5-4.0 kg) were identified as controls. ORs were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis. For the analysis, pre-pregnancy BMI was categorised as underweight/normal weight/overweight and obesity and GWG was categorised as inadequate/appropriate/excessive. Among the cases, mean pre-pregnancy BMI was 21.8±2.8 kg/m(2), mean GWG was 19.7±5.1 kg and mean neonatal birth weight was 4.2±0.2 kg. In the controls, the corresponding values were 21.1±3.1 kg/m(2), 16.4±5.0 kg and 3.3±0.4 kg, respectively. More cases than controls gained excessive weight during pregnancy (80.1% vs 48.4%, p0.05). GWG was positively related to HBW after adjustment for gravidity, gestational age, newborns' gender and family income (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.25; pweight women (OR=10.27, 95% CI 3.20 to 32.95; p<0.001). Overall, the findings suggest a significantly positive association between GWG and HBW. However, pre-pregnancy BMI shows no independent relationship with HBW. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population

    OpenAIRE

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from ?partner? communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala?an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access t...

  7. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control group was randomly selected from the cases with normal live births. Blood tests were performed for children suspected to suffer from genetic blood disorders. The principal BD as per the ...

  8. Method of controlling ECCS system in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, Hideaki; Ikehara, Morihiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the risk of misoperation and thereby improve the reliability of ECCS system upon accident. Method: ECCS system for nuclear reactor is automatically started by either of signals from a water level detector in a pressure vessel or from a pressure detector in a reactor container. Further, the ECCS system is started or stopped by the manual operation irrespective of the signals, and the signals from the pressure detector are isolated from the ECCS-starting signal by the contacts which actuate interlocked with the stopping operation of the manual operation switch. Then, after stopping the ECCS system by the manual operation, the ECCS system is started by the signals from the water level detector irrespective of the signals from the pressure detector. (Seki, T.)

  9. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Developments of methods for computerized configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is known that Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is nowadays the appropriate technology and tool that can be used to optimize, during the design phase, a considered installation taking into account reliability and safety aspects, and also to evaluate and quantify the base-line risk level for the optimized installation. This base-line risk level is normally expressed by an average frequency per plant-year assigned to a scenario of interest (e.g. core damage, in case of a NPP). A considerable number of changes in components and system design can occur during the construction phase and another during the subsequent operation phase due to a continuous change in the plant configurations and their operating procedures, when compared to the configuration considered for the base-line risk quantification. These changes can be originated by planned activities like tests, maintenance and repair or by unplanned actions, mainly random events (failures) on components and systems. This results in a fluctuation of the risk level over operating time and is denominated as the ''risk profile'' (RP) of the installation. Living PSA and risk monitoring programs can assess the RP. An adequate management tool, calculating the ''risk profile'', can be used to control and optimize the operation of the installation with respect to a minimal risk level over the operating time. As a result we obtained a so called fault tolerant operation. 30 refs, 1 tab, figs

  11. Predicting the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to reduce early preterm birth in Australia and the United States using results of within country randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, LN; Gajewski, BJ; Colombo, J; Gibson, RA; Makrides, M; Carlson, SE

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) and Kansas DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) were randomized controlled trials that supplemented mothers with 800 and 600 mg DHA/day, respectively, or a placebo during pregnancy. DOMInO was conducted in Australia and KUDOS in the United States. Both trials found an unanticipated and statistically significant reduction in early preterm birth (ePTB; i.e., birth before 34 weeks gestation). However, in each trial, the number of ePTBs were small. We used a novel Bayesian approach and an arbitrary sample of 120,000 pregnancies to estimate statistically derived low, moderate or high risk for ePTB, and to test for differences between the DHA and placebo groups. In both trials, the model predicted DHA would significantly reduce the expected proportion of deliveries in the high risk group under the trial conditions of the parent studies. From these proportions we estimated the number of ePTB that could be prevented. PMID:27637340

  12. Maternal and fetal insulin levels at birth in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: data from a randomized controlled study on metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Ragnhild; Vanky, Eszter; Stridsklev, Solhild; Vogt, Christina; Carlsen, Sven M

    2014-05-01

    Metformin is suggested to reduce pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin crosses the placenta and therapeutic concentrations are measured in the fetal circulation. Whether metformin treatment in pregnant PCOS women affects maternal and fetal insulin concentrations at birth is not clarified. To investigate the possible effect of metformin on insulin concentrations in umbilical cord blood and the possible association between maternal and fetal insulin concentrations. Post-hoc analysis of a subgroup of PCOS women participating in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. University hospital setting. Women with PCOS (n=118), aged 19-39 years. Maternal and umbilical cord insulin concentrations immediately after birth. At delivery women randomized to metformin had lower insulin concentrations than those randomized to placebo (259±209 vs 361±261 pmol/l; P=0.020). No difference was found in insulin concentrations in umbilical venous (P=0.95) and arterial (P=0.39) blood between the metformin and placebo groups. The arteriovenous difference was also equal between the groups (P=0.38). Insulin concentrations were higher in the umbilical vein than in the umbilical artery independent of randomization (70±51 vs 45±48 pmol/l; Pmetformin treatment during pregnancy resulted in lower maternal insulin concentrations at delivery. Metformin treatment did not affect fetal insulin concentrations. Higher insulin concentrations in the umbilical vein indicate that the placenta somehow secretes insulin to the fetus. The possibility of placental insulin secretion to the fetus deserves further investigations.

  13. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations -survey of design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmorran, P.D.

    1979-12-01

    The development of larger nuclear generating stations increases the importance of dynamic interaction between controllers, because each control action may affect several plant outputs. Multivariable control provides the techniques to design controllers which perform well under these conditions. This report is a foundation for further work on the application of multivariable control in AECL. It covers the requirements of control and the fundamental mathematics used, then reviews the most important linear methods, based on both state-space and frequency-response concepts. State-space methods are derived from analysis of the system differential equations, while frequency-response methods use the input-output transfer function. State-space methods covered include linear-quadratic optimal control, pole shifting, and the theory of state observers and estimators. Frequency-response methods include the inverse Nyquist array method, and classical non-interactive techniques. Transfer-function methods are particularly emphasized since they can incorporate ill-defined design criteria. The underlying concepts, and the application strengths and weaknesses of each design method are presented. A review of significant applications is also given. It is concluded that the inverse Nyquist array method, a frequency-response technique based on inverse transfer-function matrices, is preferred for the design of multivariable controllers for nuclear power plants. This method may be supplemented by information obtained from a modal analysis of the plant model. (auth)

  14. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way.

  15. Scaling up quality care for mothers and newborns around the time of birth: an overview of methods and analyses of intervention-specific bottlenecks and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Kim E; Kinney, Mary V; Moxon, Sarah G; Ashton, Joanne; Zaka, Nabila; Simen-Kapeu, Aline; Sharma, Gaurav; Kerber, Kate J; Daelmans, Bernadette; Gülmezoglu, A; Mathai, Matthews; Nyange, Christabel; Baye, Martina; Lawn, Joy E

    2015-01-01

    The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP) and Ending Preventable Maternal Mortality targets cannot be achieved without high quality, equitable coverage of interventions at and around the time of birth. This paper provides an overview of the methodology and findings of a nine paper series of in-depth analyses which focus on the specific challenges to scaling up high-impact interventions and improving quality of care for mothers and newborns around the time of birth, including babies born small and sick. The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the ENAP process. Country workshops engaged technical experts to complete a tool designed to synthesise "bottlenecks" hindering the scale up of maternal-newborn intervention packages across seven health system building blocks. We used quantitative and qualitative methods and literature review to analyse the data and present priority actions relevant to different health system building blocks for skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric care, antenatal corticosteroids (ACS), basic newborn care, kangaroo mother care (KMC), treatment of neonatal infections and inpatient care of small and sick newborns. The 12 countries included in our analysis account for the majority of global maternal (48%) and newborn (58%) deaths and stillbirths (57%). Our findings confirm previously published results that the interventions with the most perceived bottlenecks are facility-based where rapid emergency care is needed, notably inpatient care of small and sick newborns, ACS, treatment of neonatal infections and KMC. Health systems building blocks with the highest rated bottlenecks varied for different interventions. Attention needs to be paid to the context specific bottlenecks for each intervention to scale up quality care. Crosscutting findings on health information gaps inform two final papers on a roadmap for improvement of coverage data for newborns and indicate the need for leadership for

  16. Births: final data for 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce A; Hamilton, Brady E; Sutton, Paul D; Ventura, Stephanie J; Menacker, Fay; Kirmeyer, Sharon

    2006-09-29

    This report presents 2004 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco use); medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care, obstetric procedures, characteristics of labor and/or delivery, attendant at birth, and method of delivery); and infant characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, Apgar score, congenital anomalies, and multiple births). Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence are shown, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 4.1 million births that occurred in 2004 are presented. Denominators for population-based rates are post-censal estimates derived from the U.S. 2000 census. In 2004, 4,112,052 births were registered in the United States, less than 1 percent more than the number in 2003. The crude birth rate declined slightly; the general fertility rate increased by less than 1 percent. Childbearing among teenagers and women aged 20-24 years declined to record lows. Rates for women aged 25-34 and 45-49 years were unchanged, whereas rates for women aged 35-44 years increased. All measures of unmarried childbearing rose in 2004. Smoking during pregnancy continued to decline. No improvement was seen in the timely initiation of prenatal care. The cesarean delivery rate jumped 6 percent to another all-time high, whereas the rate of vaginal birth after previous cesarean fell by 13 percent. Preterm and low birthweight rates continued their steady rise

  17. A Design Method of Robust Servo Internal Model Control with Control Input Saturation

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 功; 舩見, 洋祐

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we examine a design method of robust servo Internal Model Control with control input saturation. First of all, we clarify the condition that Internal Model Control has robust servo characteristics for the system with control input saturation. From this consideration, we propose new design method of Internal Model Control with robust servo characteristics. A numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown.

  18. Maternal urinary bisphenol A levels and infant low birth weight: A nested case-control study of the Health Baby Cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenqian; Xia, Wei; Wan, Yanjian; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Zhang, Yiming; Huang, Kai; Zhu, Yingshuang; Wu, Chuansha; Peng, Yang; Jiang, Minmin; Hu, Jie; Chang, Huailong; Xu, Bing; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor, has been demonstrated to affect fetal development in animal studies, but findings in human studies have been inconsistent. We investigated whether maternal exposure to BPA during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of infant low birth weight (LBW). A total 452 mother-infant pairs (113 LBW cases and 339 matched controls) were selected from the participants enrolled in the prospective Health Baby Cohort (HBC) in Wuhan city, China, during 2012-2014. BPA concentrations were measured in maternal urine samples collected at delivery, and the information of birth outcomes was retrieved from the medical records. A conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between urinary BPA levels and LBW. Mothers with LBW infants had significantly higher urinary BPA levels (median: 4.70μg/L) than the control mothers (median: 2.25μg/L) (p<0.05). Increased risk of LBW was associated with higher maternal urinary levels of BPA [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.13 for the medium tertile, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 8.08; adjusted OR=2.49 for the highest tertile, 95% CI: 0.98, 6.36]. The association was more pronounced among female infants than among male infants, with a statistical evidence of heterogeneity in risk (p=0.03). Prenatal exposure to higher levels of BPA may potentially increase the risk of delivering LBW infants, especially for female infants. This is the first case-control study to examine the association in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design Method of Active Disturbance Rejection Variable Structure Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-jie Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on lines cluster approaching theory and inspired by the traditional exponent reaching law method, a new control method, lines cluster approaching mode control (LCAMC method, is designed to improve the parameter simplicity and structure optimization of the control system. The design guidelines and mathematical proofs are also given. To further improve the tracking performance and the inhibition of the white noise, connect the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC method with the LCAMC method and create the extended state observer based lines cluster approaching mode control (ESO-LCAMC method. Taking traditional servo control system as example, two control schemes are constructed and two kinds of comparison are carried out. Computer simulation results show that LCAMC method, having better tracking performance than the traditional sliding mode control (SMC system, makes the servo system track command signal quickly and accurately in spite of the persistent equivalent disturbances and ESO-LCAMC method further reduces the tracking error and filters the white noise added on the system states. Simulation results verify the robust property and comprehensive performance of control schemes.

  20. Interactive robot control system and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having joints, actuators, and sensors, and a distributed controller. The controller includes command-level controller, embedded joint-level controllers each controlling a respective joint, and a joint coordination-level controller coordinating motion of the joints. A central data library (CDL) centralizes all control and feedback data, and a user interface displays a status of each joint, actuator, and sensor using the CDL. A parameterized action sequence has a hierarchy of linked events, and allows the control data to be modified in real time. A method of controlling the robot includes transmitting control data through the various levels of the controller, routing all control and feedback data to the CDL, and displaying status and operation of the robot using the CDL. The parameterized action sequences are generated for execution by the robot, and a hierarchy of linked events is created within the sequence.

  1. Optimal treatment cost allocation methods in pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenying; Fang Dong; Xue Dazhi

    1999-01-01

    Total emission control is an effective pollution control strategy. However, Chinese application of total emission control lacks reasonable and fair methods for optimal treatment cost allocation, a critical issue in total emission control. The author considers four approaches to allocate treatment costs. The first approach is to set up a multiple-objective planning model and to solve the model using the shortest distance ideal point method. The second approach is to define degree of satisfaction for cost allocation results for each polluter and to establish a method based on this concept. The third is to apply bargaining and arbitration theory to develop a model. The fourth is to establish a cooperative N-person game model which can be solved using the Shapley value method, the core method, the Cost Gap Allocation method or the Minimum Costs-Remaining Savings method. These approaches are compared using a practicable case study

  2. [A case-control study on association between OAS1 polymorphism and susceptibility to spontaneous preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Wu, Zhi-Hao; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Li-Na; Wang, Yan

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between the genetic polymorphism of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and susceptibility to spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The case-control study consisted of 599 preterm infants including 171 cases of PPROM, and 673 full-term infants without maternal histories of SPTB and PPROM as controls. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at OAS1 intron 5, rs10774671, was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. No significant differences were observed between the case and control groups in the frequencies of genotypes (AA, GA, and GG) and alleles (A and G) of OAS1 rs10774671. When the case group was divided into two subgroups with or without PPROM, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were found between each subgroup and the control group. When the case group was divided into three subgroups with different gestational ages at SPTB, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were detected between each subgroup and the control group. No association is identified between OAS1 SNP and susceptibility to SPTB and PPROM.

  3. Methods to control for unmeasured confounding in pharmacoepidemiology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jamal; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Ali, Mohammed Sanni; de Boer, Anthonius; Roes, Kit C B; Chowdhury, Muhammad A B; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-06-01

    Background Unmeasured confounding is one of the principal problems in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Several methods have been proposed to detect or control for unmeasured confounding either at the study design phase or the data analysis phase. Aim of the Review To provide an overview of commonly used methods to detect or control for unmeasured confounding and to provide recommendations for proper application in pharmacoepidemiology. Methods/Results Methods to control for unmeasured confounding in the design phase of a study are case only designs (e.g., case-crossover, case-time control, self-controlled case series) and the prior event rate ratio adjustment method. Methods that can be applied in the data analysis phase include, negative control method, perturbation variable method, instrumental variable methods, sensitivity analysis, and ecological analysis. A separate group of methods are those in which additional information on confounders is collected from a substudy. The latter group includes external adjustment, propensity score calibration, two-stage sampling, and multiple imputation. Conclusion As the performance and application of the methods to handle unmeasured confounding may differ across studies and across databases, we stress the importance of using both statistical evidence and substantial clinical knowledge for interpretation of the study results.

  4. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home

  5. Beating Birth Defects

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.

  6. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  7. The birth satisfaction scale: Turkish adaptation, validation and reliability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Fatma Cosar; Sezer, Ayse; Merih, Yeliz Dogan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the validity and the reliability of Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and to adapt it into the Turkish language. This scale is used for measuring maternal satisfaction with birth in order to evaluate women’s birth perceptions. METHODS: In this study there were 150 women who attended to inpatient postpartum clinic. The participants filled in an information form and the BSS questionnaire forms. The properties of the scale were tested by conducting reliability and validation analyses. RESULTS: BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions. It was developed by Hollins Martin and Fleming. Total scale scores ranged between 30–150 points. Higher scores from the scale mean increases in birth satisfaction. Three overarching themes were identified in Scale: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships with health care professionals); personal attributes (ability to cope during labour, feeling in control, childbirth preparation, relationship with baby); and stress experienced during labour (distress, obstetric injuries, receiving sufficient medical care, obstetric intervention, pain, prolonged labour and baby’s health). Cronbach’s alfa coefficient was 0.62. CONCLUSION: According to the present study, BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions and evaluates women’s birth perceptions. The Turkish version of BSS has been proven to be a valid and a reliable scale. PMID:28058355

  8. Study of Relation between Physical Activity and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Preterm birth is the main cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and the importance of knowing its causes is clear. Since the effect of physical activity on preterm birth is unknown and its prevention is the priority in health care, we decided to do this study with the aim of determining the relation between physical activity and preterm birth. Methods: In this case-control study, 300 pregnant women delivering in Izadi Hospital in Qom, Iran in the second half of 2008, selected through simple sampling. The data were collected using standard pregnancy physical activity questionnaire that categorizes the physical activity into 4 groups: work activities, home activities, transport activities and fun/exercise activities. The physical activity severity was calculated as MET (Metabolic Equivalence Test. Finally, the data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic (x2 and t test statistics. A p<0.05 was considered as significant.Results: The findings didn't show any significant relation between physical activity and preterm birth. In addition, in view of activity type, fun/exercise and work activities (respectively and in view of activity severity, sedentary and moderate activities (respectively were associated with higher, but insignificant rate of preterm birth. Among demographic factors, only gravidity of women was significantly associated with preterm birth.Conclusion: Although, in this study the significant relation between physical activity and preterm delivery wasn't observed, the same research with further sample is recommended.

  9. Enrichment from birth accelerates the functional and cellular development of a motor control area in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Simonetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that sensory experience in early life has a profound influence on the development of sensory circuits. Very little is known, however, about the role of experience in the early development of striatal networks which regulate both motor and cognitive function. To address this, we have investigated the influence of early environmental enrichment on motor development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were raised in standard or enriched housing from birth. For animals assessed as adults, half of the mice had their rearing condition reversed at weaning to enable the examination of the effects of pre- versus post-weaning enrichment. We found that exclusively pre-weaning enrichment significantly improved performance on the Morris water maze compared to non-enriched mice. The effects of early enrichment on the emergence of motor programs were assessed by performing behavioural tests at postnatal day 10. Enriched mice traversed a significantly larger region of the test arena in an open-field test and had improved swimming ability compared to non-enriched cohorts. A potential cellular correlate of these changes was investigated using Wisteria-floribunda agglutinin (WFA staining to mark chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs. We found that the previously reported transition of CSPG staining from striosome-associated clouds to matrix-associated perineuronal nets (PNNs is accelerated in enriched mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration that the early emergence of exploratory as well as coordinated movement is sensitive to experience. These behavioural changes are correlated with an acceleration of the emergence of striatal PNNs suggesting that they may consolidate the neural circuits underlying these behaviours. Finally, we confirm that pre-weaning experience can lead to life long changes in the learning ability of mice.

  10. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Fraser, Drora

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.

  11. Concepts and Methods in Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Staroswiecly, M.; Wu, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to technical parts of the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control combines diagnosis with control methods to handle faults...

  12. Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives th...... the condenser pressure towards an optimal state. The objective of this is to present a feasible method that can be used for energy optimizing control. A simulation model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as basis for testing the control method....

  13. Randomized controlled trial of skin-to-skin contact from birth versus conventional incubator for physiological stabilization in 1200- to 2199-gram newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, N J; Linley, L L; Fawcus, S R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional care of prematurely born infants involves extended maternal-infant separation and incubator care. Recent research has shown that separation causes adverse effects. Maternal-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) provides an alternative habitat to the incubator, with proven benefits for stable prematures; this has not been established for unstable or newborn low-birthweight infants. SSC from birth was therefore compared to incubator care for infants between 1200 and 2199 g at birth. This was a prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled clinical trial; potential subjects were identified before delivery and randomized by computerized minimization technique at 5 min if eligible. Standardized care and observations were maintained for 6 h. Stability was measured in terms of a set of pre-determined physiological parameters, and a composite cardio-respiratory stabilization score (SCRIP). 34 infants were analysed in comparable groups: 3/18 SSC compared to 12/13 incubator babies exceeded the pre-determined parameters (p incubator (maximum 78), mean difference 2.88 (95% CI: 0.3-5.46, p = 0.031). All 18 SSC subjects were stable in the sixth hour, compared to 6/13 incubator infants. Eight out of 13 incubator subjects experienced hypothermia. Newborn care provided by skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest results in better physiological outcomes and stability than the same care provided in closed servo-controlled incubators. The cardio-respiratory instability seen in separated infants in the first 6 h is consistent with mammalian "protest-despair" biology, and with "hyper-arousal and dissociation" response patterns described in human infants: newborns should not be separated from their mothers.

  14. Internal quality control of RIA with Tonks error calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaodong

    1996-01-01

    According to the methodology feature of RIA, an internal quality control chart with Tonks error calculation method which is suitable for RIA is designed. The quality control chart defines the value of the allowance error with normal reference range. The method has the simplicity of its performance and directly perceived through the senses. Taking the example of determining T 3 and T 4 , the calculation of allowance error, drawing of quality control chart and the analysis of result are introduced

  15. BIRTH ORDER AMONG NORTHERN INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Agarwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the medical entrance examination from responded 360 medical students among 494 students admitted during 2005 – 2010. Results: The study revealed insignificant relationship between ages of entrance in medical college in both sexes. of 360 students responded 37% students were of first Birth order. Among those admitted in first attempt, 67% students were of first birth order and proportion of success in first attempt reduced with increasing birth order. Conclusion: Birth Order strongly influences academic achievements.

  16. Visual memory and learning in extremely low-birth-weight/extremely preterm adolescents compared with controls: a geographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Carly S; Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Vicki A; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary data on visual memory and learning in survivors born extremely preterm (EP; Visual learning and memory data were available for 221 (74.2%) EP/ELBW subjects and 159 (60.7%) controls. EP/ELBW adolescents exhibited significantly poorer performance across visual memory and learning variables compared with controls. Visual learning and delayed visual memory were particularly problematic and remained so after controlling for visual-motor integration and visual perception and excluding adolescents with neurosensory disability, and/or IQ visual memory and learning outcomes compared with controls, which cannot be entirely explained by poor visual perceptual or visual constructional skills or intellectual impairment.

  17. Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

  18. A novel adaptive force control method for IPMC manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Lina; Sun, Zhiyong; Su, Yunquan; Gao, Jianchao; Li, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    IPMC is a type of electro-active polymer material, also called artificial muscle, which can generate a relatively large deformation under a relatively low input voltage (generally speaking, less than 5 V), and can be implemented in a water environment. Due to these advantages, IPMC can be used in many fields such as biomimetics, service robots, bio-manipulation, etc. Until now, most existing methods for IPMC manipulation are displacement control not directly force control, however, under most conditions, the success rate of manipulations for tiny fragile objects is limited by the contact force, such as using an IPMC gripper to fix cells. Like most EAPs, a creep phenomenon exists in IPMC, of which the generated force will change with time and the creep model will be influenced by the change of the water content or other environmental factors, so a proper force control method is urgently needed. This paper presents a novel adaptive force control method (AIPOF control—adaptive integral periodic output feedback control), based on employing a creep model of which parameters are obtained by using the FRLS on-line identification method. The AIPOF control method can achieve an arbitrary pole configuration as long as the plant is controllable and observable. This paper also designs the POF and IPOF controller to compare their test results. Simulation and experiments of micro-force-tracking tests are carried out, with results confirming that the proposed control method is viable. (paper)

  19. A Robust Cooperated Control Method with Reinforcement Learning and Adaptive H∞ Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Masanao; Uchiyama, Shogo; Kuremoto, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kunikazu

    This study proposes a robust cooperated control method combining reinforcement learning with robust control to control the system. A remarkable characteristic of the reinforcement learning is that it doesn't require model formula, however, it doesn't guarantee the stability of the system. On the other hand, robust control system guarantees stability and robustness, however, it requires model formula. We employ both the actor-critic method which is a kind of reinforcement learning with minimal amount of computation to control continuous valued actions and the traditional robust control, that is, H∞ control. The proposed system was compared method with the conventional control method, that is, the actor-critic only used, through the computer simulation of controlling the angle and the position of a crane system, and the simulation result showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Method for evaluating operator inputs to digital controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Most industrial processes employ operator-interactive control systems. The performance of these control systems is influenced by the choice of control station (device through which operator enters control commands). While the importance of proper control-station selection is widely accepted, standard and simple selection methods are not available for the control station using color-graphics terminals. This paper describes a unique facility for evaluating the effectiveness of various control stations. In the facility, a process is simulated on a hybrid computer, color-graphics display terminals provide information to the operator, and different control stations accept input commands to control the simulation. Tests are being conducted to evaluate a keyboard, a graphics tablet, and a CRT touch panel for use as control stations on a nuclear power plant. Preliminary results indicate that our facility can be used to determine those situations where each type of station is advantageous

  1. A time-delayed method for controlling chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun

    2005-01-01

    Combining the repetitive learning strategy and the optimality principle, this Letter proposes a time-delayed method to control chaotic maps. This method can effectively stabilize unstable periodic orbits within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. Numerical simulations of some chaotic maps verify the effectiveness of this method

  2. Polarization control method for UV writing of advanced bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Plougmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2002-01-01

    We report the application of the polarization control method for the UV writing of advanced fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). We demonstrate the strength of the new method for different apodization profiles, including the Sinc-profile and two designs for dispersion-free square filters. The method has...

  3. Force Feedback Control Method of Active Tuned Mass Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active tuned mass dampers as vibration-control devices are widely used in many fields for their good stability and effectiveness. To improve the performance of such dampers, a control method based on force feedback is proposed. The method offers several advantages such as high-precision control and low-performance requirements for the actuator, as well as not needing additional compensators. The force feedback control strategy was designed based on direct-velocity feedback. The effectiveness of the method was verified in a single-degree-of-freedom system, and factors such as damping effect, required active force, actuator stroke, and power consumption of the damper were analyzed. Finally, a simulation study was performed by configuring a main complex elastic-vibration-damping system. The results show that the method provides effective control over modal resonances of multiple orders of the system and improves its dynamics performance.

  4. Plans, preferences or going with the flow: An online exploration of women's views and experiences of birth plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divall, Bernie; Spiby, Helen; Nolan, Mary; Slade, Pauline

    2017-11-01

    To explore women's views of birth plans, and experiences of their completion and use. A qualitative, descriptive study, using Internet-mediated research methods. The discussion boards of two well-known, UK-based, online parenting forums, where a series of questions relating to birth plans were posted. Members of the selected parenting forums who had written and used, or who had chosen not to write or use, a birth plan. Women responded with a range of views and experiences relating to the completion and use of birth plans. The benefits of birth plans were described in terms of communication with healthcare professionals, potentially enhancing awareness of available options, and maintaining a sense of control during labour and birth. However, many respondents believed the idea of 'planning' birth was problematic, and described a reluctance to write a formal plan. The support of healthcare professionals, particularly midwives, was considered essential to the success of both writing and using birth plans. Our findings show a continued debate among women on the benefits and challenges involved in writing and using birth plans, suggesting problems for a 'one size fits all' approach often seen in the use of birth plan templates. In the context of maternity policy supporting women's choice and personalised care, and as a way of acknowledging perceived problems of 'planning' for birth, a flexible approach to birth plans is required, including the consideration of employing alternative nomenclature. Birth plans remain a point of contention in care contexts around the world. Midwives and other healthcare providers play a central role in supporting women to discuss available options, whether or not they decide to complete a formal birth plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bifurcation-free design method of pulse energy converter controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolov, Yury; Ustinov, Pavel; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a design method of pulse energy converter (PEC) controllers is proposed. This method develops a classical frequency domain design, based on the small signal modeling, by means of an addition of a nonlinear dynamics analysis stage. The main idea of the proposed method consists in fact that the PEC controller, designed with an application of the small signal modeling, is tuned after with taking into the consideration an essentially nonlinear nature of the PEC that makes it possible to avoid bifurcation phenomena in the PEC dynamics at the design stage (bifurcation-free design). Also application of the proposed method allows an improvement of the designed controller performance. The application of this bifurcation-free design method is demonstrated on an example of the controller design of direct current-direct current (DC-DC) buck converter with an input electromagnetic interference filter.

  6. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1996-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  7. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1997-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  8. The Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design By Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form....... By regarding the nominal control system as the desired model, an augmented control system is constructed through the model-matching formulation, such that the current robust control techniques can be usedto synthesize these dynamical modules. One extension of this method with respect to the performance...... recovery besides the functionality recovery is also discussed under this framework. Comparing with the conventional control mixer method, the proposed method considers the recon gured system's stability, performance and robustness simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated by a case study...

  9. Control system and method for payload control in mobile platform cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Groom, Kenneth N.; Feddema, John T.; Parker, Gordon G.

    2002-01-01

    A crane control system and method provides a way to generate crane commands responsive to a desired payload motion to achieve substantially pendulation-free actual payload motion. The control system and method apply a motion compensator to maintain a payload in a defined payload configuration relative to an inertial coordinate frame. The control system and method can further comprise a pendulation damper controller to reduce an amount of pendulation between a sensed payload configuration and the defined payload configuration. The control system and method can further comprise a command shaping filter to filter out a residual payload pendulation frequency from the desired payload motion.

  10. An historical survey of computational methods in optimal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the salient theoretical developments in the specific area of optimal control algorithms. The first algorithms for optimal control were aimed at unconstrained problems and were derived by using first- and second-variation methods of the calculus of variations. These methods have subsequently been recognized as gradient, Newton-Raphson, or Gauss-Newton methods in function space. A much more recent addition to the arsenal of unconstrained optimal control algorithms are several variations of conjugate-gradient methods. At first, constrained optimal control problems could only be solved by exterior penalty function methods. Later algorithms specifically designed for constrained problems have appeared. Among these are methods for solving the unconstrained linear quadratic regulator problem, as well as certain constrained minimum-time and minimum-energy problems. Differential-dynamic programming was developed from dynamic programming considerations. The conditional-gradient method, the gradient-projection method, and a couple of feasible directions methods were obtained as extensions or adaptations of related algorithms for finite-dimensional problems. Finally, the so-called epsilon-methods combine the Ritz method with penalty function techniques.

  11. Two Reconfigurable Flight-Control Design Methods: Robust Servomechanism and Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Lu; Bahm, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the fight body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

  12. Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ilić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids brings together leading experts in power, control and communication systems,and consolidates some of the most promising recent research in smart grid modeling,control and optimization in hopes of laying the foundation for future advances in this critical field of study. The contents comprise eighteen essays addressing wide varieties of control-theoretic problems for tomorrow’s power grid. Topics covered include: Control architectures for power system networks with large-scale penetration of renewable energy and plug-in vehicles Optimal demand response New modeling methods for electricity markets Control strategies for data centers Cyber-security Wide-area monitoring and control using synchronized phasor measurements. The authors present theoretical results supported by illustrative examples and practical case studies, making the material comprehensible to a wide audience. The results reflect the exponential transformation that today’s grid is going...

  13. An Accurate Transmitting Power Control Method in Wireless Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naikang; Wen, Zhiping; Hou, Xunping; Bi, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Power control circuits are widely used in transceivers aiming at stabilizing the transmitted signal power to a specified value, thereby reducing power consumption and interference to other frequency bands. In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional modes of power control, this paper proposes an accurate signal power detection method by multiplexing the receiver and realizes transmitting power control in the digital domain. The simulation results show that this novel digital power control approach has advantages of small delay, high precision and simplified design procedure. The proposed method is applicable to transceivers working at large frequency dynamic range, and has good engineering practicability.

  14. Administration of misoprostol by trained traditional birth attendants to prevent postpartum haemorrhage in homebirths in Pakistan: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobeen, N; Durocher, J; Zuberi, Nf; Jahan, N; Blum, J; Wasim, S; Walraven, G; Hatcher, J

    2011-02-01

    to determine if misoprostol is safe and efficacious in preventing postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) when administered by trained traditional birth attendants (TBA) at home deliveries. a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. a total of 1119 women giving birth at home. from June 2006 to June 2008, consenting women were randomised to receive 600 microg oral misoprostol (n = 534) or placebo (n = 585) after delivery to determine whether misoprostol reduced the incidence of PPH (≥ 500 ml). the primary outcomes were measured blood loss ≥ 500 ml after delivery and drop in haemoglobin >2 g/dl from before to after delivery. oral misoprostol was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of PPH (≥ 500 ml) (16.5 versus 21.9%; relative risk 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.97). There were no measurable differences between study groups for drop in haemoglobin >2 g/dl (relative risk 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.02); but significantly fewer women receiving misoprostol had a drop in haemoglobin >3 g/dl, compared with placebo (5.1 versus 9.6%; relative risk 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.83). Shivering and chills were significantly more common with misoprostol. There were no maternal deaths among participants. postpartum administration of 600 microg oral misoprostol by trained TBAs at home deliveries reduces the rate of PPH by 24%. Given its ease of use and low cost, misoprostol could reduce the burden of PPH in community settings where universal oxytocin prophylaxis is not feasible. Continual training and skill-building for TBAs, along with monitoring and evaluation of programme effectiveness, should accompany any widespread introduction of this drug.

  15. An Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Weight Gain of Very Low Birth Weight Babies with or without Addition of Coconut Oil to Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Sumitha; Kumar, Manish; Paul, Thomas; Thomas, Nihal; Mathai, Sarah; Rebekah, Grace; Thomas, Niranjan

    2018-03-23

    Nutritional guidelines involving the feeding of very low birth weight babies (VLBW) recommend addition of Human Milk Fortifiers to breast milk. Owing to financial constraints, it is a practice in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to add coconut oil to aid better weight gain. There are inadequate data on improvement of growth parameters with oral coconut oil supplementation of breast milk. In this randomized controlled trial, we measured growth parameters and body composition of 60 babies who received either breast milk with coconut oil or breast milk alone. Randomization was stratified according to intrauterine growth appropriate for gestational age (n = 30) and small for gestational age (n = 30). There was no difference in weight gain between the two groups. The weight gain velocity was 15 ± 3.6 and 14.4 ± 3.4 g/kg/day (p value = 0.49) in the breast milk alone and in the breast milk with coconut oil group, respectively. There was no difference in increase in head circumference and length. Triceps skinfold thickness (n = 56) was similar in both groups, but subscapular skinfold thickness was significantly more in the coconut oil group. Total body fat percentage did not differ between the groups (25.2 ± 4.3 vs. 25.5 ± 4.3%, p = 0.79). Oral supplementation of coconut oil along with breast milk did not increase growth parameters or result in change in body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) babies.

  16. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Jonsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design: The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28 and from control families in the same rural area (n=37 was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results: Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions: Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings.

  17. Validity of parental work information on the birth certificate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langlois Peter H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the most recent revision (2003 of the U.S. standard certificate of live births, the National Center for Health Statistics recommended that all states collect maternal and paternal usual occupation. Because such information might be useful in the surveillance of job-related risk areas, we assessed the quality of parental work information on the U.S. birth certificate. Methods Occupational histories obtained from maternal interviews with Texas (USA participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study were linked to and compared with parental work information on birth certificates. With occupational information from interviews serving as the gold standard, we assessed the quality of occupational information on the birth certificate with measures of sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa statistic. Results Of the 649 births available for study, parental occupation agreed between the birth certificate and interview for 77% of mothers and 63% of fathers with similar agreement by case-control status. Among occupations and industries with 10 or more workers by interview, sensitivity of the birth certificate information ranged from 35% to 100% for occupational groups and 55% to 100% for industrial sectors. Specificities of occupations/industries studied ranged from 93 to 100%. Kappa statistics for maternal occupations (0.76 to 0.90 and industries (0.59 to 0.94 were higher than those for paternal occupations (0.48 to 0.92 and industries (0.47 to 0.89. Mothers were frequently misclassified as homemakers or otherwise unemployed while the paternal information was often missing altogether on the birth certificate. Women who worked as health diagnosing and treating practitioners were the least likely (0% and women in food preparation or serving occupations were the most likely (65% to be misclassified as not employed on the birth certificate. Among fathers, the proportion of missing occupations was the lowest for occupations in

  18. Comportamiento de mujeres y sus parejas referentes a la planificación familiar Comportamento de mulheres e seus casais referentes ao planejamento familiar Women and their couple's behavior regarding birth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes da Silva Marques Ferreira

    2010-07-01

    morais, sociais e religiosos, que têm que ver com o exercício da sexualidade.Objective. To describe women behavior regarding birth control and analyze if such behavior has any cultural influence. Methodology. Qualitative study in which patients were women who were waiting for their family health program consult in three health units of the city Ilah Comprida in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected during October and November of 2007, the interview was used as source of information, subsequently they were subjected to the content analysis technique. Results. Women are responsible for birth control; they consider there are difficulties with birth control especially due to inefficient information about methods of contraception and family influence over this adopted behavior. Conclusion. Birth control is influenced by cultural models, moral, social and religious values related with the exercise of sexuality.

  19. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  20. Study of Inverted Pendulum Robot Using Fuzzy Servo Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inverted pendulum robot is a classical problem in controls. The inherit instabilities in the setup make it a natural target for a control system. Inverted pendulum robot is suitable to use for investigation and verification of various control methods for dynamic systems. Maintaining an equilibrium position of the pendulum pointing up is a challenge as this equilibrium position is unstable. As the inverted pendulum robot system is nonlinear it is well-suited to be controlled by fuzzy logic. In this paper, Lagrange method has been applied to develop the mathematical model of the system. The objective of the simulation to be shown using the fuzzy control method can stabilize the nonlinear system of inverted pendulum robot.

  1. of different weed control methods on Weed infestation, growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    This weed control method also resulted in significantly better growth and ... proper management, it is possible to obtain 2,500 kg ha-1 (Onwueme and Sinha, 1991). ... however, time consuming, labour – intensive, strenuous and generally ...

  2. Surface control alloy substrates and methods of manufacture therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Mendon, MA); Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Annavarapu, Suresh (Brookline, MA); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-05-04

    Methods and articles for controlling the surface of an alloy substrate for deposition of an epitaxial layer. The invention includes the use of an intermediate layer to stabilize the substrate surface against oxidation for subsequent deposition of an epitaxial layer.

  3. Traditional methods of social control in Afikpo north local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional methods of social control in Afikpo north local government area, Ebonyi state south eastern Nigeria. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... simple percentage was used in presenting and interpreting the quantitative data.

  4. Losing women along the path to safe motherhood: why is there such a gap between women's use of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance? A mixed methods study in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Erin; Borchert, Matthias; Campbell, Oona M R; Sondorp, Egbert; Kaducu, Felix; Hill, Olivia; Okeng, Dennis; Odong, Vicki Norah; Lange, Isabelle L

    2015-11-04

    Thousands of women and newborns still die preventable deaths from pregnancy and childbirth-related complications in poor settings. Delivery with a skilled birth attendant is a vital intervention for saving lives. Yet many women, particularly where maternal mortality ratios are highest, do not have a skilled birth attendant at delivery. In Uganda, only 58 % of women deliver in a health facility, despite approximately 95 % of women attending antenatal care (ANC). This study aimed to (1) identify key factors underlying the gap between high rates of antenatal care attendance and much lower rates of health-facility delivery; (2) examine the association between advice during antenatal care to deliver at a health facility and actual place of delivery; (3) investigate whether antenatal care services in a post-conflict district of Northern Uganda actively link women to skilled birth attendant services; and (4) make recommendations for policy- and program-relevant implementation research to enhance use of skilled birth attendance services. This study was carried out in Gulu District in 2009. Quantitative and qualitative methods used included: structured antenatal care client entry and exit interviews [n = 139]; semi-structured interviews with women in their homes [n = 36], with health workers [n = 10], and with policymakers [n = 10]; and focus group discussions with women [n = 20], men [n = 20], and traditional birth attendants [n = 20]. Seventy-five percent of antenatal care clients currently pregnant reported they received advice during their last pregnancy to deliver in a health facility, and 58 % of these reported having delivered in a health facility. After adjustment for confounding, women who reported they received advice at antenatal care to deliver at a health facility were significantly more likely (aOR = 2.83 [95 % CI: 1.19-6.75], p = 0.02) to report giving birth in a facility. Despite high antenatal care coverage, a number of demand and supply side

  5. Power control method for load-frequency control operation in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ie, Shin-ichiroo; Ohgo, Yu-kiharu; Itou, Tetsuo; Shida, Tooichi

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design of an advanced power control method for fast load-following [load frequency control (LFC)] maneuvers in a boiling water reactor (BWR) is described in this paper. Application of a multivariable control method using an optimal linear quadratic (LQ) regulator theory effectively improves control system performance when system variables have significant interactions such as in BWRs. The control problem, however, demands strict constraints on system variable from the standpoint of plant operation. These constraints require the control system to have a nonlinear property for better improvement. Therefore, the effectiveness of LQ control is limited by these constraints, because it is based on a linear model. A new method is needed to compensate for the nonlinear property. In this study, the authors propose a new method using fuzzy reasoning with LQ control to achieve nonlinear compensation

  6. Management systems, control and motivation methods used at enterprises groups

    OpenAIRE

    Leugaudaitė, Dalia

    2017-01-01

    MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, CONTROL AND MOTIVATION METHODS USED AT ENTERPRISES GROUPS 69 pages, 3 tables, 25 pictures, 39 literature references. The aim of the Master's paper is to determine the implementation impact of the motivation and controlling methods to achieve efficiency in management systems. As a result of the scientific literature analysis, the advantages and disadvantages of the management systems were selected. These statements were used for the primary survey of the initial group of co...

  7. Method for controlling incineration in combustor for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoku, Y.; Uehara, A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for controlling incineration in a combustor for low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, it relates to a method for economizing in the consumption of supplemental fuel while maintaining a stable incineration state by controlling the amount of fuel and of radioactive wastes fed to the combustor. The amount of fuel supplied is determined by the outlet gas temperature of the combustor. (L.L.)

  8. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  9. Moderate hypothermia within 6 h of birth plus inhaled xenon versus moderate hypothermia alone after birth asphyxia (TOBY-Xe): a proof-of-concept, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Denis; Robertson, Nicola J; Bainbridge, Alan; Cady, Ernest; Charles-Edwards, Geoffrey; Deierl, Aniko; Fagiolo, Gianlorenzo; Franks, Nicholas P; Griffiths, James; Hajnal, Joseph; Juszczak, Edmund; Kapetanakis, Basil; Linsell, Louise; Maze, Mervyn; Omar, Omar; Strohm, Brenda; Tusor, Nora; Edwards, A David

    2016-02-01

    Moderate cooling after birth asphyxia is associated with substantial reductions in death and disability, but additional therapies might provide further benefit. We assessed whether the addition of xenon gas, a promising novel therapy, after the initiation of hypothermia for birth asphyxia would result in further improvement. Total Body hypothermia plus Xenon (TOBY-Xe) was a proof-of-concept, randomised, open-label, parallel-group trial done at four intensive-care neonatal units in the UK. Eligible infants were 36-43 weeks of gestational age, had signs of moderate to severe encephalopathy and moderately or severely abnormal background activity for at least 30 min or seizures as shown by amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), and had one of the following: Apgar score of 5 or less 10 min after birth, continued need for resuscitation 10 min after birth, or acidosis within 1 h of birth. Participants were allocated in a 1:1 ratio by use of a secure web-based computer-generated randomisation sequence within 12 h of birth to cooling to a rectal temperature of 33·5°C for 72 h (standard treatment) or to cooling in combination with 30% inhaled xenon for 24 h started immediately after randomisation. The primary outcomes were reduction in lactate to N-acetyl aspartate ratio in the thalamus and in preserved fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and MRI, respectively, within 15 days of birth. The investigator assessing these outcomes was masked to allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00934700, and with ISRCTN, as ISRCTN08886155. The study was done from Jan 31, 2012, to Sept 30, 2014. We enrolled 92 infants, 46 of whom were randomly assigned to cooling only and 46 to xenon plus cooling. 37 infants in the cooling only group and 41 in the cooling plus xenon group underwent magnetic resonance assessments and were included in the analysis of

  10. Birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K J; Carozza, S E; Chow, E J; Fox, E E; Horel, S; McLaughlin, C C; Mueller, B A; Puumala, S E; Reynolds, P; Von Behren, J; Spector, L G

    2011-10-25

    Carcinomas in children are rare and have not been well studied. We conducted a population-based case-control study and examined associations between birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas diagnosed from 28 days to 14 years during 1980-2004 using pooled data from five states (NY, WA, MN, TX, and CA) that linked their birth and cancer registries. The pooled data set contained 57,966 controls and 475 carcinoma cases, including 159 thyroid and 126 malignant melanoma cases. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). White compared with 'other' race was positively associated with melanoma (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.33-8.33). Older maternal age increased the risk for melanoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44), whereas paternal age increased the risk for any carcinoma (OR=1.10(per 5-year age increase), 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and thyroid carcinoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). Gestational age birth weight, and birth order were not significantly associated with childhood carcinomas. This exploratory study indicates that some birth characteristics including older parental age and low gestational age may be related to childhood carcinoma aetiology.

  11. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  12. Operation safety of control systems. Principles and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubry, J.F.; Chatelet, E.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the main operation safety methods that can be implemented to design safe control systems taking into account the behaviour of the different components with each other (binary 'operation/failure' behaviours, non-consistent behaviours and 'hidden' failures, dynamical behaviours and temporal aspects etc). To take into account these different behaviours, advanced qualitative and quantitative methods have to be used which are described in this article: 1 - qualitative methods of analysis: functional analysis, preliminary risk analysis, failure mode and failure effects analyses; 2 - quantitative study of systems operation safety: binary representation models, state space-based methods, event space-based methods; 3 - application to the design of control systems: safe specifications of a control system, qualitative analysis of operation safety, quantitative analysis, example of application; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  13. Process control and optimization with simple interval calculation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomerantsev, A.; Rodionova, O.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2006-01-01

    for the quality improvement in the course of production. The latter is an active quality optimization, which takes into account the actual history of the process. The advocate approach is allied to the conventional method of multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) as it also employs the historical process......Methods of process control and optimization are presented and illustrated with a real world example. The optimization methods are based on the PLS block modeling as well as on the simple interval calculation methods of interval prediction and object status classification. It is proposed to employ...... the series of expanding PLS/SIC models in order to support the on-line process improvements. This method helps to predict the effect of planned actions on the product quality and thus enables passive quality control. We have also considered an optimization approach that proposes the correcting actions...

  14. ProMES: A method for "accepted control loops"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    ProMES, a method for the measurement and feedback of performance data is related to the concepts of goal setting and feedback (Locke, 1991; Locke and Latham, 1990), and to the concept of self-control (Bandura, 1991). The result is a model for self-management: the "accepted control loop". Whether

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Aflatoxin Control Methods: Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sectors in U.S. crop industries – growers, elevators, handlers/shellers, processors, distributors, and consumers – are affected by aflatoxin contamination of commodities, and have the potential to control it. Aflatoxin control methods at both preharvest and postharvest levels have been dev...

  16. Adaptive decoupled power control method for inverter connected DG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    an adaptive droop control method based on online evaluation of power decouple matrix for inverter connected distributed generations in distribution system. Traditional decoupled power control is simply based on line impedance parameter, but the load characteristics also cause the power coupling, and alter...

  17. Digital Resonant Controller based on Modified Tustin Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonant controllers are used in power converter voltage and current control due to their simplicity and accuracy. However, digital implementation of resonant controllers introduces problems related to zero and pole mapping from the continuous to the discrete time domain. Namely, some discretization methods introduce significant errors in the digital controller resonant frequency, resulting in the loss of the asymptotic AC reference tracking, especially at high resonant frequencies. The delay compensation typical for resonant controllers can also be compromised. Based on the existing analysis, it can be concluded that the Tustin discretization with frequency prewarping represents a preferable choice from the point of view of the resonant frequency accuracy. However, this discretization method has a shortcoming in applications that require real-time frequency adaptation, since complex trigonometric evaluation is required for each frequency change. In order to overcome this problem, in this paper the modified Tustin discretization method is proposed based on the Taylor series approximation of the frequency prewarping function. By comparing the novel discretization method with commonly used two-integrator-based proportional-resonant (PR digital controllers, it is shown that the resulting digital controller resonant frequency and time delay compensation errors are significantly reduced for the novel controller.

  18. New Principles of Process Control in Geotechnics by Acoustic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Leššo, I.; Flegner, P.; Pandula, B.; Horovčák, P.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution describes the new solution of the control of rotary drilling process as some elementary process in geotechnics. The article presents the first results of research on the utilization of acoustic methods in identification process by optimal control of rotary drilling.

  19. New Principles of Process Control in Geotechnics by Acoustic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leššo, I.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution describes the new solution of the control of rotary drilling process as some elementary process in geotechnics. The article presents the first results of research on the utilization of acoustic methods in identification process by optimal control of rotary drilling.

  20. The analytic method for calculating the control rod worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Gon; Lee, Byeong Ho; Chang, Soon Heung

    1989-01-01

    We calculated the control rod worth in this paper. To avoid complexity, we did not consider burnable poisons and soluble boron. The system was localized within one assembly. The control rod was treated as not an absorber but an another boundary. Thus all of the group constants were unchanged before and after control rod insertion. And we discussed the method for calculation of the reactivity of the whole core

  1. Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A novel control mixer method for recon¯gurable control designs is developed. The proposed method extends the matrix-form of the conventional control mixer concept into a LTI dynamic system-form. The H_inf control technique is employed for these dynamic module designs after an augmented control...... system is constructed through a model-matching strategy. The stability, performance and robustness of the reconfigured system can be guaranteed when some conditions are satisfied. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a robot system subjected to failures is used to demonstrate...

  2. NO2, as a marker of air pollution, and recurrent wheezing in children: a nested case-control study within the BAMSE birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenius, G; Pershagen, G; Berglind, N; Kwon, H-J; Lewné, M; Nordvall, S L; Wickman, M

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the association between air pollution, including with NO2, and recurrent wheezing during the first two years of life. A birth cohort (BAMSE) comprised 4089 children, for whom information on exposures, symptoms, and diseases was available from parental questionnaires at ages 2 months, and 1 and 2 years. NO2 was measured during four weeks in and outside the dwellings of children with recurrent wheezing and two age matched controls, in a nested case-control study (540 children). Conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 1.60 (95% CI 0.78 to 3.26) among children in the highest quartile of outdoor NO2 exposure in relation to those in the lowest quartile, adjusted for potential confounders. The corresponding OR for indoor NO2 was 1.51 (95% CI 0.81 to 2.82). An interaction with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was indicated with an OR of 3.10 (95% CI 1.32 to 7.30) among children exposed to the highest quartile of indoor NO2 and ETS. The association between NO2 and recurrent wheezing appeared stronger in children who did not fulfil the criteria for recurrent wheezing until their second year. Although the odds of increased recurrent wheezing are not statistically significantly different from one, results suggest that exposure to air pollution including NO2, particularly in combination with exposure to ETS, increases the risk of recurrent wheezing in children.

  3. Pulmonary outcome in former preterm, very low birth weight children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a case-control follow-up at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Hove, Maike; Prenzel, Freerk; Uhlig, Holm H; Robel-Tillig, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To assess and compare long-term pulmonary outcomes in former preterm-born, very low birth weight (VLBW) children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) born in the surfactant era. Pulmonary function tests (ie, spirometry, body plethysmography, and gas transfer testing) were performed in children with a history of VLBW and BPD (n = 28) and compared with a matched preterm-born VLBW control group (n = 28). Medical history was evaluated by questionnaire. At time of follow-up (mean age, 9.5 years), respiratory symptoms (36% vs 8%) and receipt of asthma medication (21% vs 0%) were significantly more frequent in the preterm-born children with previous BPD than in those with no history of BPD. The children with a history of BPD had significantly lower values for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (z-score -1.27 vs -0.4; P = .008), forced vital capacity (z-score -1.39 vs -0.71 z-score; P = .022), and forced expiratory flow rate at 50% of forced vital capacity (z-score -2.21 vs -1.04; P = .048) compared with the preterm control group. Preterm-born children with a history of BPD are significantly more likely to have lung function abnormalities, such as airway obstruction and respiratory symptoms, at school age compared with preterm-born children without BPD. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Facilitating home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised.

  5. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  6. Rock sampling. [method for controlling particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, P. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A method for sampling rock and other brittle materials and for controlling resultant particle sizes is described. The method involves cutting grooves in the rock surface to provide a grouping of parallel ridges and subsequently machining the ridges to provide a powder specimen. The machining step may comprise milling, drilling, lathe cutting or the like; but a planing step is advantageous. Control of the particle size distribution is effected primarily by changing the height and width of these ridges. This control exceeds that obtainable by conventional grinding.

  7. Tuning method for multi-variable control system with PID controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Toshitaka

    1983-01-01

    Control systems, including thermal and nuclear power plants, generally and mainly use PID controllers consisting of proportional, integral and differential actions. These systems consist of multiple control loops which interfere with each other. Therefore, it is present status that the fine control of the system is carried out by the trial and error method because the adjusting procedure for a single control loop cannot be applied to a multi-loop system in most cases. In this report, a method to effectively adjust PID controller parameters in a short time in a control system which consists of multi-loops that interfere with each other. This method makes adjustment by using the control area as the evaluation function, which is the time-dependent integration of control deviation, the input to the PID controllers. In other words, the evaluation function is provided for each control result for every parameter (gain constant, reset rate, and differentiation time), and all parameters are simultaneously changed in the direction of minimizing the values of these evaluation functions. In the report, the principle of tuning method, the evaluation function for each of three parameters, and the adjusting system configuration for separately using for actual plant tuning and for control system design are described. It also shows the examples of application to the actual tuning of the control system for a thermal power plant and to a control system design. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Adaptive control method for core power control in TRIGA Mark II reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri Minhat, Mohd; Selamat, Hazlina; Subha, Nurul Adilla Mohd

    2018-01-01

    The 1MWth Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) Mark II type has undergone more than 35 years of operation. The existing core power control uses feedback control algorithm (FCA). It is challenging to keep the core power stable at the desired value within acceptable error bands to meet the safety demand of RTP due to the sensitivity of nuclear research reactor operation. Currently, the system is not satisfied with power tracking performance and can be improved. Therefore, a new design core power control is very important to improve the current performance in tracking and regulate reactor power by control the movement of control rods. In this paper, the adaptive controller and focus on Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) and Self-Tuning Control (STC) were applied to the control of the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, adaptive controller model, and control rods selection programming. The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on point kinetics model, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The adaptive control model was presented using Lyapunov method to ensure stable close loop system and STC Generalised Minimum Variance (GMV) Controller was not necessary to know the exact plant transfer function in designing the core power control. The performance between proposed adaptive control and FCA will be compared via computer simulation and analysed the simulation results manifest the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed control method for core power control.

  9. Experiments study on attitude coupling control method for flexible spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Li, Dongxu

    2018-06-01

    High pointing accuracy and stabilization are significant for spacecrafts to carry out Earth observing, laser communication and space exploration missions. However, when a spacecraft undergoes large angle maneuver, the excited elastic oscillation of flexible appendages, for instance, solar wing and onboard antenna, would downgrade the performance of the spacecraft platform. This paper proposes a coupling control method, which synthesizes the adaptive sliding mode controller and the positive position feedback (PPF) controller, to control the attitude and suppress the elastic vibration simultaneously. Because of its prominent performance for attitude tracking and stabilization, the proposed method is capable of slewing the flexible spacecraft with a large angle. Also, the method is robust to parametric uncertainties of the spacecraft model. Numerical simulations are carried out with a hub-plate system which undergoes a single-axis attitude maneuver. An attitude control testbed for the flexible spacecraft is established and experiments are conducted to validate the coupling control method. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the method discussed above can effectively decrease the stabilization time and improve the attitude accuracy of the flexible spacecraft.

  10. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  11. Home-based walking during pregnancy affects mood and birth outcomes among sedentary women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Chie; Sato, Chifumi

    2016-10-01

    We examined the effects of home-based walking on sedentary Japanese women's pregnancy outcomes and mood. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, involving 118 women aged 22-36 years. Participants were randomly assigned to walking intervention (n = 60) or control (n = 58) groups. The walking group was instructed to walk briskly for 30 min, three times weekly from 30 weeks' gestation until delivery. Both groups counted their daily steps using pedometers. Pregnancy and delivery outcomes were assessed, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, and we used the intention-to-treat principle. Groups showed no differences regarding pregnancy or delivery outcomes. The walking group exhibited decreased scores on the depression-dejection and confusion subscales of the Profile of Mood States. Five of the 54 women in the intervention group who remained in the study (9.2%) completed 100% of the prescribed walking program; 32 (59.3%) women completed 80% or more. Unsupervised walking improves sedentary pregnant women's mood, indicating that regular walking during pregnancy should be promoted in this group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. A population-based study of effect of multiple birth on infant mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthman Mubashir B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-foetal pregnancies and multiple births including twins and higher order multiples births such as triplets and quadruplets are high-risk pregnancy and birth. These high-risk groups contribute to the higher rate of childhood mortality especially during early period of life. Methods We examined the relationship between multiple births and infant mortality using univariable and multivariable survival regression procedure with Weibull hazard function, controlling for child's sex, birth order, prenatal care, delivery assistance; mother's age at child birth, nutritional status, education level; household living conditions and several other risk factors. Results Children born multiple births were more than twice as likely to die during infancy as infants born singleton (hazard ratio = 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 3.19 holding other factors constant. Maternal education and household asset index were associated with lower risk of infant mortality. Conclusion Multiple births are strongly negatively associated with infant survival in Nigeria independent of other risk factors. Mother's education played a protective role against infant death. This evidence suggests that improving maternal education may be key to improving child survival in Nigeria. A well-educated mother has a better chance of satisfying important factors that can improve infant survival: the quality of infant feeding, general care, household sanitation, and adequate use of preventive and curative health services.

  13. Transfer in planned home births in Sweden--effects on the experience of birth: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena E; Rådestad, Ingela J; Hildingsson, Ingegerd M

    2011-08-01

    More than 10% of all planned home births in high-income countries are completed in the hospital. The aim of this study was to compare the birth experiences among women who planned to give birth at home and completed the birth at home and women who were transferred to hospital during or immediately after the birth. All women in Sweden who had a planned home birth between 1998 and 2005 (n=671) were invited to participate in the study. The women who agreed to participate received one questionnaire for each planned home birth. Mixed methods were used for the analysis. Women who had been transferred during or immediately after the planned home birth had a more negative birth experience in general. In comparison with women who completed the birth at home, the odds ratio for being less satisfied was 13.5, CI 8.1-22.3. Reasons for being dissatisfied related to organizational factors, the way the women were treated or personal ability. Being transferred during a planned home birth negatively affects the birth experience. Treatments as well as organizational factors are considered to be obstacles for a positive birth experience when transfer is needed. Established links between the home birth setting and the hospital might enhance the opportunity for a positive birth experience irrespective of where the birth is completed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Deterministic methods for multi-control fuel loading optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Fariz B. Abdul

    We have developed a multi-control fuel loading optimization code for pressurized water reactors based on deterministic methods. The objective is to flatten the fuel burnup profile, which maximizes overall energy production. The optimal control problem is formulated using the method of Lagrange multipliers and the direct adjoining approach for treatment of the inequality power peaking constraint. The optimality conditions are derived for a multi-dimensional multi-group optimal control problem via calculus of variations. Due to the Hamiltonian having a linear control, our optimal control problem is solved using the gradient method to minimize the Hamiltonian and a Newton step formulation to obtain the optimal control. We are able to satisfy the power peaking constraint during depletion with the control at beginning of cycle (BOC) by building the proper burnup path forward in time and utilizing the adjoint burnup to propagate the information back to the BOC. Our test results show that we are able to achieve our objective and satisfy the power peaking constraint during depletion using either the fissile enrichment or burnable poison as the control. Our fuel loading designs show an increase of 7.8 equivalent full power days (EFPDs) in cycle length compared with 517.4 EFPDs for the AP600 first cycle.

  15. Control of cast iron and casts manufacturing by Inmold method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of cast iron spheroidizing process in mould control by ATD method as well as by ultrasonic method were presented. Structure of instrumentation needed for control form performance of cast iron spheroidizing by Inmold method was illustrated. Author, pointed out that amount of magnesium master alloy should obtain 0,8 ÷ 1,0% of mass in form at all. Such quantity of preliminary alloy assure of obtain of nodular graphite in cast iron. In consequence of this, is reduce the cast iron liquidus temperature and decrease of recalescence temperature of graphite-eutectic crystallization in compare with initial cast iron. Control of casts can be carried out by ultrasonic method. In plain cast iron, ferritic-pearlitic microstructure is obtaining. Additives of 1,5% Cu ensure pearlitic structure.

  16. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Defects KidsHealth / For Parents / Birth Defects What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Anomalías congénitas What Are Birth Defects? While still in the womb, some babies ...

  17. A controlled trial of the effect of aromatherapy on birth outcomes using "Rose essential oil" inhalation and foot bath

    OpenAIRE

    Masoomeh Kheirkhah; Nassimeh Setayesh Valipour; Leila Neisani; Hamid Haghani

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Aromatherapy is the art and science of using essential oils extracted from aromatic plants, and is concerned with natural balance, coordination and promotion of health. This study was designed to determine the effect of "rose (Rosa damascena) essential oil" inhalation and foot bath on the improvement of maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Material and methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, conducted on 80 primiparous women in Shahid Akbar Abadi Maternity H...

  18. Birth Experience through an Existential Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina

    Background: The moment of birth is seen as a miracle, a journey and even a religious act. Research stress how giving birth might facilitate interference with previous conceptions of how to make meaning of life existentially. However, birth as an existential life transformative event, has been...... explored only briefly in empirical research. The aim of this study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore how first-time mothers experienced their first birth in relation to existential meaning-making. Secondly, to describe the relationship between considerations related to existential meaning-making and time...... of birth. Method: The study was based on a nationwide questionnaire, conducted among Danish first time mothers, who had given birth either preterm or full-term (n=517). The questionnaire consisted of 46 overall items. Eight core items were analysed in this study. Findings Preliminary findings show that new...

  19. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  20. Teenage births to ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, R

    2001-01-01

    This article analyses British age-specific fertility rates by ethnic group, with a special interest in child-bearing by women below the age of 20. Birth statistics are not analysed by ethnic group, and teenage birth rates have been estimated from the dates of birth of mothers and children in the Labour Force Survey. The method appears to be robust. Caribbean, Pakistani and especially Bangladeshi women were much more likely to have been teenage mothers than white women, but Indian women were below the national average. Teenage birth rates have been falling in all three South Asian communities.

  1. What has high fertility got to do with the low birth weight problem in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Kodzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There has been much concern about adverse individual and societal consequences of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. One concern is that children of high birth orders may have low birth weight. However, the evidence for such an effect is not strong. OBJECTIVE Our objective is to investigate whether a woman's high parity status might increase her risks of having a baby with low birth weight. METHODS Pooling 60 Demographic and Health Surveys data-sets from 32 sub-Saharan countries, we selected children of mothers who had at least two births of order two or higher within the five years preceding the surveys. We modeled the probability of having a child with low birth weight and controlled for all mother-specific, household, or community characteristics that are constant over the period of analysis, by including fixed-effects for the mother. We also controlled for salient factors including sex, maternal age, preceding birth interval, and whether prenatal care was received. RESULTS We found no adverse effect of increasing parity on the odds of having a child with low birth weight at normative ranges; such effects only manifest at extremely high parities - nine or more children. At moderately high parities, the chance of low birth weight is actually lower than at very low parities. CONCLUSIONS While high fertility may lead to various adverse outcomes for African families, low birth weight appears not to be among these outcomes. Other factors, such as adolescent childbearing, poverty, and inadequate prenatal care may be more important determinants of low birth weight in Africa.

  2. The Design of Optimal PID Control Method for Quadcopter Movement Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanum Arrosida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, quadcopter motion control has become a popular research topic because of its versatile ability as an unmanned aircraft can be used to alleviate human labor and also be able to reach dangerous areas or areas which is unreachable to humans. On the other hand, the Optimal PID control method, which incorporates PID and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR control methods, has also been widely used in industry and research field because it has advantages that are easy to operate, easy design, and a good level of precision. In the PID control method, the main problem to be solved is the accuracy of the gain value Kp, Ki, and Kd because the inappropriateness of those value will result in an imprecise control action. Based on these problems and referring to the previous study, the optimal PID control method was developed by using PID controller structure with tuning gain parameter of PID through Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR method. Through the integration of these two control methods, the optimum solutions can be obtained: easier controller design process for quadcopter control when crossing the determined trajectories, steady state error values less than 5% and a stable quadcopter movement with roll and pitch angle stabilization at position 0 radians with minimum energy function.

  3. Method and apparatus for automatic control of a humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot having a plurality of joints adapted for force control with respect to an object acted upon by the robot, a graphical user interface (GUI) for receiving an input signal from a user, and a controller. The GUI provides the user with intuitive programming access to the controller. The controller controls the joints using an impedance-based control framework, which provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot in response to the input signal. A method for controlling the robotic system includes receiving the input signal via the GUI, e.g., a desired force, and then processing the input signal using a host machine to control the joints via an impedance-based control framework. The framework provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot, and allows for functional-based GUI to simplify implementation of a myriad of operating modes.

  4. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  5. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    , physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has......INTRODUCTION: In this review a selection of studies published during the period 2002-2010, based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort linked with other health registers, is described. Illustrative examples of studies addressing perinatal health outcomes (pregnancy complications and fetal...... that this investment in epidemiologic infrastructure was well spent. The existence of the Danish National Birth Cohort together with other cohorts and national registers has given Denmark a leading position in reproductive epidemiology....

  6. Control method for biped locomotion robots based on ZMP information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Etsuo

    1994-01-01

    The Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP) started as a ten year program of Computing and Information Systems Center (CISC) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 1987. A mechanical design study of biped locomotion robots for patrol and inspection in nuclear facilities is being performed as an item of the research scope. One of the goals of our research is to design a biped locomotion robot for practical use in nuclear facilities. So far, we have been studying for several dynamic walking patterns. In conventional control methods for biped locomotion robots, the program control is used based on preset walking patterns, so it dose not have the robustness such as a dynamic change of walking pattern. Therefore, a real-time control method based on dynamic information of the robot states is necessary for the high performance of walking. In this study a new control method based on Zero Moment Point (ZMP) information is proposed as one of real-time control methods. The proposed method is discussed and validated based on the numerical simulation. (author)

  7. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  8. Micro-blogs, online forums, and the birth-control policy: social media and the politics of reproduction in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2014-03-01

    In June 2012, the news of a Chinese woman's forced late-term abortion quickly spread across the internet in China. Graphic photos of the woman with the aborted fetus provoked public outrage and widespread condemnation on social media sites. In the aftermath, local authorities apologized, seven officials were given demerits, and the couple received monetary compensation. This case was put under the spotlight mainly because of the exposure of the story by family members of the woman through social media and the resulting public outcry in cyberspace. Following the disclosure of this story and public reactions online, this article explores the complex interplays among different layers of state power, the individual, and the public in reproductive politics, and discusses the ways in which social media has been utilized to resist state control of reproduction. By delving into the nuanced interactions among layers of state authorities, this article sheds light on the study of state-society relations in reproductive politics. It also calls attention to the role that social media plays in reproductive issues.

  9. A multiparameter chaos control method based on OGY approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza de Paula, Aline; Amorim Savi, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Chaos control is based on the richness of responses of chaotic behavior and may be understood as the use of tiny perturbations for the stabilization of a UPO embedded in a chaotic attractor. Since one of these UPO can provide better performance than others in a particular situation the use of chaos control can make this kind of behavior to be desirable in a variety of applications. The OGY method is a discrete technique that considers small perturbations promoted in the neighborhood of the desired orbit when the trajectory crosses a specific surface, such as a Poincare section. This contribution proposes a multiparameter semi-continuous method based on OGY approach in order to control chaotic behavior. Two different approaches are possible with this method: coupled approach, where all control parameters influences system dynamics although they are not active; and uncoupled approach that is a particular case where control parameters return to the reference value when they become passive parameters. As an application of the general formulation, it is investigated a two-parameter actuation of a nonlinear pendulum control employing coupled and uncoupled approaches. Analyses are carried out considering signals that are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model using experimentally identified parameters. Results show that the procedure can be a good alternative for chaos control since it provides a more effective UPO stabilization than the classical single-parameter approach.

  10. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  11. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial on Effect of Intermittent Early Versus Late Kangaroo Mother Care on Human Milk Feeding in Low-Birth-Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Dhaarani; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Bhalla, Anil Kumar; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur

    2017-08-01

    Breastfeeding at discharge among sick low-birth-weight (LBW) infants is low despite counseling and intervention like kangaroo mother care (KMC). Research aim: The aim was to study the effects of early initiation of KMC on exclusive human milk feeding, growth, mortality, and morbidities in LBW neonates compared with late initiation of KMC during the hospital stay and postdischarge. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in level 2 and 3 areas of a tertiary care neonatal unit over 15 months. Inborn neonates weighing 1 to 1.8 kg and hemodynamically stable were randomized to receive either early KMC, initiated within the first 4 days of life, or late KMC (off respiratory support and intravenous fluids). Follow-up was until 1 month postdischarge. Outcomes were proportion of infants achieving exclusive human milk feeding and direct breastfeeding, growth, mortality and morbidities during hospital stay, and postdischarge feeding and KMC practices until 1 month. The early KMC group ( n = 80) achieved significantly higher exclusive human milk feeding (86% vs. 45%, p milk feeding (73% vs. 36%, p milk feeding and direct breastfeeding in LBW infants.

  13. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...

  14. Comparison of DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity control methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    A method to reduce the fuel composition heterogeneity effect on the core performance parameters has been studied for the DUPIC fuel which is made of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels by a dry refabrication process. This study focuses on the reactivity control method which uses either slightly enriched, depleted, or natural uranium to minimize the cost rise effect on the manufacturing of DUPIC fuel, when adjusting the excess reactivity of the spent PWR fuel. In order to reduce the variation of isotopic composition of the DUPIC fuel, the inter-assembly mixing operation was taken three times. Then, three options have been considered: reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, reactivity control by natural uranium for high reactivity spent PWR fuels, and reactivity control by natural uranium for linear reactivity spent PWR fuels. The results of this study have shown that the reactivity of DUPIC fuel can be tightly controlled with the minimum amount of fresh uranium feed. For the reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, all the spent PWR fuels can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel and the fraction of fresh uranium feed is 3.4% on an average. For the reactivity control by natural uranium, about 88% of spent PWR fuel can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel when the linear reactivity spent PWR fuels are used, and the amount of natural uranium feed needed to control the DUPIC fuel reactivity is negligible. 13 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  15. The novice birthing: theorising first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Barclay, Lesley M; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-02-01

    to explore first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia. a grounded theory methodology was used. Data were generated from in-depth interviews with women in their own homes. Sydney, Australia. 19 women were interviewed. Seven women who gave in a public hospital and seven women who gave birth for the first time at home were interviewed and their experiences were contrasted with two mothers who gave birth for the first time in a birth centre, one mother who gave birth for the first time in a private hospital and two women who had given birth more than once. three categories emerged from the analysis: preparing for birth, the novice birthing and processing the birth. These women shared a common core experience of seeing that they gave birth as 'novices'. The basic social process running through their experience of birth, regardless of birth setting, was that, as novices, they were all 'reacting to the unknown'. The mediating factors that influenced the birth experiences of these first-time mothers were preparation, choice and control, information and communication, and support. The quality of midwifery care both facilitated and hindered these needs, contributing to the women's perceptions of being 'honoured'. The women who gave birth at home seemed to have more positive birth experiences. identifying the novice status of first-time mothers and understanding the way in which they experience birth better explains previous research that reports unrealistic expectations and fear that may be associated with first-time birthing. It demonstrates how midwives can contribute to positive birth experiences by being aware that first-time mothers, irrespective of birth setting, are essentially reacting to the unknown as they negotiate the experience of birth. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  17. Optimization and control methods in industrial engineering and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in optimization and control methods with applications to industrial engineering and construction management. It consists of 15 chapters authored by recognized experts in a variety of fields including control and operation research, industrial engineering, and project management. Topics include numerical methods in unconstrained optimization, robust optimal control problems, set splitting problems, optimum confidence interval analysis, a monitoring networks optimization survey, distributed fault detection, nonferrous industrial optimization approaches, neural networks in traffic flows, economic scheduling of CCHP systems, a project scheduling optimization survey, lean and agile construction project management, practical construction projects in Hong Kong, dynamic project management, production control in PC4P, and target contracts optimization.   The book offers a valuable reference work for scientists, engineers, researchers and practitioners in industrial engineering and c...

  18. Optimal control methods for rapidly time-varying Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzoi, F.; Merkel, S. T.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Gambetta, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we develop a numerical method to find optimal control pulses that accounts for the separation of timescales between the variation of the input control fields and the applied Hamiltonian. In traditional numerical optimization methods, these timescales are treated as being the same. While this approximation has had much success, in applications where the input controls are filtered substantially or mixed with a fast carrier, the resulting optimized pulses have little relation to the applied physical fields. Our technique remains numerically efficient in that the dimension of our search space is only dependent on the variation of the input control fields, while our simulation of the quantum evolution is accurate on the timescale of the fast variation in the applied Hamiltonian.

  19. Problems of Mathematical Finance by Stochastic Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, Łukasz

    The purpose of this paper is to present main ideas of mathematics of finance using the stochastic control methods. There is an interplay between stochastic control and mathematics of finance. On the one hand stochastic control is a powerful tool to study financial problems. On the other hand financial applications have stimulated development in several research subareas of stochastic control in the last two decades. We start with pricing of financial derivatives and modeling of asset prices, studying the conditions for the absence of arbitrage. Then we consider pricing of defaultable contingent claims. Investments in bonds lead us to the term structure modeling problems. Special attention is devoted to historical static portfolio analysis called Markowitz theory. We also briefly sketch dynamic portfolio problems using viscosity solutions to Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, martingale-convex analysis method or stochastic maximum principle together with backward stochastic differential equation. Finally, long time portfolio analysis for both risk neutral and risk sensitive functionals is introduced.

  20. Compare Lipid Profile and Anthropometric Indices and Blood Pressure in Women with and without Low-Dose Birth Control Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali dehghani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contraceptive Pills Are Accepted Around the World. Since the Introduction of the Pillstheir Use Increases the Risk of Venous and Arterial Complications, but There Are Doubtson Whether Low-Dose (LD Estrogen Pills Could be a Risk factor. This Study Aimed to Examine the Lipid Profile in Women Exposed to (LD Oral Contraceptives Compared to Unexposed Women. Materials and methods: In This Mix Cohort, 100 Women Aged 20-35 Years Old Referring to Health Care Centers in Yazd, Iran Were Conducted Through Face to Face Interviews by the Researcher Who Asked for Demographic and Anthropometric Characteristics and Also Took Blood Samples for Measurement of Lipid Profile. The Data Were Analyzed using SPSS Version 21 and Chi-Square Test as Well as T-test. Results: In the Exposed Group Total Cholesterol (180/7 ± 38/28 mg dl-1, Triglycerides (129/82 ± 47/92 mg dl-1, LDL (101/42 ± 30/66 mg dl-1 Were Significantly Higher than the Unexposed Group (Total Cholesterol 159 ± 30/26 mg dl-1, Triglycerides 93/60 ± 44/01 mg dl-1 and LDL 84/84±24/70 mg dl-1.  However, HDLof the Exposed Group (56/46 ± 8/42 mg dl-1 Did not Showa Significant Differencein Comparison to the Unexposed Group (56/18 ± 8/91 mg dl-1 .  Conclusion  : LD Pills Increase Levels of Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL, so Taking these Pills may Cause Dyslipidemia.