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Sample records for birth control act

  1. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  2. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even if you aren’t going for birth control. What doesn’t work to prevent pregnancy? top It’s ... and taking care of a baby’s many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...

  3. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  4. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  5. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's ...

  6. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's ...

  7. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's ...

  8. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Patch KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Patch What's ...

  9. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  10. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing features ... estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  11. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methods - English PDF How to Switch Birth Control Methods - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) ... Reproductive Health Access Project Non-Contraceptive Indications for Hormonal Contraceptive Products - English PDF Non- ...

  12. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Birth Control Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  13. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu Sex Ed Ask Us Anything Videos Games & Quizzes Connect Search About Find a Health Center X Sort by Advanced Search Show/Hide Content Types Article Game Poll Q&A Series Quiz Video Leave un-checked to search all types Search Sex Ed by Topic show topics hide topics Birth ...

  14. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  15. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where medically...

  16. Birth control and family planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Birth Control Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  17. Birth Control: How to Use Your Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens ... MoreBMI Calculator Vasectomy: What to ExpectProgestin-Only Birth Control PillsDepo-Provera: An Injectable ContraceptiveTubal Sterilization (Tubal Ligation) ...

  18. Atomic Energy Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This act provides for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The board is responsible for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy. The board is also considered necessary to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy

  19. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiang; Zhi Qijun; Zhang Xiaoping; Ren Zhongzhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qutrit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth. (authors)

  20. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  1. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  2. Progestin-Only Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this problem. Things to consider There is no contraceptive method that is perfect, even when used correctly. ... and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control ...

  3. Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, D T

    1995-01-01

    This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support

  4. Association of the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Provision With Prenatal Care Use and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Jamie R; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2018-02-13

    The effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) dependent coverage provision on pregnancy-related health care and health outcomes is unknown. To determine whether the dependent coverage provision was associated with changes in payment for birth, prenatal care, and birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study, using a differences-in-differences analysis of individual-level birth certificate data comparing live births among US women aged 24 to 25 years (exposure group) and women aged 27 to 28 years (control group) before (2009) and after (2011-2013) enactment of the dependent coverage provision. Results were stratified by marital status. The dependent coverage provision of the ACA, which allowed young adults to stay on their parent's health insurance until age 26 years. Primary outcomes were payment source for birth, early prenatal care (first visit in first trimester), and adequate prenatal care (a first trimester visit and 80% of expected visits). Secondary outcomes were cesarean delivery, premature birth, low birth weight, and infant neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. The study population included 1 379 005 births among women aged 24-25 years (exposure group; 299 024 in 2009; 1 079 981 in 2011-2013), and 1 551 192 births among women aged 27-28 years (control group; 325 564 in 2009; 1 225 628 in 2011-2013). From 2011-2013, compared with 2009, private insurance payment for births increased in the exposure group (36.9% to 35.9% [difference, -1.0%]) compared with the control group (52.4% to 51.1% [difference, -1.3%]), adjusted difference-in-differences, 1.9 percentage points (95% CI, 1.6 to 2.1). Medicaid payment decreased in the exposure group (51.6% to 53.6% [difference, 2.0%]) compared with the control group (37.4% to 39.4% [difference, 1.9%]), adjusted difference-in-differences, -1.4 percentage points (95% CI, -1.7 to -1.2). Self-payment for births decreased in the exposure group (5.2% to 4.3% [difference, -0.9%]) compared with the

  5. Use of Modern Birth Control Methods Among Rural Communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    ABSTRACT. This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in ... respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. ..... School of Public Health.

  6. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. Methods A questionnaire was administered in family practice and obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Participants included women ages 18–50 presenting for any reason and women under age 18 presenting for family planning or pregnancy care. Analyses were based on key questions addressing beliefs about whether specific birth control methods may act after fertilization, beliefs about when human life begins, intention to use a method that may act after fertilization, and reported use of specific methods. The questionnaire contained no information about the mechanism of action of any method of birth control. Responses were considered inconsistent if actual use contradicted intentions, if one intention contradicted another, or if intentions contradicted beliefs. Results Of all respondents, 38% gave consistent responses about intention to not use or to stop use of any birth control method that acted after fertilization, while 4% gave inconsistent responses. The corresponding percentages for birth control methods that work after implantation were 64% consistent and 2% inconsistent. Of all respondents, 34% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization and would not use any birth control method that acts after fertilization (a consistent response, while 3% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization but would use a birth control method that acts after fertilization (inconsistent. For specific methods of birth control, less than 1% of women gave inconsistent responses. A majority of women (68% or greater responded accurately about the

  7. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...

  8. Wrongful birth and wrongful life: An outlook on Zoja's Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanikić-Mirić Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the controversial subject of pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses in wrongful birth and wrongful life cases. The author addresses these issues from a comparative perspective, presents the main arguments for and against awarding damages, and offers a critical analysis of the newly enacted rules of Serbian tort law concerning the birth of a child who would not have been born were it not for negligence on the part of a medical doctor.

  9. A hugh marketing research task: birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1968-02-01

    Research in underdeveloped countries to sell family planning is discussed. The article also aims at pinpointing other possible research areas. Census reports were actually the earliest work relevant to birth control. Later came the research on psychosocial factors affecting family size in developed countries. After World War I, client oriented research into family planning began. The history of this type of research is discussed with more emphasis on the surveys of the knowledge, attitude and contraception practices (KAP) in various countries. The author claims the KAP surveys to be the largest worldwide market research job ever done. Propagands campaigns, contraceptive costs, bonuses for contraceptive practices, and effectiveness of persuasion techniques are discussed.

  10. [The new policies of natural birth control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J H; Reich, J

    1986-01-01

    International agency donors have in recent years become increasingly interested in natural family planning (NFP). The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has made an increasing amount of funds available annually for NFP, and at 1 point, in the case of NFP, relaxed the requirement that donor agencies offer more than 1 contraceptive method, despite the argument that developing country populations do not benefit from enough information for informed consent to be guaranteeable by 1-method agency. NFP has evolved from simple counting of days to observation of changes in cervical mucus and body temperature. The self-observation and learning generally required contribute to difficulties experienced in recruitment and retention of acceptors. At a 1986 meeting in Ottawa, Canada, sponsored by the International Federation for Family Life Promotion, it was revealed that calendar (but not the more effective sympto-thermal) method of NFP is fairly common in some developing countries (it is used by 41% of Peruvian and 24% of Filipino and Sri Lankan women), and even in developed countries. The hypothesized connection between the phenomenon of "old gametes" and birth defects, feared to be a side effect of NFP, was touched on, as was the possibility of using NFP to control the sex of the fetus. It was stressed that the effect of breastfeeding on fecundability constituted NFP in many countries. Other speakers cited religious and moral reasons for promotion of NFP, adding that NFP aids marital communication. It is possible increased popularity of NFP could depend in the near future on medical and legal problems associated with artificial methods as well as the US political situation.

  11. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are considering using one, keep these guidelines in mind: Don't mix smoking and "the pill." If you smoke cigarettes, make a serious effort to quit. If you cannot quit, choose a different form of birth control. Cigarette smoking boosts the risk of serious health problems from birth ...

  12. Who has the right to advise children on birth control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, P; Rahemtula, A

    1986-04-14

    The Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) in Great Britain issued "guidelines" to doctors in 1967 stating that it was permissible to give advice and contraceptive agents to underage females without parental consent. A Roman Catholic mother, Victoria Gillick, sought a declaration from the High Court of Justice that the DHSS guidelines were illegal. Gillick lost in the initial legal proceeding; the guidelines were held to be lawful. The Court of Appeal upheld Gillick's appeal 3 to none, only to be reversed later by a majority of 3 to 2 in the House of Lords. The various approaches that were adopted by the Court of Appeal and the House of Lords are reviewed. The issues can be reduced to this question: is a child of less than 16 years of age legally competent to seek contraceptive advice and treatment without the knowledge and consent of a parent or guardian. The Court of Appeal approached the problem assuming that the solution was to be found in the various Acts of Parliament, and it looked at every statute that dealt with children to learn what Parliament thought of parents. This inversion of emphasis received some recognition when the case reached the House of Lords: "parental rights to control a child do not exist for the benefit of the parent, they exist for the benefit of the child and they are justified only in so far as they enable the parent to perform his duties toward the child" (Lord Fraser). The Court of Appeal examined the Family Law Reform Act 1969, the Mental Health Act 1959, the Education Act 1944, and the Children Act 1975. From these various enactments, the Court of Appeal drew the following unanimous conclusions: that a parent or guardian has a parcel of rights in relation to a child in his or her custody, including the right to control the manner in which, and the place at which, the child spent his or her time, and that such rights could not, in general, be abandoned or transferred and would be enforced by the Court; that it was clearly

  13. Birth complications control between midwives among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Independent t-test and contingency chi-square were used in testing the null hypotheses. Results: The result showed that women delivered by traditional midwives have more negative control of delivery pain caused by birth complication than their counterparts who are delivered by western trained midwives; On the basis of ...

  14. The NSW Radiation Control Act and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The legal control of radiation safety in New South Wales has undergone substantial change in recent years. The long-awaited Regulation to the 1990 Radiation Control Act came into effect on 1 September 1993 (of necessity, as the Regulation to the previous 1957 Radioactive Substances Act expired on that date). It has not met with unanimous acclaim. The Regulation addresses three broad areas, namely - (a) legal controls - licensing, registration, radiation 'experts'; (b) safety matters - workplace management, monitoring, research exposures, transport/disposal, accidents; and (c) miscellaneous -radiation safety officers, committees, penalties, records, This article offers a personal view of the implications for nuclear medicine practice in New South Wales

  15. Proposed Radiation Control Act: discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The history and nature of the present NSW Radioactive Substances Act passed in 1957 is outlined. The direction of reform is suggested and some options for changes presented. These include the extension of controls to cover non-ionising radiation, the introduction of controls over the mining and milling of radioactive ores, and improved licensing provisions. Professional and public comment is sought

  16. Methods of Preventives to keep Birth Control in the Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is mainly concerned about the methods set by the Quran for preserving the human breeding, which is regarded the main pillar not only for the future survival of the humankind, but also for assuring its permanence and continuity. Taking this into consideration, the Quran has addressed this issue by setting solid preventive tools that ensure the continuity and prosperity of the human offspring in a normal manner. The objective of the research is to shed light on the importance of protecting the human offspring in the Quran, since neglecting its importance could lead to the corruption of the whole society and its members. The research attempts also to tackle the various preventive tools that the Quran has adopted for protecting the normal continuity and prosperity of the human offspring. The research proposes to study the Quranic verses that address the protection of the human offspring and the various preventive tools that should be adopted, along with the accredited analysis and statements of purpose of the Quranic verses, with reference to the approved sources of interpretation. Apart of the findings are that the Quran has set two main methods for protecting the human offspring that is; the preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control, and the preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control. The preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control include the forbidding of being monastic, the prohibiting of killing children for fear of poverty, and the forbidding of falling into immorality, either outwardly or inwardly. They also include the establishment of prayer, giving charity, reciting Dhikr (remembrance and asking of forgiveness. The preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control, however, include not approaching adultery, prohibiting adoption, and forbidding incest, the people of shirk and immorality and blasphemy.

  17. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Home For Patients Search ... Format Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Contraception What are barrier ...

  18. Tacit consent: the Church and birth control in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2011-01-01

    This article employs novel documentation to examine ways in which the Church's moral rules on contraception were (or were not) communicated to parishioners in a predominantly Catholic context in a period of rapid fertility decline: the diocese of Padua, in the northeastern Italian region of Veneto, during the first half of the twentieth century. The account is based on documents that have until now been overlooked: the moral cases discussed during the periodic meetings among Padua priests in the years 1916–58, and the written answers provided by priests in response to a question asked of them concerning their efforts to combat the limiting of births. This documentation reveals the limited effect on the reproductive behavior of the position of the Catholic Church against birth control.

  19. Migrated Essure permanent birth control device: sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khati, Nadia Juliet; Gorodenker, Joseph; Brindle, Kathleen Ann

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a migrated Essure permanent birth control device. The correct diagnosis was made on conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional pelvic sonography 7 years after placement of the device when the patient presented with persistent right-sided pain. The 3-month post placement hysterosalpingogram had shown an appropriately occluded right fallopian tube but had overlooked the abnormal position of the right Essure device, which was too proximal and extending slightly in the uterine cavity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  1. Emergency contraception – a neglected option for birth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka R. Gunardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception (EC is any method of contraception which is used after intercourse and before the potential time of implantation, in order to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected sexual intercourse, or cases of rape. Use of emergency contraception could halve the number of unintended pregnancies and the consequent need for abortion, but unfortunately many medical professionals and the public are not aware of it. Two methods are available for emergency contraception, namely emergency contraception pills (ECPs and copper-bearing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs. There are two regimens of ECP, the levonorgestrel regimen and combined regimen. The levonorgestrel regimen is preferred as it is more effective and causes less side effects. ECPs should be administered as soon as possible after unprotected or inadequately protected sex, being most effective if initiated within 24 hours. Cu-IUDs can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sexual intercourse. Emergency contraception mainly works by preventing fertilization, and does not interrupt and established pregnancy. Emergency contraception is very safe, therefore can be offered to women who have had unprotected intercourse and wish to prevent pregnancy. It must only be used as a backup method of birth control. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:248-52. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.609Keywords: Birth control, copper-IUD, emergency contraception, emergency contraceptive pills, levonorgestrel

  2. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyar, O.M.; West, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device is described for controlling a safety control rod within the core of a nuclear reactor, the reactor controlled by a reactor control system, the device comprising: a safety control rod drive shaft and an electromagnetic clutch co-axial with the drive shaft operatively connected to the safety control rod for driving and positioning the safety control rod within or without the reactor core during reactor operation, the safety rod being oriented in a substantially vertical position to allow the rod to fall into the reactor core under the influence of gravity during shutdown of the reactor; the safety control rod drive shaft further operatively connected to a hydraulic pump such that operation of the drive shaft simultaneously drives and positions the safety control rod and operates the hydraulic pump such that a hydraulic fluid is forced into an accumulator, filling the accumulator with oil for the storage and supply of primary potential energy for safety control rod insertion such that the release of potential energy in the accumulator causes hydraulic fluid to flow through the hydraulic pump, converting the hydraulic pump to a hydraulic motor having speed and power capable of full length insertion and high speed driving of the safety control rod into the reactor core; a solenoid valve interposed between the hydraulic pump and the accumulator, said solenoid valve being a normally open valve, actuated to close when the safety control rod is out of the reactor during reactor operation; and further wherein said solenoid opens in response to a signal from the reactor control system calling for shutdown of the reactor and rapid insertion of the safety control rod into the reactor core, such that the opening of the solenoid releases the potential energy in the accumulator to place the safety control rod in a safe shutdown position

  3. Folklore information from Assam for family planning and birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K C; Majumder, R; Bhattacharjee, S

    1982-11-01

    The author collected folklore information on herbal treatments to control fertility from different parts of Assam, India. Temporary methods of birth control include Cissampelos pareira L. in combination with Piper nigrum L., root of Mimosa pudica L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Plants used for permanent sterilization include Plumbago zeylanica L., Heliotropium indicum L., Salmalia malabrica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Plumeria rubra L., Bambusa rundinacea. Abortion is achieved through use of Osbeckia nepalensis or Carica papaya L. in combination with resin from Ferula narthex Boiss. It is concluded that there is tremendous scope for the collection of folklore about medicine, family planning agents, and other treatments from Assam and surrounding areas. Such a project requires proper understanding between the survey team and local people, tactful behavior, and a significant amount of time. Monetary rewards can also be helpful for obtaining information from potential respondents.

  4. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A. J.; van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Benders, Manon J. N.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. A case control study was performed at the University

  5. Intimate partner violence and postpartum contraceptive use: the role of race/ethnicity and prenatal birth control counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Susan; Chapman, Derek A; Wan, Wen; Burton, Candace W; Masho, Saba W

    2015-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major problem that could affect reproductive decision making. The aim of this study is to examine the association between IPV and contraceptive use and assess whether the association varies by receipt of prenatal birth control counseling and race/ethnicity. This study analyzed the 2004-2008 national Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) that included 193,310 women with live births in the United States. IPV was determined by questions that asked about physical abuse by a current or former partner in the 12 months before or during pregnancy. The outcome was postpartum contraceptive use (yes vs. no). Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of experiencing IPV at different periods (preconception IPV, prenatal IPV, both preconception and prenatal IPV, preconception and/or prenatal IPV). Data were stratified to assess differential effects by race/ethnicity and receipt of birth control counseling. Approximately 6.2% of women reported IPV, and 15.5% reported no postpartum contraceptive use. Regardless of the timing of abuse, IPV-exposed women were significantly less likely to report contraceptive use after delivery. This was particularly true for Hispanic women who reported no prenatal birth control counseling and women of all other racial/ethnic groups who received prenatal birth control counseling. IPV victimization adversely affects the use of contraceptive methods following delivery in women with live births. Birth control counseling by health providers may mitigate these effects; however, the quality of counseling needs further investigation. Better integration of violence prevention services and family planning programs is greatly needed. Consistent with national recommendations by the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force, clinicians and public health workers are strongly encouraged to screen for IPV. Health providers should educate women on effective contraceptive options and

  6. Double acting stirling engine phase control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanical device for effecting a phase change between the expansion and compression volumes of a double-acting Stirling engine uses helical elements which produce opposite rotation of a pair of crankpins when a control rod is moved, so the phase between two pairs of pistons is changed by +.psi. and the phase between the other two pairs of pistons is changed by -.psi.. The phase can change beyond .psi.=90.degree. at which regenerative braking and then reversal of engine rotation occurs.

  7. Update on the Essure System for Permanent Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    In 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the Essure system for permanent birth control. Implantation with this device offers a minimally invasive option for permanent female contraception that is placed during a brief office visit. Unlike laparoscopic tubal sterilization, the Essure procedure requires no hospitalization or general anesthesia, resulting in minimal recovery time. After a decade of stability in the report of adverse effects, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration noted a sharp increase in patient-reported adverse events, including chronic pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, allergic reactions, and autoimmune-like reactions. In response to this increase in complaints, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued updated guidelines for patient education and counseling. This article discusses those updates, as well as implications for nurses who provide health care to women seeking permanent contraception. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  8. The birth control movement before Roe v. Wade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J W

    1995-01-01

    This essay synthesizes the history of the birth control movement in the US and describes changes in sexual behavior, social values, and public policy in order to provide a context for the changes in human reproductive public policy. After an introduction, the essay outlines the history of contraception from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth centuries. Part 3 covers the period of World War I to the Depression when civil libertarians and eugenicists began to question the suppression of contraception and Margaret Sanger organized her clinics. The fourth part of the essay carries the history forward to the end of World War II, a period in which Dr. Clarence J. Gamble began to expose the marketing of defective contraceptive methods and to illustrate the willingness of poor women to accept contraceptives. The social changes which began in the 1950s are the subject of the fifth section of the essay. During this period, Roman Catholic opposition to contraception lessened, and social scientists began to focus world attention on overpopulation. Frank Notestein was appointed the first head of the Office of Population Research at Princeton, and John D. Rockefeller III founded the Population Council which conducted research into the IUD and began to attempt to influence population growth in nonindustrialized countries. This period also saw the development of the oral contraceptive. The changes of this era were institutionalized in 1967 when the federal government took a positive stance towards family planning in its Social Security Amendments. The decade of the 1970s is the subject of the last part of this essay. This period saw the Supreme Court assign a constitutionally protected right to abortion and Congress pass the Helms Amendment which denied the use of foreign aid funds for abortions. Challenges to the right to individual birth control practice continued during this period, and debate centered around the specter of overpopulation, the threat of adolescent

  9. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-02-03

    To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers' homes, in rural village settings. 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by intervention birth attendants (0.37, 0.17 to 0.81) and by 81% within the first two days

  10. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  11. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschlagl, H

    1991-01-01

    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  12. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  13. Access to the Birth Control Pill and the Career Plans of Young Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...

  14. birth complications control between midwives among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The study adopted was survey design. The sample .... traditional midwives, policy makers, women in general, government and ... mal-presentation of the fetal head ii) ..... in minimizing maternal trauma and ensuring an optimal birth for ...

  15. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village s...

  16. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  17. Young males' perspectives on pregnancy, fatherhood and condom use: Where does responsibility for birth control lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer L; Fenwick, Jennifer; Skinner, Rachel; Merriman, Gareth; Hallett, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To improve our understanding of males' role in contraceptive practices, this paper explores the relationship between young males' perspectives on pregnancy and fatherhood and their attitudes, beliefs and practices in relation to condom use and birth control. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 42 males aged 15-25 years. A systematic process of thematic analysis was used to reduce and organise the narrative data around the focus areas of relationships, sex, condom use, STIs and pregnancy/fatherhood. To facilitate the emergence of key patterns in the data, new data was constantly compared with existing ideas to formulate and refine codes and descriptive categories. The analysis revealed a clear discrepancy between young males' desire to prevent pregnancy and the level of control they assumed over this. Despite pregnancy emerging as the overriding concern for participants, this failed to motivate continued use of condoms when STI risk was perceived as low and a partner was using birth control. Reliance on a partner's use of hormonal contraceptives and in several cases, beliefs of low personal responsibility for pregnancy prevention reduced young males' participation in fertility control. Young males' unfavourable attitudes toward immediate pregnancy and fatherhood provide a unique opportunity for safe sex promotion by encouraging greater ownership over sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, this requires a shift in the meanings associated with condoms, from a disease prevention only orientation to one that promotes condom use as a positive act for self and partner protection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-768] In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain vaginal ring birth control... investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders. ADDRESSES: The complaint, except for any...

  19. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (pdogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Transition in the midwifery profession. 25. The prewar birth control movement and the concept of eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, M

    1987-08-01

    The concept of eugenics played a significant role in the pre-war birth control movement. Some favored birth control from the standpoint of an individual's right to happiness, while others were against it from the standpoint of preservation of good stock for the nation. Yamamoto, Nobuharu (1889-1929), who translated Margaret Sanger's speech and her book in 1922, advocated birth control purely from a biologist's point of view. Birth control is necessary for the survival of strong healthy human beings capable of overcoming all the difficulties in their lives. Birth control is a form of natural selection consciously done to avoid overburdening and wasting individual lives. Nagai, Sen (1876-1957) was opposed to birth control from eugenicc' point of view. He became the 1st president of Japan Racial Hygiene Society in 1930 and founded Eugenics/Marriage Counseling Clinic in 1933. In his book on eugenics published in 1936 he stressed the importance of continuation of race by protecting good stock and eliminating poor stock by sterilization. Birth control was opposed because it will shorten the life of an ethnic group or a race. Furuya, Yoshio (1890-1974), also a racial hygiene major, supported population policies based on eugenics. He studied a trend in childbirth among women of different professions and geographical areas. Educated and cultured urban upper-middle class women showed a sudden decline in childbirth in their later years of marriage, suggesting the prevalence of birth control among them, while less educated low-income women continued to reproduce. He opposed to birth control but was in favor of sterilization for eliminating poor stock.

  1. Nursing, social contexts, and ideologies in the early United States birth control movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerwey, M D

    1999-12-01

    Using historical discourse analysis, this study provides a thematic analysis of writings of nursing and birth control as found in The Birth Control Review from 1917 to 1927. The author contrasts this publication with the official journal of the American Nurses Association, the American Journal of Nursing from the same years to explore nursing voices and silences in early birth control stories. In dialogue with social contexts, nursing endeavors and inactivity have played important yet conflicting roles in the birth control movement in the United States. Nursing writings from the early twentieth century reflect eugenic beliefs, national fears of immigrants, and ambivalence about women's roles in society and the home. Nurses simultaneously empowered women to choose when to become pregnant and reinforced nativist and paternalistic views of the poor.

  2. Determining loads acting on the pelvis in upright and recumbent birthing positions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerich, Andrea; Geens, Emily; Diesbourg, Tara; Dumas, Geneviève A

    2018-05-24

    The biomechanics of mothers' birthing positions and their impact on maternal and newborn health outcomes are poorly understood. Our objectives were to determine the loads applied to the female pelvis during dynamic movement that may occur during childbirth; findings are intended to inform clinical understanding and further research on birth positioning mechanics. An optical motion capture system and force platforms were used to collect upright and supine movement data from two pregnant and three non-pregnant participants. Using an inverse dynamics approach, normalized three-dimensional hip and sagittal plane lumbosacral joint moments were estimated during squatting, all-fours, and supine activities. During squatting, peak hip abduction moments were greater for our pregnant (compared with non-pregnant) participants and lumbosacral extension moments substantially exceeded those during walking. The all-fours activity, conversely, generated flexion moments at the L5/S1 joint throughout most of the cycle. In supine, the magnitude of the ground reaction force reached 100% body weight with legs and upper body raised (McRoberts' position); the centre of pressure remained cranial to the sacrum. Squatting generated appreciable moments at the hip and lumbosacral joints that could potentially affect pelvic motion during childbirth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uranium Mining (Environment Control) Act 1979 No 46 of 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to control the mining of uranium in the Alligator Rivers Region with a view to lessening any damage which may be caused to the environment. The Act provides for the control of mining of certain substances, for an authorization system for construction and use of facilities, equipment and processes as well as for environmental protection requirements. (NEA) [fr

  4. Atomic Energy Control Act, c A.19, s.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Revised Statutes of Canada 1985 entered into force on 12 December 1988, revoking the previous Atomic Energy Control Act and replacing it with a new version. The new Act (Chapter A-16 of the Revised Statutes) updates the previous text and makes some linguistic corrections. The Atomic Energy Control Act establishes the Atomic Energy Control Board and sets out its duties and powers which include, in particular, the making of regulations for developing, controlling and licensing the production, application and use of atomic energy [fr

  5. Female Gynecologists and Their Birth Control Clinics: Eugenics in Practice in 1920s-1930s China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mirela

    2018-01-01

    Yang Chao Buwei, the first Chinese translator of Margaret Sanger's What Every Girl Should Know, was the first female gynecologist to open up a birth control clinic in China. By the 1930s, other female gynecologists, like Guo Taihua, had internalized and combined national and eugenic concerns of race regeneration to focus on the control of women's reproduction. This symbiosis between racial regeneration and birth control is best seen in Yang Chongrui's integration of birth control into her national hygiene program. This article traces the efforts of pioneer gynecologists in giving contraceptive advice at their birth control clinics, which they framed as a humanitarian effort to ease the reproductive burden of working-class women. It also examines their connections with Sanger's international birth control movement, and their advocacy of contraception as practitioners, translators, and educators. The author argues that these Chinese female gynecologists not only borrowed, but adapted, Western scientific knowledge to Chinese social conditions through their writings and translations and in their clinical work.

  6. Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Ross R

    2010-10-01

    is a protocol for a randomised trial, the findings of which will contribute information about the optimal time of birth for women with an uncomplicated multiple pregnancy at and beyond 37 weeks gestation. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15761056

  7. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to...

  8. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water...

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.

    1980-01-01

    The long-term environmental effects of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 address the public health hazards of radioactive wastes and recognize the significance of this issue to public acceptance of nuclear energy. Title I of the Act deals with stabilizing and controlling mill tailings at inactive sites and classifies the sites by priority. It represents a major Federal commitment. Title II changes and strengthens Nuclear Regulatory Commission authority, but it will have little overall impact. It is not possible to assess the Act's effect because there is no way to know if current technology will be adequate for the length of time required. 76 references

  10. Talking about Birth Control in 1877: Gender, Class, and Ideology in the Knowlton Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Flore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the debate around widening access to birth control information in the late nineteenth century through a case study of Annie Besant’s participation in the 1877 Knowlton Trial. Examining Besant’s rhetoric at the trial and in related publications, it highlights the public and performative nature of her campaign to facilitate access to birth control information for working-class married couples. With reference to the representation of issues of gender and social class and the shifting focus from the private to the public in Besant’s rhetoric, the article argues that the late nineteenth-century debate around birth control access was a middle-class debate about working-class life and experience.

  11. Feminism, biomedicine and the 'reproductive destiny' of women in clinical texts on the birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Andrea

    2018-07-01

    The birth control pill is one of the most popular forms of contraception in North America and has been a key player in women's rights activism for over 50 years. In this paper, I conduct a feminist deconstructive analysis of 12 biomedical texts on the birth control pill, published between 1965 and 2016. This study is situated amongst the feminist scholarship that challenges the representation of women's bodies in biomedicine. Findings suggest that clinical texts on the birth control pill continue to universalise women's lives and experiences, and essentialise them based on their reproductive capacities. One way the texts accomplish this is by making women absent or passive in the literature thereby losing concern for the diversity of their lives, interpretations and identities as more than reproductive beings. The consequence of such representations is that biomedical texts disseminate limited forms of knowledge, in particular concerning definitions of 'natural' and 'normal' behaviour, with important consequences for the embodied experiences of women.

  12. Birth preference in women undergoing treatment for childbirth fear: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Birgitta; Karlström, Annika; Rubertsson, Christine; Ternström, Elin; Ekdahl, Johanna; Segebladh, Birgitta; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2017-12-01

    Childbirth fear is the most common underlying reason for requesting a caesarean section without medical reason. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to investigate birth preferences in women undergoing treatment for childbirth fear, and to investigate birth experience and satisfaction with the allocated treatment. Pregnant women classified with childbirth fear (≥60 on the Fear Of Birth Scale) (n=258) were recruited at one university hospital and two regional hospitals over one year. The participants were randomised (1:1) to intervention (Internet-based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (ICBT)) (n=127) or standard care (face-to-face counselling) (n=131). Data were collected by questionnaires in pregnancy week 20-25 (baseline), week 36 and two months after birth. Caesarean section preference decreased from 34% to 12% in the ICBT group and from 24% to 20% in the counselling group. Two months after birth, the preference for caesarean increased to 20% in the ICBT group and to 29% in the counselling group, and there was no statistically significant change over time. Women in the ICBT group were less satisfied with the treatment (OR 4.5). The treatment had no impact on or worsened their childbirth fear (OR 5.5). There were no differences between the groups regarding birth experience. Women's birth preferences fluctuated over the course of pregnancy and after birth regardless of treatment method. Women felt their fear was reduced and were more satisfied with face-to-face counselling compared to ICBT. A higher percentage were lost to follow-up in ICBT group suggesting a need for further research. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Birth attendance and magnitude of obstetric complications in Western Kenya: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liambila, Wilson N; Kuria, Shiphrah N

    2014-09-08

    Skilled birth attendance is critical in the provision of child birth related services. Yet, literature is scanty on the outcomes of child birth related complications in situations where majority of women deliver under the care of non-skilled birth attendants compared to those who are assisted by skilled providers. The study sought to assess the nature of childbirth related complications among the skilled and the non-skilled birth attendants in Western Kenya. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 15-49 years at the household. Controls were individually matched to cases on the basis of age and socio-economic status. A total of 294 cases and 291 controls were interviewed. Data were collected on various demographic and socio-economic characteristics and women's perception on the quality of care. All independent variables were analysed initially in bivariate models and those that were significantly associated with obstetric complications were included in multiple logistic regression model in order to control for confounding factors. Odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals, were computed to show the association between the occurrence, magnitude and the extent to which child birth related complications were managed. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the cases and controls were similar. About 52% of the deliveries were assisted by skilled birth attendants while non-skilled providers attended to 48% of them. The odds of the occurrence of obstetric complications were greater among the women who were attended to by skilled providers in health facilities: adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.32 (CI 0.95, 1.84) than among those who were assisted by unskilled birth attendants, AOR 0.76 (CI 0.55, 1.06). Undignified care, high delivery and transport costs and fear of hospital procedures such as HIV tests and mishandling of the placenta were cited as some of the barriers to facility deliveries. Skilled birth attendants in facilities were associated

  14. A lost chance? Birth control policies in the Mao's China (1949-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the birth control policies in China during the Maoist era (1949- 1976. Considering Chinese and foreign sources, it is explained how the different campaigns of family planning took place and how these campaigns were subjected positively and negatively to the policies of the supreme leader Mao Zedong. Although only the last one had a real impact on the fight against overpopulation, all campaigns helped to promote the necessity of confronting this phenomenon. More importantly, they laid the foundations of the birth control policies that currently take place in China.

  15. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...

  16. Radiation Protection and Control Act 1982. No 49 of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Act provides for radiation protection in the State of South Australia. It controls activities related to radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus and lays down a licensing system to this effect. The South Australia Health Commission is responsible for administering the Act and is advised by the Radiation Protection Committee created for this purpose. The powers and duties of both bodies are set out in detail. (NEA) [fr

  17. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh Mannem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n = 52 had term labor (infants ≥37 weeks and the case group (n = 52 had preterm labor (infants <37 weeks. Plaque index, bleeding index, and birth weight were measured. Results: The data of plaque index (cases 1.21±0.56; controls 0.63±0.31, bleeding index (cases, 2.08±0.62; controls, 1.52±0.61, birth weight (cases, 2.01±0.36; controls 2.87±0.32, and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD ≥4mm and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL ≥3mm in at least 4 teeth (odds ratio 137.50, P value < 0.0001 revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups P< 0.05. Conclusions: A noticeable relationship between periodontal health and duration of pregnancy; periodontal disease could be a risk factor for preterm labor. Oral hygiene maintenance should be a part of prenatal care protocol.

  18. Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii on necrotizing enterocolitis or sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serce, Ozge; Benzer, Derya; Gursoy, Tugba; Karatekin, Guner; Ovali, Fahri

    2013-12-01

    Probiotics have strain specific effects and the effects of fungi in preventing diseases in preterm infants have been investigated poorly. Saccharomyces boulardii is a yeast which acts both as a probiotic and a polyamine producer. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of S. boulardii in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis in very low birth weight infants. A prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted in preterm infants (≤ 32 GWs, ≤ 1500 g birth weight). They were randomized either to receive feeding supplementation with S. boulardii 50 mg/kg every 12 h or placebo, starting with the first feed until discharged. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis and NEC or death. Birth weight and gestational age of the study (n = 104) and the control (n = 104) groups were 1126 ± 232 vs 1162 ± 216 g and 28.8 ± 2.2 vs 28.7 ± 2.1 weeks, respectively. Neither the incidence of stage ≥ 2 NEC or death nor stage ≥ 2 NEC or late onset culture proven sepsis was significantly lower in the study group when compared with the control group (9.6% vs 7.7%, p = 0.62; 28.8% vs 23%, p = 0.34). Time to reach 100 mL/kg/day of enteral feeding (11.9 ± 7 vs 12.6 ± 7 days, p = 0.37) was not different between the groups. Saccharomyces boulardii did not decrease the incidence of NEC or sepsis. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-Acting Control for Shock and Impact Isolation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-acting control in shock/impact isolation systems is studied. With pre-acting control, the isolation system begins to respond to an impact before this impact has been applied to the base. The limiting performance of the isolator with pre-acting control is investigated for a single-degree-of-freedom system subject to an instantaneous impact. The isolation performance index is defined as the maximum of the absolute value of the displacement of the object to be isolated relative to the base, provided that the magnitude of the control force transmitted to the object does not exceed a prescribed value. It is shown that there is a substantial advantage in the use of pre-acting isolators over isolators without pre-action. Particular attention is given to a pre-acting isolator based on a passive elastic element (a spring separating the object to be protected from the base. An example illustrates the calculation of the design parameters of such an isolator.

  20. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiza Cesar Nhoncanse

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants, cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047. A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001 and cesarean delivery (p=0.004 was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs.

  1. Adolescents' Interpretations of the Birth Control Behavior of a Soap Opera Couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Childers, Kim

    A study investigated whether adolescents' schemas about contraceptive use would influence their perceptions that a soap opera couple used birth control during sex. The study also examined the effects of increasing explicitness of characters' conversations about contraceptives on viewers' perceptions of the couple's contraceptive use. Thirty-six…

  2. Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing factors and early neonatal outcome. ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 3 (2017) > ... Independent predictors of macrosomia were parental high social class (P = 0.000), gestational weight gain of ≥15 kg (P = 0.000), and previous history of macrosomia (P = 0.002).

  3. Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Why ...

  4. ACTS TDMA network control. [Advanced Communication Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, T.; Campanella, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents basic network control concepts for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. Two experimental systems, called the low-burst-rate and high-burst-rate systems, along with ACTS ground system features, are described. The network control issues addressed include frame structures, acquisition and synchronization procedures, coordinated station burst-time plan and satellite-time plan changes, on-board clock control based on ground drift measurements, rain fade control by means of adaptive forward-error-correction (FEC) coding and transmit power augmentation, and reassignment of channel capacities on demand. The NASA ground system, which includes a primary station, diversity station, and master control station, is also described.

  5. Time Delayed Stage-Structured Predator-Prey Model with Birth Pulse and Pest Control Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally, chemical pesticides kill not only pests but also their natural enemies. In order to better control the pests, two-time delayed stage-structured predator-prey models with birth pulse and pest control tactics are proposed and analyzed by using impulsive differential equations in present work. The stability threshold conditions for the mature prey-eradication periodic solutions of two models are derived, respectively. The effects of key parameters including killing efficiency rate, pulse period, the maximum birth effort per unit of time of natural enemy, and maturation time of prey on the threshold values are discussed in more detail. By comparing the two threshold values of mature prey-extinction, we provide the fact that the second control tactic is more effective than the first control method.

  6. Firearm injuries to children in Cape Town, South Africa: impact of the 2004 Firearms Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N M; Colville, J G; van der Heyde, Y; van As, A B

    2013-07-31

    Before the introduction of the Firearms Control Act in 2004, the epidemiology of childhood firearm injuries from 1991 to 2001 in Cape Town, South Africa, was reported. This study analyses current data as a comparator to assess the impact of the Act. Firearm injuries seen at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, from 2001 to 2010 were respectively reviewed. Data recorded included the patients' folder numbers, gender, date of birth, age, date of presentation, date discharged and inpatient stay, firearm type, number of shots, circumstances, injury sites, injury type, treatment, resulting morbidities and survival. These data were compared with the 1991 - 2001 data. One hundred and sixty-three children presented with firearm injuries during this period. The results showed a decrease in incidence from 2001 to 2010. Older children and males had a higher incidence than younger children and females. Most injuries were to an extremity and were unintentional. Mortality had reduced significantly from the previous study (6% to 2.6%), as did the total number of inpatient days (1 063 to 617). Compared with the earlier study, this study showed a significant reduction in the number of children presenting with a firearm-related injury. Mortality and inpatient stay were also significantly reduced. The study shows the impact that the Firearms Control Act has had in terms of paediatric firearm-related injury and provides evidence that the medical profession can play an important role in reducing violence.

  7. Servo-control for maintaining abdominal skin temperature at 36C in low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J C

    2002-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown that the neonatal mortality rate of low birth-weight babies can be reduced by keeping them warm. For low birth-weight babies nursed in incubators, warm conditions may be achieved either by heating the air to a desired temperature, or by servo-controlling the baby's body temperature at a desired set-point. In low birth weight infants, to determine the effect on death and other important clinical outcomes of targeting body temperature rather than air temperature as the end-point of control of incubator heating. Standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Searches were made of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) (Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2001) and MEDLINE, 1966 to November 2001. Randomized or quasi-randomized trials which test the effects of having the heat output of the incubator servo-controlled from body temperature compared with setting a constant incubator air temperature. Trial methodologic quality was systematically assessed. Outcome measures included death, timing of death, cause of death, and other clinical outcomes. Categorical outcomes were analyzed using relative risk and risk difference. Meta-analysis assumed a fixed effect model. Two eligible trials were found. In total, they included 283 babies and 112 deaths. Compared to setting a constant incubator air temperature of 31.8C, servo-control of abdominal skin temperature at 36C reduces the neonatal death rate among low birth weight infants: relative risk 0.72 (95% CI 0.54, 0.97); risk difference -12.7% (95% CI -1.6, -23.9). This effect is even greater among VLBW infants. During at least the first week after birth, low birth weight babies should be provided with a carefully regulated thermal environment that is near the thermoneutral point. For LBW babies in incubators, this can be achieved by adjusting incubator temperature to maintain an anterior abdominal skin temperature of at least 36C, using either servo-control or frequent manual

  8. Maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpalatha Govindaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Preterm birth (PTB is an important issue in public health and is a major cause for infant mortality and morbidity. There is a growing consensus that systemic diseases elsewhere in the body may influence PTB. Recent studies have hypothesized that maternal periodontitis could be a high-risk factor for PTB. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maternal periodontitis on PTB. Materials and Methods: Forty systemically healthy primiparous mothers aged 18–35 years were recruited for the study. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, they were categorized into PTB group as cases and full term birth group (FTB as controls. PTB cases (n = 20 defined as spontaneous delivery before/<37 completed weeks of gestation. Controls (FTB were normal births at or after 37 weeks of gestation. Data on periodontal status, pregnancy outcome variables, and information on other factors that may influence adverse pregnancy outcomes were collected within 2 days of labor. Data were subjected to Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference with respect to the gestational period at the time of delivery and birth weight of the infants in (PTB group (<0.001 compared to (FTB group was observed. Overall, there was statistically significant poor periodontal status in the (PTB group compared to (FTB group. The statistical results also showed a positive correlation between gestational age and clinical parameters. Conclusion: An observable relationship was noticed between periodontitis and gestational age, and a positive correlation was found with respect to PTB and periodontitis. Further studies should be designed to establish periodontal disease as an independent risk factor for PTB/preterm low birth weight.

  9. Birth ball or heat therapy? A randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of birth ball usage with sacrum-perineal heat therapy in labor pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Sheikhan, Fatemeh; Abdolahian, Somayeh; Ghavi, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    Labor pain and its management is a major concern for childbearing women, their families and health care providers. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two non-pharmacological methods such as birth ball and heat therapy on labor pain relief. This randomized control trial was undertaken on 90 primiparous women aged 18-35 years old who were randomly assigned to two intervention (birth ball and heat) and control groups. The pain score was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before the intervention and every 30 min in three groups until cervical dilatation reached 8 cm. The mean pain severity score in the heat therapy group was less than that of in control group at 60 and 90 min after intervention (p pain scores in the birth ball group after all three investigated times in comparison to control group. Both heat therapy and birth ball can use as inexpensive complementary and low risk treatment for labor pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  11. The origins of the birth control movement in England in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W L

    1975-01-01

    The origins of the birth control movement in England in the 19th cen tury are discussed. The impact of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population" and the activities of such thinkers and reformers as Jermy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, Francis Plance, Richard Carlile, Robert Dale Owen, and Charles Knowlton are discussed. The social debate that arose during the century is discussed.

  12. Fifty Shades: ambivalence about birth control in an erotic bestseller and its cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierhofer, Waltraud; Israel, Emanuella

    2017-04-01

    The Fifty Shades trilogy by E.L. James has taken the world by storm and become a cultural phenomenon. The lack of contraceptive use in the erotic fiction, first pointed out by bloggers, is analysed in this article and compared to medical information. James may be praised for sexualising condom use. However, her protagonist makes poor choices in terms of hormonal contraception and is negligent about its use, resulting in an unintended pregnancy and resolved in marital bliss and motherhood. What is of more interest here than a possible message about contraceptive use, is the outcome that the fiction's negligence in birth control and responsibility affirms an ideology in which female sexuality and sexual experimentation can only be tolerated within the context of procreation and affirmation of motherhood. Subsequently, the cultural significance of the trilogy's popularity and its tension between sexual exploration, birth control and fertility is explored. In a globally popular fantasy published more than five decades after the introduction of the pill, the protagonist's lack of attention to reliable birth control leads to a telling dichotomy that combines adventurous exploration of female sexuality and affirmation of the nuclear family.

  13. Use of birth control pills, condoms, and withdrawal among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S A; Warren, C W; Santelli, J S; Kann, L; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-08-01

    To examine the use of contraception at last sexual intercourse among currently sexually active adolescents. We analyzed data from national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997. The YRBS is a self-administered, anonymous survey which uses a national probability sample of U.S. students in public and private schools from grades 9 through 12. From 1991 to 1997, condom use significantly increased (from 46% to 57%), birth control pill use decreased (from 21% to 17%), and use of withdrawal significantly decreased (from 18% to 13%). In 1997, although more students were using condoms, 13% reported using withdrawal and 15% reported using no method to prevent pregnancy at last sexual intercourse. In 1997, condom use among females was significantly lower in the 9th grade than in the 12th grade (p birth control pill use was higher (p birth control pill use by their partner increased (p schools, and other influential societal institutions should promote the correct and continued use of condoms as essential protection against sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  14. Higher Prevalence of Left-Handedness in Twins? Not After Controlling Birth Time Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Kauko; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Saari-Kemppainen, Aulikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Haukka, Jari; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Iivanainen, Matti

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy- and birth-related factors may have an effect on handedness. Compared with singletons, twins have a lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and are at higher risk for birth complications. We tested whether the prevalence of left-handedness is higher among twins than singletons, and if so, whether that difference is fully explained by pregnancy and birth-related differences between twins and singletons. We analyzed Finnish population-based datasets; included were 8,786 twins and 5,892 singletons with information on birth weight (n = 12,381), Apgar scores (n = 11,129), and gestational age (n = 11,811). Two twin cohorts were involved: FinnTwin12 included twins born during 1983-1987, and FinnTwin16 included twins born during 1974-1979. We had two comparison groups of singletons: 4,101 individuals born during 1986-1988 and enrolled in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial, and 1,791 individuals who were partners of FinnTwin16 twins. We used logistic regression models with writing hand as the outcome for comparison and evaluating effects of covariates. Left-handedness was more common in twins (9.67%) than in singletons (8.27%; p = .004). However, Apgar scores were associated with handedness, and after controlling for covariates, we found no difference in the prevalence of left-handedness between twins and singletons. Increased left-handedness among twins, often reported by others, was evident in our data, but only among our older twin cohorts, and that association disappeared after removing effects of perinatal covariates.

  15. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception | Dahan-Farkas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended period without requiring user action. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives include progesterone only injectables, subdermal implants and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

  16. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M.; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented. PMID:27065486

  17. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight - a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T; Köhler, M; Philippi, M

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented.

  18. Thomas Scharping, Birth Control in China, 1949-2000. Population policy and demographic development

    OpenAIRE

    Allès, Élisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Family policy and the growth of the population in China have been the subject of continuous attention for many years, but there was no research which provided an overall view of the policies and outcomes for these areas. This remarkable work by the German demographer Thomas Scharping, on birth control and demography in China from 1949 to 2000, fills this gap. It recounts and analyses demographic growth, the policies of the Chinese state in this field and the reactions of the population over t...

  19. Crime Control Act of 1990 [29 November 1990]. [Summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In the US, the Crime Control Act of 1990 was approved on November 29, 1990. This various titles of this Act include provisions relating to the following: 1) international money laundering; 2) child abuse; 3) child pornography; 4) kidnapping, abducting, or unlawfully restraining a child; 5) the protection of crime victims; 6) funding for local law enforcement agencies; 7) funding for federal law enforcement; 8) rural drug enforcement assistance; 9) mandatory detention for certain criminals; 10) juvenile justice; 11) penalties for use of certain firearms; 12) improvements in miscellaneous criminal law; 13) disability benefits for public safety officers; 14) money laundering; 15) drug-free school zones; 16) miscellaneous amendments to the federal judicial and criminal codes; 17) general provisions; 18) grants for correctional options; 19) control of anabolic steroids; 20) asset forfeiture; 21) student loan cancellation for law enforcement officers; 22) firearms provisions; 23) chemical diversion and trafficking; 24) drug paraphernalia; 25) banking law enforcement; 26) licit opium imports; 27) sentencing for methamphetamine offenses; 28) drug enforcement grants; 29) prisons; 30) shock incarceration (prison boot camps); 31) bankruptcy and restitution; 32) appropriations for law and drug enforcement agencies; 33) anti-drug programs; 34) support of law enforcement; 35) technical and minor substantive amendments to the federal criminal code; 36) federal debt collection; and 37) national child search assistance (for missing children).

  20. Transactional price of an expected child and its application in birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X

    1993-01-01

    The theoretical presentation of the impact of the transactional price of an expected child (TPEC) on birth control led to the conclusion that successful birth control was a combination of birth utility theory and TPEC theory. In a hypothetical market, the assumption can be made that an expected price can be attached to a desired child or a transactional price can be attached for giving up the reproductive right to have an excess child. A consumer equilibrium model can characterize the changes in financial resources necessary in deciding on an appropriate number of children. In a general equilibrium model, couples would have to be compensated a certain amount as an inducement to forgo the right to have a second child. Prices of children can be determined by a distributional curve of this transactional price of expected excess children and the estimated marginal price for couples with two children. Under circumstances of limited resources, it would be cheaper to buy some couple's rights to forgo a child, and this price would vary with parity. The exact transactional price of each child by parity by each couple could be theoretically determined, if all couples told the truth about desired number of children. However, the complication is that this condition may not be possible, and couples may charge more for forgoing the right to a subsequent child that what they would actually accept. Also, the seller could ask one price and then charge more. A compromise would be to set prices only for lower parities and to set prices subject to the total funds available to the buyer. Very low prices would also decrease the effectiveness of birth control. The government could be a buyer or seller. Taxing couples for additional children would make the government a seller. When the government is the buyer, couples would be compensated for not having an additional child. Another possibility is a reward for having only a certain number of children and a tax for excess children, which

  1. Radiation Control Act 1977 - No 66 of 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive materials and radiation-emitting devices. It sets up a Radiation Advisory Council to advise the competent authorities on questions within the scope of the Act, also with a view to radiation protection. The Act also lays down a licensing system for such materials and devices. The Radioactive Substances Acts 1954 and 1966 are repealed. (NEA) [fr

  2. Low birth weight at term and its determinants in a tertiary hospital of Nepal: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Raj Sharma

    Full Text Available Birth weight of a child is an important indicator of its vulnerability for childhood illness and chances of survival. A large number of infant deaths can be averted by appropriate management of low birth weight babies and prevention of factors associated with low birth weight. The prevalence of low birth weight babies in Nepal is estimated to be about 12-32%.Our study aimed at identifying major determinants of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal. A hospital-based retrospective case control study was conducted in maternity ward of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from February to July 2011. A total of 155 LBW babies and 310 controls were included in the study. Mothers admitted to maternity ward during the study period were interviewed, medical records were assessed and anthropometric measurements were done. Risk factors, broadly classified into proximal and distal factors, were assessed for any association with birth of low-birth weight babies. Regression analysis revealed that a history of premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio; aOR5.24, CI 1.05-26.28, hard physical work during pregnancy (aOR1.48, CI 0.97-2.26, younger age of mother (aOR1.98, CI 1.15-3.41, mothers with haemoglobin level less than 11gm/dl (aOR0.51, CI0.24-1.07 and lack of consumption of nutritious food during pregnancy (aOR1.99, CI 1.28-3.10 were significantly associated with the birth of LBW babies. These factors should be addressed with appropriate measures so as to decrease the prevalence of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal.

  3. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097

  5. Risk factors for pre-term birth in Iraq: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbagh Samim A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTBis a major clinical problem associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors associated with PTB in Mosul, Iraq. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Mosul, Iraq, from 1st September, 2003 to 28th February, 2004. Results A total of 200 cases of PTB and 200 controls of full-term births were screened and enrolled in the study. Forward logistic regression analysis was used in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between PTB and the following risk factors were identified: poor diet (OR = 4.33, heavy manual work (OR = 1.70, caring for domestic animals (OR = 5.06, urinary tract infection (OR = 2.85, anxiety (OR = 2.16, cervical incompetence (OR = 4.74, multiple pregnancies (OR = 7.51, direct trauma to abdomen (OR = 3.76 and abortion (OR = 6.36. Conclusion The main determinants of PTB in Iraq were low socio-economic status and factors associated with it, such as heavy manual work and caring for domestic animals, in addition to urinary tract infections and poor obstetric history.

  6. A Case–Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. Methods This case–control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012–2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164–169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202 PMID:26009470

  7. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202.

  8. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-09-18

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty.

  9. Developmental origins of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a case control study comparing birth weight in women with PCOS and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrzadeh, Sheda; Painter, Rebecca C; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2016-10-01

    Evidence from various epidemiological studies and experimental animal studies has linked adverse intrauterine circumstances with health problems in adult life. This field of investigation is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Studies investigating the relation between developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adulthood and birth weight have yielded inconsistent results: PCOS is described more often in women with low birth weight and high birth weight, while other studies have failed to establish any relation. In this retrospective case-control study, we evaluated whether women diagnosed with PCOS had lower birth weight compared to women with a regular menstrual cycle (controls). Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the data and correct for known confounders. About 65 women with PCOS and 96 controls were recruited for this purpose. The average birth weight of PCOS women (3357 g) did not differ from the average birth weight of controls (3409 g). Mean age at menarche differed significantly between groups, 13.7  years and 12.8  years (p = 0.006), respectively, for PCOS women and controls. In conclusion, we could not confirm the effect of adverse intrauterine conditions, reflected in birth weight, on developing PCOS.

  10. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended ... The World Health Organization (WHO) has online tools available .... trials and marketing experience.

  11. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Norum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami and 23% (controls, respectively. Results. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94 or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82. Conclusions. Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  12. The right to have a family: 'legal trafficking of children', adoption and birth control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarello, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on one of the 'child-trafficking scandals' that occurred in Brazil in the 1990s. Ethnographic research was carried out between 2000 and 2001 within a movement of poor families formed in São Paulo to put pressure on the authorities to review the legal procedures that had led to their children being placed for national and international adoption. Fieldwork was supplemented by other data, including reports by legislative bodies, articles in the press, and case files involving the termination of parental rights. This paper explores views on international adoption among members of the Brazilian elites such as judges, agents in the field of child protection and journalists, in the context of old but persistent neo-Malthusian ideas. Although the Brazilian birth rate is now below the replacement level, it is still common to blame 'irresponsible' reproduction among the urban poor for violence in large cities. Drawing a parallel with the routine sterilization of women that prevailed for decades and was encouraged by Brazilian physicians, the paper examines how, in a 'struggle against poverty', judicial agents took it upon themselves to enforce 'birth control' through adoption, bypassing family consent and the law in the process. The paper concludes by arguing that discrimination against poor families who are viewed as disorganized, immoral and irresponsible - characteristics frequently associated with criminality by a sector of the elites - has contributed to the view that lower-class families do not have the right to bear children, or to keep them.

  13. Spontaneous vaginal delivery in the birth-chair versus in the conventional dorsal position: a matched controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, H S; Benedicic, C; Arikan, M G; Haas, J; Petru, E

    2001-09-17

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a birth-chair on obstetric outcome. We reviewed the hospital records of 220 consecutive pregnant women who gave birth on a birth-chair at our institution. The control group consisted of 440 pregnant women who preceded and followed the index cases and who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries in the conventional dorsal supine position. The controls were matched for parity and for the attending mid-wife. Patients who delivered in the birth-chair had significantly lower rates of episiotomy and manual separation of the placenta. The umbilical blood cord pH was significantly higher in neonates of the birth-chair group. The duration of labour, rate of perineal and vaginal injury, Apgar scores and rate of admission to a neonatal intermediate care unit were not influenced by the mode of delivery. Our data support previous studies that a birth-chair delivery may be a safe alternative to conventional delivery in the supine position.

  14. Comparing Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria with the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and Asthma Control Test (ACT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, B.B.; Pijnenburg, M.W.; Brackel, H.J.; Landstra, A.M.; Berg, N.J. van den; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Vaessen-Verberne, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Several tools are useful in detecting uncontrolled asthma in children. The aim of this study was to compare Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines with the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) in detecting uncontrolled asthma in children. 145 children with

  15. Overlapping Nuclear Safety Control Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act and Electric Utility Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gun-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Won; Koh, Jae-Dong; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Chang-Bum

    2007-01-01

    Before May 17, 2005, Korea's nuclear power plant (hereinafter referred to as 'NNP') regulation system was two-pronged. Every NPP system consists of primary or secondary system, and each type was respectively regulated by the Atomic Energy Act(hereinafter referred to as 'AEA') and the Electric Utility Act(hereinafter referred to as 'EUA'). This unusual regulatory regime gave rise to a number of problems with respect to operation and safety. For this reason, the Enforcement Regulation of AEA and applicable Notice were revised on May 17, 2005 to the effect that all regulation on NPPs subject to EUA was brought under the purview of AEA, except regulation on business license for nuclear power generation under Article 7 of EUA and approval of plan of works for setting up electric installations (hereinafter referred to as 'construction plan') (including approval of any changes; the same shall apply hereinafter) under Article 61 thereof. From the point of view of the Ministry of Science and Technology, the regulation of NPPs by a single law has enhanced their safety. However, the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy retains regulatory authority regarding NPPs. It reviews and approves construction plans for secondary system pursuant to Article 61 of EUA and Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation thereof. This situation arose because Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation of EUA continues to provide for matters related with nuclear power. Therefore, continued control of NPPs under EUA ignores the relationship and respective nature of AEA and EUA. There is also possibility of violation of a superseding law. Even if said provision is not in violation of a superseding law, Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation of EUA poses the possibility of overlapping regulation, which may violate the principle of prohibiting excessive regulation, one of the principles of the Korean Constitution. Assessment of the dual regulatory system for review of secondary system requires (i

  16. Game change in Colorado: widespread use of long-acting reversible contraceptives and rapid decline in births among young, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Sue; Klingler, Greta; Schwalberg, Renee

    2014-09-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are recommended for young women, but access is limited by cost and lack of knowledge among providers and consumers. The Colorado Family Planning Initiative (CFPI) sought to address these barriers by training providers, financing LARC method provision at Title X-funded clinics and increasing patient caseload. Beginning in 2009, 28 Title X-funded agencies in Colorado received private funding to support CFPI. Caseloads and clients' LARC use were assessed over the following two years. Fertility rates among low-income women aged 15-24 were compared with expected trends. Abortion rates and births among high-risk women were tracked, and the numbers of infants receiving services through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) were examined. By 2011, caseloads had increased by 23%, and LARC use among 15-24-year-olds had grown from 5% to 19%. Cumulatively, one in 15 young, low-income women had received a LARC method, up from one in 170 in 2008. Compared with expected fertility rates in 2011, observed rates were 29% lower among low-income 15-19-year-olds and 14% lower among similar 20-24-year-olds. In CFPI counties, the proportion of births that were high-risk declined by 24% between 2009 and 2011; abortion rates fell 34% and 18%, respectively, among women aged 15-19 and 20-24. Statewide, infant enrollment in WIC declined 23% between 2010 and 2013. Programs that increase LARC use among young, low-income women may contribute to declines in fertility rates, abortion rates and births among high-risk women. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  17. Radiological assessment of placement of the hysteroscopically inserted Essure permanent birth control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Ramos, R M; Azpeitia Armán, J; Aparicio Rodríguez-Miñón, P; Salazar Arquero, F J; Albillos Merino, J C

    2015-01-01

    Essure is a permanent birth control device that is inserted through the cervix by hysteroscopy. The device is placed in the fallopian tubes, where it causes occlusion by stimulating fibrosis. Patients can be followed up with plain-film X-rays, hysterosalpingography, and ultrasonography, although the devices can also be identified incidentally on CT and MRI. The follow-up of Essure is based on checking the criteria for appropriate positioning and correct functioning (tubal occlusion) and on diagnosing complications. The most common complications are perforation, migration (toward the uterine or peritoneal cavity), and occlusion failure. In hysterosalpingography, vascular intravasation is the most common cause of diagnostic error. Radiologists need to know how to recognize the device on different imaging techniques, how to check that it is correctly placed and functioning, and how to diagnose complications. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Intraventricular hemorrhage risk factors in very low birth weight newborns: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of variables that affect the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Methods: Analytic case-control study, in a population consisting of all VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a maternity hospital, between January 2002 and December 2007. The authors considered as cases all VLBW newborns with severe IVH (grade ≥ 3, and control all VLBW newborns without IVH. Independent variables included obstetric, perinatal and neonatal diagnosis and therapy. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Rresults: During this period, of the 864 VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 9.7% had severe IVH. With bivariate analysis an association between severe IVH, gestational age and birth weight was found. Prenatal care and pre-eclampsia were associated with a decrease in the incidence of severe IVH. Amnionitis, being outborn, vaginal delivery, male gender, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC perforation and oscillatory high frequency ventilation were associated with an increased incidence of severe IVH. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with increased risk of severe IVH were: pneumothorax (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 1.7-8.3, NEC with perforation (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 1.7-45.0, vaginal delivery (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.0-4.1 and high frequency ventilation (OR = 4.8; 95%CI = 1.3-17.3. The following were protective of severe IVH: gestational age (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.52-0.72, patent ductus arteriosus treatment with indomethacin (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.11-0.6 and fertility treatment (OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.06-0.94. Cconclusion: These data outline the importance of improvement of pre and neonatal care to reduce severe IVH.

  19. Birth outcomes of cases with isolated atrial septal defect type II--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-07-01

    In general, epidemiological studies have evaluated cases with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities together. The aim of this study is to describe the birth outcomes of cases with isolated/single atrial septal defect type II (ASD-II, i.e. only a fossa ovalis defect) after surgical correction or lethal outcome in the light of maternal sociodemographic data. Comparison of birth outcomes and maternal characteristics of cases with ASD-II and controls without defect. The population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Hungarian newborn infants with or without ASD-II. Medically recorded birth outcomes, maternal age and birth order were evaluated. Marital and employment status was based on maternal information. The lifestyle factors were analyzed in a subsample of mothers visited at home based on a personal interview with mothers and their close relatives, and the family consensus was accepted. Mean gestational age at delivery and birthweight, rate of preterm birth and low birthweight, maternal age, birth order, marital and employment status. The evaluation of 471 cases with ASD-II and 38,151 controls without any defects showed a female excess in cases with ASD-II, having shorter gestational age and lower mean birthweight, and thus a higher rate of preterm births and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction and shorter gestational age were found in cases with ASD-II, particularly in female children. These factors may have a general developmental process in which there was not closure of the foramen ovale, thus echocardiographic screening of these babies might be of value. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Regulations under the Radiation Protection and Control Act, 1982, No. 221 of 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    These Regulations made under the Radiation Protection and Control Act of 1982, amend several numerical quotations contained in the Radiation Safety (Transport) Regulations, No. 27, 1984, also made under the above mentioned Act. (NEA) [fr

  1. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries: a register-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Pal, Niklas; Stokland, Tore; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression analysis. We observed a distinct association between Wilms tumor and high birth weight (≥4 kg) for girls (OR 1.97, CI 1.50-2.59) but not for boys (1.04, 0.78-1.38); overall, the OR was 1.43 (1.17-1.74). Among girls, risk increased by 28% (15-42%) per 500 g increase in birth weight. Large-for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min birth order. In our large-scale, registry-based study, we confirmed earlier observations of an association between high birth weight and risk of Wilms tumor, but we found an effect only in girls. The higher risk of infants with low Apgar score might reflect hypoxia causing cell damage, adverse side effects of neonatal treatment or reverse causation as low Apgar score might indicate the presence of a tumor. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  2. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were...... complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents....

  3. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, A., E-mail: goelanju23@gmail.com; Gakkhar, S., E-mail: sungkfma@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2016-04-06

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  4. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, A.; Gakkhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  5. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  6. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita

    2010-08-09

    To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills. This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation. The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation. The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis), fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women's desires for fewer and shorter menses) and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding). Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.

  7. Maternal Locus of Control and Perception of Family Status at Entry and Exit of Birth to Three Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffaro, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Birth to three early intervention is unique time in the life of a family of a child with a disability in that confidence and competence of the parents can be addressed as part of the intervention goals and objectives. Locus of control is a quality measure of a parent's perception of their ability to be their child's teacher, advocate, and champion…

  8. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin B; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-04-01

    A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Migration and its influence on the knowledge and usage of birth control methods among Afghan women who stay behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, I; Siegel, M

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the link between migration and knowledge and use of birth control methods among female household members (of migrants) who stay behind in Afghanistan. Migrants can remit birth control information received in the destination country to non-migrants staying in the origin country, who may as a consequence adjust their health behaviour accordingly. The consequences of this interaction for knowledge and use are what we aim to test. Population-based secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. This study used cross-sectional data from the Afghan Mortality Survey (2010). Using ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching, this research studies to what extent having a migrant in the household influences the knowledge and use of birth control among non-migrant Afghan women. Women who stay behind are defined in this research as those with a migrant household member who moved between 2005 and 2010. Results indicated that non-Pashtun women with a migrant household member showed greater knowledge of contraceptive methods using injectables, birth control pill and lactational amenorrhea method compared to those women without a migrant household member. Less knowledge of male sterilisation and emergency contraception is observed for all women (both Pashtun and non-Pashtun) with a migrant in their household on male sterilisation and emergency contraception compared to the women without a migrant in the household. In addition, we show that Pashtun women with a migrant in the household had lower levels of overall knowledge and were less likely to use birth control methods than women without a migrant household member. In Afghanistan, given the proximity, religious similarity and sociocultural customs mainly men migrate either to Pakistan or Iran. The findings suggest that migrants in different destination countries transfer different information (or fail to successfully transfer information) about birth control methods

  10. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal and...

  11. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the State... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a...

  12. [Optimum approach to delivery for control of premature birth (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, J; Lattorff, E

    1980-01-01

    Foetal condition and neonatal mortality of 637 prematurely born children with birth weights below 2,501 g were analysed, depending on modes of delivery, such as spontaneous birth, speculum delivery, use of forceps, manual support, and caesarean section. The clinical condition of the newborn, assessed five minutes from parturition by Apgar score 1, was found to depend primarily on birth weight rather than on the mode of delivery. The average Apgar values were lower for less mature newborns. While Apgar scores were worst for newborns after caesarean section delivery, the differences between approaches to delivery could not be statistically secured. Neonatal mortality went up, according to expectation, along with dropping birth weight. The mortality rate of premature births below 1,501 g was not affected by delivery modes. Prophylactic use of Shute forceps and speculum delivery appeared to be superior to spontaneous birth in the medium weight class, between 1,501 g and 2,000 g. Yet, not even here were the differences between clear postnatal mortality rates statistically secured. -Lowest mortality figures were recorded from spontaneous birth in the weight class between 2,001 g and 2,500 g, but significant differences were established only to speculum delivery. Premature newborns after caesarean section had poorer prospects than all variants of vaginal birth, but among the latter premature births from breech presentation were more endangered than others. Decisions as to vaginal, abdominal, spontaneous proprophylactically surgical approaches to premature deliveries should be taken for every individual case and due consideration of many factors.

  13. The influence of cold pack on labour pain relief and birth outcomes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Ganji, Zhila

    2014-09-01

    (1) To evaluate the influence of local cold on severity of labour pain and (2) to identify the effect of local cold on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Fear of labour pain results in an increase in pain and duration of labour, maternal discontent and demand for caesarean section. Regarding maternal and foetal complications of analgesic medications, the attention to application of nonpharmacological methods including cold therapy is increased. Randomised controlled trial. Sixty-four pregnant women, at initiation of active phase of labour, were allocated randomly to cold therapy and control groups (n = 64). Null parity, term pregnancy, presence of single foetus, cephalic presentation and completing informed consent were considered as inclusion criteria. Administration of analgesic and anaesthesia, foetal distress, skin lesions in regions of cold therapy and high-risk pregnancy provided exclusion criteria. Cold pack was applied over abdomen and back, for 10 minutes every 30 minutes during first phase of labour. Additionally, cold pack was placed over perineum, for 5 minutes every 15 minutes during second phase. Pain severity was assessed based on the visual analogue scale. The two groups were not significantly different considering demographic data, gestational age, foetal weight, rupture of membranes and primary severity of pain. Degree of pain was lower in cold therapy group during all parts of active phase and second stage. Duration of all phases was shorter in cold therapy group in all phases. Foetal heart rate, perineal laceration, type of birth, application of oxytocin and APGAR score were not significantly different between two groups. Labour pain is probably reduced based on gate theory using cold. Pain control by cold maybe improves labour progression without affecting mother and foetus adversely. Local cold therapy could be included in labour pain management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  15. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Kristen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of preterm birth. Methods We used a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design. Pregnant women presenting at Candida were randomized to 6-days of clotrimazole vaginal pessaries (100mg or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment. The primary outcomes were the rate of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis, participation and follow-up. The proposed primary trial outcome of spontaneous preterm birth Results Of 779 women approached, 500 (64% participated in candidiasis screening, and 98 (19.6% had asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis and were randomized to clotrimazole or usual care. Women were not inconvenienced by participation in the study, laboratory testing and medication dispensing were problem-free, and the follow-up rate was 99%. There was a tendency towards a reduction in spontaneous preterm birth among women with asymptomatic candidiasis who were treated with clotrimazole RR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.04-3.03. Conclusions A large, adequately powered, randomized trial of clotrimazole to prevent preterm birth in women with asymptomatic candidiasis is both feasible and warranted. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12609001052224

  16. Month of birth, vitamin D and risk of immune-mediated disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disanto Giulio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A season of birth effect in immune-mediated diseases (ID such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes has been consistently reported. We aimed to investigate whether season of birth influences the risk of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and systemic lupus erythematosus in addition to multiple sclerosis, and to explore the correlation between the risk of ID and predicted ultraviolet B (UVB light exposure and vitamin D status during gestation. Methods The monthly distribution of births of patients with ID from the UK (n = 115,172 was compared to that of the general population using the Cosinor test. Predicted UVB radiation and vitamin D status in different time windows during pregnancy were calculated for each month of birth and correlated with risk of ID using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results The distributions of ID births significantly differed from that of the general population (P = 5e-12 with a peak in April (odds ratio = 1.045, 95% confidence interval = 1.024, 1.067, P P P = 0.00005 and third trimester vitamin D status (Spearman's rho = -0.44, P = 0.0003. Conclusions The risk of different ID in the UK is significantly influenced by the season of birth, suggesting the presence of a shared seasonal risk factor or factors predisposing to ID. Gestational UVB and vitamin D exposure may be implicated in the aetiology of ID.

  17. Adequacy of antenatal care and its relationship with low birth weight in Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Cátia Regina Branco da [UNESP; Louzada Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Carvalho, Lidia Raquel de [UNESP; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Birth weight reflects gestational conditions and development during the fetal period. Low birth weight (LBW) may be associated with antenatal care (ANC) adequacy and quality. the purpose of this study was to analyze ANC adequacy and its relationship with LBW in the Unified Health System in Brazil.Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, 2004 to 2008. Data were collected from secondary sources (the Live Birth Certificate), and primary sources (the...

  18. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    OpenAIRE

    Vienneau Danielle; Infanger Denis; Feychting Maria; Schüz Joachim; Schmidt Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti Giorgio; Klæboe Lars; Kuehni Claudia E; Tynes Tore; Von der Weid Nicolas; Lannering Birgitta; Röösli Martin

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight length maternal age) birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction preterm delivery birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking working dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7 19 year olds. The multinational case control study in Denmark Sweden Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (particip...

  19. 78 FR 64210 - Extension of Review Periods Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and Microorganisms; Premanufacture... 325 and 324110), e.g., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. The North American Industrial... Agency under section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), received by EPA on or before October 1...

  20. 7 CFR 59.400 - OMB control number assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING OMB Control Number § 59.400 OMB control number...

  1. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  2. Divergent trends in abortion and birth control practices in belarus, Russia and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris P Denisov

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. METHODS: Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. CONCLUSION: Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia.

  3. Divergent Trends in Abortion and Birth Control Practices in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Boris P.; Sakevich, Victoria I.; Jasilioniene, Aiva

    2012-01-01

    Context The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. Methods Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. Results The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. Conclusion Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia. PMID:23349656

  4. Act No. 80-572 on protection and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Act lays down that the import, export, possession, transfer, use and transport of nuclear materials defined by the Act are subject to licensing and control under conditions to be determined by Decree. The purpose of this control is to avoid loss, theft or diversion of such materials. Any person who obtains fraudulently nuclear material referred to in the Act or who carries out activities involving such material without the required licence shall be subject to severe penalties. Finally, it is provided that the Government shall report to Parliament each year on operation of the provisions of this Act. (NEA) [fr

  5. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-08-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs.

  6. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Klæboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Lannering, Birgitta; Röösli, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormal temperature control after intoxication with short-acting barbiturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villota, E D; Mosquera, J M; Shubin, H; Weil, M H

    1981-09-01

    Changes in rectal and toe temperatures were measured in 16 patients who had been intoxicated with short-acting barbiturates. The lowest temperatures observed in the group of 16 patients averaged 35.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. In 11 patients, the interval between intoxication and admission was documented. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.83) between the time of estimated intoxication and hypothermia. Patients who were admitted soon after the ingestion of the barbiturates had the lowest rectal temperatures. These observations indicate that hypothermia is a usual clinical sign in the initial period after intoxication with a short-acting barbiturate. Except for 2 patients, rectal temperature exceeded 38 degrees C during the interval of recovery with the maximum rectal temperature averaging 39.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C. Hyperthermia was not related to infection of the airways, lungs, urinary tract, or bloodstream. In 11 patients, pathogenic organisms were recovered from the airway and/or urine, but there was no difference in the highest rectal temperature in these patients (39.0 +/- 0.9 degrees C) when compared with 5 patients from whom no pathogenic organisms were recovered (39.2 +/- 0.7 degrees C). Accordingly, there was no evidence that hyperthermia was due to infection. The skin temperatures of the ventrum of the first toe were not typically decreased during hypothermia. To the contrary, increases in skin temperatures were often observed during hypothermia. These observations provide evidence of altered thermoregulation with increased surface heat loss accounting for the hypothermia in the early course and heat conservation with hyperthermia during the later course of intoxication by short-acting barbiturates.

  8. Delaying second births among adolescent mothers: a randomized, controlled trial of a home-based mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Bentley, Margaret E; Papas, Mia A; Oberlander, Sarah; Teti, Laureen O; McNary, Scot; Le, Katherine; O'Connell, Melissa

    2006-10-01

    Rates of rapid second births among low-income black adolescent mothers range from 20% to 50%. Most efforts to prevent rapid second births have been unsuccessful. There were 4 objectives: (1) to examine whether a home-based mentoring intervention was effective in preventing second births within 2 years of the adolescent mother's first delivery; (2) to examine whether greater intervention participation increased the likelihood of preventing a second birth; (3) to examine whether second births were better predicted from a risk practice perspective or a family formation perspective, based on information collected at delivery; and (4) to examine how risk practices or family formation over the first 2 years of parenthood were related to a second birth. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of a home-based intervention curriculum, based on social cognitive theory, and focused on interpersonal negotiation skills, adolescent development, and parenting. The curriculum was delivered biweekly until the infant's first birthday by college-educated, black, single mothers who served as mentors, presenting themselves as "big sisters." The control group received usual care. Follow-up evaluations were conducted in the homes 6, 13, and 24 months after recruitment. Participants were recruited from urban hospitals at delivery and were 181 first time, black adolescent mothers ( or = 2 intervention visits increased the odds of not having a second infant more than threefold. Only 1 mother who completed > or = 6 visits had a second infant. At delivery of their first infant, mothers who had a second infant were slightly older (16.7 vs 16.2 years) and were more likely to have been arrested (30% vs 14%). There were no differences in baseline contraceptive use or other measures of risk or family formation. At 24 months, mothers who had a second infant reported high self-esteem, positive life events, and romantic involvement and residence with the first infant's father. At 24 months, there

  9. Periodontal Disease And Risk For Pre-Term Birth: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andonova Irena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal periodontal infection has been recognizsed as a risk factor for preterm and low birth weight infants. It is hypothesized that pathogens causing periodontal disease might translocate to the amniotic cavity and contribute to triggering an adverse pregnancy outcome. The growing evidence that an infection remote from the foetal-placental unit might have a role in preterm delivery has led to an increased awareness of the potential role of chronic bacterial infections in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of chronic periodontitis might influence the incidence of preterm labour and preterm birth.

  10. The clean water act -- (Federal Water Pollution Control Act), what it means to utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talt, L.A. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Departing from previous policy, in August 1993 the USEPA`s Water Office recommended that the agency regulate a proposed electric power plant`s cooling pond as a water of the US. At issue was a proposal by Florida Power corp. to build a new electric power plant in Polk County, Florida. A 2,600 acre cooling pond to collect heated and discharged water was included in the proposal. Region 4 USEPA staff asked USEPA Headquarters in Washington, DC to decide whether the pond was exempt from the CWA or a water of the US. The pond could be a habitat for migratory birds according to a memo prepared by Region 4 staff. The USEPA Water Office used the presence of migratory birds to claim a nexus to interstate commerce and therefore concluded that the pond should be regulated under the CWA. Electric power industry proponents have argued that an overly expansive definition of waters of the US may result in any new power plant being required to construct cooling towers. Cooling towers are said to be a more expensive and wasteful method to cool heated water. Region 4 ultimately recanted its earlier position after considerable discussions with various other Environmental Protection Agency offices and, no doubt industry pressure. Florida Power Corp. was not required to obtain an NPDES permit for the cooling pond. The lesson of Florida Power Corp. is that the regulatory environment for utilities can be uncertain under the Clean Water Act even in the face of a relatively straightforward exemption from regulation.

  11. Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Shinde, Mayura U; Zhan, F Benjamin; Gong, Xi; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-11-19

    Some studies have noted an association between maternal occupational exposures to chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring, but data are lacking on the potential impact of industrial air emissions of these solvents on birth defects. With data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for births occurring in 1996-2008, we examined the relation between maternal residential proximity to industrial air releases of chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring of 60,613 case-mothers and 244,927 control-mothers. Maternal residential exposures to solvent emissions were estimated with metrics that took into account residential distances to industrial sources and annual amounts of chemicals released. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between residential proximity to emissions of 14 chlorinated solvents and selected birth defects, including neural tube, oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. All risk estimates were adjusted for year of delivery and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence. Relative to exposure risk values of 0, neural tube defects were associated with maternal residential exposures (exposure risk values >0) to several types of chlorinated solvents, most notably carbon tetrachloride (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.86); chloroform (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04, 1.87); ethyl chloride (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08, 1.79); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11, 2.18); and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08, 2.06). Significant associations were also noted between a few chlorinated solvents and oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. We observed stronger associations between some emissions and neural tube, oral cleft, and heart defects in offspring of mothers 35 years or older, such as spina bifida with carbon tetrachloride (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.09, 5.72), cleft palate

  12. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS; however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a case-control study including 155 MS cases and 155 controls matched for age, sex, and residential status. The participants were selected randomly, using a systematic method, from the MS patients referred to the MS Society of Khuzestan (Iran. The data collection tool was a standardized questionnaire designed by the authors to assess demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean, frequency, and standard deviation and inferential statistical tests including χ2, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression using SPSS version 19. Results In both cases and controls, no significant associations were found between Arab ethnicity and incidence of MS, marital status and risk of MS in Ahvaz, or more than 15-year residency in Ahvaz, birth in Khuzestan, and month of birth and the risk of MS (P > 0.05. However, there was a marginally significant association between living from birth to age 15 years in Ahvaz and MS (P = 0.05. Furthermore, there was an association between a family history of MS and the risk of MS in Ahvaz (P = 0.02, which was significant in univariate logistic regression (P = 0.006. Conclusions The findings suggested that according to the ecological conditions of Ahvaz, a family history of MS may increase the risk of developing MS.

  13. Nifedipine versus atosiban for threatened preterm birth (APOSTEL III): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Nijman, Tobias A. J.; Schuit, Ewoud; Heida, Karst Y.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Kok, Marjolein; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Porath, Martina M.; Woiski, Mallory; Bax, Caroline J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Jacquemyn, Yves; van Beek, Erik; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Franssen, Maureen T. M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.; Kok, Joke H.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Franx, Arie; Mol, Ben W.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    In women with threatened preterm birth, delay of delivery by 48 h allows antenatal corticosteroids to improve neonatal outcomes. For this reason, tocolytics are often administered for 48 h; however, there is no consensus about which drug results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes. In the

  14. Nifedipine versus atosiban for threatened preterm birth (APOSTEL III) : A multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vliet, Elvira O G; Nijman, Tobias A J; Schuit, Ewoud; Heida, Karst Y.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Kok, Marjolein; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Porath, Martina M.; Woiski, Mallory; Bax, Caroline J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Jacquemyn, Yves; Beek, Erik Van; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Franssen, Maureen T M; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.; Kok, Joke H.; Van Der Post, Joris A M; Franx, Arie; Mol, Ben W.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In women with threatened preterm birth, delay of delivery by 48 h allows antenatal corticosteroids to improve neonatal outcomes. For this reason, tocolytics are often administered for 48 h; however, there is no consensus about which drug results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  15. Nifedipine versus atosiban for threatened preterm birth (APOSTEL III) : a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Nijman, Tobias A. J.; Schuit, Ewoud; Heida, Karst Y.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Kok, Marjolein; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Porath, Martina M.; Woiski, Mallory; Bax, Caroline J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Jacquemyn, Yves; van Beek, Erik; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Franssen, Maureen T. M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.; Kok, Joke H.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Franx, Arie; Mol, Ben W.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In women with threatened preterm birth, delay of delivery by 48 h allows antenatal corticosteroids to improve neonatal outcomes. For this reason, tocolytics are often administered for 48 h; however, there is no consensus about which drug results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  16. Nifedipine versus atosiban for threatened preterm birth (APOSTEL III): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, E.O. van; Nijman, T.A.; Schuit, E.; Heida, K.Y.; Opmeer, B.C.; Kok, M. de; Gyselaers, W.; Porath, M.M.; Woiski, M.D.; Bax, C.J.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Scheepers, H.C.; Jacquemyn, Y.; Beek, E. van; Duvekot, J.J.; Franssen, M.T.; Papatsonis, D.N.; Kok, J.H.; Post, J.A. van der; Franx, A.; Mol, B.W.; Oudijk, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In women with threatened preterm birth, delay of delivery by 48 h allows antenatal corticosteroids to improve neonatal outcomes. For this reason, tocolytics are often administered for 48 h; however, there is no consensus about which drug results in the best maternal and neonatal

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control after they have given birth. Although teen birth rates have been falling for the last two decades, ... effective forms of birth control. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, teens, ages 15–19, 2010 Larger image ...

  18. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  19. The money laundering control act and proposed amendments: Its impact on the casino industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J

    1991-12-01

    In their efforts to track unreported income, Congress passed the Money Laundering Control Act in 1985. Because they are often involved in large cash transactions, casinos were required to report on cash transactions in amounts of $10,000 or more in much the same manner as banks and other financial institutions. However, because of the unique nature of cash and chip transactions within modern casinos, the Act, or state variants of it, have created significant compliance costs for casinos. This analysis examines the implications of the Act for the casino gaming industry, and evaluates some of the recent suggested Amendments to the Act.

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) 8(e) Notices and FYI Submissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires U.S. chemical manufacturers, importers, processors and distributors to notify EPA within 30 calendar...

  1. Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0) tracks the submissions of health and safety data submitted to the EPA either as required or...

  2. 46 CFR 147.8 - OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES General Provisions § 147.8 OMB control numbers assigned pursuant... Management and Budget (OMB) pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). The...

  3. Nuclear safety and control act, chapter 9: An Act to establish the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and to make consequential amendements to other Acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to provide for: the limitation, to a reasonable level and in a manner that is consistent with Canada's international obligations, of the risks to national security, the health and safety of persons and the environment that are associated with the development, production and use of nuclear energy and the production, possession and use of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information; and the implementation in Canada of measures to which Canada has agreed respecting international control of the development, production and use of nuclear energy, including the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear explosive devices

  4. A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of an early-intervention program in reducing parenting stress after preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Rønning, John A; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz B

    2006-07-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with increased parenting stress in early infancy, and some reports have found this to be a risk factor for later behavioral problems. There are, however, few studies and conflicting results. Information about the fathers is scarce. Our goal was to study the effects of an early-intervention program on parenting stress after a preterm birth until 1 year corrected age. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted including infants with a birth weight effects of a modified version of the Mother-Infant Transaction Program on parenting stress measured by the Parenting Stress Index. A term control group was also recruited. The Parenting Stress Index was administered to the mothers at 6 and 12 months' corrected age and to the fathers at 12 months' corrected age. The intervention consisted of 8 sessions shortly before discharge and 4 home visits by specially trained nurses focusing on the infant's unique characteristics, temperament, and developmental potential and the interaction between the infant and the parents. Seventy-one infants were included in the preterm intervention group, and 69 were included in the preterm control group. The preterm groups were well balanced. Seventy-four infants were included in the term control group. Compared with the preterm controls, both the mothers and fathers in the preterm intervention group reported significant lower scores in child domain, parent domain, and total stress on all occasions except the mother-reported child domain at 12 months. These differences were not related to birth weight or gestational age. The level of stress among the preterm intervention group was comparable to their term peers. Both parents in the intervention group reported consistently lower scores within the distractibility/hyperactivity, reinforces parents, competence, and attachment subscales compared with the preterm control group. There were no differences in mean summary stress scores between the mothers and fathers in

  5. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Kristen R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design, we aim to evaluate whether treating women with asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis early in pregnancy is effective in preventing spontaneous preterm birth. Pregnant women presenting for antenatal care The study protocol draws on the usual antenatal care schedule, has been pilot-tested and the intervention involves only a minor modification of current practice. Women who agree to participate will self-collect a vaginal swab and those who are culture positive for Candida will be randomised (central, telephone to open-label treatment or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment, routine antenatal care. Outcomes will be obtained from population databases. A sample size of 3,208 women with Candida colonisation (1,604 per arm is required to detect a 40% reduction in the spontaneous preterm birth rate among women with asymptomatic candidiasis from 5.0% in the control group to 3.0% in women treated with clotrimazole (significance 0.05, power 0.8. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Discussion For our hypothesis, a placebo-controlled trial had major disadvantages: a placebo arm would not represent current clinical practice; knowledge of vaginal colonisation with Candida may change participants' behaviour; and a placebo with an alcohol preservative may have an independent affect on vaginal flora. These disadvantages can be overcome by the PROBE study design. This trial will provide definitive evidence on whether screening for and treating asymptomatic candidiasis in

  6. Radiation Protection and Control Act, 1982, No. 47 of 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    These regulations provide for the control, administration, possession and use of radiating substances and irradiating apparatus. They contain detailed provisions concerning the licensing, sale, registration and maintenance of irradiating apparatus and radioactive substances. Provisions address the therapeutic and research purposes of radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus, as well as requirements for monitoring, record-keeping and medical examinations. Also included are detailed procedures for radiation accidents and emergencies. These Regulations revoke the Radioactive Substances and Irradiating Apparatus Regulations, 1962, and the Ionizing Radiation (radioactive ores) Regulations, 1982. (NEA) [fr

  7. Participation of the public in licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Act and the Federal Emission Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hett, F.T.

    1994-01-01

    Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act (AtG), section 4 of the Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG), the Nuclear Installations Licensing Ordinance (AtVfV), and the Ninth Ordinance on the Implementation of the BImSchG (Principles of the licensing procedure) require participation of the public in the procedure before administrative provisions or decisions are issued. The book presents the legally prescribed steps at which participation of the public is mandatory, for the simple case (only one license on the agenda), and for the multi-stage licensing procedure: preliminary negotiations / filling of applications for a license and filing of documents / public announcement of projects / access to files / objections / preclusion of delayed objections / public hearing and other expert discussions / termination of procedure, decision-making by the authorities / decisions on subdivision of procedure into defined stages / modification of the procedure. The analysis of the functions of participation of the public examines the following goals: information / representation of interests / reconciliation of interests / legitimation / control / protection of rights / support. Finally, the book explains the principles of the Constitution demanding participation of the public: human dignity / democracy / rule of law / anticipated effects of the right to have recourse to the courts / civil rights. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Obstacles to condom use: the combination of other forms of birth control and short-term monogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, J W; Suire, D M

    1998-03-01

    Two hundred thirty-seven college students involved in heterosexual relationships were surveyed to determine the effects of relationship type and use of forms of contraception other than condoms on condom use. Findings indicated that in the context of a short-term, monogamous relationship, the use of another form of birth control was associated with decreased condom use. In addition, 20% of the participants reported that they had wanted to use a condom for disease prevention on at least one occasion but had decided not to do so because they were using another form of contraception. Implications for preventive health are discussed.

  9. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter J

    2013-03-21

    Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. For this population-based case-control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (>30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.

  10. Acupuncture and Clomiphene Citrate for Live Birth in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Study Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an alternative therapy to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but there is no study reporting the live birth rate following ovulation induction by acupuncture or its potential as an adjuvant treatment to clomiphene citrate (CC. We assess the efficacy of acupuncture with or without CC in achieving live births among 1000 PCOS women in Mainland China. This paper reports the methodology of an ongoing multicenter randomized controlled trial. The randomization scheme is coordinated through the central mechanism and stratified by the participating sites. Participants will be randomized into one of the four treatment arms: (A true acupuncture and CC, (B control acupuncture and CC, (C true acupuncture and placebo CC, and (D control acupuncture and placebo CC. To ensure the quality and integrity of the trial we have developed a unique multinational team of investigators and Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Up to the end of April 2013, 326 subjects were recruited. In conclusion, the success of this trial will allow us to evaluate the additional benefit of acupuncture beyond the first line medicine for fertility treatment in PCOS women in an unbiased manner.

  11. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P = 0.05, 80% power

  12. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET. Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P

  13. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  14. 46 CFR 159.001-9 - OMB Control Numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... This section collects and displays the control numbers assigned to information collection and... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). The Coast Guard intends that this section comply with the requirements of 44 U.S.C. 3507(f) which requires that agencies display a current control...

  15. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-reporting of child abuse. 352.237-71 Section 352.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child Abuse...

  16. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for clinically distressed health care workers: Waitlist-controlled evaluation of an ACT workshop in a routine practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Cerith S; Frude, Neil; Flaxman, Paul E; Boyd, Jane

    2018-03-01

    To examine the effects of a 1-day acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) workshop on the mental health of clinically distressed health care employees, and to explore ACT's processes of change in a routine practice setting. A quasi-controlled design, with participants block allocated to an ACT intervention or waiting list control group based on self-referral date. Participants were 35 health care workers who had self-referred for the ACT workshop via a clinical support service for staff. Measures were completed by ACT and control group participants at pre-intervention and 3 months post-intervention. Participants allocated to the waitlist condition went on to receive the ACT intervention and were also assessed 3 months later. At 3 months post-intervention, participants in the ACT group reported a significantly lower level of psychological distress compared to the control group (d = 1.41). Across the 3-month evaluation period, clinically significant change was exhibited by 50% of ACT participants, compared to 0% in the control group. When the control group received the same ACT intervention, 69% went on to exhibit clinically significant change. The ACT intervention also resulted in significant improvements in psychological flexibility, defusion, and mindfulness skills, but did not significantly reduce the frequency of negative cognitions. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that the reduction in distress in the ACT condition was primarily associated with an increase in mindfulness skills, especially observing and non-reactivity. These findings provide preliminary support for providing brief ACT interventions as part of routine clinical support services for distressed workers. A 1-day ACT workshop delivered in the context of a routine staff support service was effective for reducing psychological distress among health care workers. The brief nature of this group intervention means it may be particularly suitable for staff support and primary care mental

  17. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized cont...

  18. Heredity, pet ownership, and confounding control in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Catarina; Egmar, Ann-Charlotte; van Hage-Hamsten, Marianne; Berglind, Niklas; Pershagen, Göran; Nordvall, S Lennart; Svartengren, Magnus; Hedlin, Gunilla; Wickman, Magnus

    2003-04-01

    The association between pet ownership in childhood and subsequent allergic disease is controversial. Bias related to selection of pet exposure has been suggested as a reason for contradictory study results. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate how pet exposure depends on family history of allergic disease, smoking, and socioeconomic factors in a prospective birth cohort. Parents of 4089 two-month-old children answered a questionnaire that included detailed questions about family history of asthma (maternal, paternal, and sibling), rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome, pollen and pet allergy, smoking habits, parental occupation, and family pet ownership (cat and dog). Dust samples collected from the mothers' beds were analyzed for Fel d 1 and Can f 1 in a subgroup of the cohort. Cats were less frequently kept in families with parental asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, or pet or pollen allergy (3.5% to 5.8%) than in families without parental allergic disease (10.8% to 11.8%). Dogs were less common in families with (3.3%) than in families without (5.9%) parental atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Families with smoking mothers and those with low socioeconomic index kept cats and dogs more frequently. Cat allergen levels were lower in homes with than in homes without maternal pet allergy, and this tended to hold true even for homes without a cat. Cat ownership decreased from birth to 2 years of age, especially in families with parental history of allergic diseases. There seems to be a selection of pet exposure based on parental history of allergy, maternal smoking, and socioeconomic factors. This has to be taken into consideration in evaluations of risk associations between pet exposure and allergic disease in childhood.

  19. 45 CFR 2508.19 - What Privacy Act exemptions or control of systems of records are exempt from disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What Privacy Act exemptions or control of systems of records are exempt from disclosure? 2508.19 Section 2508.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... ACT OF 1974 § 2508.19 What Privacy Act exemptions or control of systems of records are exempt from...

  20. Birth order and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus: a case-control study in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Yusuke; Lemoine, Maud; Bottomley, Christian; Njai, Harr Freeya; Ndow, Gibril; Jatta, Abdoulie; Tamba, Saydiba; Bojang, Lamin; Taal, Makie; Nyan, Ousman; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark; Hall, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Early age at infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases the risk of chronic infection. Moreover, early HBV infection may further independently increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond its effect on chronicity. The distribution of birth order, a proxy for mode and timing of HBV transmission, was compared in The Gambia between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases recruited from hospitals (n = 72) and two HBsAg-positive control groups without HCC: population-based controls from a community HBV screening (n = 392) and hospital-based controls (n = 63). HCC risk decreased with increasing birth order in the population-based case-control analysis. Using first birth order as the reference, the odds ratios were 0.52 (95% CI: 0.20-1.36), 0.52 (0.17-1.56), 0.57 (0.16-2.05) and 0.14 (0.03-0.64) for second, third, fourth and greater than fourth birth order respectively (P = 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed in the hospital-based case-control comparison (P = 0.04). Compared to controls, HCC cases had earlier birth order, a proxy for young maternal age and maternal HBV viraemia at birth. This finding suggests that in chronic HBV carriers perinatal mother-to-infant transmission may increase HCC risk more than horizontal transmission. Providing HBV vaccine within 24 h of birth to interrupt perinatal transmission might reduce the incidence of HCC in The Gambia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement.

  2. Month and Season of Birth as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Nationwide Nested Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maija Tolppanen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Season of birth, an exogenous indicator of early life environment, has been related to higher risk of adverse psychiatric outcomes but the findings for Alzheimer’s disease (AD have been inconsistent. We investigated whether the month or season of birth are associated with AD. Methods: A nationwide nested case-control study including all community-dwellers with clinically verified AD diagnosed in 2005 to 2012 (n=70 719 and up to four age- sex- and region of residence-matched controls (n=282 862 residing in Finland. Associations between month and season of birth and AD were studied with conditional logistic regression. Results: Month of birth was not associated with AD (p=0.09. No strong associations were observed with season (p=0.13, although in comparison to winter births (December-February summer births (June-August were associated with higher odds of AD (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.05. However, the absolute difference in prevalence in winter births was only 0.5% (prevalence of those born in winter were 31.7% and 32.2% for cases and controls, respectively. Conclusions: Although our findings do not support the hypothesis that season of birth is related to AD/dementia risk, they do not invalidate the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis in late-life cognition. It is possible that season does not adequately capture the early life circumstances, or that other (postnatal risk factors such as lifestyle or socioeconomic factors overrule the impact of prenatal and perinatal factors.

  3. Experimental evaluation of open-loop UpLink Power Control using ACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Asoka

    1995-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the implementation of open-loop up-link power control using a beacon signal in the down-link frequency band as the control parameter. A power control system was developed and tested using the ACTS satellite. ACTS carries beacon signals in both up- and down-link bands with which the relationship between the up- and down-link fading can be established. A power controlled carrier was transmitted to the ACTS satellite from a NASA operated ground station and the transponded signal was received at COMSAT Laboratories using a terminal that was routinely used to monitor the two ACTS beacon signals. The experiment ran for a period of approximately six months and the collected data were used to evaluate the performance of the power control system. A brief review of propagation factors involved in estimating the up-link fade using a beacon signal in the down-link band are presented. The power controller design and the experiment configuration are discussed. Results of the experiment are discussed.

  4. Radiation control act 1990 no. 13 (7/6/1990) New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the Act is to ensure the protection of persons and the environment against exposure to ionizing radiation and harmful non-ionizing radiation, taking into account social and economic factors and recognising that radiation is needed for therapeutic purposes. The Act regulates and controls the sale, use, keeping and disposal of radioactive substances and radiation apparatus, but does not apply to radioactive ores as defined by the Mines Inspection Act 1901. It provides for a licensing system for such substances and apparatus, the licensing authority being the Director-General of the Department of Health, under the overall authority of the Minister for Health. No person may sell or use the substances or apparatus without a licence granted by the Director-General. A licence is granted only following the recommendation of the Radiation Advisory Council set up under this Act [fr

  5. The influence of parametric and external noise in act-and-wait control with delayed feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxing; Kuske, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    We apply several novel semi-analytic approaches for characterizing and calculating the effects of noise in a system with act-and-wait control. For concrete illustration, we apply these to a canonical balance model for an inverted pendulum to study the combined effect of delay and noise within the act-and-wait setting. While the act-and-wait control facilitates strong stabilization through deadbeat control, a comparison of different models with continuous vs. discrete updating of the control strategy in the active period illustrates how delays combined with the imprecise application of the control can seriously degrade the performance. We give several novel analyses of a generalized act-and-wait control strategy, allowing flexibility in the updating of the control strategy, in order to understand the sensitivities to delays and random fluctuations. In both the deterministic and stochastic settings, we give analytical and semi-analytical results that characterize and quantify the dynamics of the system. These results include the size and shape of stability regions, densities for the critical eigenvalues that capture the rate of reaching the desired stable equilibrium, and amplification factors for sustained fluctuations in the context of external noise. They also provide the dependence of these quantities on the length of the delay and the active period. In particular, we see that the combined influence of delay, parametric error, or external noise and on-off control can qualitatively change the dynamics, thus reducing the robustness of the control strategy. We also capture the dependence on how frequently the control is updated, allowing an interpolation between continuous and frequent updating. In addition to providing insights for these specific models, the methods we propose are generalizable to other settings with noise, delay, and on-off control, where analytical techniques are otherwise severely scarce.

  6. The APPLe study: a randomized, community-based, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin for the prevention of preterm birth, with meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in both high- and low-income countries. The causes of preterm labour are multiple but infection is important. We have previously described an unusually high incidence of preterm birth (20% in an ultrasound-dated, rural, pregnant population in Southern Malawi with high burdens of infective morbidity. We have now studied the impact of routine prophylaxis with azithromycin as directly observed, single-dose therapy at two gestational windows to try to decrease the incidence of preterm birth.We randomized 2,297 pregnant women attending three rural and one peri-urban health centres in Southern Malawi to a placebo-controlled trial of oral azithromycin (1 g given at 16-24 and 28-32 wk gestation. Gestational age was determined by ultrasound before 24 wk. Women and their infants were followed up until 6 wk post delivery. The primary outcome was incidence of preterm delivery, defined as 6,200 pregnancies shows no effect on preterm birth (relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.22.This study provides no support for the use of antibiotics as routine prophylaxis to prevent preterm birth in high risk populations; prevention of preterm birth requires alternative strategies.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN84023116

  7. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.

  8. Validation of the Brazilian version of the childhood asthma control test (c-ACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Suelen G; Sarria, Edgar E; Roncada, Cristian; Stein, Renato T; Pitrez, Paulo M; Mattiello, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Children's perception of their symptoms has proved reliable and relevant to disease management and should be considered when assessing their asthma control. The aim of the study is to validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Childhood Asthma Control Test (c-ACT) in children aged 4-11 years. This is a cross-sectional study in children diagnosed with asthma undergoing treatment in a pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The translation and linguistic adaptation of the instrument were performed in accordance with international recommendations for questionnaire validation. A total of 105 participants were included, aged 4-11 years. all correlations between the total score and items on the questionnaire were significant and obtained values of r ≥ 0.3, and c-ACT means showed statistically significant differences between the GINA categories (P ACT scores than those of uncontrolled asthma group (controlled 22.0 ± 2.9 vs. uncontrolled 16.3 ± 5.3 P ACT scores than those of uncontrolled asthma group (partially controlled 20.0 ± 4.0 vs. uncontrolled 16.3 ± 5.3 P = 0.03). Correlations between the c-ACT total score and spirometry and nitric oxide were poor (r = 0.020; P = 0.866 and r = 0.035; P = 0.753, respectively). Reliability: the α-C coefficient for the c-ACT total score was 0.677 (95%CI 0.573-0763). Sensitivity to change had an effect size of 0.8 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.598. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. The Brazilian version of the Childhood Asthma Control Test proved to be valid and reliable in children aged 4-11 years. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network Control Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the network control function for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) full mesh network. This includes control of all operational activities such as acquisition, synchronization, timing and rain fade compensation as well as control of all communications activities such as on-demand integrated services (voice, video, and date) connects and disconnects Operations control is provided by an in-band orderwire carried in the baseboard processor (BBP) control burst, the orderwire burst, the reference burst, and the uplink traffic burst. Communication services are provided by demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) protocols. The ACTS implementation of DAMA protocols ensures both on-demand and integrated voice, video and data services. Communications services control is also provided by the in-band orderwire but uses only the reference burst and the uplink traffic burst. The performance of the ACTS network control functions have been successfully tested during on-orbit checkout and in various VSAT networks in day to day operations. This paper discusses the network operations and services control performance.

  10. Birth characteristics and the risk of childhood leukaemias and lymphomas in New Zealand: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dockerty John D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have found that lower parity and higher or lower social class (depending on the study are associated with increased risks of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. Such findings have led to suggestions that infection could play a role in the causation of this disease. An earlier New Zealand study found a protective effect of parental marriage on the risk of childhood ALL, and studies elsewhere have reported increased risks in relation to older parental ages. This study aimed to assess whether lower parity, lower social class, unmarried status and older parental ages increase the risk of childhood ALL (primarily. These variables were also assessed in relation to the risks of childhood acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease. Methods A case control study was conducted. The cases were 585 children diagnosed with leukaemias or lymphomas throughout New Zealand over a 12 year period. The 585 age and sex matched controls were selected at random from birth records. Birth records from cases (via cancer registration record linkage and from controls provided accurate data on maternal parity, social class derived from paternal occupation, maternal marital status, ages of both parents, and urban status based on the address on the birth certificate. Analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Results There were no statistically significant associations overall between childhood ALL and parity of the mother, social class, unmarried maternal status, increasing parental ages (continuous analysis, or urban status. We also found no statistically significant associations between the risks of childhood acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, or Hodgkin's disease and the variables studied. Conclusion This study showed no positive results though of reasonable size, and its record linkage design minimised bias. Descriptive studies (eg of time trends of ALL show that

  11. A dissent from the many dissents from Attorney General Ashcroft's interpretation of the Controlled Substances Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindelman, Marc

    2003-01-01

    In this essay, Professor Marc Spindelman examines the states' rights arguments that have been deployed in the Oregon v. Ashcroft litigation to challenge Attorney General John Ashcroft's interpretation of the federal Controlled Substances Act. Professor Spindelman criticizes those arguments as reflecting bad politics--politics of complicity--that self-styled liberals should resist and reject.

  12. 7 CFR 54.1034 - OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1034 OMB control numbers assigned pursuant...

  13. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and electric...

  14. 15 CFR 806.18 - OMB control numbers assigned to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB control numbers assigned to the Paperwork Reduction Act. 806.18 Section 806.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT...

  15. 7 CFR 1425.24 - OMB control number assigned pursuant to Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.24 OMB control number assigned pursuant to Paperwork Reduction Act. The... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the provisions of 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35 and have been assigned...

  16. The association of birth model with resilience variables and birth experience: Home versus hospital birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Zacks, Arni; Levy, Sigal

    2016-05-01

    to study home, natural hospital, and medical hospital births, and the association of these birth models to resilience and birth experience. cross-section retrospective design. participants were recruited via an online survey system. Invitations to participate were posted in five different Internet forums for women on maternity leave, from September 2014 to August 2015. the sample comprised 381 post partum healthy women above the age of 20, during their maternity leave. Of the participants: 22% gave birth at home, 32% gave birth naturally in a hospital, and 46% of the participants had a medical birth at the hospital. life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R), General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sense of Mastery Scale, Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). women having had natural births, whether at home or at the hospital, significantly differed from women having had medical births in all aspects of the birth experience, even when controlling for age and optimism. Birth types contributed to between 14% and 24% of the explained variance of the various birth experience aspects. home and natural hospital births were associated with a better childbirth experience. Optimism was identified as a resilience factor, associated both with preference as well as with childbirth experience. physically healthy and resilient women could be encouraged to explore the prospect of home or natural hospital births as a means to have a more positive birth experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pregnancy prevention among American Indian men ages 18 to 24: the role of mental health and intention to use birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kris; Medicine Elk, Jarrett; Dick, Rebecca; Jewett, Lacey; Gesink, Dionne

    2012-01-01

    The Fort Peck Sexual Health Project: A Contextual Analysis of Native American Men is a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that explores the extent to which knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sex, intimate relationships, and mental health influence sexual and reproductive health. For the purpose of this study, the influence of age, fatherhood, and mental health factors related to historical trauma and loss on young American Indian (AI) men's intention to use birth control was examined. In-depth interviews were conducted with 112 Native American men between the ages of 18 and 24 years. The mean age reported was 21 years. Thirty-eight percent of the young men reported having children. The young men reported experiences of historical trauma during their lifetime as well as emotional responses due to historical losses. Ninety-five percent reported that it was very important that they use some form of birth control to prevent their partner from getting pregnant within the next year. Logistic regression analysis indicated that, as age increased, young men were less likely to use birth control to prevent pregnancy. The young men who reported feelings of loss due to experiences related to historical trauma and loss were more likely to use birth control. Findings from this study suggest that public health efforts to educate AI men about planned pregnancies and the use of birth control may be most effective in adolescence. Public health programs that address mental health concerns such as the emotional responses due to historical losses may assist young AI men in their decision to use birth control.

  18. Modifying effects of maternal Hb concentration on infant birth weight in women receiving prenatal iron-containing supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Mei, Zuguo; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Jianmeng; Serdula, Mary K

    2016-02-28

    Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe-folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006-2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95% CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95% CI 21·98, 193·28) g (PHb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation.

  19. Birth order and sibship size: evaluation of the role of selection bias in a case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, F K; Willett, E V; Simpson, J; Smith, A G; Roman, E

    2007-09-15

    Substantial heterogeneity has been observed among case-control studies investigating associations between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and familial characteristics, such as birth order and sibship size. The potential role of selection bias in explaining such heterogeneity is considered within this study. Selection bias according to familial characteristics and socioeconomic status is investigated within a United Kingdom-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed during 1998-2001. Reported distributions of birth order and maternal age are each compared with expected reference distributions derived using national birth statistics from the United Kingdom. A method is detailed in which yearly data are used to derive expected distributions, taking account of variability in birth statistics over time. Census data are used to reweight both the case and control study populations such that they are comparable with the general population with regard to socioeconomic status. The authors found little support for an association between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and birth order or family size and little evidence for an influence of selection bias. However, the findings suggest that between-study heterogeneity could be explained by selection biases that influence the demographic characteristics of participants.

  20. Are oral emergency contraceptives a safe and effective form of long-term birth control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Connie; Hooper-Lane, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Yes, but not as effective as some other methods. Annual pregnancy rates in women using pericoital levonorgestrel 150 mcg to 1 mg range from 4.9% to 8.9%; menstrual irregularity is the most common adverse effect (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, Cochrane review of lower-quality trials). In women younger than 35 years who have sexual intercourse 6 or fewer times per month, correct and consistent use of pericoital levonorgestrel 1.5 mg results in an annual pregnancy rate of 11% (SOR: B, one large prospective, open-label trial). Pericoital contraception is less effective than long-acting reversible contraceptives (annual pregnancy rates of 0.05%-0.8%) or perfect use of combined oral contraceptives (0.3% annual pregnancy rate), but similar to, or better than, typical use of combined oral contraception (9%) and condoms (18%).

  1. A battle over birth "control": legal and legislative employer prescription contraception benefit mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, C Keanin

    2002-12-01

    Under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), employers are prohibited from discriminating against women by treating pregnancy and childbirth different from other medical conditions. Employers who offer medical benefits to their employees have thus been required to cover pregnancy-related medical costs on the same terms as other medical coverage. The cost of prescription contraception, however, has generally not been covered by employer-sponsored medical plans, even while other prescription drugs were. This Note examines the recent case of Erickson v. Bartell Drug Co., which challenged this practice of excluding prescription contraception coverage as discriminatory under the PDA, and argues that further federal legislation is necessary to ensure the equal treatment of women in the workplace.

  2. 14 CFR 11.201 - Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control numbers assigned under the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control numbers assigned under the Paperwork Reduction Act. 11.201 Section 11.201 Aeronautics and Space... PROCEDURES Paperwork Reduction Act Control Numbers § 11.201 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control...

  3. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree... Sections 301 and 308 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in...

  4. The birth order puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R B; Markus, H; Markus, G B

    1979-08-01

    Studies relating intellectual performance to birth order report conflicting results, some finding intellectual scores to increase, others to decrease with birth order. In contrast, the relationship between intellectual performance and family size is stable and consistently replicable. Why do these two highly related variables generate such divergent results? This birth order puzzle is resolved by means of the confluence model that quantifies the influences upon intellectual growth arising within the family context. At the time of a new birth, two opposing influences act upon intellectual growth of the elder sibling: (a) his or her intellectual environment is "diluted" and (b) he or she loses the "last-born's handicap" and begins serving as an intellectual resource to the younger sibling. Since these opposite effects are not equal in magnitude, the differences in intellectual performance among birth ranks are shown to be age dependent. While elder children may surpass their younger siblings in intellectual performance at some ages, they may be overtaken by them at others. Thus when age is taken into consideration, the birth order literature loses its chaotic character and an orderly pattern of results emerges.

  5. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  6. [Home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welffens, K; Kirkpatrick, C; Daelemans, C; Derisbourg, S

    In Belgium, very few women give birth outside the delivery room. In the United Kingdom and in the Netherlands, they are more numerous. Several studies evaluated obstetric and neonatal outcomes of home births compared with hospital births. We selected seven recent and large studies (with cohorts of more than 5.000 women) using PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Several questions were examined. Is there any difference in maternal and neonatal outcomes depending on the intended place of birth? Does parity affect outcomes ? What are the characteristics of women who choose to deliver at home ? We conclude that giving birth at home improves obstetric outcomes but is riskier for the baby, especially for the first one. The women delivering at home are mainly white Europeans, between 25 and 35 years old, in a relationship, multiparous and wealthier. In order to avoid this increased risk for the baby while preserving the obstetric advantages, alongside birth centers offer an intermediate solution. They combine the reassuring home-like atmosphere with the safety of the hospital. In Belgium, the first alongside birth center " Le Cocon " (a low technicity unit distinct from the delivery room) offers now this type of alternative place of birth for women in Hôpital Erasme in Brussels.

  7. Toxic Substances Control Act test submissions database (TSCATS) - comprehensive update. Data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions Database (TSCATS) was developed to make unpublished test data available to the public. The test data is submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by industry under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Test is broadly defined to include case reports, episodic incidents, such as spills, and formal test study presentations. The database allows searching of test submissions according to specific chemical identity or type of study when used with an appropriate search retrieval software program. Studies are indexed under three broad subject areas: health effects, environmental effects and environmental fate. Additional controlled vocabulary terms are assigned which describe the experimental protocol and test observations. Records identify reference information needed to locate the source document, as well as the submitting organization and reason for submission of the test data

  8. Reward acts as a signal to control delay-period activity in delayed-response tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2010-03-31

    Prefrontal delay-period activity represents a neural mechanism for the active maintenance of information and needs to be controlled by some signal to appropriately operate working memory. To examine whether reward-delivery acts as this signal, the effects of delay-period activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery were examined by analyzing single-neuron activity recorded in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Among neurons that showed delay-period activity, 34% showed inhibition of this activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery. The delay-period activity of these neurons was affected by the expectation of reward-delivery. The strength of the reward signal in controlling the delay-period activity is related to the strength of the effect of reward information on the delay-period activity. These results indicate that reward-delivery acts as a signal to control delay-period activity.

  9. Implementation by environmental administration of the Finnish air pollution control act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapaniemi, J. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Political Science

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this research is to show how the general wording of the Air Pollution Control Act which came into force in 1982 has been given practical meanings. The main interest is the administrational implementation of the aims of the air pollution legislation for regulation of industrial activities and the energy sector. The article focuses on the decisions and the decision-making process through the Air Pollution Control Act with its relatively flexible norms. It gives a view of air pollution control practices and its problems, especially concerning sulphur emissions of whose control there is already lot of experiences. The grounds for resolutions given according to the Air Pollution Control Act and the possibility of public participation in their making are the centre of attention here. The greatest interest is cases on the decisions made by applying general governmental decisions, especially regulations concerning coal-fired power plants, and the regulations for sulphur dioxide emissions, in the governmental decision of 1987. (author)

  10. Implementation by environmental administration of the Finnish air pollution control act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapaniemi, J [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Political Science

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this research is to show how the general wording of the Air Pollution Control Act which came into force in 1982 has been given practical meanings. The main interest is the administrational implementation of the aims of the air pollution legislation for regulation of industrial activities and the energy sector. The article focuses on the decisions and the decision-making process through the Air Pollution Control Act with its relatively flexible norms. It gives a view of air pollution control practices and its problems, especially concerning sulphur emissions of whose control there is already lot of experiences. The grounds for resolutions given according to the Air Pollution Control Act and the possibility of public participation in their making are the centre of attention here. The greatest interest is cases on the decisions made by applying general governmental decisions, especially regulations concerning coal-fired power plants, and the regulations for sulphur dioxide emissions, in the governmental decision of 1987. (author)

  11. Radiation Protection and Control Act, 1982 (South Australia) No.49 of 29 April 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of activities related to radioactive substances and radiation apparatus as well as for protection against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It also amends the Health Act, 1935-1980 by deleting certain provisions concerning, inter alia, radioactive substances and radiation apparatus. The Act states as its general objective that the competent authorities in the exercise of their duties and any person carrying on activities involving radioactive substances and equipment emitting ionizing radiation shall try to ensure that exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is kept as low as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account (the ALARA principle recommended by the International Commission on radiological Protection). (NEA) [fr

  12. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Steven; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Ducharme, Robin; Manuel, Douglas G; Wilson, Kumanan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st), 2006 and March 31(st), 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI) of events among 1(st)-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR). For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st)-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57), which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st)-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99), representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st) vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48), or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21), or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st)-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  13. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hawken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  14. Maternal oral health status and preterm low birth weight at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manji Karim P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined the relationship between oral health status (periodontal disease and carious pulpal exposure (CPE and preterm low-birth-weight (PTLBW infant deliveries among Tanzanian-African mothers at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Tanzania. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted, involving 373 postpartum mothers aged 14–44 years (PTLBW – 150 cases and at term normal-birth-weight (TNBW – 223 controls, using structured questionnaire and full-mouth examination for periodontal and dentition status. Results The mean number of sites with gingival bleeding was higher in PTLBW than in TNBW (P = 0.026. No significant differences were observed for sites with plaque, calculus, teeth with decay, missing, filling (DMFT between PTLBW and TNBW. Controlling for known risk factors in all post-partum (n = 373, and primiparaous (n = 206 mothers, no significant differences were found regarding periodontal disease diagnosis threshold (PDT (four sites or more that had probing periodontal pocket depth 4+mm and gingival bleeding ≥ 30% sites, and CPE between cases and controls. Significant risk factors for PTLBW among primi- and multiparous mothers together were age ≤ 19 years (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 2.09, 95% Confidence interval (95% CI: 1.18 – 3.67, P = 0.011, hypertension (aOR = 2.44, (95% CI: 1.20 – 4.93, P = 0.013 and being un-married (aOR = 1.59, (95% CI: 1.00 – 2.53, P = 0.049. For primiparous mothers significant risk factors for PTLBW were age ≤ 19 years (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.13 – 3.81, P = 0.019, and being un-married (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.42 – 4.67, P = 0.002. Conclusions These clinical findings show no evidence for periodontal disease or carious pulpal exposure being significant risk factors in PTLBW infant delivery among Tanzanian-Africans mothers at MNH, except for young age, hypertension, and being unmarried. Further research incorporating periodontal pathogens is recommended.

  15. Selection of controls in case-control studies on maternal medication use and risk of birth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.; Dequito, A.; van den Berg, P.B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    BACKGROUND:: In case-control studies on teratogenic risks of maternal drug use during pregnancy, the use of normal or malformed controls may lead to recall-bias or selection bias. This can be avoided by using controls with a genetic disorder. However, researchers are hesitant to use these as

  16. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transpot project-demonstration act system definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Crumb, C. B.; Flora, C. C.; Macdonald, K. A. B.; Smith, R. D.; Sassi, A. P.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The 1985 ACT airplane is the Final Active Controls Technology (ACT) Airplane with the addition of three-axis fly by wire. Thus it retains all the efficiency features of the full ACT system plus the weight and cost savings accruing from deletion of the mechanical control system. The control system implements the full IAAC spectrum of active controls except flutter-mode control, judged essentially nonbeneficial, and incorporates new control surfaces called flaperons to make the most of wing-load alleviation. This redundant electronic system is conservatively designed to preserve the extreme reliability required of crucial short-period pitch augmentation, which provides more than half of the fuel savings.

  17. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering ‘how’ questions, a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering ‘why’ questions promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering “why” (high-level construal vs. “how” (low-level construal questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2. Participants exposed to “why” questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1, showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2, and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2 compared with participants exposed to “how” questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  18. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering 'how' questions), a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering 'why' questions) promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering "why" (high-level construal) vs. "how" (low-level construal) questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2). Participants exposed to "why" questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1), showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2), and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2) compared with participants exposed to "how" questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  19. Act-and-wait time-delayed feedback control of nonautonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyragas, Viktoras; Pyragas, Kestutis

    2016-07-01

    Act-and-wait modification of a time-delayed feedback control (TDFC) algorithm is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits in nonautonomous dynamical systems. Due to periodical switching on and off the control perturbation, an infinite-dimensional function space of the TDFC system is reduced to the finite-dimensional state space. As a result the number of Floquet exponents defining the stability of the controlled orbit remains the same as for the control-free system. The values of these exponents can be effectively manipulated by the variation of control parameters. We demonstrate the advantages of the modification for the chaotic nonautonomous Duffing oscillator with diagonal and nondiagonal control matrices. In both cases very deep minima of the spectral abscissa of Floquet exponents have been attained. The advantage of the modification is particularly remarkable for the nondiagonal coupling; in this case the conventional TDFC fails, whereas the modified version works.

  20. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS: T...

  1. ANTI-FERTILITY EFFECTS OF SOME PLANTS USED BY THE STREET HERBAL VENDORS FOR BIRTH CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajiv K.; Nathawat, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Herbal Vendors are the descendants of ancient mobile tribal medicine men. Now –a –days they sell crude Herbal Drugs on the streets of India. They have knowledge of medicinal plants – a skill which inherited from their forefathers. Also they are aware of the medicinal value of certain locally growing plants which are administered and control fertility and, do help family planning.

  2. An economic evaluation of planned immediate versus delayed birth for preterm prelabour rupture of membranes: findings from the PPROMT randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, S J; Roberts, C L; Bond, D M; Smith, J; Morris, J M

    2017-03-01

    This study is an economic evaluation of immediate birth compared with expectant management in women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes near term (PPROMT). A cost-effectiveness analysis alongside the PPROMT randomised controlled trial. Obstetric departments in 65 hospitals across 11 countries. Women with a singleton pregnancy with ruptured membranes between 34 +0 and 36 +6 weeks gestation. Women were randomly allocated to immediate birth or expectant management. Costs to the health system were identified and valued. National hospital costing data from both the UK and Australia were used. Average cost per recruit in each arm was calculated and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using bootstrap re-sampling. Averages costs during antenatal care, delivery and postnatal care, and by country were estimated. Total mean cost difference between immediate birth and expectant management arms of the trial. From 11 countries 923 women were randomised to immediate birth and 912 were randomised to expectant management. Total mean costs per recruit were £8852 for immediate birth and £8740 for expectant delivery resulting in a mean difference in costs of £112 (95% CI: -431 to 662). The expectant management arm had significantly higher antenatal costs, whereas the immediate birth arm had significantly higher delivery and neonatal costs. There was large variation between total mean costs by country. This economic evaluation found no evidence that expectant management was more or less costly than immediate birth. Outpatient management may offer opportunities for cost savings for those women with delayed delivery. For women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes, the relative benefits and harms of immediate and expectant management should inform counselling as costs are similar. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004: a study in the political economy of drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the processes by which the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004, an act that added steroid precursors such as androstenedione to the list of Schedule III Controlled Substances in the United States, came to pass in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Grounded theoretically in political economy, the article addresses, in the abstract, how the interplay of political pressures and economic influences stands to affect the actions of public officials, and how "tougher" drug policies-those touted to be more substantive and efficacious than existing regulations-often fail to effect change. The article concludes with implications for those involved in the regulation of anabolic steroids and steroid precursors.

  4. Highlights of Bill C-14, the proposed new Nuclear Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    If the bill is passed, the name of the regulatory body will be changed from the Atomic Energy Control Board to the Nuclear Control Board. It is intended to make the board more independent and removed from any involvement in the promotional and commercial aspects of the nuclear industry. The board will no longer answer to the same minister as AECL. Licensing applications will generally be published, except proprietary information. Public hearings will be a compulsory part of licensing major facilities. Various provisions of the bill are explained section by section. ''Prescribed substances'' under the act will definitely include all radionuclides and deuterium. A fund for decontamination will be endowed by licensees. The board will be able to make regulations for obsolete or abandoned sites, or for waste disposal sites. The part of the bill which deals with the responsibility of the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources for A.E.C.L. generally remains unchanged from the previous act

  5. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma

    2012-01-01

    of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies......OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk...

  6. Environmental Guidance Program reference book: Toxic substances control act. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  7. Toxic Substances Control Act. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  8. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    .... (``Defendants'') under the pre-treatment requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby given that on February 16, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree was filed...

  9. 48 CFR 1552.235-78 - Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997). 1552.235-78 Section 1552.235-78 Federal...

  10. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  11. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive Drug...

  12. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-75 Section 1552.235-75 Federal... Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in 1535.007(b), insert the following provision: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to perform...

  13. Birth of a megaproject: Political economy of flood control in bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, James K.

    1990-07-01

    A major flood control initiative has been launched in Bangladesh under the coordination of the World Bank. The bank's five-year Action Plan is intended to initiate a long-term investment program, the specifics of which remain to be determined. Long-term proposals under consideration include the construction of massive embankments along the great rivers of the Bangladesh delta. The wisdom of such a “structural solution” to Bangladesh's flood problems can be questioned on economic, environmental, and technical grounds. Regrettably, the decision-making process has not encouraged wide debate on these questions.

  14. Act of 18 December 1987 relating to the control of the export of strategic goods, services and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Act controls the export of nuclear material and equipment and sensitive nuclear technology and services. In particular, it provides for strict controls and verification of certain exports. (NEA) [fr

  15. [A co-twin control study on birth weight, overweight and obesity among children younger than 18 years old in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Yu, Canqing; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lyu, Jun; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the associations between birth weight and overweight/obesity among children. A total of 8 267 twin pairs younger than 18 years old from the Chinese National Twin Registry were included in the study. Associations between birth weight, childhood BMI and overweight/obesity were explored by this co-twin control study. After adjusting for sex and zygosity, when birth weight had an increase of 0.5 kg per fold, the OR values for overweight and obesity were 1.87(95%CI: 1.40-2.48) for 2-6 year olds, 1.69 (95%CI: 1.16-2.46) for 6-12 year olds and 1.28 (95%CI: 0.80-2.07) for 12-18 year olds. from the stratified analysis in the 2-6 year-olds, statistically significant differences were seen. When birth weight increased 0.5 kg per fold, the risk of overweight and obesity increased by 0.87 times among the dizygotic twins, more than that of the monozygotic twins (OR=1.86, 95%CI:1.24-2.81). The risk for male twins was 1.12 times higher than that of female twins (OR=1.65, 95%CI:1.11-2.44). Birth weight seemed associated with overweight and obesity for kids at early childhood or at age for schools. However, guidance on the implementation of public health interventions is still needed on these children.

  16. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Behavioral Voice Therapy for Dysphonia Related to Prematurity of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2017-03-01

    Dysphonia is a potential complication of prematurity. Preterm children may sustain iatrogenic laryngeal damage from medical intervention in the neonatal period, and further, adopt compensatory, maladaptive voicing behaviors. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of a voice therapy protocol on voice quality in school-aged, very preterm (VP) children. Twenty-seven VP children with dysphonia were randomized to an immediate intervention group (n = 7) or a delayed-intervention, waiting list control group (n = 14). Following analysis of these data, a secondary analysis was conducted on the pooled intervention data (n = 21). Six participants did not complete the trial. Change to voice quality was measured via pre- and posttreatment assessments using the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. The intervention group did not demonstrate statistically significant improvements in voice quality, whereas this was observed in the control group (P = 0.026). However, when intervention data were pooled including both the immediate and delayed groups following intervention, dysphonia severity was significantly lower (P = 0.026) in the treatment group. Dysphonia in most VP children in this cohort was persistent. These pilot data indicate that some participants experienced acceptable voice outcomes on spontaneous recovery, whereas others demonstrated a response to behavioral intervention. Further research is needed to identify the facilitators of and barriers to intervention success, and to predict those who may experience spontaneous recovery. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  17. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Health Care Providers For Health Care Providers: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Pregnancy CDC Activities Resources ... births and improving neonatal outcomes. View the archived presentation and publication Related Links Is It Worth It? ...

  18. Gambling on the Protestants: the Pathfinder Fund and birth control in Peru, 1958-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, L Necochea

    2014-01-01

    Among the agencies involved in population control activities in the mid-twentieth century, none scored as many early victories in Latin America as did the Pathfinder Fund, founded by Procter & Gamble scion Clarence Gamble. This article analyzes a style in the delivery of family planning assistance in the developing world through the work of the Pathfinder Fund in Peru, the organization's hub in South America, and shows how Pathfinder personnel collaborated with local Protestant institutions. Its Protestant allies helped Pathfinder set up and manage rapid interventions such as the production of pamphlets, the smuggling of contraceptives, and the enrollment of physicians as advocates of the use of intrauterine devices. Although these rapid interventions helped quickly disseminate information and certain technologies among a fortunate few, they also weakened legitimate state agencies, neglected the monitoring of the safety of the drugs supplied, and alienated allies with their high-handed boldness.

  19. Factors relating to pregnancy and birth and the risk of childhood brain tumors: results from an Australian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Blair, Eve M; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the leading cause of cancer death in children, yet their causes are largely known. This study investigated the association between maternal and birth characteristics and risk of CBT. Cases families were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers between 2005 and 2010. Control families were recruited via random-digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on the basis of child's age, sex, and State of residence. Maternal and birth characteristics of children were ascertained by questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant confounders. For this analysis, data on 319 case children and 1,079 control children were available. No association was found between risk of CBT and birth weight, fetal growth, birth order, gestational age, or maternal body mass index. The ORs for inadequate and excessive maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) (Institute of Medicine 2009 guidelines) were 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-2.1), respectively; similar findings for GWG were seen across categories of child's age, fetal growth, maternal body mass index and height, maternal smoking, and parental education. Risk of low grade glioma appeared increased with preterm birth (OR 1.6 (95% CI 0.8-3.1) and admission to neonatal intensive care (NICU) for >2 days (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-3.6). We found little evidence of associations between risk of CBT and most birth characteristics. The associations we observed with GWG, prematurity and NICU admission require corroboration in other studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Improved Load Frequency Control Using a Fast Acting Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mijanur Rahman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available System frequency may change from defined values while transmitting power from one area to another in an interconnected power system due to various reasons such as load changes and faults. This frequency change causes a frequency error in the system. However, the system frequency should always be maintained close to the nominal value even in the presence of model uncertainties and physical constraints. This paper proposes an Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC-based load frequency control (LFC of an interconnected power system. The controller incorporates effects of generator inertia and generator electrical proximity to the point of disturbances. The proposed controller reduces the magnitude error of the area control error (ACE of an interconnected power system compared to the standard controller. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of proposed ADRC in the application of LFC of an interconnected power system.

  1. Birth outcomes of male and female patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, Gabor; Mátrai, Ákos; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor

    2016-01-01

    Most of the patients are affected by isolated infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) beyond the polygenic predisposition, the other factors in the multifactorial etiology are largely unknown. The main characteristic of IHPS is the robust male predominance, thus the aim of this study was to analyze birth outcomes in males and females whether they are different or not. The study samples included 241 cases with IHPS, 357 matched, and 38,151 population controls without any defect in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The findings of this case-control study confirmed the well-known strong male excess (85.5%). The mean gestational age was somewhat longer and it is associated with a lower rate of preterm births. Mean birth weight did not show significant differences among the study groups, but the rate of low birthweight was higher in cases with IHPS. However, these differences were found only in males. Thus, intrauterine fetal growth restriction is characteristic only for male cases with IHPS. Our study confirmed the well-known obvious male excess of cases with IHPS, but our findings suggest some differences in birth outcomes of male and female cases. Male cases with IHPS had intrauterine fetal growth restriction while females did not. These data may indicate some differences in the pathogenesis of IHPS in males and females.

  2. Making birthing safe for Pakistan women: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two out of three neonatal deaths occur in just 10 countries and Pakistan stands third among them. Maternal mortality is also high with most deaths occurring during labor, birth, and first few hours after birth. Enhanced access and utilization of skilled delivery and emergency obstetric care is the demonstrated strategy in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. This trial aims to compare reduction in neonate mortality and utilization of available safe birthing and Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care services among pregnant mothers receiving ‘structured birth planning’, and/or ‘transport facilitation’ compared to routine care. Methods A pragmatic cluster randomized trial, with qualitative and economic studies, will be conducted in Jhang, Chiniot and Khanewal districts of Punjab, Pakistan, from February 2011 to May 2013. At least 29,295 pregnancies will be registered in the three arms, seven clusters per arm; 1 structured birth planning and travel facilitation, 2 structured birth planning, and 3 control arm. Trial will be conducted through the Lady Health Worker program. Main outcomes are difference in neonatal mortality and service utilization; maternal mortality being the secondary outcome. Cluster level analysis will be done according to intention-to-treat. Discussion A nationwide network of about 100,000 lady health workers is already involved in antenatal and postnatal care of pregnant women. They also act as “gatekeepers” for the child birthing services. This gate keeping role mainly includes counseling and referral for skill birth attendance and travel arrangements for emergency obstetric care (if required. The review of current arrangements and practices show that the care delivery process needs enhancement to include adequate information provision as well as informed “decision” making and planned “action” by the pregnant women. The proposed three-year research is to develop, through national

  3. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-12-09

    Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has examined if treating periodontal disease before pregnancy reduces adverse birth outcomes. This study aims to examine if the pre-conception treatment of periodontal disease will lead to improved periodontal status during late pregnancy and subsequent birth outcomes. A sample of 470 (235 in each arm of the study) pre-conception women who plan to conceive within one year and with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. All participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention group will receive free therapy including dental scaling and root planning (the standard therapy), supragingival prophylaxis, and oral hygiene education. The control group will only receive supragingival prophylaxis and oral hygiene education. Women will be followed throughout their pregnancy and then to childbirth. The main outcomes include periodontal disease status in late pregnancy and birth outcomes measured such as mean birth weight (grams), and mean gestational age (weeks). Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through a dental examination by measuring probing depth, clinical attachment loss and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) between gestational age of 32 and 36 weeks. Local and systemic inflammatory mediators are also included as main outcomes. This will be the first RCT to test whether treating periodontal disease among pre-conception women reduces periodontal disease during pregnancy and prevents adverse birth outcomes. If

  4. Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Following Icsi- Pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Aygül Demirol; Süleyman Güven; Timur Gürgan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report preterm birth and low birth weight rate of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) related pregnancies and to compare our data with literature findings. STUDY DESIGN: Three-hundred and eighty-nine pregnancies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection were retrospectively evaluated. Patients’ characteristics including age, gestational age at delivery and birth weight were noted from special clinic files. Women with early pregnanc...

  5. Maternal characteristics and birth outcomes of pregnant women who had offspring with congenital ear abnormalities - a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paput, László; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2011-09-01

    To describe the maternal characteristics and birth outcomes of newborn infants affected with isolated ear congenital abnormalities (IECA), mainly isolated anotia/microtia and unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities (CAs) including anotia/microtia (UMAM). Cases with IECA and UMAM were compared with their matched controls and all controls without any defect and malformed controls affected with other defects in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. The mothers of 354 cases with IECA did not show significant difference in age, but their mean birth order was higher while their socio-economic status based on the maternal employment status was lower compared to the figures of their matched controls. There was a male excess among cases with microtia and mainly with UMAM. The evaluation of birth outcomes of newborns affected with IECA indicated intrauterine fetal growth retardation. Newborn infants with isolated microtia had intrauterine growth retardation and the association of this developmental defect localized for a small region of head with the general fetal development raises interesting theoretical question.

  6. Births: preliminary data for 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2006-12-28

    This report presents preliminary data for 2005 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight (LBW) are also presented. Data in this report are based on 99.2 percent of births for 2005. The records are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2005. Comparisons are made with 2004 data. The crude birth rate in 2005 was 14.0 births per 1,000 total population, unchanged from 2004. The general fertility rate, however, rose to 66.7 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years in 2005, the highest level since 1993. The birth rate for teenagers declined by 2 percent in 2005, falling to 40.4 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, the lowest ever recorded in the 65 years for which a consistent series of rates are available. The rate declined for teenagers 15-17 years to 21.4 births per 1,000, but was essentially stable for older teenagers 18-19 years. The birth rate for women aged 20-24 years rose in 2005, whereas the rate for women aged 25-29 years was essentially unchanged. The birth rates for women aged 30 years and over rose to levels not seen in almost 40 years. Childbearing by unmarried women increased to record levels for the Nation in 2005. The birth rate rose 3 percent to 47.6 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years; the proportion of all births to unmarried women increased to 36.8 percent. The cesarean delivery rate rose by 4 percent in 2005 to 30.2 percent of all births, another record high for the Nation. The preterm birth rate continued to rise (to 12.7 percent in 2005) as did the rate for LBW births (8.2 percent).

  7. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  8. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  9. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Legislation and Public Policy (OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific Branches Grants Management Branch (GMB) Office of Committee Management ( ...

  10. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  11. Birth control methods (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t allow egg implantation. The hormones in oral contraceptives and hormone implants fool the ovaries into refraining ... egg, pregnancy will not occur. IUDs and oral contraceptives and hormones may be used as emergency contraception ...

  12. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  13. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  14. Young, low-birth-weight men are not more susceptible to the diabetogenic effects of a prolonged free fatty acid exposure than matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    a prolonged physiological lipid load could unmask or augment existing metabolic defects in otherwise healthy young LBW subjects. Forty 19-year-old men (LBW [n = 20], controls [normal birth weight, NBW] [n = 20]) without a family history of diabetes underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test (0.3 g kg(-1......Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Progression from normal to impaired glucose tolerance and overt diabetes may depend, to some extent, on elevation of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs). We undertook this study to elucidate whether...... with normal glucose tolerance and in NBW controls. We reproduced our previous finding of lower insulin-stimulated glycolysis in this population....

  15. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, A; Tawi, K B; Hussein, M; Supriyo, B; Kob, M S Che; Zulkifli, Mohd Ezlamy; Khairuldean A K; Daraoh, Aishah; Ariyono, S

    2012-01-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  16. Retailer adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E; D'Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-04-04

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act's provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers' adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, "light" cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions.

  17. Evaluation of the Navy Implementation of DOD Financial Management Regulation, Volume 14, Administrative Control of Funds and Antideficiency Act Violations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1996-01-01

    On August 1, 1995, the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) released for implementation Financial Management Regulation, volume 14, "Administrative Control of Funds and Antideficiency Act Violations," August 1, 1995...

  18. Nuclear Sanctions: Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act and its Application to India and Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Jeanne J

    2001-01-01

    Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) requires the President to impose sanctions on any country that he has determined is a "non-nuclear-weapon state" and has received or detonated a "nuclear explosive device...

  19. Exercise during pregnancy in normal-weight women and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mascio, Daniele; Magro-Malosso, Elena Rita; Saccone, Gabriele; Marhefka, Gregary D; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality in the United States. In the past, pregnant women have been recommended to not exercise because of presumed risks of preterm birth. Physical activity has been theoretically related to preterm birth because it increases the release of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine, which might stimulate myometrial activity. Conversely, exercise may reduce the risk of preterm birth by other mechanisms such as decreased oxidative stress or improved placenta vascularization. Therefore, the safety of exercise regarding preterm birth and its effects on gestational age at delivery remain controversial. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of exercise during pregnancy on the risk of preterm birth. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Sciences, Scopus, ClinicalTrial.gov, OVID, and Cochrane Library were searched from the inception of each database to April 2016. Selection criteria included only randomized clinical trials of pregnant women randomized before 23 weeks to an aerobic exercise regimen or not. Types of participants included women of normal weight with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies without any obstetric contraindication to physical activity. The summary measures were reported as relative risk or as mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. The primary outcome was the incidence of preterm birth exercise group and 1037 (50.4%) to the control group. Aerobic exercise lasted about 35-90 minutes 3-4 times per week. Women who were randomized to aerobic exercise had a similar incidence of preterm birth of exercise group had a significantly higher incidence of vaginal delivery (73.6% vs 67.5%; relative risk, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.15) and a significantly lower incidence of cesarean delivery (17.9% vs 22%; relative risk, 0.82, 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.97) compared with controls. The incidence of operative vaginal delivery (12.9% vs 16.5%; relative risk, 0.78, 95% confidence interval, 0

  20. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  1. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy (STOPPIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jane E; Mackenzie, Fiona; Owen, Philip; Mactier, Helen; Hanretty, Kevin; Cooper, Sarah; Calder, Andrew; Mires, Gary; Danielian, Peter; Sturgiss, Stephen; MacLennan, Graeme; Tydeman, Graham; Thornton, Steven; Martin, Bill; Thornton, James G; Neilson, James P; Norrie, John

    2009-06-13

    Women with twin pregnancy are at high risk for spontaneous preterm delivery. Progesterone seems to be effective in reducing preterm birth in selected high-risk singleton pregnancies, albeit with no significant reduction in perinatal mortality and little evidence of neonatal benefit. We investigated the use of progesterone for prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 500 women with twin pregnancy were recruited from nine UK National Health Service clinics specialising in the management of twin pregnancy. Women were randomised, by permuted blocks of randomly mixed sizes, either to daily vaginal progesterone gel 90 mg (n=250) or to placebo gel (n=250) for 10 weeks from 24 weeks' gestation. All study personnel and participants were masked to treatment assignment for the duration of the study. The primary outcome was delivery or intrauterine death before 34 weeks' gestation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Additionally we undertook a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data to establish the efficacy of progesterone in prevention of early (<34 weeks' gestation) preterm birth or intrauterine death in women with twin pregnancy. This study is registered, number ISRCTN35782581. Three participants in each group were lost to follow-up, leaving 247 analysed per group. The combined proportion of intrauterine death or delivery before 34 weeks of pregnancy was 24.7% (61/247) in the progesterone group and 19.4% (48/247) in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 1.36, 95% CI 0.89-2.09; p=0.16). The rate of adverse events did not differ between the two groups. The meta-analysis confirmed that progesterone does not prevent early preterm birth in women with twin pregnancy (pooled OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.89-1.51). Progesterone, administered vaginally, does not prevent preterm birth in women with twin pregnancy. Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorate.

  2. Periodontal disease and oral health-related behavior as factors associated with preterm birth: a case-control study in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, J F; Ribeiro, R A; Machado, F C; Assis, N M S P; Alves, R T; Oliveira, A S; Ribeiro, L C

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have suggested a link between periodontal disease and preterm birth, but the mechanism of how this occurs remains controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether periodontal disease, defined according to two commonly used clinical definitions, is associated with preterm birth and to examine the association regarding oral health-related behaviors during pregnancy. This case-control study included women 18-40 years of age. Demographic and socio-economic data, information on current and previous pregnancies, and data on dental health-related behaviors and periodontal clinical parameters were collected within 48 h postpartum. Periodontal disease was assessed according to two definitions: four or more teeth with at least one site showing a probing depth of ≥ 4 mm and clinical attachment level of ≥ 3 mm (Definition 1); or at least one site with probing depth and clinical attachment level of ≥ 4 mm (Definition 2). The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the proportion of categorical variables. Bivariate analysis was performed to analyze the proportion of preterm births with respect to independent variables. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between periodontal disease and preterm birth. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 296 postpartum women met the inclusion criteria. The case group included 74 women who delivered a preterm neonate (Periodontal disease according to Definition 1 was not associated with fewer weeks of gestation (adjusted OR (OR adjusted ) = 1.62; 95% CI = 0.80-3.29; p = 0.178). However, a significant association was found between periodontal disease, according to Definition 2, and preterm birth (OR adjusted = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.14-3.43; p = 0.015). Increased appetite and a low number of daily toothbrushings were associated with preterm birth, regardless of the definition of periodontal disease used. Periodontal

  3. Possible association of first and high birth order of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aggregate modeling of fast-acting demand response and control under real-time pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassin, David P.; Rondeau, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Demand elasticity for fast-acting demand response load under real-time pricing. • Validated first-principles logistic demand curve matches random utility model. • Logistic demand curve suitable for diversified aggregate loads market-based transactive control systems. - Abstract: This paper develops and assesses the performance of a short-term demand response (DR) model for utility load control with applications to resource planning and control design. Long term response models tend to underestimate short-term demand response when induced by prices. This has two important consequences. First, planning studies tend to undervalue DR and often overlook its benefits in utility demand management program development. Second, when DR is not overlooked, the open-loop DR control gain estimate may be too low. This can result in overuse of load resources, control instability and excessive price volatility. Our objective is therefore to develop a more accurate and better performing short-term demand response model. We construct the model from first principles about the nature of thermostatic load control and show that the resulting formulation corresponds exactly to the Random Utility Model employed in economics to study consumer choice. The model is tested against empirical data collected from field demonstration projects and is shown to perform better than alternative models commonly used to forecast demand in normal operating conditions. The results suggest that (1) existing utility tariffs appear to be inadequate to incentivize demand response, particularly in the presence of high renewables, and (2) existing load control systems run the risk of becoming unstable if utilities close the loop on real-time prices.

  5. Mites and spiders act as biological control agent to sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Singh Dinesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out natural biological control agents of sand flies vector of kala azar in Bihar, India. Methods: Sand flies collected from the field using CDC light trap installing overnight to the collection site scrutitinized for Phlebotomus argentipes, the established vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood fed adult females were confined in the insectary for its development of life cycle. During developmental stages 2nd to 4th instars larvae were examined closely by using compound microscope for mite infestation. Adult spider residing along with sand flies collected in trap were kept in cage along with sand flies and their activities were watched closely and recorded by video and picture. Results: Mites were found predating 2nd to 4th instars larvae only under the laboratory conditions and lowering down the population of sand flies up to basal level within 15 d after infestation. One specific spider was found eating blood fed female sand flies kept inside the cage (n=50 attacking on lower part of thoracic region to kill the sand fly and ate desired soft part. Conclusions: Both predators, mites and spiders are acting as biological control agents to larvae and adults of sand flies respectively resulting variable density of vectors due to variable association with these predators and also cause lowering the transmission of the disease as hidden natural controlling agent of sand flies. The extensive study will be of immense help in controlling sand flies without use of environmental pollutant i.e. chemical insecticide.

  6. Symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy and their association with low birth weight in Chinese women: a nested case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaoping; Yang, Rong; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Jing; Weaver, Nancy L; Hu, Ke; Hu, Ronghua; Trevathan, Edwin; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Yiming; Yin, Ting; Chang, Jen Jen; Zhao, Jinzhu; Shen, Longjiao; Dong, Guanghui; Zheng, Tongzhang; Xu, Shunqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    This study is a nested case control study from a population-based cohort study conducted in Wuhan, China. The aim is to estimate the association between symptoms of depression during pregnancy (DDP), anxiety during pregnancy(ADP), and depression with anxiety during pregnancy (DADP) and low birth weight (LBW) and to examine the extent to which preterm birth (PTB) moderates these associations. Logistic regression analyses were used to model associations between DDP, ADP, and DADP and LBW. Models were stratified by the presence or absence of PTB to examine moderating effects. From the cohort study, 2853 had a LBW baby (cases); 5457 pregnant women served as controls. Women with DDP or ADP only were not at higher risk of having a LBW baby, but DADP was associated with increased risk of LBW (crude OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.17-1.70; adjusted OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07-1.57), and the significant association was particularly evident between DADP and LBW in PTB, but not in full-term births. Our data suggests that DADP is related to an increased risk of LBW and that this association is most present in PTBs.

  7. Antihypertensive treatment and control according to gender, education, country of birth and psychiatric disorder: the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database (SPCCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, C; Kahan, T; Schiöler, L; Hjerpe, P; Wettermark, B; Boström, K B; Manhem, K

    2015-06-01

    The reasons why women and men are treated with different antihypertensive drugs are not clear. Whether socioeconomic factors influence prescription patterns and blood pressure control differently in women and men has not been investigated. This cross-sectional study performed in a cohort of hypertensive patients from the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database (SPCCD) examined the influence of educational level, country of birth, gender and concomitant psychiatric disorder on prescription pattern and blood pressure control in 40,825 hypertensive patients. Men were more often than women treated with calcium channel blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), irrespective of education, country of birth and psychiatric disorder. Educational level influenced the prescription pattern to some extent, where the gender differences were reduced in patients with a higher educational level. In women, but not in men, high educational level and concomitant psychiatric disorder were associated with a higher proportion reaching target blood pressure. The predominant use of ACEI and calcium channel blockers in men is not influenced by educational level, country of birth or psychiatric disorder. Thus other explanations must be considered such as gender differences in side effects. Educational level seems to have a greater impact on reaching target blood pressure in women compared with men.

  8. Teaching attachment behaviors to pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of effects on infant mental health from birth to the age of three months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Dokuhaki, Akram; Joker, Azam; Pishva, Narges; Zare, Najaf

    2016-01-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment, which forms as soon as pregnancy starts, is essential to an infant's mental development. This study aimed to explore the effect of teaching attachment behaviors to pregnant women on infant mental health from birth to 3 months of age. Randomized controlled trial. Hafiz Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from February to November 2014. The participants were randomly divided into an intervention and a control group at 28-34 weeks gestation. The participants in the intervention group attended six educational sessions each lasting for 60-90 minutes. After delivery, the infants of mothers in each group were compared in terms of mental health indexes (total mean scores and scores derived from a checklist of questions for infant mental health with results categorized as low, average and high). Maternal anxiety levels were also recorded at birth and at 3 months. Infant mental health index. In 190 pregnant women (96 in the intervention group and 94 in the control group), the total mean (SD) scores for infant mental health at birth were 16.66 (1.51) in the intervention group and 16.07 (1.74) in the control group (P=.013). At 3 months, the total mental health scores infants were 31.05 (1.88) in the intervention group and 30.25 (2.10) in the control group (P=.007). Differences in checklist scores between the groups at 3 months were not statistically significant, except for crying intensity at 3 months (P=.021). Women in the control group had higher anxiety levels at 3 months (P=.01). Teaching attachment skills to mothers increased the attachment between the mothers and their infants, and consequently, improved infant mental health. Thus, teaching attachment skills should be incorporated into routine prenatal care. Use of phone calls by the researcher to assess mental health.

  9. INTER-ACT: prevention of pregnancy complications through an e-health driven interpregnancy lifestyle intervention - study protocol of a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Annick; Ameye, Lieveke; Bijlholt, Margriet; Amuli, Kelly; Heynickx, Dorine; Devlieger, Roland

    2017-05-26

    Excessive maternal pre-pregnancy and gestational weight gain are related to pregnancy- and birth outcomes. The interpregnancy time window offers a unique opportunity to intervene in order to acquire a healthy lifestyle before the start of a new pregnancy. INTER-ACT is an e-health driven multicentre randomised controlled intervention trial targeting women at high risk of pregnancy- and birth related complications. Eligible women are recruited for the study at day 2 or 3 postpartum. At week 6 postpartum, participants are randomised into the intervention or control arm of the study. The intervention focuses on weight, diet, physical activity and mental well-being, and comprises face-to-face coaching, in which behavioural change techniques are central, and use of a mobile application, which is Bluetooth-connected to a weighing scale and activity tracker. The intervention is rolled out postpartum (4 coaching sessions between week 6 and month 6) and in a new pregnancy (3 coaching sessions, one in each trimester of pregnancy); the mobile app is used throughout the two intervention phases. Data collection includes data from the medical record of the participants (pregnancy outcomes and medical history), anthropometric data (height, weight, waist- and hip circumferences, skinfold thickness and body composition by bio-electrical impedance analysis), data from the mobile app (physical activity and weight; intervention group only) and questionnaires (socio-demographics, breastfeeding, food intake, physical activity, lifestyle, psychosocial factors and process evaluation). Medical record data are collected at inclusion and at delivery of the subsequent pregnancy. All other data are collected at week 6 and month 6 postpartum and every subsequent 6 months until a new pregnancy, and in every trimester in the new pregnancy. Primary outcome is the composite endpoint score of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, caesarean section, and large

  10. Birth characteristics of women with Marfan syndrome, obstetric and neonatal outcomes of their pregnancies-A nationwide cohort and case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernell, Kristina; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Josefsson, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to investigate birth characteristics, obstetric and neonatal outcomes of the first childbirth in women with Marfan syndrome by use of Swedish national registers since pregnancy-related outcomes in women with Marfan syndrome have only been sparsely investigated. In this national population-based cohort study and matched case-control study of Swedish women born 1973-1993, women with Marfan syndrome (n=273) were compared to women without the condition (n=1 017 265). The study population was followed until 2013. A total of 364 553 mother-firstborn-offspring pairs were analyzed. Sixty-one women with Marfan syndrome became mothers. Women with Marfan syndrome were also compared to 543 healthy controls. Women with Marfan syndrome were more often born preterm (pMarfan syndrome had no increased risk of giving birth by cesarean section (p=0.079). No increased neonatal risks in their children were found. Women with Marfan syndrome were less likely to give birth than those without (pMarfan syndrome were more likely to be born preterm, SGA and by cesarean section. These increased risks of preterm birth and SGA babies were not found in connection with their own first childbirth. Pregnancies with known fetal Marfan syndrome have to be carefully monitored. The results are important for obstetricians giving preconception counseling and treating women with Marfan syndrome. Further studies are needed to evaluate risks during pregnancy and long-term effects of pregnancy on the cardiovascular status of women with Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prince of zeta by Petar Konjović: Opera in five/four acts on the 125th anniversary of the composer's birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosusova Nadežda

    2008-01-01

    capturing finale in the style of Romeo and Juliet! In some recently performed versions of the opera (1989 the director (Dejan Miladinović and conductor (Oskar Danon returned to the playwright's original denouement, avoiding the Shakespearian end of Konjović (although in the spirit of Kostić who was also appreciated as a skillful translator of Shakespeare into Serbian language. In the opera Prince of Zeta Konjović focuses on Ivo Crnojević, making his role dominant to that of Maxim. The unhappy father, the tragic Hellenic figure, is with his son Maxim the main historical personality in both opera and drama. Zeta forms part of present-day Montenegro but was independent for a short period, then came under Byzantium, and eventually Rashka-Serbia. After the fall of last remnants of the Serbian vassal state in 1439, Zeta was partly independent protected by Venetians under the ruler Ivo Crnojević, before the Turks grasped Montenegro. Serbian drama, which is usually trochaic, took an iambic course in Kostić's play. The composer preserved the poet's iambs, following the musically accented flexions of spoken language, which remains the main feature of his style. The impressive vocal parts, especially those of Ivo Crnojević, starting from the Prologue and the first act, are supported by the dynamic and highly symphonized orchestra. For effective choral music the monks' ensemble in the second act (in the final version and the dramatic Venetian carnival scene with the stylized Montenegrin folk-dances should be noted in both versions. With Prince of Zeta the author definitely made a distinguished name as a composer in Serbian culture, with a strong influence on younger generations of Serbian musicians.

  12. Modeling The Effects of Mother’s Age at First Birth on Child Health at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-01-01

    This study models the impact of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth in Cameroon. The objectives are: (1) investigate the implication of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth; (2) examine the impact of mother’s age groups on birth weight, and (3) suggest economic policies to ameliorate the mother’s age – child health relationship. We make used of the control function approach to determine the relationship between mother’s age at first birth and birth...

  13. [Confidentiality in HIV-infection/AIDS--a comment on the Communicable Disease Control Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frich, J C

    1995-05-10

    The new Communicable Diseases Control Act has come into force in Norway. It makes it compulsory for a physician to warn a third party if it is obvious that a HIV-positive patient, with a high degree of certainty, puts the third party at risk of being infected with HIV. Some philosophers characterize medical confidentiality as an intransigent and absolute obligation, others as a prima facie duty. This article supports the latter view, but the author still argues that strict conditions have to be fulfilled before a physician should consider breaking medical confidentiality: The doctor must try repeatedly to gain the consent or co-operation of the patient involved. Possible negative long-term consequences for the preventive HIV-work support strict medical confidentiality.

  14. Testing of TSCA [Toxic Substances Control Act] incinerator for destruction of PCBs in uranium contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator for environmentally safe destruction of PCBs and hazardous organic materials contaminated with low level radioactive wastes from seven DOE facilities has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and has undergone performance testing with PCB surrogates. The system incorporates state-of-the-art off-gas treatment, a highly instrumented kiln and secondary combustion chamber, and an inert atmosphere solids handling feed system. Release of organic during an upset event, which triggers opening of the secondary combustion chamber relief vent, will be prevented by maintaining excess oxygen in the kiln and a high temperature in the secondary combustion chamber with an operating burner. Mixtures of chlorinated benzenes used in performance testing to simulate destruction of PCB, worst case studies to satisfy regulatory concerns, and implications of performance test results will be discussed. 4 refs

  15. Efficacy of Probiotics Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, T.; Ali, M.M.; Hossain, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study Design: Arandomized double blind controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The Paediatrics Department of Sylhet M.A.G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet Bangladesh, from July 2012 to June 2015. Methodology: Preterm (28 - 33 weeks gestation) VLBW (birth weight 1000 - 1499 g) neonates were enrolled. The study group was fed with probiotics once daily with breast milk from first feeding, and the control group with only breast milk without the addition of probiotics. Both the groups received other standard care. The primary outcome was the development of NEC (stage II and III), categorized by modified Bell's classification. Result: In 108 neonates, development of NEC was significantly lower in the study group than that of control group [1 (1.9 percent) vs. 6 (11.5 percent); p=0.044]. Age of achievement of full oral feeding was significantly earlier in the study group than that in the control group (14.88 ±3.15 and 18.80 ±4.32 days; p < 0.001). Duration of hospital stay was significantly short in the study group compared to the control group (15.82 ±2.94 days vs. 19.57 ±4.26 days; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation reduces the frequency of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm neonates with very low birth weight. It is also associated with faster achievement of full oral feeding and short duration of hospital stay. (author)

  16. The Anticoagulation of Calf Thrombosis (ACT project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horner Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of all lower limb deep vein thrombi (DVT in symptomatic ambulatory patients are located in the distal (calf veins. While proximal disease warrants therapeutic anticoagulation to reduce the associated risks, distal DVT often goes untreated. However, a proportion of untreated distal disease will undoubtedly propagate or embolize. Concern also exists that untreated disease could lead to long-term post thrombotic changes. Currently, it is not possible to predict which distal thrombi will develop such complications. Whether these potential risks outweigh those associated with unrestricted anticoagulation remains unclear. The Anticoagulation of Calf Thrombosis (ACT trial aims to compare therapeutic anticoagulation against conservative management for patients with acute symptomatic distal deep vein thrombosis. Methods ACT is a pragmatic, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Adult patients diagnosed with acute distal DVT will be allocated to either therapeutic anticoagulation or conservative management. All patients will undergo 3 months of clinical and assessor blinded sonographic follow-up, followed by 2-year final review. The project will commence initially as an external pilot study, recruiting over a 16-month period at a single center to assess feasibility measures and clinical event rates. Primary outcome measures will assess feasibility endpoints. Secondary clinical outcomes will be collected to gather accurate data for the design of a definitive clinical trial and will include: (1 a composite endpoint combining thrombus propagation to the popliteal vein or above, development of symptomatic pulmonary embolism or sudden death attributable to venous thromboembolic disease; (2 the incidence of major and minor bleeding episodes; (3 the incidence of post-thrombotic leg syndrome at 2 years using a validated screening tool; and (4 the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE recurrence at 2 years. Discussion The ACT trial

  17. 7 CFR 62.400 - OMB control number assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK, MEAT, AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES (QUALITY SYSTEMS VERIFICATION...

  18. Movable shark scales act as a passive dynamic micro-roughness to control flow separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Amy W; Bradshaw, Michael T; Smith, Jonathon A; Wheelus, Jennifer N; Motta, Philip J; Habegger, Maria L; Hueter, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Shark scales on fast-swimming sharks have been shown to be movable to angles in excess of 50°, and we hypothesize that this characteristic gives this shark skin a preferred flow direction. During the onset of separation, flow reversal is initiated close to the surface. However, the movable scales would be actuated by the reversed flow thereby causing a greater resistance to any further flow reversal and this mechanism would disrupt the process leading to eventual flow separation. Here we report for the first time experimental evidence of the separation control capability of real shark skin through water tunnel testing. Using skin samples from a shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, we tested a pectoral fin and flank skin attached to a NACA 4412 hydrofoil and separation control was observed in the presence of movable shark scales under certain conditions in both cases. We hypothesize that the scales provide a passive, flow-actuated mechanism acting as a dynamic micro-roughness to control flow separation. (paper)

  19. Women's social networks and use of facility delivery services for uncomplicated births in North West Ethiopia: a community-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrese, Kerebih; Adamek, Margaret E

    2017-12-28

    High maternal mortality has remained an unmet public health challenge in the developing world. Maternal mortality in Ethiopia is among the highest in the world. Since most maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, facility delivery with skilled birth attendants is recommended to reduce maternal mortality. Nonetheless, the majority of women in Ethiopia give birth at home. Individual attributes and availability and accessibility of services deter service utilization. The role of social networks that may facilitate or constrain service use is not well studied. Community-based case-control study was conducted between February and March 2014 in Jabi Tehinan District, North West Ethiopia. Retrospective data were collected from 134 women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 140 women who had uncomplicated births at home within a year preceding the survey. Interviews were held with eight women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 11 who had uncomplicated births at home. The quantitative data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for Windows versions 16.0 and hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and data were used to substantiate the quantitative data. The results indicated that social network variables were significantly associated with the use of health facilities for delivery. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of facility use for delivery services over women's individual attributes. Women embedded within homogeneous network members (Adjusted OR 2.53; 95% CI: 1.26-5.06) and embedded within high SBA endorsement networks (Adjusted OR 7.97; 95% CI: 4.07-12.16) were more likely to deliver at health facilities than their counterparts. Women living in urban areas (Adjusted OR 3.32; 95% CI: 1.37-8.05) and had better knowledge of obstetric complications (Adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46-6.18) were more likely to

  20. Cabbage compression early breast care on breast engorgement in primiparous women after cesarean birth: a controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A-Reum; Song, Ji-Ah; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of cabbage compression early breast care (CCEBC) and early breast care (EBC) on breast pain, breast hardness with general nursing breast care (GNBC) in primiparous women after cesarean birth. Sixty participants were divided to three groups including CCEBC, EBC and GNBC. Each group was treated with its intervention respectively more than 10 minutes before breast feeding from day two to day four after delivery. The primary outcomes were breast pain and breast hardness. Both CCEBC and EBC showed significantly lower pain level than GNBC at day 4 after delivery. There are significant differences of breast hardness among three groups. CCEBC group showed significantly lower breast hardness compared with EBC and GNBC. Neither core body temperature nor breast skin temperature was significantly different among the three groups. In conclusion, CCEBC may effective in relieving breast pain and breast hardness compared with EBC alone and GNBC in primiparous women after a cesarean birth. PMID:26885074

  1. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... at determining whether there was a difference in rates of LBW in areas of varying malaria transmission intensity in Korogwe, Tanzania. Retrospective data for one year (June 2004-May 2005) in three maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in the district were analysed. Villages were stratified into three strata...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  2. 77 FR 6803 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... pregnant during Health Questionnaire/ 750 1 20/60 NHANES 1999-2010. Consent Form. 3. State/local vital...-11CE] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and... about the pregnant women at the time of interview. Having information on their children's birth...

  3. Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Early, High-Dose Parenteral Amino Acid Intake in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Maya; Jennings, Alishia; Przystac, Lynn; Phornphutkul, Chanika; Tucker, Richard; Vohr, Betty; Stephens, Bonnie E; Bliss, Joseph M

    2017-03-01

    Administration of high-dose parenteral amino acids (AAs) to premature infants within hours of delivery is currently recommended. This study compared the effect of lower and higher AA administration starting close to birth on short-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-24 months corrected gestational age (CGA). Infants Toddler Development, Third Edition at 18-24 months CGA. Secondary outcomes were growth parameters at 36 weeks CGA among infants surviving to hospital discharge, serum bicarbonate, serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, AA profiles in the first week of life, and incidence of major morbidities and mortality. No differences in neurodevelopmental outcome were detected between the high and low AA groups. Infants in the high AA group had significantly lower mean weight, length, and head circumference percentiles than those in the standard AA group at 36 weeks CGA and at hospital discharge. These differences did not persist after controlling for birth growth parameters, except for head circumference. Infants in the high AA group had higher mean serum urea nitrogen than the standard group on each day throughout the first week. Current recommendations for high-dose AA starting at birth are not associated with improved growth or neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  4. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9759-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption; California's 2010 Model Year Heavy-Duty Vehicle and... for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and extraordinary...

  5. Preliminary results from a four-working space, double-acting piston, Stirling engine controls model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    A four working space, double acting piston, Stirling engine simulation is being developed for controls studies. The development method is to construct two simulations, one for detailed fluid behavior, and a second model with simple fluid behaviour but containing the four working space aspects and engine inertias, validate these models separately, then upgrade the four working space model by incorporating the detailed fluid behaviour model for all four working spaces. The single working space (SWS) model contains the detailed fluid dynamics. It has seven control volumes in which continuity, energy, and pressure loss effects are simulated. Comparison of the SWS model with experimental data shows reasonable agreement in net power versus speed characteristics for various mean pressure levels in the working space. The four working space (FWS) model was built to observe the behaviour of the whole engine. The drive dynamics and vehicle inertia effects are simulated. To reduce calculation time, only three volumes are used in each working space and the gas temperature are fixed (no energy equation). Comparison of the FWS model predicted power with experimental data shows reasonable agreement. Since all four working spaces are simulated, the unique capabilities of the model are exercised to look at working fluid supply transients, short circuit transients, and piston ring leakage effects.

  6. The role and limitation of judicial control in the licensing procedure under the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems of the judiciary with decision-finding in proceedings where large and complicated technical installations are involved, presenting proposals aiming at more clearly defining and probably restricting judicial control. According to the author, a feasible step towards limiting the controlling competence of the judiciary is to more precisely define the factual characteristic 'state of the art in science and technology' which, in pursuance with sect. 7, sub-sect. 2 of the Atomic Energy Act is taken as a criterion to evaluate the efficiency of precautionary measures to prevent damage emanating from the erection and operation of nuclear installations. As the legislature explicitly wants the judiciary to use this characteristic, the judiciary has to have recourse to evaluation factors that do not belong to the science of jurisprudence. It is not the function of the judiciary to verify whether the 'state of the art' is based on appropriate principles. This adoption guarantees the 'best possible risk prevention and protection against hazards', as required by the Federal Constitutional Court. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. FILAMENTOUS FLOWER controls lateral organ development by acting as both an activator and a repressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaccorso Oliver

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The YABBY (YAB family of transcription factors participate in a diverse range of processes that include leaf and floral patterning, organ growth, and the control of shoot apical meristem organisation and activity. How these disparate functions are regulated is not clear, but based on interactions with the LEUNIG-class of co-repressors, it has been proposed that YABs act as transcriptional repressors. In the light of recent work showing that DNA-binding proteins associated with the yeast co-repressor TUP1 can also function as activators, we have examined the transcriptional activity of the YABs. Results Of the four Arabidopsis YABs tested in yeast, only FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL activated reporter gene expression. Similar analysis with Antirrhinum YABs identified the FIL ortholog GRAMINIFOLIA as an activator. Plant-based transactivation assays not only confirmed the potential of FIL to activate transcription, but also extended this property to the FIL paralog YABBY3 (YAB3. Subsequent transcriptomic analysis of lines expressing a steroid-inducible FIL protein revealed groups of genes that responded either positively or negatively to YAB induction. Included in the positively regulated group of genes were the polarity regulators KANADI1 (KAN1, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 4 (ARF4 and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1. We also show that modifying FIL to function as an obligate repressor causes strong yab loss-of-function phenotypes. Conclusions Collectively these data show that FIL functions as a transcriptional activator in plants and that this activity is involved in leaf patterning. Interestingly, our study also supports the idea that FIL can act as a repressor, as transcriptomic analysis identified negatively regulated FIL-response genes. To reconcile these observations, we propose that YABs are bifunctional transcription factors that participate in both positive and negative regulation. These findings fit a model of leaf development in which

  8. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An active controls technology (ACT) system architecture was selected based on current technology system elements and optimal control theory was evaluated for use in analyzing and synthesizing ACT multiple control laws. The system selected employs three redundant computers to implement all of the ACT functions, four redundant smaller computers to implement the crucial pitch-augmented stability function, and a separate maintenance and display computer. The reliability objective of probability of crucial function failure of less than 1 x 10 to the -9th power per flight of 1 hr can be met with current technology system components, if the software is assumed fault free and coverage approaching 1.0 can be provided. The optimal control theory approach to ACT control law synthesis yielded comparable control law performance much more systematically and directly than the classical s-domain approach. The ACT control law performance, although somewhat degraded by the inclusion of representative nonlinearities, remained quite effective. Certain high-frequency gust-load alleviation functions may require increased surface rate capability.

  9. Cost analysis of the Dutch obstetric system: low-risk nulliparous women preferring home or short-stay hospital birth--a prospective non-randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Marijke Jc; Evers, Silvia Maa; Basten, Marloes Cm; Nijhuis, Jan G; Severens, Johan L

    2009-11-19

    In the Netherlands, pregnant women without medical complications can decide where they want to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting with a midwife. However, a decrease in the home birth rate during the last decennium may have raised the societal costs of giving birth. The objective of this study is to compare the societal costs of home births with those of births in a short-stay hospital setting. This study is a cost analysis based on the findings of a multicenter prospective non-randomised study comparing two groups of nulliparous women with different preferences for where to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting. Data were collected using cost diaries, questionnaires and birth registration forms. Analysis of the data is divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. In the group of home births, the total societal costs associated with giving birth at home were euro3,695 (per birth), compared with euro3,950 per birth in the group for short-stay hospital births. Statistically significant differences between both groups were found regarding the following cost categories 'Cost of contacts with health care professionals during delivery' (euro138.38 vs. euro87.94, -50 (2.5-97.5 percentile range (PR)-76;-25), p home' (euro1,551.69 vs. euro1,240.69, -311 (PR -485; -150), p home birth are euro4,364 per birth, and euro4,541 per birth for short-stay hospital births. The total costs associated with pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care are comparable for home birth and short-stay hospital birth. The most important differences in costs between the home birth group and the short-stay hospital birth group are associated with maternity care assistance, hospitalisation, and travelling costs.

  10. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  11. Birthweight, parental age, birth order and breast cancer risk in African-American and white women: a population-based case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Newman, Beth; Millikan, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Much recent work has focused on hypotheses that very early life exposures influence adult cancer risk. For breast cancer it has been hypothesized that high in utero estrogen exposure may increase risk. Methods We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study of incident breast cancer in North Carolina, to examine associations for three possible surrogates of high prenatal estrogen exposure: weight at birth, maternal age, and birth order. We also examined paternal age. Birthweight analyses were conducted for white and African-American women born in North Carolina on or after 1949 (196 cases, 167 controls). Maternal age was analyzed for US born participants younger than 49 years of age (280 cases, 236 controls). Results There was a weak inverse association between birthweight in the highest tertile and breast cancer overall (odds ratio [OR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–1.2), although associations differed by race (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–1.0, and OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5–2.1 for African-American and white women, respectively). For maternal age there was an approximately threefold increase in risk in women whose mothers were older than 22 years of age, relative to 19–22 years of age, when the women were born. After adjustment for maternal age, older paternal age increased risk in the oldest and youngest age categories (relative to 23–27 years of age at the woman's birth: OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.1 for age 15–22 years; OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7–2.2 for age 28–34 years; and OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7–3.2 for age 35–56 years). There was no association with older paternal age for white women alone. After adjustment for maternal age (265 cases, 224 controls), a birth order of fifth or higher relative to first had an inverse association with breast cancer for women younger than 49 years old (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3–1.3). Conclusion Although the CIs are wide, these results lend support to the possibility that the prenatal

  12. Classification of two steroids, prostanozol and methasterone, as Schedule III anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substance Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    With the issuance of this Final Rule, the Administrator of the DEA classifies the following two steroids as "anabolic steroids'' under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA): prostanozol (17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androstano[3,2-c]pyrazole) and methasterone (2[alpha],17[alpha]-dimethyl-5[alpha]-androstan-17[beta]-ol-3-one). These steroids and their salts, esters, and ethers are Schedule III controlled substances subject to the regulatory control provisions of the CSA.

  13. [Outcomes after planned home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Ellen; Øian, Pål; Kumle, Merethe

    2008-11-06

    About 150 planned home births take place in Norway annually. Professionals have different opinions on whether such births are safe or not. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic literature review on maternal and neonatal outcomes after planned home births. A review was performed of literature retrieved from searches in MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and The Cochrane Library and relevant references found in the articles. The searches were limited to studies published in 1985 and later. 10 studies with data from 30 204 women who had planned and were selected to home birth at the onset of labour were included. Three of the studies had control groups including women with planned hospital births. All included studies were assessed to be of medium quality. Between 9.9 and 23.1 % of women and infants were transferred to hospital during labour or after birth. There were few caesarean sections, other interventions or complications in the studies assessed; the total perinatal mortality rate was 2.9/1000 and the intrapartum mortality rate 0.8/1000. There is no sound basis for discouraging low-risk women from planning a home birth. Results from the included studies do not directly apply to Norwegian conditions. Outcomes and transfers after planned home births should be systematically registered.

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine administered at birth or in infancy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Danchin, Margaret; Jackson, Pamela; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Lee, Katherine J; West, Amanda; Cowley, Daniel; Chen, Mee-Yew; Barnes, Graeme L; Justice, Frances; Buttery, Jim P; Carlin, John B; Bishop, Ruth F; Taylor, Barry; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2015-12-01

    Despite the success of rotavirus vaccines, suboptimal vaccine efficacy in regions with a high burden of disease continues to present a challenge to worldwide implementation. A birth dose strategy with a vaccine developed from an asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus strain has the potential to address this challenge and provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. This phase 2a randomised, double-blind, three-arm, placebo-controlled safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken at a single centre in New Zealand between Jan 13, 2012, and April 17, 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥36 weeks gestation) babies, who weighed at least 2500 g, and were 0-5 days old at the time of randomisation were randomly assigned (1:1:1; computer-generated; telephone central allocation) according to a concealed block randomisation schedule to oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 days after birth (neonatal schedule), to vaccine with the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to placebo. The primary endpoint was cumulative vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) after three doses. The immunogenicity analysis included all randomised participants with available outcome data. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611001212943. 95 eligible participants were randomised, of whom 89 were included in the primary analysis. A cumulative vaccine take was detected in 27 (90%) of 30 participants in the neonatal schedule group after three doses of RV3-BB vaccine compared with four (13%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·78, 95% CI 0·55-0·88; pvaccine take after three doses compared with eight (25%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·68, 0·44-0·81; pvaccine was not associated with an increased frequency of fever or gastrointestinal symptoms compared with placebo. RV3-BB vaccine was

  15. 7 CFR 33.60 - OMB control number assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT...

  16. Preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes; antenatal corticosteroids; antibiotic treatment; bed rest; beta mimetics; calcium-channel blockers; elective caesarean; enhanced antenatal care programmes; magnesium sulphate; oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban); progesterone

  17. The impact of low-dose aspirin on preterm birth: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, A A; Jessel, R H; Heyborne, K D

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether low-dose aspirin (LDA) reduced the rate of preterm birth (PTB) in a cohort of women at high risk for preeclampsia. Secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units High-Risk Aspirin trial. Preterm births were categorized by phenotype: indicated, spontaneous or due to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROMs). Of 1789 randomized women, 30.5% delivered before 37 weeks (18.5% indicated, 5.8% spontaneous and 6.2% following preterm PPROMs). Among women randomized to LDA, we observed a trend favoring fewer PTBs due to spontaneous preterm labor and preterm PPROMs, odds ratio (OR: 0.826 (0.620, 1.099)); the incidence of indicated PTBs appeared unchanged, OR: 0.999 (0.787, 1.268). Although not reaching significance, we observed an effect size similar to other studies of both low- and high-risk women. These results support findings from other studies assessing LDA as a PTB prevention strategy.

  18. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...

  19. Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator test bed for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, L.V. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located on the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, continues to be the only operational incinerator in the country that can process hazardous and radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. During 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems established a continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) test bed and began conducting evaluations of CEMS under development to measure contaminants from waste combustion and thermal treatment stacks. The program was envisioned to promote CEMS technologies meeting requirements of the recently issued Proposed Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors as well as monitoring technologies that will allay public concerns about mixed waste thermal treatment and accelerate the development of innovative treatment technologies. Fully developed CEMS, as well as innovative continuous or semi-continuous sampling systems not yet interfaced with a pollutant analyzer, were considered as candidates for testing and evaluation. Complementary to other Environmental Protection Agency and DOE sponsored CEMS testing and within compliant operating conditions of the TSCA Incinerator, prioritization was given to multiple metals monitors also having potential to measure radionuclides associated with particulate emissions. In August 1996, developers of two multiple metals monitors participated in field activities at the incinerator and a commercially available radionuclide particulate monitor was acquired for modification and testing planned in 1997. This paper describes the CEMS test bed infrastructure and summarizes completed and planned activities

  20. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act: banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Smith, Carson; Sorg, Amy A

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco industry has challenged new FDA rules restricting outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds on First Amendment grounds, arguing that they would lead to a near complete ban on tobacco advertising in dense urban areas. To examine how the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) rules banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds would affect tobacco retailers. GIS spatial analyses of two different states (Missouri, New York), along with more detailed analyses of two urban areas within those states (St. Louis, New York City), were conducted in 2010. The percentage of tobacco retailers falling within 350-, 500-, and 1000-foot buffer zones was then calculated. 22% of retailers in Missouri and 51% in New York fall within 1000-foot buffers around schools. In urban settings, more retailers are affected, 29% in St. Louis and 79% in New York City. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that smaller buffers decrease the proportion of affected retailers. That is, 350-foot buffers affect only 6.7% of retailers in St. Louis and 29% in New York City. The effects of new outdoor tobacco advertising restrictions vary by location and population density. In Missouri and New York, outdoor tobacco advertising would still be permitted in many locations if such advertising was prohibited in a 1000-foot buffer zone around schools and playgrounds. Much smaller buffer zones of 350 feet may result in almost no reduction of outdoor advertising in many parts of the country. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The abuse potential of medical psilocybin according to the 8 factors of the Controlled Substances Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R; Hendricks, Peter S; Henningfield, Jack E

    2018-06-05

    This review assesses the abuse potential of medically-administered psilocybin, following the structure of the 8 factors of the US Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Research suggests the potential safety and efficacy of psilocybin in treating cancer-related psychiatric distress and substance use disorders, setting the occasion for this review. A more extensive assessment of abuse potential according to an 8-factor analysis would eventually be required to guide appropriate schedule placement. Psilocybin, like other 5-HT2A agonist classic psychedelics, has limited reinforcing effects, supporting marginal, transient non-human self-administration. Nonetheless, mushrooms with variable psilocybin content are used illicitly, with a few lifetime use occasions being normative among users. Potential harms include dangerous behavior in unprepared, unsupervised users, and exacerbation of mental illness in those with or predisposed to psychotic disorders. However, scope of use and associated harms are low compared to prototypical abused drugs, and the medical model addresses these concerns with dose control, patient screening, preparation and follow-up, and session supervision in a medical facility. (1) psilocybin has an abuse potential appropriate for CSA scheduling if approved as medicine; (2) psilocybin can provide therapeutic benefits that may support the development of an approvable New Drug Application (NDA) but further studies are required which this review describes; (3) adverse effects of medical psilocybin are manageable when administered according to risk management approaches; and (4) although further study is required, this review suggests that placement in Schedule IV may be appropriate if a psilocybin-containing medicine is approved. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  3. Birth Experience through an Existential Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina

    Background: The moment of birth is seen as a miracle, a journey and even a religious act. Research stress how giving birth might facilitate interference with previous conceptions of how to make meaning of life existentially. However, birth as an existential life transformative event, has been...... explored only briefly in empirical research. The aim of this study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore how first-time mothers experienced their first birth in relation to existential meaning-making. Secondly, to describe the relationship between considerations related to existential meaning-making and time...... of birth. Method: The study was based on a nationwide questionnaire, conducted among Danish first time mothers, who had given birth either preterm or full-term (n=517). The questionnaire consisted of 46 overall items. Eight core items were analysed in this study. Findings Preliminary findings show that new...

  4. A case-control study to examine the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy and risk of a small-for-gestational-age birth in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Rossina G; Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Dixon, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    Excessive demands on maternal nutritional status may be a risk factor for poor birth outcomes. This study examined the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks) and the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, using a matched case-control design (78 SGA cases: birthweight project midwives visited daily three government hospitals in Lima, Peru and identified cases and matched controls based on hospital, gestational age, and inter-gestational period. Mothers were interviewed and clinical chart extractions were completed. Factors associated with risk of SGA were assessed by their adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from conditional logistic regression. Exposure to an overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of having a SGA newborn [aOR=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-3.30]. However, increased risk was associated with having a previous low-birthweight birth (aOR=6.53; 95% CI: 1.43-29.70) and a low intake of animal source foods (power are needed to definitively examine this possible association and clarify whether there are other risks to the new baby, the toddler and the pregnant woman. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Association of stress and depression with chronic facial pain: A case-control study based on the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Netta; Lähdesmäki, Raija; Mäki, Pirjo; Ek, Ellen; Taanila, Anja; Pesonen, Paula; Sipilä, Kirsi

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to study the association between stress level and chronic facial pain, while controlling for the effect of depression on this association, during a three-year follow-up in a general population-based birth cohort. In the general population-based Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, information about stress level, depression and facial pain were collected using questionnaires at the age of 31 years. Stress level was measured using the Work Ability Index. Depression was assessed using the 13-item depression subscale in the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Three years later, a subsample of 52 subjects (42 women) with chronic facial pain and 52 pain-free controls (42 women) was formed. Of the subjects having high stress level at baseline, 73.3% had chronic facial pain, and 26.7% were pain-free three years later. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that high stress level at 31 years increased the risk for chronic facial pain (crude OR 6.1, 95%, CI 1.3-28.7) three years later. When including depression in a multivariate model, depression associated statistically significantly with chronic facial pain (adjusted OR 2.5, 95%, CI 1.0-5.8), whereas stress level did not (adjusted OR 2.3, 95%, CI 0.6-8.4). High stress level is connected with increased risk for chronic facial pain. This association seems to mediate through depression.

  6. Births: preliminary data for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J A; Hamilton, B E; Ventura, S J

    2001-07-24

    This report presents preliminary data for 2000 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on more than 96 percent of births for 2000. The records are weighted to independent control counts of births received in State vital statistics offices in 2000. Comparisons are made with 1999 final data. The number of births rose 3 percent between 1999 and 2000. The crude birth rate increased to 14.8 per 1,000 population in 2000, 2 percent higher than the 1999 rate. The fertility rate rose 3 percent to 67.6 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years between 1999 and 2000. The birth rate for teenagers, which has been falling since 1991, declined 2 percent in 2000 to 48.7 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years, another historic low. The rate for teenagers 15-17 years fell 4 percent, and the rate for 18-19 year olds was down 1 percent. Since 1991, rates have fallen 29 percent for teenagers 15-17 years and 16 percent for teenagers 18-19 years. Birth rates for all of the older age groups increased for 1999-2000: 1 percent among women aged 20-24 years, 3 percent for women aged 25-29 years, and 5 percent for women in their thirties. Rates for women aged 40-54 years were also up for 2000. The birth rate for unmarried women increased 2 percent to 45.2 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years in 2000, but was still lower than the peak reached in 1994. The number of births to unmarried women was up 3 percent, the highest number ever reported in the United States. However, the number of births to unmarried teenagers declined. The proportion of women who began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (83.2 percent) did not improve for 2000, nor did the rate of low birthweight (7.6 percent). The total cesarean rate rose for the fourth consecutive year to 22.9 percent, the result of both a

  7. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  8. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  9. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  10. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  11. Tobacco packaging and labeling policies under the U.S. Tobacco Control Act: research needs and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2012-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the "Act"), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms "light" and "mild," and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote "greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco." As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action.

  12. Traditional birth attendants in an endemic area of tetanus neonatorum in Thailand: pitfalls in the control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, V; Bucharkorn, L; Treetrong, R

    1991-12-01

    A survey of the characteristics of traditional birth attendants in Krabi Province, Thailand, where the incidence rate of tetanus neonatorum was the highest in the country, was conducted in order to obtain background information necessary for planning a training curriculum and to evaluate previous training courses. Five second year medical students were used as research assistants. After the questionnaire was constructed and tested, the students went to visit a sample of 116 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to interview them about their personal backgrounds, techniques and practices in delivery and beliefs and attitudes towards midwifery. The study revealed that these TBAs were a mixture of Buddhist and Islamic females whose literacy rate was 53 percent. Ninety-one per cent knew about the availability of an injection for antenatal care at the health center, but only about half knew that it was for tetanus prevention. More than half provided antenatal care at their own home but 85 per cent conducted delivery at the client's home. About eighty per cent of the TBAs claimed that sterilization of instruments was performed. However, dressing of the umbilical cord was done inappropriately using various kinds of powders by about 40 per cent. The majority of TBAs had experience with complicated labors but only 30 per cent were referred, perhaps, due to excessive self-confidence and supernatural beliefs. The trained TBAs possessed a higher level of knowledge of immunization and sterile techniques for cord cutting and dressing of the stumps of the umbilical cord than the untrained group. However, knowledge of sterilization of instruments was not significantly different, indicating a need to improve teaching in this area.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Increasing Doses of Inhaled Corticosteroids Compared to Adding Long-Acting Inhaled beta(2)-Agonists in Achieving Asthma Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Byrne, Paul M.; Naya, Ian P.; Kallen, Anders; Postma, Dirkje S.; Barnes, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABAs), or treatment with high doses of ICSs alone improves asthma control when therapy with low-dose ICSs is not sufficient. However, it is not known which of these treatment options is more

  14. 15 CFR 30.63 - Office of Management and Budget control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Management and Budget control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act. 30.63 Section 30.63 Commerce and Foreign... FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Administrative Provisions § 30.63 Office of Management and Budget...

  15. Assessment of Application Example for a Sodium Fire Extinguishing Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jongman

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material, water-prohibiting substance). To obtain a license for a sodium experiment facility, the codes and regulations must be satisfied in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act. However, there are some parts that need to be discussed in related regulations in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act because there are differences with the actual features of sodium. To apply for an actual sodium facility, it is necessary to give a supplementary explanation regarding the regulations. The objective of this study is to assess the application example of a sodium experiment facility using the above mentioned laws and to propose the necessity of an amendment for conventional laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems and agents. In this work, an application example of a sodium experiment facility using the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, and the necessity of amending the existing laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems including the agent used, was assessed. The safest standard was applied for cases in which the consideration of a sodium fire is not mentioned in conventional regulations. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), the described regulations in this work should be reviewed and improved carefully by the fire safety regulatory body

  16. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Confidential Business Information Records Access System for the Toxic Control Substances Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This system collects submission data from the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and contact information for EPA contractors and employees who are CBI cleared. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, and the purpose of data collection.

  17. 75 FR 57385 - Internal Control Over Financial Reporting in Exchange Act Periodic Reports of Non-Accelerated Filers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... attestation report of its registered public accounting firm on internal control over financial reporting in... definition of either an ``accelerated filer'' or a ``large accelerated filer'' under Exchange Act Rule 12b-2..., for both definitions, the issuer needs to have been subject to reporting requirements for at least...

  18. The influence of fish-oil lipid emulsions on retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beken, Serdar; Dilli, Dilek; Fettah, Nurdan Dinlen; Kabataş, Emrah Utku; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effect of two lipid emulsions on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. Randomized controlled study. Eighty very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition from the first day of life were evaluated. One of the two lipid emulsions were used in the study infants: Group 1 (n=40) received fish-oil based lipid emulsion (SmofLipid®) and Group 2 (n=40) soybean oil based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®). The development of retinopathy of prematurity and the need for laser photocoagulation were assessed. The maternal and perinatal characteristics were similar in both groups. The median (range) duration of parenteral nutrition [14days (10-28) vs 14 (10-21)] and hospitalization [34days (20-64) vs 34 (21-53)] did not differ between the groups. Laboratory data including complete blood count, triglyceride level, liver and kidney function tests recorded before and after parenteral nutrition also did not differ between the two groups. In Group 1, two patients (5.0%) and in Group 2, 13 patients (32.5%) were diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (OR: 9.1, 95% CI 1.9-43.8, p=0.004). One patient in each group needed laser photocoagulation, without significant difference. Multivariate analysis showed that only receiving fish-oil emulsion in parenteral nutrition decreased the risk of development of retinopathy of prematurity [OR: 0.76, 95% CI (0.06-0.911), p=0.04]. Premature infants with very low birth weight receiving an intravenous fat emulsion containing fish oil developed less retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost Analysis of the Dutch Obstetric System: low-risk nulliparous women preferring home or short-stay hospital birth - a prospective non-randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhuis Jan G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, pregnant women without medical complications can decide where they want to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting with a midwife. However, a decrease in the home birth rate during the last decennium may have raised the societal costs of giving birth. The objective of this study is to compare the societal costs of home births with those of births in a short-stay hospital setting. Methods This study is a cost analysis based on the findings of a multicenter prospective non-randomised study comparing two groups of nulliparous women with different preferences for where to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting. Data were collected using cost diaries, questionnaires and birth registration forms. Analysis of the data is divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. Results In the group of home births, the total societal costs associated with giving birth at home were €3,695 (per birth, compared with €3,950 per birth in the group for short-stay hospital births. Statistically significant differences between both groups were found regarding the following cost categories 'Cost of contacts with health care professionals during delivery' (€138.38 vs. €87.94, -50 (2.5-97.5 percentile range (PR-76;-25, p Conclusion The total costs associated with pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care are comparable for home birth and short-stay hospital birth. The most important differences in costs between the home birth group and the short-stay hospital birth group are associated with maternity care assistance, hospitalisation, and travelling costs.

  20. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  1. Intravenous artesunate plus Artemisnin based Combination Therapy (ACT) or intravenous quinine plus ACT for treatment of severe malaria in Ugandan children: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Achan, Jane; Lamorde, Mohammed; Karera-Gonahasa, Carine; Kiragga, Agnes N; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nsobya, Sam; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Merry, Concepta

    2017-12-28

    Severe malaria is a medical emergency associated with high mortality. Adequate treatment requires initial parenteral therapy for fast parasite clearance followed by longer acting oral antimalarial drugs for cure and prevention of recrudescence. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the 42-day parasitological outcomes of severe malaria treatment with intravenous artesunate (AS) or intravenous quinine (QNN) followed by oral artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) in children living in a high malaria transmission setting in Eastern Uganda. We enrolled 300 participants and all were included in the intention to treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar across treatment arms. The median and interquartile range for number of days from baseline to parasite clearance was significantly lower among participants who received intravenous AS (2 (1-2) vs 3 (2-3), P malaria symptoms. In this high transmission setting, we observed adequate initial treatment outcomes followed by very high rates of malaria re-infection post severe malaria treatment. The impact of recurrent antimalarial treatment on the long term efficacy of antimalarial regimens needs to be investigated and surveillance mechanisms for resistance markers established since recurrent malaria infections are likely to be exposed to sub-therapeutic drug concentrations. More strategies for prevention of recurrent malaria infections in the most at risk populations are needed. The study was registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry ( PACTR201110000321348 ).

  2. In the arc of history: AIHA and the movement to reform the Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Michael P. Wilson of UC Berkeley delivered his keynote address before the general assembly of the American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exhibition (AIHce) in Portland, Oregon, in May 2011. Here, Dr. Wilson again discusses the political and economic drivers of occupational disease in the United States and proposes a role for AIHA in helping to highlight and resolve them. He proposes that until these underlying drivers are acknowledged and ameliorated, the toll of occupational disease will persist, despite the hard work of industrial hygienists in the workplace. Among these drivers, Dr. Wilson points to the decline of labor rights and unionization; economic inequality; economic insecurity; political resistance to public health protections for workers, notably the OSHA and NIOSH programs; and weaknesses in the Federal Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA). Of these, Dr. Wilson calls on the AIHA to participate in the historic effort to rewrite TSCA. He points to weaknesses in TSCA that have produced a chemicals market dominated by the function, price, and performance of chemicals, with little attention given to their health and environmental effects. Under these conditions, he argues, hazardous chemicals have remained economically competitive, and innovation in inherently safer chemicals-in green chemistry-has been held back by a lack of market transparency and public accountability in the industry. TSCA reform has the potential to shift the market toward green chemistry, with long-term implications for occupational disease prevention, industrial investment, and renewed energy in the industrial hygiene profession. Dr. Wilson proposes that, like previous legislative changes in the United States, TSCA reform is likely to occur in response to myriad social pressures, which include the emergence of the European Union's REACH regulation; recent chemicals policy actions in 18 U.S. states; growing support from downstream businesses; increasing public awareness

  3. Review of organic nitrile incineration at the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) operates the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly called the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, where uranium was enriched under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently, ETTP missions include environmental management, waste management (WM), and the development of new technologies. As part of its WM mission, ETTP operates the TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) Incinerator (TSCAI) for treatment of hazardous waste and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with low-level radioactivity. Beginning in the autumn of 1995, employees from diverse ETTP buildings and departments reported experiencing headaches, fatigue, depression, muscle aches, sleeplessness, and muscle tremors. These symptoms were judged by a physician in the ETTP Health Services Department to be consistent with chronic exposures to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was called in to perform a health hazard evaluation to ascertain whether the employees' illnesses were in fact caused by occupational exposure to HCN. The NIOSH evaluation found no patterns for employees' reported symptoms with respect to work location or department. NIOSH also conducted a comprehensive air sampling study, which did not detect airborne cyanides at the ETTP. Employees, however, expressed concerns that the burning of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have produced HCN as a combustion product. Therefore, LMES and DOE established a multidisciplinary team (TSCAI Technical Review Team) to make a more detailed review of the possibility that combustion of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have either released nitriles or created HCN as a product of incomplete combustion (PIC)

  4. Associations of neonatal high birth weight with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain: a case-control study in women from Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Peng, Rong; Han, Lingli; Zhou, Xiaoli; Xiong, Zhengai; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Junnan; Yao, Ruoxue; Li, Tingyu; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-16

    To examine the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with neonatal high birth weight (HBW) in a sample of Chinese women living in southwest China. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 221 mothers who delivered HBW babies (>4.0 kg) were recruited as cases and 221 age-matched (2-year interval) mothers with normal birth weight babies (2.5-4.0 kg) were identified as controls. ORs were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis. For the analysis, pre-pregnancy BMI was categorised as underweight/normal weight/overweight and obesity and GWG was categorised as inadequate/appropriate/excessive. Among the cases, mean pre-pregnancy BMI was 21.8±2.8 kg/m(2), mean GWG was 19.7±5.1 kg and mean neonatal birth weight was 4.2±0.2 kg. In the controls, the corresponding values were 21.1±3.1 kg/m(2), 16.4±5.0 kg and 3.3±0.4 kg, respectively. More cases than controls gained excessive weight during pregnancy (80.1% vs 48.4%, p0.05). GWG was positively related to HBW after adjustment for gravidity, gestational age, newborns' gender and family income (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.25; pweight women (OR=10.27, 95% CI 3.20 to 32.95; p<0.001). Overall, the findings suggest a significantly positive association between GWG and HBW. However, pre-pregnancy BMI shows no independent relationship with HBW. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Progesterone for preterm birth prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Lucovnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone is important in maintaining pregnancy. Progesterone supplementation may reduce risk of preterm birth in certain populations of pregnant women. The objective of this review was to develop evidence-based clinical recommendation for progesterone treatment in the prevention of preterm birth.Methods: A search in the Medline database was performed using keywords: progesterone, pregnancy, preterm birth, preterm labour, preterm delivery, randomized trial, and randomized controlled trial. We only included studies of vaginal progesterone treatments for the prevention of preterm birth and excluded studies on 17-α-hydroksiprogesterone caproate.Results: We report findings from twelve randomized trials conducted since 2003. These trials differ regarding inclusion criteria, progesterone dose, vehicle used, and duration of treatment. Inclusion criteria were: short uterine cervix (two trials, history of previous preterm birth (two trials, signs and symptoms of preterm labour (three trials, twin pregnancies (three trials, and multiple risk factors (among these history of previous preterm birth was the most common (two trials. Six of these twelve trials showed a significant reduction in preterm birth in the progesterone groups.Conclusions: Based on current evidence we recommend treatment with 200 mg of micronized progesterone daily, administered vaginally, in pregnant women found to have a short cervix (≤ 25 mm at 19-24 weeks. The treatment should be continued until 37 weeks.

  6. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control group was randomly selected from the cases with normal live births. Blood tests were performed for children suspected to suffer from genetic blood disorders. The principal BD as per the ...

  7. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Predicting the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to reduce early preterm birth in Australia and the United States using results of within country randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, LN; Gajewski, BJ; Colombo, J; Gibson, RA; Makrides, M; Carlson, SE

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) and Kansas DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) were randomized controlled trials that supplemented mothers with 800 and 600 mg DHA/day, respectively, or a placebo during pregnancy. DOMInO was conducted in Australia and KUDOS in the United States. Both trials found an unanticipated and statistically significant reduction in early preterm birth (ePTB; i.e., birth before 34 weeks gestation). However, in each trial, the number of ePTBs were small. We used a novel Bayesian approach and an arbitrary sample of 120,000 pregnancies to estimate statistically derived low, moderate or high risk for ePTB, and to test for differences between the DHA and placebo groups. In both trials, the model predicted DHA would significantly reduce the expected proportion of deliveries in the high risk group under the trial conditions of the parent studies. From these proportions we estimated the number of ePTB that could be prevented. PMID:27637340

  9. Maternal and fetal insulin levels at birth in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: data from a randomized controlled study on metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Ragnhild; Vanky, Eszter; Stridsklev, Solhild; Vogt, Christina; Carlsen, Sven M

    2014-05-01

    Metformin is suggested to reduce pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin crosses the placenta and therapeutic concentrations are measured in the fetal circulation. Whether metformin treatment in pregnant PCOS women affects maternal and fetal insulin concentrations at birth is not clarified. To investigate the possible effect of metformin on insulin concentrations in umbilical cord blood and the possible association between maternal and fetal insulin concentrations. Post-hoc analysis of a subgroup of PCOS women participating in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. University hospital setting. Women with PCOS (n=118), aged 19-39 years. Maternal and umbilical cord insulin concentrations immediately after birth. At delivery women randomized to metformin had lower insulin concentrations than those randomized to placebo (259±209 vs 361±261 pmol/l; P=0.020). No difference was found in insulin concentrations in umbilical venous (P=0.95) and arterial (P=0.39) blood between the metformin and placebo groups. The arteriovenous difference was also equal between the groups (P=0.38). Insulin concentrations were higher in the umbilical vein than in the umbilical artery independent of randomization (70±51 vs 45±48 pmol/l; Pmetformin treatment during pregnancy resulted in lower maternal insulin concentrations at delivery. Metformin treatment did not affect fetal insulin concentrations. Higher insulin concentrations in the umbilical vein indicate that the placenta somehow secretes insulin to the fetus. The possibility of placental insulin secretion to the fetus deserves further investigations.

  10. Cost Analysis of the Dutch Obstetric System: low-risk nulliparous women preferring home or short-stay hospital birth - a prospective non-randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, Marijke JC; Evers, Silvia MAA; Basten, Marloes CM; Nijhuis, Jan G; Severens, Johan L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Netherlands, pregnant women without medical complications can decide where they want to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting with a midwife. However, a decrease in the home birth rate during the last decennium may have raised the societal costs of giving birth. The objective of this study is to compare the societal costs of home births with those of births in a short-stay hospital setting. Methods This study is a cost analysis based on the finding...

  11. Maternal urinary bisphenol A levels and infant low birth weight: A nested case-control study of the Health Baby Cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenqian; Xia, Wei; Wan, Yanjian; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Zhang, Yiming; Huang, Kai; Zhu, Yingshuang; Wu, Chuansha; Peng, Yang; Jiang, Minmin; Hu, Jie; Chang, Huailong; Xu, Bing; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor, has been demonstrated to affect fetal development in animal studies, but findings in human studies have been inconsistent. We investigated whether maternal exposure to BPA during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of infant low birth weight (LBW). A total 452 mother-infant pairs (113 LBW cases and 339 matched controls) were selected from the participants enrolled in the prospective Health Baby Cohort (HBC) in Wuhan city, China, during 2012-2014. BPA concentrations were measured in maternal urine samples collected at delivery, and the information of birth outcomes was retrieved from the medical records. A conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between urinary BPA levels and LBW. Mothers with LBW infants had significantly higher urinary BPA levels (median: 4.70μg/L) than the control mothers (median: 2.25μg/L) (p<0.05). Increased risk of LBW was associated with higher maternal urinary levels of BPA [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.13 for the medium tertile, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 8.08; adjusted OR=2.49 for the highest tertile, 95% CI: 0.98, 6.36]. The association was more pronounced among female infants than among male infants, with a statistical evidence of heterogeneity in risk (p=0.03). Prenatal exposure to higher levels of BPA may potentially increase the risk of delivering LBW infants, especially for female infants. This is the first case-control study to examine the association in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [A case-control study on association between OAS1 polymorphism and susceptibility to spontaneous preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Wu, Zhi-Hao; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Li-Na; Wang, Yan

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between the genetic polymorphism of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and susceptibility to spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The case-control study consisted of 599 preterm infants including 171 cases of PPROM, and 673 full-term infants without maternal histories of SPTB and PPROM as controls. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at OAS1 intron 5, rs10774671, was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. No significant differences were observed between the case and control groups in the frequencies of genotypes (AA, GA, and GG) and alleles (A and G) of OAS1 rs10774671. When the case group was divided into two subgroups with or without PPROM, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were found between each subgroup and the control group. When the case group was divided into three subgroups with different gestational ages at SPTB, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were detected between each subgroup and the control group. No association is identified between OAS1 SNP and susceptibility to SPTB and PPROM.

  13. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home

  14. Beating Birth Defects

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.

  15. Enrichment from birth accelerates the functional and cellular development of a motor control area in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Simonetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that sensory experience in early life has a profound influence on the development of sensory circuits. Very little is known, however, about the role of experience in the early development of striatal networks which regulate both motor and cognitive function. To address this, we have investigated the influence of early environmental enrichment on motor development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were raised in standard or enriched housing from birth. For animals assessed as adults, half of the mice had their rearing condition reversed at weaning to enable the examination of the effects of pre- versus post-weaning enrichment. We found that exclusively pre-weaning enrichment significantly improved performance on the Morris water maze compared to non-enriched mice. The effects of early enrichment on the emergence of motor programs were assessed by performing behavioural tests at postnatal day 10. Enriched mice traversed a significantly larger region of the test arena in an open-field test and had improved swimming ability compared to non-enriched cohorts. A potential cellular correlate of these changes was investigated using Wisteria-floribunda agglutinin (WFA staining to mark chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs. We found that the previously reported transition of CSPG staining from striosome-associated clouds to matrix-associated perineuronal nets (PNNs is accelerated in enriched mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration that the early emergence of exploratory as well as coordinated movement is sensitive to experience. These behavioural changes are correlated with an acceleration of the emergence of striatal PNNs suggesting that they may consolidate the neural circuits underlying these behaviours. Finally, we confirm that pre-weaning experience can lead to life long changes in the learning ability of mice.

  16. Randomized controlled trial of skin-to-skin contact from birth versus conventional incubator for physiological stabilization in 1200- to 2199-gram newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, N J; Linley, L L; Fawcus, S R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional care of prematurely born infants involves extended maternal-infant separation and incubator care. Recent research has shown that separation causes adverse effects. Maternal-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) provides an alternative habitat to the incubator, with proven benefits for stable prematures; this has not been established for unstable or newborn low-birthweight infants. SSC from birth was therefore compared to incubator care for infants between 1200 and 2199 g at birth. This was a prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled clinical trial; potential subjects were identified before delivery and randomized by computerized minimization technique at 5 min if eligible. Standardized care and observations were maintained for 6 h. Stability was measured in terms of a set of pre-determined physiological parameters, and a composite cardio-respiratory stabilization score (SCRIP). 34 infants were analysed in comparable groups: 3/18 SSC compared to 12/13 incubator babies exceeded the pre-determined parameters (p incubator (maximum 78), mean difference 2.88 (95% CI: 0.3-5.46, p = 0.031). All 18 SSC subjects were stable in the sixth hour, compared to 6/13 incubator infants. Eight out of 13 incubator subjects experienced hypothermia. Newborn care provided by skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest results in better physiological outcomes and stability than the same care provided in closed servo-controlled incubators. The cardio-respiratory instability seen in separated infants in the first 6 h is consistent with mammalian "protest-despair" biology, and with "hyper-arousal and dissociation" response patterns described in human infants: newborns should not be separated from their mothers.

  17. Visual memory and learning in extremely low-birth-weight/extremely preterm adolescents compared with controls: a geographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Carly S; Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Vicki A; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary data on visual memory and learning in survivors born extremely preterm (EP; Visual learning and memory data were available for 221 (74.2%) EP/ELBW subjects and 159 (60.7%) controls. EP/ELBW adolescents exhibited significantly poorer performance across visual memory and learning variables compared with controls. Visual learning and delayed visual memory were particularly problematic and remained so after controlling for visual-motor integration and visual perception and excluding adolescents with neurosensory disability, and/or IQ visual memory and learning outcomes compared with controls, which cannot be entirely explained by poor visual perceptual or visual constructional skills or intellectual impairment.

  18. Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

  19. An expanding culture of control? The municipal administrative sanctions Act in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.; Bruinsma, G.; Van, der Beken T.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth study of the Act on Municipal Administrative Sanctions 1999 (MAS), which is the first major piece of legislation regulating antisocial behaviour in Belgium. MAS provides municipalities with an instrument to sanction antisocial behaviour and conduct perceived to

  20. Why the toxic substances control act needs an overhaul, and how to strengthen oversight of chemicals in the interim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Sarah A; Roberts, Jody A

    2011-05-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate industrial chemicals not covered by other statutes. Today there are more than 83,000 such chemicals. However, the law is widely perceived as weak and outdated, and various stakeholders have called for its reform, citing the EPA's inability to regulate the use of asbestos, among other substances. We analyze the flaws in the act and suggest ways in which the EPA might better position itself to manage chemical risks and protect the public's health. In addition to the new tools and technologies it is adopting, the agency needs new allies-both inside and outside the government-in its efforts to identify and control hazardous chemicals.

  1. The Relationship between Maternal Diseases during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight: a Nested Case-Control Study in Rural Areas of Kurdistan Province (West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is considered as one of the important health indicators in evaluating prenatal care as well as determining scale of infants' health in the society. The study aimed to investigate maternal diseases during pregnancy and its impact on LBW in rural areas of Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in nested case-control study method in rural areas of Kurdistan province- Iran in 2015-2016. In this study, 182 infants less than 2,500gr as case and 364 infants weighing 2,500 g and more as control were entered the study. Information about case and control groups was extracted by investigating records of pregnant women care. Data was analyzed using software Stata-12 with point and interval estimation of odds ratio (OR using conditional logistic regression. Results: The results of single-variable analysis of conditional logistic regression showed that there is a statistical relationship between blood pressure during pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia, mother's thyroid problems, oral and dental problems, and history of bleeding during pregnancy in case and control groups (P

  2. The Occupational Disease Prevention and Control Act of the People's Republic of China: an awareness assessment among workers at foreign-invested enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongming, Shou; Rongzhu, Lu; Jie, Lin; Yan, Xu; Zhu, Yiliang; Schweigert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Occupational Disease Prevention and Control Act (ODPC-Act) of the People's Republic of China came into effect on May 1, 2002. Given the scope of foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) in China and an unabated increasing trend of foreign investment, compliance with the ODPC-Act among FIEs is of particular interest, yet little is known. The extent to which an employer educates its workforce to understand the ODPC-Act may be a measure of an employer's compliance. Based on a 25-item questionnaire survey, we found that among 166 workers from three FIEs in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, the majority had little knowledge regarding the ODPC-Act; many were unaware of their rights granted under the ODPC-Act. They were also unable to recognize employers' potential violations of the ODPC-Act. Improving FIE workers' awareness of the ODPC-Act is desirable.

  3. Alterations of white matter integrity related to the season of birth in schizophrenia: a DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Giezendanner

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia there is a consistent epidemiological finding of a birth excess in winter and spring. Season of birth is thought to act as a proxy indicator for harmful environmental factors during foetal maturation. There is evidence that prenatal exposure to harmful environmental factors may trigger pathologic processes in the neurodevelopment, which subsequently increase the risk of schizophrenia. Since brain white matter alterations have repeatedly been found in schizophrenia, the objective of this study was to investigate whether white matter integrity was related to the season of birth in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Differences in the fractional anisotropy maps of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls born in different seasons were analysed with tract-based spatial statistics. A significant main effect of season of birth and an interaction of group and season of birth showed that patients born in summer had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter regions than those born in the remainder of the year. Additionally, later age of schizophrenia onset was found in patients born in winter months. The current findings indicate a relationship of season of birth and white matter alterations in schizophrenia and consequently support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of early pathological mechanisms in schizophrenia.

  4. The effect of participatory women's groups on birth outcomes in Bangladesh: does coverage matter? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fottrell Edward F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress on neonatal survival has been slow in most countries. While there is evidence on what works to reduce newborn mortality, there is limited knowledge on how to deliver interventions effectively when health systems are weak. Cluster randomized trials have shown strong reductions in neonatal mortality using community mobilisation with women's groups in rural Nepal and India. A similar trial in Bangladesh showed no impact. A main hypothesis is that this negative finding is due to the much lower coverage of women's groups in the intervention population in Bangladesh compared to India and Nepal. For evidence-based policy making it is important to examine if women's group coverage is a main determinant of their impact. The study aims to test the effect on newborn and maternal health outcomes of a participatory women's group intervention with a high population coverage of women's groups. Methods A cluster randomised trial of a participatory women's group intervention will be conducted in 3 districts of rural Bangladesh. As we aim to study a women's group intervention with high population coverage, the same 9 intervention and 9 control unions will be used as in the 2005-2007 trial. These had been randomly allocated using the districts as strata. To increase coverage, 648 new groups were formed in addition to the 162 existing groups that were part of the previous trial. An open cohort of women who are permanent residents in the union in which their delivery or death was identified, is enrolled. Women and their newborns are included after birth, or, if a woman dies during pregnancy, after her death. Excluded are women who are temporary residents in the union in which their birth or death was identified. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality in the last 24 months of the study. A low cost surveillance system will be used to record all birth outcomes and deaths to women of reproductive age in the study population. Data on home

  5. Administration of misoprostol by trained traditional birth attendants to prevent postpartum haemorrhage in homebirths in Pakistan: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobeen, N; Durocher, J; Zuberi, Nf; Jahan, N; Blum, J; Wasim, S; Walraven, G; Hatcher, J

    2011-02-01

    to determine if misoprostol is safe and efficacious in preventing postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) when administered by trained traditional birth attendants (TBA) at home deliveries. a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. a total of 1119 women giving birth at home. from June 2006 to June 2008, consenting women were randomised to receive 600 microg oral misoprostol (n = 534) or placebo (n = 585) after delivery to determine whether misoprostol reduced the incidence of PPH (≥ 500 ml). the primary outcomes were measured blood loss ≥ 500 ml after delivery and drop in haemoglobin >2 g/dl from before to after delivery. oral misoprostol was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of PPH (≥ 500 ml) (16.5 versus 21.9%; relative risk 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.97). There were no measurable differences between study groups for drop in haemoglobin >2 g/dl (relative risk 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.02); but significantly fewer women receiving misoprostol had a drop in haemoglobin >3 g/dl, compared with placebo (5.1 versus 9.6%; relative risk 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.83). Shivering and chills were significantly more common with misoprostol. There were no maternal deaths among participants. postpartum administration of 600 microg oral misoprostol by trained TBAs at home deliveries reduces the rate of PPH by 24%. Given its ease of use and low cost, misoprostol could reduce the burden of PPH in community settings where universal oxytocin prophylaxis is not feasible. Continual training and skill-building for TBAs, along with monitoring and evaluation of programme effectiveness, should accompany any widespread introduction of this drug.

  6. An Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Weight Gain of Very Low Birth Weight Babies with or without Addition of Coconut Oil to Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Sumitha; Kumar, Manish; Paul, Thomas; Thomas, Nihal; Mathai, Sarah; Rebekah, Grace; Thomas, Niranjan

    2018-03-23

    Nutritional guidelines involving the feeding of very low birth weight babies (VLBW) recommend addition of Human Milk Fortifiers to breast milk. Owing to financial constraints, it is a practice in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to add coconut oil to aid better weight gain. There are inadequate data on improvement of growth parameters with oral coconut oil supplementation of breast milk. In this randomized controlled trial, we measured growth parameters and body composition of 60 babies who received either breast milk with coconut oil or breast milk alone. Randomization was stratified according to intrauterine growth appropriate for gestational age (n = 30) and small for gestational age (n = 30). There was no difference in weight gain between the two groups. The weight gain velocity was 15 ± 3.6 and 14.4 ± 3.4 g/kg/day (p value = 0.49) in the breast milk alone and in the breast milk with coconut oil group, respectively. There was no difference in increase in head circumference and length. Triceps skinfold thickness (n = 56) was similar in both groups, but subscapular skinfold thickness was significantly more in the coconut oil group. Total body fat percentage did not differ between the groups (25.2 ± 4.3 vs. 25.5 ± 4.3%, p = 0.79). Oral supplementation of coconut oil along with breast milk did not increase growth parameters or result in change in body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) babies.

  7. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Jonsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design: The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28 and from control families in the same rural area (n=37 was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results: Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions: Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings.

  8. Overview and Design of self-acting pitch control mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine using multi body simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Awareness about wind energy is constantly growing in the world. Especially a demand for small scale wind turbine is increasing and various products are available in market. There are mainly two types of wind turbines, horizontal axis wind turbine and vertical axis wind turbines. Horizontal axis wind turbines are suitable for high wind speed whereas vertical axis wind turbines operate relatively low wind speed area. Vertical axis wind turbines are cost effective and simple in construction as compared to the horizontal axis wind turbine. However, vertical axis wind turbines have inherent problem of self-start inability and has low power coefficient as compare to the horizontal axis wind turbine. These two problems can be eliminated by incorporating the blade pitching mechanism. So, in this paper overview of various pitch control systems is discussed and design of self-acting pitch mechanism is given. A pitch control linkage mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine is modeled by multi-body approach using MSC Software. Aerodynamic loads are predicted from a mathematical model based on double multiple stream tube method. An appropriate airfoil which works at low Reynolds number is selected for blade design. It is also focused on commercialization of the vertical axis wind turbine which incorporates the self-acting pitch control system. These aerodynamic load model will be coupled with the multi-body model in future work for optimization of the pitch control linkage mechanism. A 500 Watt vertical axis wind turbine is designed and it is planned to implement the self-acting pitch control mechanism in real model

  9. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  10. Moderate hypothermia within 6 h of birth plus inhaled xenon versus moderate hypothermia alone after birth asphyxia (TOBY-Xe): a proof-of-concept, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Denis; Robertson, Nicola J; Bainbridge, Alan; Cady, Ernest; Charles-Edwards, Geoffrey; Deierl, Aniko; Fagiolo, Gianlorenzo; Franks, Nicholas P; Griffiths, James; Hajnal, Joseph; Juszczak, Edmund; Kapetanakis, Basil; Linsell, Louise; Maze, Mervyn; Omar, Omar; Strohm, Brenda; Tusor, Nora; Edwards, A David

    2016-02-01

    Moderate cooling after birth asphyxia is associated with substantial reductions in death and disability, but additional therapies might provide further benefit. We assessed whether the addition of xenon gas, a promising novel therapy, after the initiation of hypothermia for birth asphyxia would result in further improvement. Total Body hypothermia plus Xenon (TOBY-Xe) was a proof-of-concept, randomised, open-label, parallel-group trial done at four intensive-care neonatal units in the UK. Eligible infants were 36-43 weeks of gestational age, had signs of moderate to severe encephalopathy and moderately or severely abnormal background activity for at least 30 min or seizures as shown by amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), and had one of the following: Apgar score of 5 or less 10 min after birth, continued need for resuscitation 10 min after birth, or acidosis within 1 h of birth. Participants were allocated in a 1:1 ratio by use of a secure web-based computer-generated randomisation sequence within 12 h of birth to cooling to a rectal temperature of 33·5°C for 72 h (standard treatment) or to cooling in combination with 30% inhaled xenon for 24 h started immediately after randomisation. The primary outcomes were reduction in lactate to N-acetyl aspartate ratio in the thalamus and in preserved fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and MRI, respectively, within 15 days of birth. The investigator assessing these outcomes was masked to allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00934700, and with ISRCTN, as ISRCTN08886155. The study was done from Jan 31, 2012, to Sept 30, 2014. We enrolled 92 infants, 46 of whom were randomly assigned to cooling only and 46 to xenon plus cooling. 37 infants in the cooling only group and 41 in the cooling plus xenon group underwent magnetic resonance assessments and were included in the analysis of

  11. Birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K J; Carozza, S E; Chow, E J; Fox, E E; Horel, S; McLaughlin, C C; Mueller, B A; Puumala, S E; Reynolds, P; Von Behren, J; Spector, L G

    2011-10-25

    Carcinomas in children are rare and have not been well studied. We conducted a population-based case-control study and examined associations between birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas diagnosed from 28 days to 14 years during 1980-2004 using pooled data from five states (NY, WA, MN, TX, and CA) that linked their birth and cancer registries. The pooled data set contained 57,966 controls and 475 carcinoma cases, including 159 thyroid and 126 malignant melanoma cases. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). White compared with 'other' race was positively associated with melanoma (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.33-8.33). Older maternal age increased the risk for melanoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44), whereas paternal age increased the risk for any carcinoma (OR=1.10(per 5-year age increase), 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and thyroid carcinoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). Gestational age birth weight, and birth order were not significantly associated with childhood carcinomas. This exploratory study indicates that some birth characteristics including older parental age and low gestational age may be related to childhood carcinoma aetiology.

  12. NO2, as a marker of air pollution, and recurrent wheezing in children: a nested case-control study within the BAMSE birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenius, G; Pershagen, G; Berglind, N; Kwon, H-J; Lewné, M; Nordvall, S L; Wickman, M

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the association between air pollution, including with NO2, and recurrent wheezing during the first two years of life. A birth cohort (BAMSE) comprised 4089 children, for whom information on exposures, symptoms, and diseases was available from parental questionnaires at ages 2 months, and 1 and 2 years. NO2 was measured during four weeks in and outside the dwellings of children with recurrent wheezing and two age matched controls, in a nested case-control study (540 children). Conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 1.60 (95% CI 0.78 to 3.26) among children in the highest quartile of outdoor NO2 exposure in relation to those in the lowest quartile, adjusted for potential confounders. The corresponding OR for indoor NO2 was 1.51 (95% CI 0.81 to 2.82). An interaction with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was indicated with an OR of 3.10 (95% CI 1.32 to 7.30) among children exposed to the highest quartile of indoor NO2 and ETS. The association between NO2 and recurrent wheezing appeared stronger in children who did not fulfil the criteria for recurrent wheezing until their second year. Although the odds of increased recurrent wheezing are not statistically significantly different from one, results suggest that exposure to air pollution including NO2, particularly in combination with exposure to ETS, increases the risk of recurrent wheezing in children.

  13. The Effect of Vitamin D and Calcium plus Vitamin D during Pregnancy on Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidence suggests a high prevalence of calcium and vitamin D deficiencies exists in both pregnant women and babies. Adequate intake of micronutrients has great importance especially during pregnancy and lactation period. Thus, the present study aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin D and calcium-vitamin D on pregnancy and birth outcomes (including duration of pregnancy, type of delivery and infant anthropometric indicators. Methods: A randomized, controlled, clinical, triple-blind trial conducted on 126 pregnant women referring to Tabriz health centers in 2013-14. Subjects were allocated into three groups using block randomization. Interventional groups received vitamin D, calcium-vitamin D and placebo pills daily for 60 days. ANCOVA and Chi-square tests were used for data analysis. Results: By controlling BMI before and during pregnancy, there were no significant differences between the group in average neonatal weight, height and head circumference, duration of pregnancy, type of delivery and gestational age at the time of delivery. Conclusion: The results show that calcium-vitamin D and vitamin D have no effect on duration of pregnancy, type of delivery and infant anthropometric indicators.

  14. Pulmonary outcome in former preterm, very low birth weight children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a case-control follow-up at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Hove, Maike; Prenzel, Freerk; Uhlig, Holm H; Robel-Tillig, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To assess and compare long-term pulmonary outcomes in former preterm-born, very low birth weight (VLBW) children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) born in the surfactant era. Pulmonary function tests (ie, spirometry, body plethysmography, and gas transfer testing) were performed in children with a history of VLBW and BPD (n = 28) and compared with a matched preterm-born VLBW control group (n = 28). Medical history was evaluated by questionnaire. At time of follow-up (mean age, 9.5 years), respiratory symptoms (36% vs 8%) and receipt of asthma medication (21% vs 0%) were significantly more frequent in the preterm-born children with previous BPD than in those with no history of BPD. The children with a history of BPD had significantly lower values for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (z-score -1.27 vs -0.4; P = .008), forced vital capacity (z-score -1.39 vs -0.71 z-score; P = .022), and forced expiratory flow rate at 50% of forced vital capacity (z-score -2.21 vs -1.04; P = .048) compared with the preterm control group. Preterm-born children with a history of BPD are significantly more likely to have lung function abnormalities, such as airway obstruction and respiratory symptoms, at school age compared with preterm-born children without BPD. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely

  16. Improving urban African Americans' blood pressure control through multi-level interventions in the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) study: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Patti L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Roter, Debra L; Bone, Lee R; Wolff, Jennifer L; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Levine, David M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Cooper, Lisa A; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie J; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Albert, Michael C; Monroe, Dwyan; Simmons, Michelle; Hickman, Debra; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Matens, Richard; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Ameling, Jessica M; Charlston, Jeanne; Sam, Tanyka S; Carson, Kathryn A; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Crews, Deidra C; Greer, Raquel C; Sneed, Valerie; Flynn, Sarah J; DePasquale, Nicole; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-07-01

    Given their high rates of uncontrolled blood pressure, urban African Americans comprise a particularly vulnerable subgroup of persons with hypertension. Substantial evidence has demonstrated the important role of family and community support in improving patients' management of a variety of chronic illnesses. However, studies of multi-level interventions designed specifically to improve urban African American patients' blood pressure self-management by simultaneously leveraging patient, family, and community strengths are lacking. We report the protocol of the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) study, a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effectiveness of interventions that engage patient, family, and community-level resources to facilitate urban African American hypertensive patients' improved hypertension self-management and subsequent hypertension control. African American patients with uncontrolled hypertension receiving health care in an urban primary care clinic will be randomly assigned to receive 1) an educational intervention led by a community health worker alone, 2) the community health worker intervention plus a patient and family communication activation intervention, or 3) the community health worker intervention plus a problem-solving intervention. All participants enrolled in the study will receive and be trained to use a digital home blood pressure machine. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will be patients' blood pressure control at 12months. Results from the ACT study will provide needed evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive multi-level interventions to improve urban African American patients' hypertension control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Facilitating home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised.

  18. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  19. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth and antibody responses to childhood vaccines. A randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Smits, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    ) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants. METHODS: Within 7days after birth, children were randomised 1:1 to BCG vaccination...... children (178 BCG; 122 controls), almost all children (>96%) had antibody responses above the protective levels. Overall BCG vaccination at birth did not affect the antibody level. When stratifying by 'age at randomisation' we found a possible inducing effect of BCG on antibodies against B. pertussis......-protective levels in almost all children. No overall effect of neonatal BCG vaccination was observed....

  20. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  1. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Autism in Association with Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances: A Nested Case–Control Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. Objectives: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Methods: Among 83,389 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child’s sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother’s PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. Conclusions: In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children. Citation: Liew Z, Ritz B, von Ehrenstein OS, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Fei CY

  2. Home-based walking during pregnancy affects mood and birth outcomes among sedentary women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Chie; Sato, Chifumi

    2016-10-01

    We examined the effects of home-based walking on sedentary Japanese women's pregnancy outcomes and mood. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, involving 118 women aged 22-36 years. Participants were randomly assigned to walking intervention (n = 60) or control (n = 58) groups. The walking group was instructed to walk briskly for 30 min, three times weekly from 30 weeks' gestation until delivery. Both groups counted their daily steps using pedometers. Pregnancy and delivery outcomes were assessed, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, and we used the intention-to-treat principle. Groups showed no differences regarding pregnancy or delivery outcomes. The walking group exhibited decreased scores on the depression-dejection and confusion subscales of the Profile of Mood States. Five of the 54 women in the intervention group who remained in the study (9.2%) completed 100% of the prescribed walking program; 32 (59.3%) women completed 80% or more. Unsupervised walking improves sedentary pregnant women's mood, indicating that regular walking during pregnancy should be promoted in this group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. A controlled trial of the effect of aromatherapy on birth outcomes using "Rose essential oil" inhalation and foot bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Kheirkhah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Aromatherapy is the art and science of using essential oils extracted from aromatic plants, and is concerned with natural balance, coordination and promotion of health. This study was designed to determine the effect of "rose (Rosa damascena essential oil" inhalation and foot bath on the improvement of maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Material and methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, conducted on 80 primiparous women in Shahid Akbar Abadi Maternity Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Subjects were randomly assigned to aromatherapy and control groups. Aromatherapy group received methods of inhalation and foot bath with rose essential oil for 10 minutes at the beginning of the active phase and then at the onset of the transitional phase of labor. Control group received the routine care of the delivery room. The measured variables in this study included episiotomy in the second stages of labor, Apgar score, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and maternal satisfaction with the administration of pain relievers. Statistical analysis of the extracted data was performed using SPSS version 16 with Chi-square and t student test. Results: Two groups were significantly different in terms of the second stage of labor duration (P

  4. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Defects KidsHealth / For Parents / Birth Defects What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Anomalías congénitas What Are Birth Defects? While still in the womb, some babies ...

  5. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  6. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  8. Comparison of dual-time-constant and fast-acting automatic gain control (AGC) systems in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick J; Büchner, Andreas; Stone, Michael A; Lenarz, Thomas; Moore, Brian C J

    2009-04-01

    Cochlear implants usually employ an automatic gain control (AGC) system as a first stage of processing. AGC1 was a fast-acting (syllabic) compressor. AGC2 was a dual-time-constant system; it usually performed as a slow-acting compressor, but incorporated an additional fast-acting system to provide protection from sudden increases in sound level. Six experienced cochlear-implant users were tested in a counterbalanced order, receiving one-month of experience with a given AGC type before switching to the other type. Performance was evaluated shortly after provision of a given AGC type and after one-month of experience with that AGC type. Questionnaires, mainly relating to listening in quiet situations, did not reveal significant differences between the two AGC types. However, fixed-level and roving-level tests of sentence identification in noise both revealed significantly better performance for AGC2. It is suggested that the poorer performance for AGC1 occurred because AGC1 introduced cross-modulation between the target speech and background noise, which made perceptual separation of the target and background more difficult.

  9. Protocol of the Low Birth Weight South Asia Trial (LBWSAT), a cluster-randomised controlled trial testing impact on birth weight and infant nutrition of Participatory Learning and Action through women's groups, with and without unconditional transfers of fortified food or cash during pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Naomi M; Shrestha, Bhim P; Style, Sarah; Harris-Fry, Helen; Beard, B James; Sengupta, Aman; Jha, Sonali; Rai, Anjana; Paudel, Vikas; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Copas, Andrew; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Bhandari, Bishnu; Neupane, Rishi; Morrison, Joanna; Gram, Lu; Sah, Raghbendra; Basnet, Machhindra; Harthan, Jayne; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2016-10-21

    Low birth weight (LBW, nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial (non-blinded). PLA comprises women's groups that discuss, and form strategies about, nutrition in pregnancy, low birth weight and hygiene. Women receive up to 7 monthly transfers per pregnancy: cash is NPR 750 (~US$7) and food is 10 kg of fortified sweetened wheat-soya Super Cereal per month. The unit of randomisation is a rural village development committee (VDC) cluster (population 4000-9200, mean 6150) in southern Dhanusha or Mahottari districts. 80 VDCs are randomised to four arms using a participatory 'tombola' method. Twenty clusters each receive: PLA; PLA plus food; PLA plus cash; and standard care (control). Participants are (mostly Maithili-speaking) pregnant women identified from 8 weeks' gestation onwards, and their infants (target sample size 8880 birth weights). After pregnancy verification, mothers may be followed up in early and late pregnancy, within 72 h, after 42 days and within 22 months of birth. Outcomes pertain to the individual level. Primary outcomes include birth weight within 72 h of birth and infant weight-for-age Z-score measured cross-sectionally on children born of the study. Secondary outcomes include prevalence of LBW, eating behaviour and weight during pregnancy, maternal and newborn illness, preterm delivery, miscarriage, stillbirth or neonatal mortality, infant Z-scores for length-for-age and weight-for-length, head circumference, and postnatal maternal BMI and mid-upper arm circumference. Exposure to women's groups, food or cash transfers, home visits, and group interventions are measured. Determining the relative importance to birth weight and early childhood nutrition of adding food or cash transfers to PLA women's groups

  10. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  11. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    , physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has......INTRODUCTION: In this review a selection of studies published during the period 2002-2010, based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort linked with other health registers, is described. Illustrative examples of studies addressing perinatal health outcomes (pregnancy complications and fetal...... that this investment in epidemiologic infrastructure was well spent. The existence of the Danish National Birth Cohort together with other cohorts and national registers has given Denmark a leading position in reproductive epidemiology....

  12. Higher gestational weight gain is associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of maternal glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna L; Parellada, Clara B; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    ; P = 0.02) and birth weight SD score (β = 0.06; P = 0.008) when adjusted for prepregnancy BMI, HbA1c at 36 weeks, smoking, parity, and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher gestational weight gain in women with type 1 diabetes was associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of glycemic......OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the association between gestational weight gain and offspring birth weight in singleton term pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen consecutive women referred at ... (prepregnancy BMI Women...

  13. Micro-blogs, online forums, and the birth-control policy: social media and the politics of reproduction in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2014-03-01

    In June 2012, the news of a Chinese woman's forced late-term abortion quickly spread across the internet in China. Graphic photos of the woman with the aborted fetus provoked public outrage and widespread condemnation on social media sites. In the aftermath, local authorities apologized, seven officials were given demerits, and the couple received monetary compensation. This case was put under the spotlight mainly because of the exposure of the story by family members of the woman through social media and the resulting public outcry in cyberspace. Following the disclosure of this story and public reactions online, this article explores the complex interplays among different layers of state power, the individual, and the public in reproductive politics, and discusses the ways in which social media has been utilized to resist state control of reproduction. By delving into the nuanced interactions among layers of state authorities, this article sheds light on the study of state-society relations in reproductive politics. It also calls attention to the role that social media plays in reproductive issues.

  14. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  15. Jurisdictional control of administrative acts related to the safety of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Plasencia, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of jurisdictional control over nuclear power plants to ensure their safe operation. It also describes examples of case law concerning such plants in France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and Spain. (NEA) [fr

  16. The effects of maternity leave on children's birth and infant health outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Maya

    2011-03-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of unpaid maternity leave provisions of the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on children's birth and infant health outcomes in the United States. My identification strategy uses variation in pre-FMLA maternity leave policies across states and variation in which firms are covered by FMLA provisions. Using Vital Statistics data and difference-in-difference-in-difference methodology, I find that maternity leave led to small increases in birth weight, decreases in the likelihood of a premature birth, and substantial decreases in infant mortality for children of college-educated and married mothers, who were most able to take advantage of unpaid leave. My results are robust to the inclusion of numerous controls for maternal, child, and county characteristics, state, year, and month fixed effects, and state-year interactions, as well as across several different specifications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial on Effect of Intermittent Early Versus Late Kangaroo Mother Care on Human Milk Feeding in Low-Birth-Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Dhaarani; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Bhalla, Anil Kumar; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur

    2017-08-01

    Breastfeeding at discharge among sick low-birth-weight (LBW) infants is low despite counseling and intervention like kangaroo mother care (KMC). Research aim: The aim was to study the effects of early initiation of KMC on exclusive human milk feeding, growth, mortality, and morbidities in LBW neonates compared with late initiation of KMC during the hospital stay and postdischarge. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in level 2 and 3 areas of a tertiary care neonatal unit over 15 months. Inborn neonates weighing 1 to 1.8 kg and hemodynamically stable were randomized to receive either early KMC, initiated within the first 4 days of life, or late KMC (off respiratory support and intravenous fluids). Follow-up was until 1 month postdischarge. Outcomes were proportion of infants achieving exclusive human milk feeding and direct breastfeeding, growth, mortality and morbidities during hospital stay, and postdischarge feeding and KMC practices until 1 month. The early KMC group ( n = 80) achieved significantly higher exclusive human milk feeding (86% vs. 45%, p milk feeding (73% vs. 36%, p milk feeding and direct breastfeeding in LBW infants.

  18. Efficacy of an Ergonomic Ankle Support Aid for Squatting Position in Improving Pushing Skills and Birth Outcomes During the Second Stage of Labor: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Gau, Meei-Ling; Kao, Ghi-Hwei; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2018-03-16

    The physical positions that are adopted by women during childbirth significantly impact their childbirth outcomes and experiences. Literature studies have associated using a squatting position with reduced childbirth pain and increased comfort and pushing efficiency. However, the major disadvantage of the squatting position is that women may lack the muscular fitness and stamina necessary to sustain this position for a long period. The aim of this study was to compare the pushing experiences and birth outcomes of three different pushing positions during the second stage of labor. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. Data were collected from 168 primiparous women during the 38th to 42nd gestational weeks. None of the participants received epidural analgesia during labor, and all were free of pregnancy and labor-related complications. During labor, after full cervical dilation and when the fetal head had descended to at least the +1 station and had turned to the occiput anterior position, the experimental group was asked to push in the squatting position while using the ergonomically designed ankle support. For purposes of comparison, Comparison Group A was asked to push in the squatting position without the use of the support, and Comparison Group B was asked to push in a standard semirecumbent position. All of the participants completed a demographic and obstetrics data sheet, the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Labor Pushing Experience scale within 4 hours postpartum. In terms of delivery time, the duration between the start of pushing to crowning for the experimental group (squatting with ankle supports) averaged 25.79 minutes less (F = 6.02, p pushing to infant birth averaged 25.21 minutes less for the experimental group than for Comparison Group B (F = 6.14, p pushing experiences than the comparison groups (F = 14.69, p pushing, squatting with the aid of ergonomically designed ankle

  19. The novice birthing: theorising first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Barclay, Lesley M; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-02-01

    to explore first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia. a grounded theory methodology was used. Data were generated from in-depth interviews with women in their own homes. Sydney, Australia. 19 women were interviewed. Seven women who gave in a public hospital and seven women who gave birth for the first time at home were interviewed and their experiences were contrasted with two mothers who gave birth for the first time in a birth centre, one mother who gave birth for the first time in a private hospital and two women who had given birth more than once. three categories emerged from the analysis: preparing for birth, the novice birthing and processing the birth. These women shared a common core experience of seeing that they gave birth as 'novices'. The basic social process running through their experience of birth, regardless of birth setting, was that, as novices, they were all 'reacting to the unknown'. The mediating factors that influenced the birth experiences of these first-time mothers were preparation, choice and control, information and communication, and support. The quality of midwifery care both facilitated and hindered these needs, contributing to the women's perceptions of being 'honoured'. The women who gave birth at home seemed to have more positive birth experiences. identifying the novice status of first-time mothers and understanding the way in which they experience birth better explains previous research that reports unrealistic expectations and fear that may be associated with first-time birthing. It demonstrates how midwives can contribute to positive birth experiences by being aware that first-time mothers, irrespective of birth setting, are essentially reacting to the unknown as they negotiate the experience of birth. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. TRANSPARENT TESTA 16 and 15 act through different mechanisms to control proanthocyanidin accumulation in Arabidopsis testa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Bobet, S; Le Gourrierec, J; Grain, D; De Vos, D; Berger, A; Salsac, F; Kelemen, Z; Boucherez, J; Rolland, A; Mouille, G; Routaboul, J M; Lepiniec, L; Dubos, C

    2017-05-17

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that fulfil a multitude of functions during the plant life cycle. In Arabidopsis proanthocyanidins (PAs) are flavonoids that specifically accumulate in the innermost integuments of the seed testa (i.e. endothelium), as well as in the chalaza and micropyle areas, and play a vital role in protecting the embryo against various biotic and abiotic stresses. PAs accumulation in the endothelium requires the activity of the MADS box transcription factor TRANSPARENT TESTA (TT) 16 (ARABIDOPSIS B-SISTER/AGAMOUS-LIKE 32) and the UDP-glycosyltransferase TT15 (UGT80B1). Interestingly tt16 and tt15 mutants display a very similar flavonoid profiles and patterns of PA accumulation. By using a combination of genetic, molecular, biochemical, and histochemical methods, we showed that both TT16 and TT15 act upstream the PA biosynthetic pathway, but through two distinct genetic routes. We also demonstrated that the activity of TT16 in regulating cell fate determination and PA accumulation in the endothelium is required in the chalaza prior to the globular stage of embryo development. Finally this study provides new insight showing that TT16 and TT15 functions extend beyond PA biosynthesis in the inner integuments of the Arabidopsis seed coat. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Open road to control of constitutionality of section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG), in answer to the court order of the Higher Administrative Court at Muenster, has affirmed in its interim decision of Jan. 31st, 1978 the permissibility of the concrete judicial review of the constitutionality of section 7 as being correct, and thus it has accepted at the same time the responsibility for the decision as being the responsibility of the Federal Constituional Court. For practical reasons the decision is to be welcomed because it is very likely that the question of the constitutionality of section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act as far as it permits the licensing of FRBs, which has come into the open now on account of the Muenster decision, would have been referred again in the near future to the BverfG, if the court had considered Muenster's order as not permissible. From the judicial point of view, the BVerfG's grounds are of interest; the permissibility of the judicial review of the constitutionality within the framework of the Kalkar case already having been very much in dispute before the verdict. The arguments of the BVerfG, which could be of great interest for similar proceedings in the future are briefly looked at in a critical manner, because the decision made in Karlsruhe will not remain without impacts on law concerning energy and environmental protection and on relevant policies. (orig.) [de

  2. Establishment of effective control factors to achieve federal enforcement consistency with the Highway Beautification Act : a final report submitted to Florida Department of Transportation, Right of Way Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Highway Beautification Act, which was enforced in 1965, aims to establish an efficient outdoor advertising control (OAC) program for erection and maintenance of the outdoor advertising signs, displays and devices, which are located in a close pro...

  3. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal: Final Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Conference on Plenipotentiaries on the Global Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes was convened by the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) pursuant to decision 14/30, adopted by the Governing Council of UNEP on 17 June 1987. The Conference adopted the Global Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. In the 29 articles of this Convention the definitions of hazardous wastes, the scope of the Convention, general obligations of the signatory parties, transboundary waste movement between Parties as well as through states which are not parties, illegal traffic, international control, liabilities, financial aspects, verification, accession and withdrawal of the Parties are defined in detail. There are 6 Annexes, including specifications of hazardous wastes, information requirements, notification rules, etc

  4. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  5. Legal regulation of home births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors tried to find efficient legal frame for home births. The main problem is the risk of life and health of a mother and a baby. If a mother wants a home labor, there are no legal obstacles ^for her to take the risk of her own life, after consultation with health-care professionals. However, society is obligated to protect unborn child from irrational behavior of the mother, if she acts against child's best interests. Legal rules were analyzed by methods of neo-institutional economic theory, while the risks of life and health of a mother and a baby were analyzed by medical science methods.

  6. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental External Locus of Control in Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Teacher Ratings of Negative Behavior in Primary School: Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Stephen; Gregory, Steven; Ellis, Genette L.; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Golding, Jean

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether parents’ locus of control (LOC) obtained before the birth of their child predicts the child’s behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7–8) and 6 (ages 10–11). A modified version of the adult Nowicki–Strickland internal–external locus of control scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman’s strengths and difficulties’ questionnaire completed by the children’s class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, it was found that the greater the presence of externality in the parents, the greater the increased risk of the child’s adverse behavior as rated by teachers. The risk was generally greatest if both parents were external and lowest if both were internal. There was a consistent relationship at both Year 3 and Year 6 between maternal externality in pregnancy and children’s emotional difficulties. However, for other behaviors, the pattern of associations varied depending on whether the mother or father was external, the type of adverse behavior, and the School Year in which children were assessed. Prenatal parental externality appears to be significantly associated with a variety of children’s negative behaviors. Of note was the finding that fathers’ as well as mothers’ LOC was important in determining children’s outcomes. Implications of the complexity of the results for the role parents may play in children’s personality and adjustment are discussed. PMID:29479332

  8. Parental External Locus of Control in Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Teacher Ratings of Negative Behavior in Primary School: Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Nowicki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine whether parents’ locus of control (LOC obtained before the birth of their child predicts the child’s behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7–8 and 6 (ages 10–11. A modified version of the adult Nowicki–Strickland internal–external locus of control scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman’s strengths and difficulties’ questionnaire completed by the children’s class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, it was found that the greater the presence of externality in the parents, the greater the increased risk of the child’s adverse behavior as rated by teachers. The risk was generally greatest if both parents were external and lowest if both were internal. There was a consistent relationship at both Year 3 and Year 6 between maternal externality in pregnancy and children’s emotional difficulties. However, for other behaviors, the pattern of associations varied depending on whether the mother or father was external, the type of adverse behavior, and the School Year in which children were assessed. Prenatal parental externality appears to be significantly associated with a variety of children’s negative behaviors. Of note was the finding that fathers’ as well as mothers’ LOC was important in determining children’s outcomes. Implications of the complexity of the results for the role parents may play in children’s personality and adjustment are discussed.

  9. Pakistan's national legislation entitled: 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, dated 4 November 2004, concerning Pakistan's national legislation entitled 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, the letter and the Export Control Act of 2004, are reproduced herein for the information of the Member States

  10. 76 FR 38169 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... (7405M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania... gold leaf, dyeing mixtures, antifreeze mixtures, extraction of resins and waxes, preservative for...: June 21, 2011. Maria J. Doa, Director, Chemical Control Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and...

  11. Regulations under the Radiation Protection and Control Act, 1982, No. 27 of 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    These regulations provide for the control and administration of transporting, packaging and storing radioactive materials in South Australia. Such operations must be carried out in accordance with the Code of Practice for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances, the present Regulations and the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (1973 Edition), slightly amended for purposes of national application. (NEA) [fr

  12. 37 CFR 1.419 - Display of currently valid control number under the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display of currently valid... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions General Information § 1.419 Display of currently valid control...

  13. 78 FR 40175 - Exempt Chemical Preparations Under the Controlled Substances Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...Standard, Inc M-8270-04-ASL, Method 8270B-- Amber ampule: 1 mL...... 1/28/2013 Base/Neutrals Mix. Accu... CSA and its implementing regulations are designed to prevent, detect, and eliminate the diversion of... controlled substances and listed chemicals for legitimate medical, scientific, research, and industrial...

  14. Maternal Age at Child Birth, Birth Order, and Suicide at a Young Age: A Sibling Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars Johan; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967–1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families wit...

  15. A European multicentre survey of impulse control behaviours in Parkinson's disease patients treated with short- and long-acting dopamine agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizos, A; Sauerbier, A; Antonini, A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated primarily with dopamine agonist (DA) use. Comparative surveys of clinical occurrence of impulse control behaviours on longer acting/transdermal DA therapy across age ranges are lacking. The aim...... release PPX (PPX-IR) (19.0%; P controlling...

  16. Eczema, birth order, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ann Maree; Crouch, Simon; Lightfoot, Tracy; Ansell, Pat; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve

    2008-05-15

    The association between infections occurring in the first 2 years of life and development of eczema was investigated in 1,782 control children from a national population-based case-control study in the United Kingdom conducted over the period 1991-1996. Dates of eczema and infectious diagnoses were ascertained from contemporaneously collected primary care records. Children diagnosed with eczema before the age of 2 years had more prior clinically diagnosed infections recorded than did children without eczema (rate ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). The difference in infection rates between children with and without eczema was apparent from birth and throughout the first 2 years of life. As expected, compared with children of second or higher birth order, those firstborn were at increased risk of eczema (p = 0.020); however, the relation between eczema and prior infection was evident only among children of second or higher birth order and not among firstborn children (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.59, and rate ratio = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.20, respectively). The authors' results are consistent with the notion that the association between birth order and eczema is unlikely to be attributable to variations in early infectious exposure.

  17. Independently variable phase and stroke control for a double acting Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.

    1983-01-01

    A phase and stroke control apparatus for the pistons of a Stirling engine includes a ring on the end of each piston rod in which a pair of eccentrics is arranged in series, torque transmitting relationship. The outer eccentric is rotatably mounted in the ring and is rotated by the orbiting ring; the inner eccentric is mounted on an output shaft. The two eccentrics are mounted for rotation together within the ring during normal operation. A device is provided for rotating one eccentric with respect to another to change the effective eccentricity of the pair of eccentrics. A separately controlled phase adjustment is provided to null the phase change introduced by the change in the orientation of the outer eccentric, and also to enable the phase of the pistons to be changed independently of the stroke change.

  18. Acting without being in control: Exploring volition in Parkinson's disease with impulsive compulsive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Lucia; Haggard, Patrick; de Boer, Lieke; Sorbera, Chiara; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J

    2017-07-01

    Several aspects of volitional control of action may be relevant in the pathophysiology of impulsive-compulsive behaviours (ICB) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to explore multiple aspects of action control, assessing reward-related behaviour, inhibition (externally and internally triggered) and sense of agency in PD patients, with and without ICB compared to healthy subjects. Nineteen PD patients with ICB (PD-ICB), 19 PD without ICB (PD-no-ICB) and 19 healthy controls (HC) underwent a battery of tests including: Intentional Binding task which measures sense of agency; Stop Signal Reaction Time (SSRT) measuring capacity for reactive inhibition; the Marble task, assessing intentional inhibition; Balloon Analog Risk Task for reward sensitivity. One-way ANOVA showed significant main effect of group for action binding (p = 0.004, F = 6.27). Post hoc analysis revealed that PD-ICB had significantly stronger action binding than HC (p = 0.004), and PD-no-ICB (p = 0.04). There was no difference between PD-no-ICB and HC. SSRT did not differ between PD groups, whereas a significant difference between PD-no-ICB and HC was detected (p = 0.01). No other differences were found among groups in the other tasks. PD patients with ICB have abnormal performance on a psychophysical task assessing sense of agency, which might be related to a deficit in action representation at cognitive/experiential level. Yet, they have no deficit on tasks evaluating externally and internally triggered inhibitory control, or in reward-based decision-making. We conclude that impaired sense of agency may be a factor contributing to ICB in PD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Birth Control in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M. Francoise

    2014-01-01

    It was carried out a case study of pregnancies and contraceptive methods used by a random sample of 500 women in Lima, Peru . During the five years preceding the interview, the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortions was 19 , 20 and 15 % in the socio- economic middle and lower respectively upper levels . Although the percentage of induced abortions was admitted as low , the rate of abortions was considered relatively high , and it was thought that probably included many whose provocatio...

  20. Summary of Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Potential Impacts Related to Hanford Cleanup and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IWATATE, D.F.

    2000-07-14

    This white paper provides an initial assessment of the potential impacts of the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) regulations (and proposed revisions) on the Hanford site cleanup and addresses concerns that MTCA might impose inappropriate or unachievable clean-up levels and drive clean-up costs higher. The white paper and supporting documentation (Appendices A and B) provide DOE with a concise and up-to-date review of potential MTCA impacts to cost and schedule for the Hanford site activities. MTCA, Chapter 70.105D RCW, is the State of Washington's risk based law governing clean-up of contaminated sites and is implemented by The Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the MTCA Clean-up Regulations, Chapter 173-340 WAC. Hanford cleanup is subject to the MTCA requirements as Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for those areas of Hanford being managed under the authority of the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the state Dangerous Waste Regulations. MTCA provides Ecology with authority to implement site clean-up actions under both the federal RCRA and CERCLA regulations as well as the state regulations. Most of the Hanford clean-up actions are being implemented under the CERCLA program, however, there is a trend is toward increased use of MTCA procedures and standards. The application of MTCA to the Hanford clean-up has been an evolving process with some of the Hanford clean-up actions considering MTCA standards as an ARAR and using MTCA procedures for remedy selection. The increased use and application of MTCA standards and procedures could potentially impact both cost and schedule for the Hanford cleanup.

  1. The Principle of Advertising as a Measure of the Essential Control of State Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende Neto Resende Neto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian citizen has seen several scandals related to corruption, leading to an outcry for the adoption of effective measures to combat impunity. Emerges the importance of the principle of publicity as an important tool for democratic control, extending far beyond the limits of public administration in management and procedural situations. The undertaken goal here is to outline the importance of advertising in the effectiveness of legal measures for the prevention and repression of misuse of the exchequer. Using the inductive method, it was conducted a systematic research on national bibliography, exploring existing and revoked legislation on the subject.

  2. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... countries, maternity care is provided free to women, through public financing of health care; universal access to care is therefore secured. Nevertheless, different models of care exist, and debates about the appropriateness of providing maternity care in different settings take place in both countries...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  3. Public Support for Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act Point-of-Sale Provisions: Results of a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-10-01

    We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17, 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors' access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment.

  4. An HDAC3-PROX1 corepressor module acts on HNF4α to control hepatic triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Sean M; Remsberg, Jarrett R; Damle, Manashree; Sidoli, Simone; Ho, Wesley Y; Li, Zhenghui; Garcia, Benjamin A; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2017-09-15

    The histone deacetylase HDAC3 is a critical mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism, and liver-specific deletion of HDAC3 leads to fatty liver. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, here we report a method of cross-linking followed by mass spectrometry to define a high-confidence HDAC3 interactome in vivo that includes the canonical NCoR-HDAC3 complex as well as Prospero-related homeobox 1 protein (PROX1). HDAC3 and PROX1 co-localize extensively on the mouse liver genome, and are co-recruited by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). The HDAC3-PROX1 module controls the expression of a gene program regulating lipid homeostasis, and hepatic-specific ablation of either component increases triglyceride content in liver. These findings underscore the importance of specific combinations of transcription factors and coregulators in the fine tuning of organismal metabolism.HDAC3 is a critical mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism and its loss leads to fatty liver. Here, the authors characterize the liver HDAC3 interactome in vivo, provide evidence that HDAC3 interacts with PROX1, and show that HDAC3 and PROX1 control expression of genes regulating lipid homeostasis.

  5. The birth beliefs scale - a new measure to assess basic beliefs about birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Heidi; Benyamini, Yael

    2017-03-01

    Basic beliefs about birth as a natural and safe or a medical and risky process are central in the decisions on where and how to birth. Despite their importance, they have not been studied separately from other childbirth-related constructs. Our aim was to develop a measure to assess these beliefs. Pregnant Israeli women (N = 850, gestational week ≥14) were recruited in women's health centers, in online natural birth forums, and through home midwives. Participants filled in questionnaires including sociodemographic and obstetric background, the Birth Beliefs Scale (BBS), dispositional desire for control (DC) and planned mode of delivery. Factor analyses revealed that the BBS is composed of two factors: beliefs about birth as a natural process and beliefs about birth as a medical process. Both subscales showed good internal and test-retest reliability. They had good construct validity, predicted birth choices, and were weakly correlated with DC. Women's medical obstetric history was associated with the BBS, further supporting the validity of the scale. Beliefs about birth may be the building blocks that make up perceptions of birth and drive women's preferences. The new scale provides an easy way to distinctly assess them so they can be used to further understand planned birth behaviors. Additional studies are needed to comprehend how these beliefs form in different cultural contexts and how they evolve over time.

  6. Birth weight differences between those offered financial voucher incentives for verified smoking cessation and control participants enrolled in the Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), employing an intuitive approach and a Complier Average Causal Effects (CACE) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnachie, Alex; Haig, Caroline; Sinclair, Lesley; Bauld, Linda; Tappin, David M

    2017-07-20

    The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), which offered financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement in cessation. However, infant birth weight was not seen to be affected. This study re-examines birth weight using an intuitive and a complier average causal effects (CACE) method to uncover important information missed by intention-to-treat analysis. CPIT offered financial incentives up to £400 to pregnant smokers to quit. With incentives, 68 women (23.1%) were confirmed non-smokers at primary outcome, compared to 25 (8.7%) without incentives, a difference of 14.3% (Fisher test, p financial incentives to quit. Viewed in this way, the overall birth weight gain with incentives is attributable only to potential quitters. We compared an intuitive approach to a CACE analysis. Mean birth weight of potential quitters in the incentives intervention group (who therefore quit) was 3338 g compared with potential quitters in the control group (who did not quit) 3193 g. The difference attributable to incentives, was 3338 - 3193 = 145 g (95% CI -617, +803). The mean difference in birth weight between the intervention and control groups was 21 g, and the difference in the proportion who managed to quit was 14.3%. Since the intervention consisted of the offer of incentives to quit smoking, the intervention was received by all women in the intervention group. However, "compliance" was successfully quitting with incentives, and the CACE analysis yielded an identical result, causal birth weight increase 21 g ÷ 0.143 = 145 g. Policy makers have great difficulty giving pregnant women money to stop smoking. This study indicates that a small clinically insignificant improvement in average birth weight is likely to hide an important clinically significant increase in infants born to pregnant smokers who want to stop but cannot achieve smoking cessation without the addition of financial

  7. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation in preterm very low-birth-weight neonates in neonatal intensive care units: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Paolo; Guardione, Roberta; Bonetti, Paolo; Priolo, Claudio; Maestri, Andrea; Mansoldo, Caterina; Mostert, Michael; Anselmetti, Giovanni; Sardei, Daniela; Bellettato, Massimo; Biban, Paolo; Farina, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Human milk feeding protects against oxidative stress-induced damage in preterm neonates, including severe multifactorial diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The carotenoids, which are not found in formula milk, might play a key role in these actions. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in three tertiary Italian neonatal intensive care units. All preterm infants lutein + 0.0006 mg zeaxanthin) or placebo (5% glucose solution) from birth till 36 weeks' corrected gestational age. Primary outcomes were threshold ROP, NEC > second stage, and BPD. Surveillance for detection of these diseases and for intolerance/adverse effects was performed. No treatment-related adverse effect was documented in the 229 analyzed infants, whose clinical/demographical characteristics were similar in the two groups. Threshold ROP incidence did not significantly differ in treated (6.2%) versus not treated infants (10.3%; p = 0.18). The same occurred for NEC (1.7% versus 5.1%; p = 0.15) and BPD (4.5% versus 10.3%; p = 0.07). Noteworthy, the progression rate from early ROP stages to threshold ROP was decreased by 50% (0.30 versus 0.44; p = 0.23). Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation in preterm infants is well tolerated. No significant effect was seen on threshold ROP, NEC, or BPD. The decreasing trends of these outcomes in the treatment group need to be assessed and confirmed on larger sample-sizes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and childhood autism in association with prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances: a nested case-control study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Among 83,389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child's sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother's PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children.

  9. Metformin improves pregnancy and live-birth rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Papunen, Laure; Rantala, Anni S; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Tiitinen, Aila; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Perheentupa, Antti; Tinkanen, Helena; Bloigu, Risto; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Tapanainen, Juha S

    2012-05-01

    The role of metformin in the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still controversial. OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES: We investigated whether metformin decreases the early miscarriage rate and improves the pregnancy rates (PR) and live-birth rates (LBR) in PCOS. This was a multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three hundred twenty women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility were randomized to metformin (n = 160, Diformin; obese women, 1000 mg two times daily; nonobese subjects, 500 mg + 1000 mg daily) or identical doses of placebo (n = 160). After 3 months' treatment, another appropriate infertility treatment was combined if necessary. If pregnancy occurred, metformin/placebo was continued up to the 12th week. Miscarriage rates were low and similar in the two groups (metformin 15.2% vs. placebo 17.9%, P = 0.8). Intent-to-treat analysis showed that metformin significantly improved PR and LBR (vs. placebo) in the whole study population (PR: 53.6 vs. 40.4%, P = 0.006; LBR: 41.9 vs. 28.8%, P = 0.014) and PR in obese women (49.0 vs. 31.4%, P = 0.04), and there was a similar trend in nonobese (PR: 58.6 vs. 47.6%, P = 0.09; LBR: 46.7 vs. 34.5%, P = 0.09) and in obese women with regard to LBR (35.7 vs. 21.9%, P = 0.07). Cox regression analysis showed that metformin plus standard infertility treatment increased the chance of pregnancy 1.6 times (hazard rate 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.27). Obese women especially seem to benefit from 3 months' pretreatment with metformin and its combination thereafter with routine ovulation induction in anovulatory infertility.

  10. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  11. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  12. 2015 Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title ll Annual Report, L-Bar, New Mexico Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Dick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The L-Bar, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title II Disposal Site was inspected on August 18, 2015. The tailings impoundment was in excellent condition. Erosion and vegetation measurements to monitor the condition of the impoundment cover indicated that no erosion is occurring, and perennial vegetation foliar cover at the measurement plots increased substantially compared to previous years due to above-average precipitation for the year. A short segment of the perimeter fence near the site entrance was realigned in spring 2015 because a gully was undermining the fence corner. Loose fence strands at another location were repaired during the inspection, and a section of fence needs to be realigned to avoid areas affected by deep gullies and sediment deposition. Inspectors identified no other maintenance needs or cause for a follow-up inspection. Groundwater monitoring is required every 3 years. The next monitoring event will be in 2016.

  13. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  14. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations

  15. Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

    2002-01-01

    A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed.

  16. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3 have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG, and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp and a metalloprotease (eep, supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1. These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide

  17. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  18. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Danbury, CT 06810 203-748-6000 Accredited Since March 1998 Corvallis Birth & Women's Health Center Accredited 2314 NW Kings Blvd, Suite ... Washington, DC 20002 202-398-5520 Accredited Since March 2001 Flagstaff Birth and Women's Center Accredited 401 West Aspen Avenue Flagstaff, AZ ...

  19. An Act to Control and Regulate the Possession, Sale, Transport and Use of Radioactive Substances and the Possession and Use of Certain Apparatus capable of producing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    This Act covers all activities involving radioactive materials and radiation sources. It sets up a Radiological Advisory Council to advise the Minister responsible for health in Queensland on administration of the Act, regulations made thereunder and on preventing and minimising dangers arising from radioactive materials and radiation sources. It lays down the Council's composition and rules of procedure. The Act also provides for the licensing, control and registration of such materials and sources, including sanctions in case of non-compliance with its provisions. (NEA) [fr

  20. 48 CFR 970.2204-1-1 - Administrative controls and criteria for application of the Davis-Bacon Act in operational or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative controls... Administrative controls and criteria for application of the Davis-Bacon Act in operational or maintenance.... The proving out of investigative findings and theories of a scientific and technical nature may...

  1. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N E; Torrance, H L; Mol, F; Laven, J S E; Scheenjes, E; Traas, M A F; Janssen, C; Cohlen, B; Teklenburg, G; de Bruin, J P; van Oppenraaij, R; Maas, J W M; Moll, E; Fleischer, K; van Hooff, M H; de Koning, C; Cantineau, A; Lambalk, C B; Verberg, M; Nijs, M; Manger, A P; van Rumste, M; van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A; Visser, J; Brinkhuis, E; den Hartog, J E; Sluijmer, A; Jansen, F W; Hermes, W; Bandell, M L; Pelinck, M J; van Disseldorp, J; van Wely, M; Smeenk, J; Pieterse, Q D; Boxmeer, J C; Groenewoud, E R; Eijkemans, M J C; Kasius, J C; Broekmans, F J M

    2017-07-21

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle on live birth rates in women with a failed first IVF/ICSI cycle. Multicenter randomized controlled trial in Dutch academic and non-academic hospitals. A total of 900 women will be included of whom half will undergo an endometrial scratch in the luteal phase of the cycle prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using an endometrial biopsy catheter. The primary endpoint is the live birth rate after the 2 nd fresh IVF/ICSI cycle. Secondary endpoints are costs, cumulative live birth rate (after the full 2 nd IVF/ICSI cycle and over 12 months of follow-up); clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate; multiple pregnancy rate; miscarriage rate and endometrial tissue parameters associated with implantation failure. Multiple studies have been performed to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching on live birth rates in women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. Due to heterogeneity in both the method and population being scratched, it remains unclear which group of women will benefit from the procedure. The SCRaTCH trial proposed here aims to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in a large group of women undergoing a second IVF/ICSI cycle. NTR 5342 , registered July 31 st , 2015. Version 4.10, January 4th, 2017.

  2. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  3. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  4. Oxygenation with T-piece versus self-inflating bag for ventilation of extremely preterm infants at birth: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dawson, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    To investigate whether infants < 29 weeks gestation who receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) immediately after birth with a T-piece have higher oxygen saturation (SpO₂) measurements at 5 minutes than infants ventilated with a self inflating bag (SIB).

  5. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability in very-low-birth-weight infants : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P. F.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Vegt, Ina M.; van der Molen, Hilda R. A.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion. Glutamine depletion has negative effects on intestinal integrity. The lower infection rate in VLBW infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may originate from improved intestinal integrity, as

  6. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability in very-low-birth-weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P. F.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Vegt, Ina M.; van der Molen, Hilda R. A.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion. Glutamine depletion has negative effects on intestinal integrity. The lower infection rate in VLBW infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may originate from improved intestinal integrity, as

  7. Preventing Preterm Birth with Progesterone in Women with a Short Cervical Length from a Low-Risk Population: A Multicenter Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van der Ven, A.J.; Kleinrouweler, C.E.; Schuit, E.; Kazemier, B.M.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; de Miranda, E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Sikkema, J.M.; Woiski, M.D.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Pajkrt, E.; de Groot, C.J.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Haak, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vaginal progesterone in reducing adverse neonatal outcome due to preterm birth (PTB) in low-risk pregnant women with a short cervical length (CL). Study Design Women with a singleton pregnancy without a history of PTB

  8. Economic costs associated with moderate and late preterm birth: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K A; Petrou, S; Dritsaki, M; Johnson, S J; Manktelow, B; Draper, E S; Smith, L K; Seaton, S E; Marlow, N; Dorling, J; Field, D J; Boyle, E M

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine the economic costs associated with moderate and late preterm birth. An economic study was nested within a prospective cohort study. Infants born between 32(+0) and 36(+6)  weeks of gestation in the East Midlands of England. A sample of infants born at ≥37 weeks of gestation acted as controls. Data on resource use, estimated from a National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services perspective, and separately from a societal perspective, were collected between birth and 24 months corrected age (or death), and valued in pounds sterling, at 2010-11 prices. Descriptive statistics and multivariable analyses were used to estimate the relationship between gestational age at birth and economic costs. Cumulative resource use and economic costs over the first two years of life. Of all eligible births, 1146 (83%) preterm and 1258 (79%) term infants were recruited. Mean (standard error) total societal costs from birth to 24 months were £12 037 (£1114) and £5823 (£1232) for children born moderately preterm (32(+0) -33(+6)  weeks of gestation) and late preterm (34(+0) -36(+6)  weeks of gestation), respectively, compared with £2056 (£132) for children born at term. The mean societal cost difference between moderate and late preterm and term infants was £4657 (bootstrap 95% confidence interval, 95% CI £2513-6803; P economic costs over the first 2 years of life. Our economic estimates can be used to inform budgetary and service planning by clinical decision-makers, and economic evaluations of interventions aimed at preventing moderate and late preterm birth or alleviating its adverse consequences. Moderate and late preterm birth is associated with increased economic costs over the first 2 years of life. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Home birth after hospital birth: women's choices and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Casey; Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; English, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The number of US women choosing home birth is increasing. Little is known about women who choose home birth after having experienced hospital birth; therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore reasons why these women choose home birth and their perceptions regarding their birth experiences. Qualitative description was the research design, whereby focus groups were conducted with women who had hospital births and subsequently chose home birth. Five focus groups were conducted (N = 20), recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was undertaken allowing themes to emerge. Five themes emerged from the women's narratives: 1) choices and empowerment: with home birth, women felt they were given real choices rather than perceived choices, giving them feelings of empowerment; 2) interventions and interruptions: women believed things were done that were not helpful to the birth process, and there were interruptions associated with their hospital births; 3) disrespect and dismissal: participants believed that during hospital birth, providers were more focused on the laboring woman's uterus, with some experiencing dismissal from their hospital provider when choosing to birth at home; 4) birth space: giving birth in their own home, surrounded by people they chose, created a peaceful and calm environment; and 5) connection: women felt connected to their providers, families, newborns, and bodies during their home birth. For most participants, dissatisfaction with hospital birth influenced their subsequent decision to choose home birth. Despite experiencing challenges associated with this decision, women expressed satisfaction with their home birth. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Staying home to give birth: why women in the United States choose home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Debora; Bennett, Catherine; McFarlin, Barbara; Freeze, Rixa

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 1% of American women give birth at home and face substantial obstacles when they make this choice. This study describes the reasons that women in the United States choose home birth. A qualitative descriptive secondary analysis was conducted in a previously collected dataset obtained via an online survey. The sample consisted of 160 women who were US residents and planned a home birth at least once. Content analysis was used to study the responses from women to one essay question: "Why did you choose home birth?" Women who participated in the study were mostly married (91%) and white (87%). The majority (62%) had a college education. Our analysis revealed 508 separate statements about why these women chose home birth. Responses were coded and categorized into 26 common themes. The most common reasons given for wanting to birth at home were: 1) safety (n = 38); 2) avoidance of unnecessary medical interventions common in hospital births (n = 38); 3) previous negative hospital experience (n = 37); 4) more control (n = 35); and 5) comfortable, familiar environment (n = 30). Another dominant theme was women's trust in the birth process (n = 25). Women equated medical intervention with reduced safety and trusted their bodies' inherent ability to give birth without interference.

  11. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects.

  12. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of...

  13. PLANNED HOME BIRTH: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Serdinšek; Iztok Takač

    2016-01-01

    Background: Home birth is as old as humanity, but still most middle- and high-income countries consider hospitals as the safest birth settings, as complications regarding birth are highly unpredictable. Despite this there are a few countries in which home birth in integrated into official healthcare system (the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Canada etc.). Home births can be divided into unplanned and planned, and the latter can be further categorized by the presence of the birth attendants. Thi...

  14. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  15. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama; Daniel Kadobera; Sheila Ndyanabangi; Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi; Shannon Gravely; Lindsay Robertson; David Guwatudde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Word Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to asses...

  16. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    Background The Word Health Organization?s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess pra...

  17. Annual report on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, (1988), April 1, 1989. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Secretary of Health and Human Services is required by Subpart 3, Part F of Title III of the Public Health Service Act; 42 USC 263b et seq. (Public Law 90-602) to submit an annual report to the President for transmittal to the Congress on or before April 1 on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act. The detailed information required in the report is outlined in Section 360D of the Public Health Service Act. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Center for Devices and Radiological Health, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. The report provides a summary of the operations of the Center in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1988. In reviewing the operations of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health as reported in the document, it should be kept in mind that the day-to-day administration of the Act is only part of the Center's function. Other responsibilities include the administration and enforcement of the 1976 Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (not covered in the report)

  18. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  19. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  20. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    The Relationship between Resettlement and Birth Rates: The Case of ... statistical software. SAS is used. RESULTS: In a univariate analysis of Gambella's ..... World Bank Conference on Land And. Poverty. Washington DC, World Bank, April.

  1. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cerebral palsy (also called CP) is a group of conditions ...

  2. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies) score, in a local ... these babies for expensive tertiary care. Subjects. ... patient numbers, the tendency is simply to increase the ... included birth weight, gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score ...

  3. Impacts and Compliance Implementation Plans and Required Deviations for Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Regulation of Double Shell Tanks (DST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held meetings regarding the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) contain waste which will become subject to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor (TFC) to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. Two components of the PCB management plans are this assessment of the operational impacts of TSCA regulation and the identifications of deviations from TSCA that are required to accommodate tank farm unique limitations. This plan provides ORP and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) with an outline of TSCA PCB requirements and their applicability to tank farm activities, and recommends a compliance/implementation approach. Where strict compliance is not possible, the need for deviations from TSCA PCB requirements is identified. The purpose of assembling this information is to enhance the understanding of PCB management requirements, identify operational impacts and select impact mitigation strategies. This information should be useful in developing formal agreements with EPA where required

  4. Parental interest in children's education, children's self-esteem and locus of control, and later educational attainment: twenty-six year follow-up of the 1970 British Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-03-01

    Few studies have investigated if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to educational attainment via their impact on child's self-esteem and locus of control. (1) To investigate (after controlling for known confounding factors) the long-term effect of mother's and father's interest in child's education at age 10 and child's locus of control and self-esteem at age 10 in educational attainment at age 26; and (2) to explore if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to child's educational attainment via their effect in increasing child's self-esteem and internal locus of control. The study used longitudinal data from sweeps of the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70). The initial sample was those 1,737 men and 2,033 women with valid data on age 10 self-esteem, locus of control, father's interest, mother's interest, and age 26 educational attainment. Of these, 1,326 men and 1,578 women were included in the final analysis. The birth to age 10 factors that were controlled for were birth weight, parental social class, socio-economic disadvantage, emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability, and mother's educational attainment. At the multivariate level, internal locus of control and mother's interest (but not self-esteem) were significantly related to educational attainment in both men and women. Father's interest was a significant predictor of educational attainment only in women. Parent's interest was not linked to educational attainment via its impact on child's self-esteem or locus of control. Self-esteem predicted educational attainment in both genders by increasing internal locus of control, and fathers' interest predicted educational attainment in men by increasing mother's involvement. Although mothers' and fathers' interest in their children's education were not linked to educational attainment via their impact on children's self-esteem or locus of control, they were significant predictors of

  5. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  6. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  7. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  8. A quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen controlling gas vesicle organelle biogenesis and adaptive flotation in an enterobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Joshua P.; Williamson, Neil R.; Spring, David R.; Salmond, George P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas vesicles are hollow intracellular proteinaceous organelles produced by aquatic Eubacteria and Archaea, including cyanobacteria and halobacteria. Gas vesicles increase buoyancy and allow taxis toward air–liquid interfaces, enabling subsequent niche colonization. Here we report a unique example of gas vesicle-mediated flotation in an enterobacterium; Serratia sp. strain ATCC39006. This strain is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae previously studied for its production of prodigiosin and carbapenem antibiotics. Genes required for gas vesicle synthesis mapped to a 16.6-kb gene cluster encoding three distinct homologs of the main structural protein, GvpA. Heterologous expression of this locus in Escherichia coli induced copious vesicle production and efficient cell buoyancy. Gas vesicle morphogenesis in Serratia enabled formation of a pellicle-like layer of highly vacuolated cells, which was dependent on oxygen limitation and the expression of ntrB/C and cheY-like regulatory genes within the gas-vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicle biogenesis was strictly controlled by intercellular chemical signaling, through an N-acyl homoserine lactone, indicating that in this system the quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen initiating organelle development. Flagella-based motility and gas vesicle morphogenesis were also oppositely regulated by the small RNA-binding protein, RsmA, suggesting environmental adaptation through physiological control of the choice between motility and flotation as alternative taxis modes. We propose that gas vesicle biogenesis in this strain represents a distinct mechanism of mobility, regulated by oxygen availability, nutritional status, the RsmA global regulatory system, and the quorum-sensing morphogen. PMID:21873216

  9. A quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen controlling gas vesicle organelle biogenesis and adaptive flotation in an enterobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Joshua P; Williamson, Neil R; Spring, David R; Salmond, George P C

    2011-09-06

    Gas vesicles are hollow intracellular proteinaceous organelles produced by aquatic Eubacteria and Archaea, including cyanobacteria and halobacteria. Gas vesicles increase buoyancy and allow taxis toward air-liquid interfaces, enabling subsequent niche colonization. Here we report a unique example of gas vesicle-mediated flotation in an enterobacterium; Serratia sp. strain ATCC39006. This strain is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae previously studied for its production of prodigiosin and carbapenem antibiotics. Genes required for gas vesicle synthesis mapped to a 16.6-kb gene cluster encoding three distinct homologs of the main structural protein, GvpA. Heterologous expression of this locus in Escherichia coli induced copious vesicle production and efficient cell buoyancy. Gas vesicle morphogenesis in Serratia enabled formation of a pellicle-like layer of highly vacuolated cells, which was dependent on oxygen limitation and the expression of ntrB/C and cheY-like regulatory genes within the gas-vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicle biogenesis was strictly controlled by intercellular chemical signaling, through an N-acyl homoserine lactone, indicating that in this system the quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen initiating organelle development. Flagella-based motility and gas vesicle morphogenesis were also oppositely regulated by the small RNA-binding protein, RsmA, suggesting environmental adaptation through physiological control of the choice between motility and flotation as alternative taxis modes. We propose that gas vesicle biogenesis in this strain represents a distinct mechanism of mobility, regulated by oxygen availability, nutritional status, the RsmA global regulatory system, and the quorum-sensing morphogen.

  10. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  11. A study on the revision of nuclear safety act to build the foundation of nuclear export and import control system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Hyo; Choi, Sun Do

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear related items require export and import control beyond the multilateral export control system according to Safeguard Agreement, Additional Protocol and bilateral agreements. Besides Korea as a nuclear supplier is needed to actively cope with its export control system, which is being reinforced internationally. In regard to this trend, this study drew the revision plan of present Nuclear Safety Act to found the nuclear export and import control system in Korea by examining the related legislations and analyzing the implementation status of nuclear export and import control

  12. A study on the revision of nuclear safety act to build the foundation of nuclear export and import control system in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Hyo; Choi, Sun Do [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Nuclear related items require export and import control beyond the multilateral export control system according to Safeguard Agreement, Additional Protocol and bilateral agreements. Besides Korea as a nuclear supplier is needed to actively cope with its export control system, which is being reinforced internationally. In regard to this trend, this study drew the revision plan of present Nuclear Safety Act to found the nuclear export and import control system in Korea by examining the related legislations and analyzing the implementation status of nuclear export and import control.

  13. Adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007: presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, K J; Ayah, R; Olewe, T

    2016-09-28

    Despite extensive knowledge about effective tobacco control interventions, the prevalence of tobacco use in many middle- and low-income countries continues to rise. In these countries, public appreciation of levels of protection provided by laws and regulations on tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke is limited. After ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Kenya enacted the Tobacco Control Act, 2007, banning smoking in public places except in designated smoking areas. To assess adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 by determining the presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants. A survey of 176 liquor licensed bars and restaurants in Nairobi County was carried out. Their managers were asked about the presence of a workplace policy governing smoking of tobacco, and observations made on provisions that determine adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007. Smoking took place in almost all bars and restaurants (150 (85%)). Half the establishments (86 (49%)) had a workplace policy governing tobacco use among employees, although a difference between bars (11 (23%)) and restaurants (75 (58%)) was recorded (pworkplace policy (p<0.001) and less likely to have 'no smoking' signs and designated smoking areas (p<0.005). Kenya's implementation of the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 does not provide sufficient protection of patrons and workers in bars and restaurants. It is important to sensitise hospitality workers to the dangers of tobacco smoke. Bar and restaurants managers should have a minimum post-secondary education level. The Tobacco Control Act, 2007 requires strengthening to ensure that bars and restaurants have a smoke-free environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Low Birth Weight And Maternal Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secma Nigam

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To study tile socio-economic and maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight babies and to measure the strength of association. Study Design : Hospital based case-control study. Setting : Shri Sayajirao General Hospital, Vadodara. Sample size : 312 cases and 312 controls. Participants : Cases Mothers who delivered single, live baby less than 2500 gms i.e. low birth weight. Controls:- Mothers who delivered single live baby more than 2500 gms. Study Variable : Maternal age, literacy, anaemia, outcome of last pregnancy. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test and odd’s ratio. Result : Among cases, 14.5% mothers had age less titan 20 yrs as compared to 7.3% mothers in control group. 68.6% mothers amongst cases were illiterate against 46.5% mothers in control group. 53.8% mothers had haemoglobin level 10gm% or less amongst cases and no statistically significant difference was found between low birth weight and outcome of last pregnancy Conclusion : The maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight in mothers attending S.S.G. hospital age maternal anaemia (OR 2.66, illiteracy (OR 2.51, maternal age less than 20 yrs. (OR 2.OS. No association was found between low birth rate and outcome of last pregnancy

  15. Maternal age at child birth, birth order, and suicide at a young age: a sibling comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967-1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families with 2 or more children in which one died from suicide. Altogether, 3,005 suicides occurred over a mean follow-up period of 15 years; 2,458 of these suicides occurred among 6,741 siblings within families of 2 or more siblings. Among siblings, a higher position in the birth order was positively associated with risk; each increase in birth order was associated with a 46% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.66) higher risk of suicide. For each 10-year increase in maternal age at child birth, the offspring's suicide risk was reduced by 57% (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.62). Our study suggests that confounding due to familial factors is not likely to explain the associations of birth order and maternal age at child birth with suicide risk.

  16. Maternal and newborn morbidity by birth facility among selected United States 2006 low-risk births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn

    2010-02-01

    We sought to evaluate perinatal morbidity by delivery location (hospital, freestanding birth center, and home). Selected 2006 US birth certificate data were accessed online from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Low-risk maternal and newborn outcomes were tabulated and compared by birth facility. A total of 745,690 deliveries were included, of which 733,143 (97.0%) occurred in hospital, 4661 (0.6%) at birth centers, and 7427 (0.9%) at home. Compared with hospital deliveries, home and birthing center deliveries were associated with more frequent prolonged and precipitous labors. Home births experienced more frequent 5-minute Apgar scores home and birthing center deliveries were associated with less frequent chorioamnionitis, fetal intolerance of labor, meconium staining, assisted ventilation, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and birthweight Home births are associated with a number of less frequent adverse perinatal outcomes at the expense of more frequent abnormal labors and low 5-minute Apgar scores. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  18. 685. Order amending the Order concerning the definition of goods whose export requires a permit in accordance with the Security Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The list of goods which may not be exported without a permit, in accordance with the Act of 1972 on security control, was amended by this Order. The amendment includes numerous items or equipment involving radiation or radioactive materials. It came into effect on 1 December 1990. (NEA)

  19. 21 CFR 1000.15 - Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... electromagnetic radiation include: Ultraviolet: Biochemical and medical analyzers. Tanning and therapeutic lamps...

  20. S.1128: This Act may be cited as the Omnibus Nuclear Proliferation Control Act of 1991, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, May 22, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This bill would impose sanctions against foreign persons and US persons that assist foreign countries in acquiring a nuclear explosive device or unsafeguarded special nuclear material. Sanctions to be imposed shall include a procurement sanction and an importation sanction; namely, the US government will not procure or import any goods or services from the person or any parent, subsidiary, affiliate, or successor entity so sanctioned. Exceptions are allowed in the case of articles or services determined to be defense articles or essential to the national security. The bill describes the role of international financial institutions, the basis for declaration of national emergency, the export-import bank, eligibility for assistance (amendments to the Arms Export Control Act), and amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961

  1. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama

    2017-06-01

    Hospitality establishments in Kampala are not protecting the public from tobacco smoke exposure nor adequately limiting access to tobacco products. Effective dissemination of the Tobacco Control Act 2015 is important in ensuring that owners of public places are aware of their responsibility of complying with critical tobacco control laws. This would also likely increase self-enforcement among owners of hospitality establishments and public patrons of the no-smoking restrictions.

  2. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...

  3. Neighborhood Inequalities in Retailers' Compliance With the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009, January 2014-July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Baker, Hannah M; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-10-08

    Retailer noncompliance with limited US tobacco regulations on advertising and labeling was historically patterned by neighborhood in ways that promote health disparities. In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began enforcing stronger tobacco retailer regulations under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009. However, recent research has found no differences in compliance by neighborhood characteristics for FDA advertising and labeling inspections. We sought to investigate the neighborhood characteristics associated with retailer noncompliance with specific FDA advertising and labeling inspections (ie, violations of bans on self-service displays, selling single cigarettes, false or mislabeled products, vending machines, flavored cigarettes, and free samples). We coded FDA advertising and labeling warning letters (n = 718) for type of violations and geocoded advertising and labeling inspections from January 1 through July 31, 2014 (N = 33,543). Using multilevel models, we examined cross-sectional associations between types of violations and neighborhood characteristics previously associated with disparities (ie, percentage black, Latino, under the poverty line, and younger than 18 years). Retailer advertising and labeling violations are patterned by who lives in the neighborhood; regulated tobacco products are more likely to be stored behind the counter as the percentage of black or Latino residents increases, and single cigarettes are more often available for purchase in neighborhoods as the percentage of black, poor, or young residents increases. Contrary to previous null findings, noncompliance with FDA advertising and labeling regulations is patterned by neighborhood characteristics, sometimes in opposite directions. Given the low likelihood of self-service violations in the same neighborhoods that have high likelihood of single cigarette sales, we suggest targeted approaches to FDA retailer inspections and education campaigns.

  4. Season of birth and multiple sclerosis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhom, Youssef; Kacem, Imen; Bayoudh, Lamia; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Hizem, Yosr; Ben Abdelfettah, Sami; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on date of birth of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients showed an association between month of birth and the risk of developing MS. This association has not been investigated in an African country. We aimed to determine if the risk of MS is associated with month of birth in Tunisia. Data concerning date of birth for MS patients in Tunisia (n = 1912) was obtained. Birth rates of MS patients were compared with all births in Tunisia matched by year of birth (n = 11,615,912). We used a chi-squared analysis and the Hewitt's non-parametric test for seasonality. The distribution of births among MS patients compared with the control population was not different when tested by the chi-squared test. The Hewitt's test for seasonality showed an excess of births between May and October among MS patients (p = 0.03). The peak of Births of MS patients in Tunisia was in July and the nadir in December. Our data does support the seasonality hypothesis of month of birth as risk factor for MS in Tunisia. Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy could be a possible explanation that needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact on birth weight and child growth of Participatory Learning and Action women's groups with and without transfers of food or cash during pregnancy: Findings of the low birth weight South Asia cluster-randomised controlled trial (LBWSAT in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi M Saville

    Full Text Available Undernutrition during pregnancy leads to low birthweight, poor growth and inter-generational undernutrition. We did a non-blinded cluster-randomised controlled trial in the plains districts of Dhanusha and Mahottari, Nepal to assess the impact on birthweight and weight-for-age z-scores among children aged 0-16 months of community-based participatory learning and action (PLA women's groups, with and without food or cash transfers to pregnant women.We randomly allocated 20 clusters per arm to four arms (average population/cluster = 6150. All consenting married women aged 10-49 years, who had not had tubal ligation and whose husbands had not had vasectomy, were monitored for missed menses. Between 29 Dec 2013 and 28 Feb 2015 we recruited 25,092 pregnant women to surveillance and interventions: PLA alone (n = 5626; PLA plus food (10 kg/month of fortified wheat-soya 'Super Cereal', n = 6884; PLA plus cash (NPR750≈US$7.5/month, n = 7272; control (existing government programmes, n = 5310. 539 PLA groups discussed and implemented strategies to improve low birthweight, nutrition in pregnancy and hand washing. Primary outcomes were birthweight within 72 hours of delivery and weight-for-age z-scores at endline (age 0-16 months. Only children born to permanent residents between 4 June 2014 and 20 June 2015 were eligible for intention to treat analyses (n = 10936, while in-migrating women and children born before interventions had been running for 16 weeks were excluded. Trial status: completed.In PLA plus food/cash arms, 94-97% of pregnant women attended groups and received a mean of four transfers over their pregnancies. In the PLA only arm, 49% of pregnant women attended groups. Due to unrest, the response rate for birthweight was low at 22% (n = 2087, but response rate for endline nutritional and dietary measures exceeded 83% (n = 9242. Compared to the control arm (n = 464, mean birthweight was significantly higher in the PLA plus food arm by 78·0 g

  6. The impact of postpartum contraception on reducing preterm birth: findings from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria I; Chang, Richard; Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    2015-11-01

    Family planning is recommended as a strategy to prevent adverse birth outcomes. The potential contribution of postpartum contraceptive coverage to reducing rates of preterm birth is unknown. In this study, we examine the impact of contraceptive coverage and use within 18 months of a birth on preventing preterm birth in a Californian cohort. We identified records for second or higher-order births among women from California's 2011 Birth Statistical Master File and their prior births from earlier Birth Statistical Master Files. To identify women who received contraceptive services from publicly funded programs, we applied a probabilistic linking methodology to match birth files with enrollment records for women with Medi-Cal or Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment Program (PACT) claims. The length of contraceptive coverage was determined through applying an algorithm based on the specified method and the quantity dispensed. Preterm birth was defined as a birth occurring birth using subcategories defined by the World Health Organization: extremely preterm (birth and control for key covariates. The cohort consisted of 111,948 women who were seen at least once by a Medi-Cal or Family PACT provider within 18 months of delivery. Of the cohort, 9.75% had a preterm birth. Contraceptive coverage was found to be protective against preterm birth. For every month of contraceptive coverage, odds of a preterm birth confidence interval, 0.986-0.993). Improving postpartum contraceptive use has the potential to reduce preterm births. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Birth order and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  8. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  10. Forty month follow-up of persistent and difficultly controlled acromegalic patients treated with depot long acting somatostatin analog octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetkin, D.O.; Boysan, S.N.; Tiryakioglu, O.; Yalin, A.S.; Kadioglu, P.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide long acting release (S-LAR) preparation on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 serum concentrations and pituitary tumor size in patients with persistent and difficultly controlled acromegaly even after adjuvant irradiation and/or dopamine agonists. Thirty-three patients with active acromegaly (26 female and 7 male, mean age; 43.94±14.01 standard deviation (SD) years) were included in this study. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12, 30 and 40 months for GH, IGF-1, and GH response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and biliary ultrasonography. Sella MRI was performed at initial and at 40 months. All patients received 20 mg S-LAR. Afterwards, the dosage was titrated to improve individual GH response and reduction of IGF-1 into normal ranges. Basal serum IGF-1 levels decreased from median: 530 μg/l [IQR: 420-600] to 340 μg/l [IQR: 230-460] at 6 months (p=0.01), to 400 μg/l [IQR: 222.4-600] at 12 months (p=0.48), to 396 μg/l [IQR: 318-468] at 30 months (p=0.49), to 482 μg/l [308-580] at 40 months (p=0.47). Nadir GH levels in OGTT fell from 2.70 ng/ml [IQR: 1.35-6.90] to 1.60 ng/ml [IQR: 0.36-4.10] at 6 months (p=0.03), to 0.31 ng/ml [IQR: 0.18-0.65] at 12 months (p<0.0001), to 1.50 ng/ml [IQR: 0.83-4.00] at 30 months (p=0.398) and to 0.89 ng/ml [IQR: 0.58-1.35] at 40 months (p<0.0001). Initially, pituitary adenoma volume was median: 1.18 ml [IQR: 0.08-3.50] and it shrank to 0.21 ml [IQR: 0-2.1] at 40 months (p=0.08). Gallstones were detected in 12 patients and six of them underwent cholecystectomy. S-LAR is an effective treatment regimen in reducing GH and IGF-1 concentrations and as well as in shrinking tumor volume in persistent and difficultly controlled acromegalic patients. (author)

  11. Schedules of controlled substances: extension of temporary placement of UR-144, XLR11, and AKB48 in schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is issuing this final order to extend the temporary placement of (1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (UR-144), [1-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl](2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (5-fluoro-UR-144, XLR11) and N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (APINACA, AKB48), including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, in schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. The current final order temporarily placing UR-144, XLR11, and AKB48 in schedule I is due to expire on May 15, 2015. This final order will extend the temporary scheduling of UR-144, XLR11, and AKB48 to May 15, 2016, or until the permanent scheduling action for these three substances is completed, whichever occurs first.

  12. Economic implications of home births and birth centers: a structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Petrou, Stavros

    2008-06-01

    It is widely perceived that home births and birth centers may help decrease the costs of maternity care for women with uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries. This structured review examines the literature relating to the economic implications of home births and birth center care compared with hospital maternity care. The bibliographic databases MEDLINE (from 1950), CINAHL (from 1982), EMBASE (from 1980), and an "in-house" database, Econ2, were searched for relevant English language publications using MeSH and free text terms. Data were extracted with respect to the study design, inclusion criteria, clinical and cost results, and details of what was included in the cost calculations. Eleven studies were included from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and Canada. Two studies focused on home births versus other forms and locations of care, whereas nine focused on birth centers versus other forms and locations of care. Resource use was generally lower for women cared for at home and in birth centers due to lower rates of intervention, shorter lengths of stay, or both. However, this fact did not always translate into lower costs because, in the U.K. where many studies were conducted, more midwives of a higher grade were employed to manage the birth centers than are usually employed in maternity units, and because of costs of converting existing facilities into delivery rooms. The quality of much of the literature was poor, although no studies were excluded for this reason. Selection bias was likely to be a problem in those studies not based on randomized controlled trials because, even where birth center eligibility was applied throughout, women who choose to deliver at home or in a birth center are likely to be different in terms of expectations and approach from women choosing to deliver in hospital. This review highlights the paucity of economic literature relating to home births and birth centers. Differences in results between studies may be

  13. Birth Territory: a theory for midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny Anne

    2006-07-01

    The theory of Birth Territory describes, explains and predicts the relationships between the environment of the individual birth room, issues of power and control, and the way the woman experiences labour physiologically and emotionally. The theory was synthesised inductively from empirical data generated by the authors in their roles as midwives and researchers. It takes a critical post-structural feminist perspective and expands on some of the ideas of Michel Foucault. Theory synthesis was also informed by current research about the embodied self and the authors' scholarship in the fields of midwifery, human biology, sociology and psychology. In order to demonstrate the significance of the theory, it is applied to two clinical stories that both occur in hospital but are otherwise different. This analysis supports the central proposition that when midwives use 'midwifery guardianship' to create and maintain the ideal Birth Territory then the woman is most likely to give birth naturally, be satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post-birth period. These benefits together with the reduction in medical interventions also benefit the baby. In addition, a positive Birth Territory is posited to have a broader impact on the woman's partner, family and society in general.

  14. Possibilities for reducing control and speeding up procedures in the judicial control, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, section 6, of licences granted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, J.

    1986-01-01

    On evaluating court rulings and literature it is seen that there is far-reaching disagreement in dealing with the density of administrative control in immission protection. Further problems consist in the fact that law-suits take extremely long to conclude and that the courts of administration are faced with an immense load of work. This thesis therefore aims to point out ways and means in accordance with democratic practices to reduce the difficulties now existing. Ways are sought to reduce control via the material immission protection regulations and via administrative regulations. A comparison with American legal practice shows that courts primarily supervise the administrative procedure and develop its rules further. That practice lies within the limits of the theory of the scope of evaluation. (HSCH) [de

  15. Feathering the nest: what women want from the birth environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Debbie; Newburn, Mary

    2006-07-01

    The National Childbirth Trust wants all women to be able to give birth with confidence and dignity, and believes it is important for women to begin motherhood feeling fit and well, good about themselves, and valued and supported by others. Good health and positive experiences can act as a buffer against the tiredness and demands of looking after a new baby. This paper draws on surveys conducted in 2003 and 2005 to describe what women want and need from birth environments, and how these factors can help or hinder them in having the kind of birth experience they desire.

  16. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  17. Systemic sclerosis, birth order and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul A J; Lester, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    A recent study identified increasing birth order to be a risk factor for the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This finding supports the theory that transplacental microchimerism may be a key pathological event in the initiation of SSc. We investigated the relationship between birth order and parity and the age of onset of SSc in South Australia. A retrospective analysis of patient data in the South Australian Scleroderma Register was performed. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire. Control data was collected prospectively using a similar questionnaire. The relationship between birth order, family size or parity and risk of subsequent development of SSc was analyzed by mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and eighty-seven index probands were identified and compared with 457 controls. Controls were well matched for gender, but not for age. No statistically significant relationship was identified between SSc and birth order, parity in females, family size, age at first pregnancy in females or gender of first child in parous females. Our data suggests that parity, age at first pregnancy and the gender of the first child are not relevant factors in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSc. Birth order and family size in both genders also appears irrelevant. These results argue against microchimerism as being relevant in the pathogenesis of SSc and add further support to the theory that stochastic events may be important in the etiopathogenesis of SSc. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. The New Rich and Their Unplanned Births: Stratified Reproduction under China's Birth-planning Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2017-12-01

    This article explores the creation and ramifications of a stratified reproductive system under China's state control of reproduction. Within this system, an emerging group of "new rich" are able to circumvent birth regulations and have unplanned births because of their financial capabilities and social networks. While China's birth-planning policy is meant to be enforced equally for all couples, the unequal access to wealth and bureaucratic power as a result of China's widening social polarization has created disparate reproductive rights and experiences. This article identifies three ways in which reproductive privileges are created. It further explores how a stratified reproductive system under state population control reinforces social polarization. While many socially marginalized couples are unable to register their unplanned children for citizenship status and social benefits, the new rich are able to legitimate their births and transfer their privilege and status to their children, thus reproducing a new generation of elites. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  19. Administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, April 1, 1975. Annual report, Jan--Dec 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare is required, Subpart 3, Section 2, Part F of Title III of the Public Health Service Act; 42 USC et seq. (Public Law 90-602), to submit an annual report to the President for transmittal to the Congress on or before April 1 on the adminstration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act. The detailed information required to be included in the report is outlined in Section 360D of Public Law 90-602. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Bureau of Radiological Health, has been delegated the authority for the day-to-day administration of the Act. This report covers the detailed operation of the Agency in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1974

  20. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form...... and implications for practice: as images on the Internet inform and persuade society about stereotypical behaviours, the trends of our time and sociocultural norms, it is important to recognise images of the technological birth room on the Internet may be influential in dictating women's attitudes, choices...

  1. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  2. PLANNED HOME BIRTH: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Serdinšek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Home birth is as old as humanity, but still most middle- and high-income countries consider hospitals as the safest birth settings, as complications regarding birth are highly unpredictable. Despite this there are a few countries in which home birth in integrated into official healthcare system (the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Canada etc.. Home births can be divided into unplanned and planned, and the latter can be further categorized by the presence of the birth attendants. This review focuses on planned home births, which are differently represented throughout the world. In the United States 0.6-1.0% of all children are born at home, in the United Kingdom 2-3%, in Canada 1.6% and in the Netherlands 20-30%. For Slovenia, the number of planned home births is unknown; however, in 2010 0.1% of children were born outside medical facilities.Conclusions: The safety of home birth in still under the debate. While research confirms smaller number of obstetric interventions and some complications in mothers who give birth at home, the data regarding the neonatal and perinatal mortality and morbidity is still conflicting. This confirms the need for large multicentric trials in this field. Current home birth guidelines emphasize that women should be well informed regarding the possible advantages and disadvantages of home births. In addition, the emphasis is on definition of selection criteria for home birth, indications for intrapartal transfer to the hospital and appropriate education of birth attendants. 

  3. Birth Characteristics and Childhood Leukemia Risk: Correlations With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, Mehmet T

    2015-07-01

    Birth characteristics such as birth order, birth weight, birth defects, and Down syndrome showed some of the first risk associations with childhood leukemia. Examinations of correlations between birth characteristics and leukemia risk markers have been limited to birth weight-related genetic polymorphisms. We integrated information on nongenetic and genetic markers by evaluating the relationship of birth characteristics, genetic markers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, and ALL risk together. The multiethnic study consisted of cases with childhood ALL (n=161) and healthy controls (n=261). Birth characteristic data were collected through questionnaires, and genotyping was achieved by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed risk associations for birth weight over 4000 g (odds ratios [OR]=1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.19), birth length (OR=1.18 per inch; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), and with gestational age (OR=1.10 per week; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). Only the HFE tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9366637 showed an inverse correlation with a birth characteristic, gestational age, with a gene-dosage effect (P=0.005), and in interaction with a transferrin receptor rs3817672 genotype (Pinteraction=0.05). This correlation translated into a strong association for rs9366637 with preterm birth (OR=5.0; 95% CI, 1.19-20.9). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of prenatal events in the development of childhood ALL. The inverse correlation of rs9366637 with gestational age has implications on the design of HFE association studies in birth weight and childhood conditions using full-term newborns as controls.

  4. An ADAM33 polymorphism associates with progression of preschool wheeze into childhood asthma: a prospective case-control study with replication in a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester M M Klaassen

    Full Text Available The influence of asthma candidate genes on the development from wheeze to asthma in young children still needs to be defined.To link genetic variants in asthma candidate genes to progression of wheeze to persistent wheeze into childhood asthma.In a prospective study, children with recurrent wheeze from the ADEM (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study were followed until the age of six. At that age a classification (transient wheeze or asthma was based on symptoms, lung function and medication use. In 198 children the relationship between this classification and 30 polymorphisms in 16 asthma candidate genes was assessed by logistic regression. In case of an association based on a p<0.10, replication analysis was performed in an independent birth cohort study (KOALA study, n = 248 included for the present analysis.In the ADEM study, the minor alleles of ADAM33 rs511898 and rs528557 and the ORMDL3/GSDMB rs7216389 polymorphisms were negatively associated, whereas the minor alleles of IL4 rs2243250 and rs2070874 polymorphisms were positively associated with childhood asthma. When replicated in the KOALA study, ADAM33 rs528557 showed a negative association of the CG/GG-genotype with progression of recurrent wheeze into childhood asthma (0.50 (0.26-0.97 p = 0.04 and no association with preschool wheeze.Polymorphisms in ADAM33, ORMDL3/GSDMB and IL4 were associated with childhood asthma in a group of children with recurrent wheeze. The replication of the negative association of the CG/GG-genotype of rs528557 ADAM33 with childhood asthma in an independent birth cohort study confirms that a compromised ADAM33 gene may be implicated in the progression of wheeze into childhood asthma.

  5. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  6. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  7. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  8. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  9. Keeping it Natural: Does Persuasive Magazine Content Have an Effect on Young Women's Intentions for Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kate; Miller, Yvette D

    2015-01-01

    Information in the popular media tends to be biased toward promoting the benefits of medicalized birth for low-risk pregnancies. We aimed to assess the effect of communicating the benefits of non-medicalized birth in magazine articles on women's birth intentions and to identify the mechanisms by which social communication messages affected women's intentions for birth. A convenience sample of 180 nulliparous Australian women aged 18-35 years were randomly exposed to a magazine article endorsing non-medicalized birth (using either celebrity or non-celebrity endorsement) or organic eating (control) throughout June-July 2011. Magazine articles that endorsed non-medicalized birth targeted perceived risk of birth, expectations for labor and birth, and attitudes toward birth. These variables and intention for birth were assessed by self-report before and after exposure. Exposure to a magazine article that endorsed non-medicalized birth significantly reduced women's intentions for a medicalized birth, regardless of whether the endorsement was by celebrities or non-celebrities. Changes in perceived risk of birth mediated the effect of magazine article exposure on women's intentions for a medicalized birth. Persuasive communication that endorses non-medicalized birth could be delivered at the population level and may reduce women's intentions for a medicalized birth.

  10. Cervical mucus properties stratify risk for preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha S Critchfield

    Full Text Available Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth.To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus.Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction.

  11. Needle-free jet injection of rapid-acting insulin improves early postprandial glucose control in patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, E.E.; Tack, C.J.J.; Galan, B.E. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clamp studies have shown that the absorption and action of rapid-acting insulin are faster with injection by a jet injector than with administration by conventional pen. To determine whether these pharmacokinetic changes also exist in patients with diabetes and benefit postprandial

  12. Conversion of daily pegvisomant to weekly pegvisomant combined with long-acting somatostatin analogs, in controlled acromegaly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); R.A. Feelders (Richard); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe efficacy of combined treatment in active acromegaly with both long-acting somatostatin analogs (SRIF) and pegvisomant (PEG-V) has been well established. The aim was to describe the PEG-V dose reductions after the conversion from daily PEG-V to combination treatment. To clarify the

  13. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  14. Comparison of acupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone on live birth in anovulatory infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hu, Zhenxing; Wu, Wanting; Lai, Maohua; Wu, Taixiang; Ma, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered to be one of the major pathophysiological changes in PCOS that leads to anovulatory infertility. We hypothesise that electroacupuncture pretreatment improves insulin sensitivity and leads to a higher ovulation rate and greater chances of live birth after the induction of ovulation. The effect of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by ovulation induction in women with anovulatory PCOS has not been investigated before, and we present here a randomised controlled trial to test this hypothesis by comparing electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone in anovulatory women with PCOS. Methods/analysis This is a multicentre, randomised,and controlled trial. A total of 384 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomly allocated by a central randomisation system to the treatment group or the control group in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment group will undergo 16 weeks of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by 4 cycles of letrozole, and the control group will only undergo 4 cycles of letrozole. The primary outcome will be the live birth rate. All statistical analyses will be performed using the SPSS program V.21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA), and a p value <0.05 will be considered statistically significant. Ethics/dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committees of each participating centre. Written consent will be obtained from each patient and her husband before any study procedure is performed. Adverse events will be categorised, and the percentage of patients experiencing adverse events or serious adverse events during the treatment period will be documented. The results of this trial will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international meetings. Trial registration number NCT02491333. PMID:27855085

  15. Male scarcity is associated with higher prevalence of premature gestation and low birth weight births across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Clark, Jillian; Vanas, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Modern adverse birth outcomes may partially result from mechanisms evolved to evaluate environmental conditions and regulate maternal investment trade-offs. Male scarcity in a population is associated with a cluster of characteristics related to higher mating effort and lower paternal investment. We predicted that modern populations with male scarcity would have shorter gestational times and lower birth weights on average. We compared US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention county-aggregated year 2000 birth records with US Decennial Census data. We combined these data in a path model with the degree of male scarcity and known socio-economic predictors of birth outcomes as exogenous predictors of prematurity and low birth weight, with single mother households as a proportion of families with children as a mediator (N = 450). Male scarcity was directly associated with higher rates of low birth weight. Male scarcity made significant indirect predictions of rates of prematurity and low birth weight, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers. Aggregate socio-economic status also indirectly predicted birth outcomes, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers, whereas the proportion African American retained both direct and indirect predictions of adverse birth outcomes. Male scarcity influences life history tradeoffs, with consequences for important social and public health issues such as adverse birth outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Was it easy to use an Asthma Control Test (ACT) in different clinical practice settings in a tertiary hospital in Singapore?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Lathy; Earnest, Arul; Abisheganaden, John; Chee, Jane

    2009-12-01

    The Asthma Control Test (ACT) is a 5-item self-administered tool designed to assess asthma control. It is said to be simple, easy and can be administered quickly by patients in the clinical practice setting. This stated benefit has yet to be demonstrated in our local clinical practice setting. The aim was to identify factors associated with difficulty in the administration of the ACT in different clinical practice settings in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. This is a prospective study performed from April to June 2008. All patients diagnosed with asthma and referred to an asthma nurse from the in-patient and out-patient clinical practice setting in Tan Tock Seng Hospital were enrolled. Four hundred and thirty-four patients were asked to complete the ACT tool. In the univariate model, we found that age, clinical setting and medical history to be significantly associated with the completion of the ACT. The odds of completion decreased by a factor of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89 to 0.94) for every year's increase in age, and this was statistically significant (P <0.001). Similarly, the odds ratio of completion for those with more than 3 medical conditions by history were 0.59 (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.71) as compared to those with less than 3 medical conditions by history, and this was also significant (P <0.001). In the multivariate model, we only found age to be an independent and significant factor. After adjusting for age, none of the other variables initially significant in the univariate model remained significant. The results show that the ACT was simple and easy to be administered in younger-aged patients.

  17. Time from cervical conization to pregnancy and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N

    2007-02-01

    To estimate whether the time interval between cervical conization and subsequent pregnancy is associated with risk of preterm birth. Our study is a case control study nested in a retrospective cohort. Women who underwent colposcopic biopsy or conization with loop electrosurgical excision procedure, large loop excision of the transformation zone, or cold knife cone and subsequently delivered at our hospital were identified with electronic databases. Variables considered as possible confounders included maternal race, age, marital status, payor status, years of education, self-reported tobacco use, history of preterm delivery, and dimensions of cone specimen. Conization was not associated with preterm birth or any subtypes of preterm birth. Among women who underwent conization, those with a subsequent preterm birth had a shorter conization-to-pregnancy interval (337 days) than women with a subsequent term birth (581 days) (P=.004). The association between short conization-to-pregnancy interval and preterm birth remained significant when controlling for confounders including race and cone dimensions. The effect of short conization-to-pregnancy interval on subsequent preterm birth was more persistent among African Americans when compared with white women. Women with a short conization-to-pregnancy interval are at increased risk for preterm birth. Women of reproductive age who must have a conization procedure can be counseled that conceiving within 2 to 3 months of the procedure may be associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. II.

  18. A European multicentre survey of impulse control behaviours in Parkinson's disease patients treated with short- and long-acting dopamine agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, A; Sauerbier, A; Antonini, A; Weintraub, D; Martinez-Martin, P; Kessel, B; Henriksen, T; Falup-Pecurariu, C; Silverdale, M; Durner, G; Røkenes Karlsen, K; Grilo, M; Odin, P; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2016-08-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated primarily with dopamine agonist (DA) use. Comparative surveys of clinical occurrence of impulse control behaviours on longer acting/transdermal DA therapy across age ranges are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of ICDs in PD patients across several European centres treated with short- or long-acting [ropinirole (ROP); pramipexole (PPX)] and transdermal [rotigotine skin patch (RTG)] DAs, based on clinical survey as part of routine clinical care. A survey based on medical records and clinical interviews of patients initiating or initiated on DA treatment (both short- and long-acting, and transdermal) across a broad range of disease stages and age groups was performed. Four hundred and twenty-five cases were included [mean age 68.3 years (range 37-90), mean duration of disease 7.5 years (range 0-37)]. ICD frequencies (as assessed by clinical interview) were significantly lower with RTG (4.9%; P controlling for possible confounding factors. © 2016 EAN.

  19. Preterm birth, an unresolved issue

    OpenAIRE

    Beliz?n, Jose M; Hofmeyr, Justus; Buekens, Pierre; Salaria, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Premature birth is the world?s leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global issue with research efforts focusing on uterine quiescence and activation, the ?omics? approaches and implementation science in order to reduce the incidence ...

  20. Birth Order and Educational Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Boden, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between birth order and later educational outcomes in a birth cohort of more than 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of twenty-five. Being later born was associated with gaining fewer educational qualifications at secondary level and beyond. The use of nested models to control for the confounding…