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Sample records for birth cohort studies

  1. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...

  2. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been ...

  3. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...

  4. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  5. Etiology of atopy in infancy: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Thijs, C.; Penders, J.; Snijders, B.E.P.; Stelma, F.; Reimerink, J.; Koopmans, M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Huber, M.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bie, R. de; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora

  6. Breastfeeding and snoring: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn K Brew

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. METHODS: In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. RESULTS: Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81 and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00. Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71. The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.

  7. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze. Seven hundred and thirty‐eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over‐representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction...... was high and the adherence equally high with 685 children (98%) attending the 1 year clinic visit and 667 children (95%) attending the 2 year clinic visit. The COPSAC2010 birth cohort study provides longitudinal clinical follow‐up with highly specific end‐points, exposure assessments, and biobanking....... Their children were followed at the clinic with deep phenotyping and collection of biological samples at nine regular visits until the age of 3 and at acute symptoms. Randomized controlled trials of high‐dose vitamin D and fish oil supplements were conducted during pregnancy, and a trial of azithromycin...

  8. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Dubakiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558 established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers.

  9. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) is a consortium of 26 leading European research centres committed to establish a European research area of excellence in the field of allergy and asthma. AIM: One of the GA2LEN work packages was designed to identify and compare...... asthma and atopic diseases. Data were collected by visiting most of the participating research teams and interviewing all relevant study personnel. For each study, the type of objective/subjective outcome parameters and potentially influential factors were recorded precisely for every time point during...... the existing European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review compares their subjective and objective outcomes as well as exposure variables. METHODS: A common database was established to assess study characteristics of observational birth cohort studies designed to examine...

  10. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  11. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas......Family-based studies, including intergenerational, sibling, and twin studies, are increasingly being used to explore life course epidemiology. However, there are issues relating to study design and the statistical analysis of family-based studies that are still not well understood...

  12. Developmental origins of physical fitness: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40 and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28 higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m(2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with -0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI -0.91 to -0.24 lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF.

  13. Developmental Origins of Physical Fitness: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Forsén, Tom; Ylihärsilä, Hilkka; Paile-Hyvärinen, Maria; Barker, D. J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. Methods/Principal Findings This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study) includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40) and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28) higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with −0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI −0.91 to −0.24) lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. Conclusion/Significance We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF. PMID:21799817

  14. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with

  15. Generations, reproduction and birth outcome. A registry-based cohort study in Norway 1967-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nordtveit, Tone Irene

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Our aim was to describe associations between birth outcomes across two generations. Hypotheses were proposed about how genetic and environmental, behavioural and socioeconomic factors may act on reproduction and birth outcomes through generations. Methods. Population-based cohort studies for two generations. Data were derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) based on all births in Norway between 1967 and 2006 (Paper I 1967-2004), more than 2.3 million b...

  16. Neonatal outcomes after preterm birth by mothers’ health insurance status at birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsdóttir Kristjana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. Methods The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32–36 weeks gestation from Western Australia during 1998–2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time until establishment of unassisted breathing (>1 minute, neonatal resuscitation (endotracheal intubation or external cardiac massage and admission to a neonatal special care unit. Results Compared with infants of privately insured women, infants of publicly insured women were more likely to receive a low Apgar score (ARR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.06-6.52 and take longer to establish unassisted breathing (ARR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, yet, they were less likely to be admitted to a special care unit (ARR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.80-0.87. No significant differences were evident in neonatal resuscitation between the groups (ARR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54-2.67. Conclusions The underlying reasons for the lower rate of special care admissions in infants of publicly insured women compared with privately insured women despite the higher rate of low Apgar scores is yet to be determined. Future research is

  17. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Aims Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. Method We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 yea...

  18. Infertility and preterm delivery, birthweight, and Caesarean section: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    , longitudinal studies enrolling couples irrespective of infertility treatment. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort: 55 906 singleton live births from women who reported their waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and other covariates in an interview during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy...

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Trajectory of Overweight from Birth to Mid-Childhood: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Marlowe Gates Dieckmann; Laura Gottlieb; Jessica Chow; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; n≈4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO ...

  20. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National Birth Cohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J L; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work. METHODS: Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference). The laboratory technicians wer...

  1. Disease activity in pregnant women with Crohn's disease and birth outcomes: a regional Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Hundborg, Heidi H; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: CD is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, but existing studies have not assessed the impact of disease activity during pregnancy. We examined the impact of disease activity on birth outcomes: LBW, preterm birth, LBW at term, and CAs. METHODS: All births by CD women...... of clinical details (including disease activity and drug therapy during pregnancy). The exposed cohort (N = 71) constituted pregnancies with low/moderate-high disease activity during pregnancy, and the unexposed cohort (N = 86) those with inactive disease. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate...... the adjusted relative risks (with 95% confidence intervals) for adverse birth outcomes associated with disease activity in CD pregnancies. In subanalysis, we examined the impact of moderate-high activity. RESULTS: In women with disease activity, the adjusted risks of LBW, LBW at term, preterm birth, and CAs...

  2. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self......-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week...

  4. Cancer risk in children and adolescents with birth defects: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D Botto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa. A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state's births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7 in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research.

  5. Cohort changes in cognitive function among Danish centenarians. A comparative study of 2 birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen;

    2008-01-01

    cohort and worse cognitive performance for the centenarians in the 1905 group living in nursing homes compared to the nursing home dwellers in the 1895 cohort. CONCLUSION: The increasing number of centenarians may not entail larger proportions of cognitively impaired individuals in this extreme age group.......BACKGROUND/AIM: The objective was to examine cohort changes in cognitive function in 2 cohorts of centenarians born 10 years apart. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Danish Centenarians comprises all Danes reaching the age of 100 in the period April 1, 1995 through May 31, 1996. A total of 207 out......-Mental State Examination. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in cognitive score between the two centenarian birth cohorts. However, modest tendencies were seen towards better cognitive functioning for the centenarians in the 1905 cohort living at home compared to the home-dwelling ones in the 1895...

  6. Early Predictors of Eating Problems in Preadolescence-A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The epidemiology of childhood eating problems is far from being fully described. The present study aims to explore early predictors of eating behavior problems in preadolescence. Methods: The study sample comprised 1,939 children from the birth cohort study, the Copenhagen Child Cohort...... (CCC2000). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations among infancy health, developmental and relational factors, maternal mental health problems, socioeconomic factors, parental reported eating behavior patterns in preschool age and eating behavior problems in preadolescence...

  7. Occlusal characteristics in 3-year-old children – results of a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Methods Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) wer...

  8. The Pelotas birth cohort study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed.

  9. The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

  10. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina

    2006-06-01

    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  11. Clinical prediction rule for RSV bronchiolitis in healthy newborns: prognostic birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.L.; Bont, L.; Wilbrink, B.; Belderbos, M.E.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Visser, G.H.; Rovers, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine predictors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among healthy newborns. METHODS: In this prospective birth cohort study, 298 healthy term newborns born in 2 large hospitals in the Netherlands were monitored throughout the

  12. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  13. Multiple births and maternal mental health from pregnancy to 5 years after birth: A longitudinal population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Ystrom

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of population-based studies on multiple births and maternal mental health. Having a high-risk pregnancy by bearing two or more children is a stressful life event, and the challenges of parenting two or more children probably also lead to a high level of parental stress. There are a few results on multiple births and maternal mental health from studies on in vitro fertilization samples. The only previous cohort study on multiple birth and maternal mental health included a single measure of depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum. We aim to estimate the relative risk for depression and anxiety after multiple birth in a population-based prospective cohort study while adjusting for factors prior and subsequent to fertilization.Methods: We used data from 87,807 pregnancies included in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Information on multiple birth was retrieved from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry, and maternal mental health was assessed at 17th and 30th week of gestation and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. There were 1,842 plural births included in the study (i.e. 1,821 twin births and 21 higher order births. We predicted maternal mental health at each time point, subsequently adjusting for 1 factors prior to fertilization (e.g. maternal age and in vitro fertilization; 2 factors during pregnancy (e.g. hypertensive states; 3 factors at delivery (e.g. cesarean section; 4 child-related postnatal complications (e.g. intracranial hemorrhage; and 5 concurrent depression or anxiety after pregnancy.Results: Adjusted for antecedents of plural birth, mothers expecting a plural birth had a normal risk for anxiety (RR=1.05; 95% CI 0.92-1.20 and depression (RR=1.02; 95% CI 0.89-1.16 at 17th week of gestation. However, plural birth was associated with maternal depression at 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum and maternal anxiety at 3 years postpartum. The trend was for the association to increase across time, and

  14. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F;

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...... to the study. It is expected that a large number of gene-environmental hypotheses need to be based on case-control analyses within a cohort like this....

  15. Risk factors for congenital cryptorchidism in a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina K; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for congenital cryptorchidism were investigated in a prospective birth cohort study in Denmark and Finland from 1997 to 2001. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 2,496 boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth (cryptorchid/healthy: 128/2,368) and three months......, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) (OR (95%CI)) 3.04 (95%CI 1.00-9.27) and 3.01 (95%CI 1.27-7.15), respectively. No association was seen for mothers (n = 79) who had infertility treatment in form of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment (OR 0.71 95%CI...

  16. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Albert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity to traffic is a proxy for traffic-related exposures that takes into account within-city contrasts. Methods We investigated the association between residential proximity to traffic and various birth and pregnancy outcomes in 7,339 pregnant women and their children participating in a population-based cohort study. Residential proximity to traffic was defined as 1 distance-weighted traffic density in a 150 meter radius, and 2 proximity to a major road. We estimated associations of these exposures with birth weight, and with the risks of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth. Additionally, we examined associations with pregnancy-induced hypertension, (preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Results There was considerable variation in distance-weighted traffic density. Almost fifteen percent of the participants lived within 50 m of a major road. Residential proximity to traffic was not associated with birth and pregnancy outcomes in the main analysis and in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Mothers exposed to residential traffic had no higher risk of adverse birth outcomes or pregnancy complications in this study. Future studies may be refined by taking both temporal and spatial variation in air pollution exposure into account.

  17. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Aluísio J D Barros; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Victora,César Gomes

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding bre...

  18. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  19. Predictors of birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms: secondary analysis of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms during the early postnatal period. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of 1824 women who gave birth in one large hospital in England. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were developed for analyses. Results showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms were more frequently observed in black women and in women who had a higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared to those with a lower BMI. Women who have a history of mental illness as well as those who gave birth before arriving at the hospital, underwent an emergency caesarean section or experienced severe maternal morbidity or neonatal complications also showed symptoms. Women's perceived control during labour and birth significantly reduced the effects of some risk factors. A higher level of perceived social support during the postnatal period also reduced the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the perspective of clinical practice, improving women's sense of control during labour and birth appears to be important, as does providing social support following the birth.

  20. The influence of high birth weight on the blood pressure during childhood-a cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of high birth weight(HBW) on blood pressure(BP) during childhood. Meth-ods A total of 1 435 couples with high or normal birth weight were selected from a birth cohort who were born between 1993 and 1995 in Wuxi,China and,followed between 2005 and 2007. A questionnaire survey was

  1. Maternal Fish Consumption and Infant Birth Size and Gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner John M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. Methods 2,716 infants born between 1986–1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks, birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect. Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1–2, 3–7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams, birth length (in centimeters, and head and chest circumference (in centimeters were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. Results Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant

  2. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Belinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

  3. Risk factors for congenital cryptorchidism in a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida N Damgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risk factors for congenital cryptorchidism were investigated in a prospective birth cohort study in Denmark and Finland from 1997 to 2001. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 2,496 boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth (cryptorchid/healthy: 128/2,368 and three months old (33/2,215. Information on risk factors was obtained antenatally (questionnaire/interview or at birth from birth records. Use of nicotine substitutes during pregnancy (n = 40 and infertility treatment by intrauterine insemination (n = 49 were associated with an increased risk for cryptorchidism, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval (OR (95%CI 3.04 (95%CI 1.00-9.27 and 3.01 (95%CI 1.27-7.15, respectively. No association was seen for mothers (n = 79 who had infertility treatment in form of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI or in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment (OR 0.71 95%CI 0.21-2.38. In total, 728 (29% reported to have smoked during pregnancy, however, no increased risk among maternal smokers was found. Furthermore, we found statistically significant associations between cryptorchidism and low birth weight, prematurity, being small for gestational age, substantial vaginal bleeding, and breech presentation, which are in accordance with other studies. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed two novel risk factors for cryptorchidism: intrauterine insemination and the use of nicotine substitutes in pregnancy. This suggests that cryptorchidism may not only be associated to genetic factors, but also to maternal lifestyle and exposure.

  4. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success.

  5. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  6. Rotavirus seasonality and age effects in a birth cohort study of southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sarkar

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the temporal patterns in disease occurrence is valuable for formulating effective disease preventive programs. Cohort studies present a unique opportunity to explore complex interactions associated with emergence of seasonal patterns of infectious diseases. METHODS: We used data from 452 children participating in a birth cohort study to assess the seasonal patterns of rotavirus diarrhea by creating a weekly time series of rotavirus incidence and fitting a Poisson harmonic regression with biannual peaks. Age and cohort effects were adjusted for by including the weekly counts of number of children in the study and the median age of cohort in a given week. Weekly average temperature, humidity and an interaction term to reflect the joint effect of temperature and humidity were included to consider the effects of meteorological variables. RESULTS: In the overall rotavirus time series, two significant peaks within a single year were observed--one in winter and the other in summer. The effect of age was found to be the most significant contributor for rotavirus incidence, showing a strong negative association. Seasonality remained a significant factor, even after adjusting for meteorological parameters, and the age and cohort effects. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology for assessing seasonality in cohort studies is not yet developed. This is the first attempt to explore seasonal patterns in a cohort study with a dynamic denominator and rapidly changing immune response on individual and group levels, and provides a highly promising approach for a better understanding of the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases, tracking emergence of pathogenic strains and evaluating the efficacy of intervention programs.

  7. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandel Megan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.

  8. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  9. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods: Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of

  10. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight......, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...

  11. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet...... in pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight for gestational age, lower risk of SGA, and higher risk of LGA. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  12. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  13. Early Life Origins Cognitive Decline: Findings in Elderly Men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Alastalo, Hanna; Leskinen, Jukka T.; Nyman, Kai; Henriksson, Markus; Lahti, Jari; Lahti, Marius; Pyhälä, Riikka; Tuovinen, Soile; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. Design and Setting A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. Participants Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4) at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5) years at the second cognitive testing. Main Outcome Measures The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. Results Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04–1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72) and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07–0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19). Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22–1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79) and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99). Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. Conclusions Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical. PMID:23382945

  14. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Raikkonen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4 at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5 years at the second cognitive testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. RESULTS: Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72 and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19. Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79 and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99. Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  15. Size at birth and blood pressure in young adults: findings from a Brazilian birth cohort study

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    Viviane Cunha Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de presión arterial limítrofe (PAL e hipertensión (HT entre adultos jóvenes y evaluar la asociación entre tamaño al nacer y PAL/HT. MÉTODOS: : Los datos fueron colectados en el primer estudio de cohorte de nacimientos brasileño en Ribeirao Preto (sureste de Brasil, iniciado en 1978/79. De 6.827 recién nacidos de parto único hospitalario, 2.060 fueron evaluados a los 23/25 años. Se realizaron colecta de sangre, evaluación antropométrica y obtenidas informaciones sobre ocupación, escolaridad, hábitos de vida y enfermedades crónicas. Presión arterial (PA fue clasificada en: 1 PAL: PA sistólica (PAS ≥ 130 y < 140 mm Hg y/o PA diastólica (PAD ≥ 85 y < 90 mm Hg; 2 HT: PAS ≥ 140 y/o PAD ≥ 90 mm Hg. Se aplicó modelo de regresión logística politómica. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de PAL fue de 13,5% (hombres 23,2% y la de HT, 9,5% (hombres 17,7%. PAL fue independientemente asociada con sexo masculino (Riesgo Relativo - RR 8,84; 95%IC: 6,09;12,82, estatura al nacer ≥ 50 cm (RR 1,97; 1,04; 3,73, índice de masa corporal (IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,23; 2,02; 5,15 y circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 1,61; 1,13;2,29, mientras el HT se asoció con sexo masculino (RR 15,18; 8,92;25,81, IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,68; 2,23;6,06, circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 2,68; 1,77;4,05 y glicemia elevada (RR 2,55; 1,27;5,10, pero no con estatura al nacer. CONCLUSIONES: Las prevalencias de PAL y HT entre los adultos jóvenes de la cohorte fueron mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Mayor estatura al nacer fue asociado con PAL, pero no con HT, mientras que el peso al nacer no estuvo asociado con PAL o HT. Factores de riesgo de adulto explicaron la mayoría de los aumentos de PAL o HT.

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder, child abuse history, birth weight, and gestational age: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Julia S.; Low, Lisa Kane; Sperlich, Mickey; Ronis, David L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which prenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestation, and to explore the effects of childhood maltreatment as the antecedent trauma exposure. Design Prospective three-cohort study Setting Ann Arbor and Detroit, Michigan, United States Sample 839 diverse nulliparas in PTSD-positive (n=255), trauma-exposed, resilient (n=307), and non-exposed to trauma (n=277) cohorts Methods Standardised telephone interview prior to 28 weeks to ascertain trauma history, PTSD, depression, substance use, mental health treatment history, and sociodemographics, with chart abstraction to obtain chronic condition history, antepartum complications, and prenatal care data, as well as outcomes. Main outcome measures Infant birth weight and gestational age per delivery record. Results Women with PTSD during pregnancy had a mean birth weight 283 grams less than trauma-exposed, resilient women and 221 grams less than non-exposed women (F(3, 835) = 5.4, p = .001). PTSD was also associated with shorter gestation in multivariate models that took childhood abuse history into account. Stratified models indicated that PTSD subsequent to child abuse trauma exposure was most strongly associated with adverse outcomes. PTSD was a stronger predictor than African American race of shorter gestation and a nearly equal predictor of birth weight. Prenatal care was not associated with better outcomes among women abused in childhood. Conclusions Abuse-related PTSD may be an additional or alternative explanation for adverse perinatal outcomes associated with low socioeconomic status and African American race in the United States. Biological and interventions research is warranted along with replication studies in other nations. PMID:21790957

  17. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

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    Radek Bukowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004 and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010. Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively. Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth

  18. Late preterm birth is a risk factor for growth faltering in early childhood: a cohort study

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    Victora Cesar G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of preterm birth are increasing worldwide and this increase is mostly due to infants born between 34 and 36 weeks of gestational age, the so-called "late preterm" births. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of late preterm birth over growth outcomes, assessed when children were 12 and 24 months old. Methods In 2004, all births taking place in Pelotas (Southern Brazil were recruited for a cohort study. Late preterm (34/0-36/6 weeks of gestational age and term children (37/0-42/6 weeks were compared in terms of weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores. Weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores below -2 were considered, respectively, underweight, stunting and wasting. Singleton newborns with adequate weight for gestational age at birth, successfully followed-up either at 12 or 24 months of age were analyzed and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals calculated through logistic regression. Results 3285 births were included, 371 of whom were late preterm births (11.3%. At 12 months, prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were, respectively, 3.4, 8.7 and 1.1% among late preterm children, against 1.0, 3.4 and 0.3% among term children. At 24 months, correspondent values were 3.0, 7.2 and 0.8% against 0.8, 2.9 and 0.4%. Comparing with the term children, adjusted odds of being underweighted among late preterm children was 2.57 times higher (1.27; 5.23 at 12 months and 3.36 times higher (1.56; 7.23 at 24; of being stunted, 2.35 (1.49; 3.70 and 2.30 (1.40; 3.77; and of being wasted, 3.98 (1.07; 14.85 and 1.87 (0.50; 7.01. Weight gain from birth to 12 and 24 months was similar in late preterm and term children, whereas length gain was higher in the former group in both periods. Conclusion Late preterm children grow faster than children born at term, but they are at increased risk of underweight and stunting in the first two years of life. Failure to thrive in

  19. Lifetime overweight and obesity and body composition in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callo, Gabriela; Gigante, Denise Pretucci; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between overweight/obesity at different moments in the life cycle and body composition in early adulthood. Data were used from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, which has followed live born children of families residing in the urban area of Pelotas at different ages. At 30 years of age, 3,701 cohort members were interviewed and body composition was assessed using Bod Pod, 2,219 cohort members had at least one weight and height measurement taken in the three periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), 24% never presented overweight, and 68.6% were never classified as obese. Elevated body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat at 30 years of age were associated with individuals classified as overweight in all three periods or in adolescence and adulthood, while those with overweight/obesity only in childhood or adolescence showed mean BMI and percent body fat similar to those who had never presented overweight/obesity. The results indicate the benefit of early interruption of overweight/obesity.

  20. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression.

  1. Undernutrition in early life and body composition of adolescent males from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima, Rosângela C

    2007-05-01

    The evidence for an association between poor nutrition in early life and subsequent obesity is inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the associations between stunting, wasting and underweight at 2 and 4 years of age, and body composition in adolescence in male subjects studied since birth. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study included all children born in maternity hospitals and living in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All males born in 1982 were legally required to enlist in the army between January and April 2000. We were thus able to track 2250 subjects in 2000 (78.9% of the original cohort). Anthropometric measurements were collected in 1984 and 1986, and body composition was assessed in 2000. In the present analysis, we used as predictors the nutritional indices height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age presented in six categories. Outcomes included fat, lean and body mass indices and fat:lean mass ratio, derived from anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. ANOVA and linear regression were used in the analyses to adjust for confounding. All predictors were positively associated with fat and body mass indices. Height-for-age Z score at age 2 or 4 years was not associated with lean mass index, but all other predictors were associated. Fat:lean mass ratio was associated only with weight-for-height Z score. Our results suggest that undernutrition is not a risk factor for overweight and obesity in our population and may partially protect against fatness in adolescence.

  2. Subfecundity as a correlate of preeclampsia: A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    . By using interview data collected during the second trimester of pregnancy (1998–2001) from women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, they identified 20,034 and 24,698 singleton livebirths to primiparous and multiparous women, respectively, for whom preeclampsia information was available...

  3. The case for launch of an international DNA based birth cohort study

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    Igor Rudan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally.

  4. Establishment of the MAL-ED birth cohort study site in Vellore, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sushil M; Thomas, Rahul J; Kaki, Shiny; Sharma, Srujan L; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Raghava, Mohan V; Koshy, Beena; Bose, Anuradha; Rose, Anuradha; Rose, Winsley; Ramachandran, Anup; Joseph, A J; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-11-01

    The Indian Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) site is in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, in south India and is coordinated by the Christian Medical College, Vellore, which has many years of experience in establishing and following cohorts. India is a diverse country, and no single area can be representative with regard to many health and socioeconomic indicators. The site in Vellore is an urban semiorganized settlement or slum. In the study site, the average family size is 5.7, adults who are gainfully employed are mostly unskilled laborers, and 51% of the population uses the field as their toilet facility. Previous studies from Vellore slums have reported stunting in well over a third of children, comparable to national estimates. The infant mortality rate is 38 per 1000 live births, with deaths due mainly to perinatal and infectious causes. Rigorous staff training, monitoring, supervision and refinement of tools have been essential to maintaining the quality of the significantly large quantity of data collected. Establishing a field clinic within the site has minimized inconvenience to participants and researchers and enabled better rapport with the community and better follow-up. These factors contribute to the wealth of information that will be generated from the MAL-ED multisite cohort, which will improve our understanding of enteric infections and its interactions with malnutrition and development of young children.

  5. Infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort-A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budree, Shrish; Goddard, Elizabeth; Brittain, Kirsty; Cader, Shihaam; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J

    2016-10-02

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The choices of complementary foods, which are important in infant nutrition, are poorly described in this setting. We investigated infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Longitudinal feeding data were collected from March 2012 to March 2015. Feeding practices at birth, 6-10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months, were investigated using food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured at birth and 12 months. The quality of the diet was analyzed using the World Health Organization infant and young child feeding indicators. Regression models were used to explore associations between feeding and growth outcomes at 1 year. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was low (13%), and 19% of infants were introduced to solid foods before 4 months. There was high daily consumption of processed meat (56%) and inappropriate foods such as fruit juice (82%), soft drinks (54%), and refined sugary foods (51%) at 1 year. Dietary diversity and consumption of iron rich foods were low at 6 months (5% and 3%, respectively) but higher by 12 months (75% and 78%). Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a lower height-for-age z-score at 1 year. Several dietary deficits and a rising trend in the consumption of inappropriate nutritionally poor foods were identified. These findings raise concern about poor dietary practices and the impact on child and long-term health.

  6. Maastricht essential fatty acid birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; De Groot, Renate; Stratakis, Nikos; Gielen, Marij; Hornstra, Gerard; Zeegers, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The Maastricht Essential Fatty Acid Birth cohort (MEFAB) was established in 1989 to study the changes in fatty acid concentration during pregnancy and how this related to the fatty acid concentrations of the neonate. The original sample contains data of 1203 subjects. Some participants whom particip

  7. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

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    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  8. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Susan M; Mackerras, Dorothy; Singh, Gurmeet; Bucens, Ingrid; Flynn, Kathryn; Reid, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population. PMID:12659639

  9. Risk Factors for Deformational Plagiocephaly at Birth and at 7 Weeks of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlimmeren, van Leo A.; Graaf, van der Jolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J.M.; Engelbert, Raoul H.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at bir

  10. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  11. Reliability of variables on the North Carolina birth certificate: a comparison with directly queried values from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinikoor, Lisa C; Messer, Lynne C; Laraia, Barbara A; Kaufman, Jay S

    2010-01-01

    Birth records are an important source of data for examining population-level birth outcomes, but questions about the reliability of these vital records exist. We sought to assess the reliability of birth certificate data by comparing them with data from a large prospective cohort. Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition cohort study participants were matched with their birth certificates to assess agreement for maternal demographics, health behaviours, previous pregnancies and major pregnancy events. Agreement among categorical variables was assessed using percentage agreement and kappa statistics; for continuous variables, Spearman's correlations and concordance correlation coefficients were used. The majority of variables had high agreement between the two data sources, especially for maternal demographic and birth outcome variables. Variables measuring anaemia, gestational diabetes and alcohol consumption showed the lowest correlations. Number of cigarettes smoked and number of previous pregnancies differed by education categories. For most variables, birth records appear to be a good source of reliable information. With the exception of a few variables that differed by education, most variables did not differ by stratum of race or education. Our research further supports the use of birth certificates as a reliable source of population-level data.

  12. Environments For Healthy Living (EFHL Griffith birth cohort study: characteristics of sample and profile of antenatal exposures

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    Cameron Cate M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Environments for Healthy Living (EFHL study is a repeated sample, longitudinal birth cohort in South East Queensland, Australia. We describe the sample characteristics and profile of maternal, household, and antenatal exposures. Variation and data stability over recruitment years were examined. Methods Four months each year from 2006, pregnant women were recruited to EFHL at routine antenatal visits on or after 24 weeks gestation, from three public maternity hospitals. Participating mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on individual, familial, social and community exposure factors. Perinatal data were extracted from hospital birth records. Descriptive statistics and measures of association were calculated comparing the EFHL birth sample with regional and national reference populations. Data stability of antenatal exposure factors was assessed across five recruitment years (2006–2010 inclusive using the Gamma statistic for ordinal data and chi-squared for nominal data. Results Across five recruitment years 2,879 pregnant women were recruited which resulted in 2904 live births with 29 sets of twins. EFHL has a lower representation of early gestational babies, fewer still births and a lower percentage of low birth weight babies, when compared to regional data. The majority of women (65% took a multivitamin supplement during pregnancy, 47% consumed alcohol, and 26% reported having smoked cigarettes. There were no differences in rates of a range of antenatal exposures across five years of recruitment, with the exception of increasing maternal pre-pregnancy weight (p=0.0349, decreasing rates of high maternal distress (p=0.0191 and decreasing alcohol consumption (p Conclusions The study sample is broadly representative of births in the region and almost all factors showed data stability over time. This study, with repeated sampling of birth cohorts over multiple years, has the potential to make important contributions to

  13. Food insecurity and children's mental health: a prospective birth cohort study.

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    Maria Melchior

    Full Text Available Food insecurity (which can be defined as inadequate access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets individuals' dietary needs is concurrently associated with children's psychological difficulties. However, the predictive role of food insecurity with regard to specific types of children's mental health symptoms has not previously been studied. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, LSCDQ, a representative birth cohort study of children born in the Québec region, in Canada, in 1997-1998 (n = 2120. Family food insecurity was ascertained when children were 1½ and 4½ years old. Children's mental health symptoms were assessed longitudinally using validated measures of behaviour at ages 4½, 5, 6 and 8 years. Symptom trajectory groups were estimated to identify children with persistently high levels of depression/anxiety (21.0%, aggression (26.2%, and hyperactivity/inattention (6.0%. The prevalence of food insecurity in the study was 5.9%. In sex-adjusted analyses, children from food-insecure families were disproportionately likely to experience persistent symptoms of depression/anxiety (OR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15-2.79 and hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 3.06, 95% CI 1.68-5.55. After controlling for immigrant status, family structure, maternal age at child's birth, family income, maternal and paternal education, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting, only persistent hyperactivity/inattention remained associated with food insecurity (fully adjusted OR: 2.65, 95% CI 1.16-6.06. Family food insecurity predicts high levels of children's mental health symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/inattention. Addressing food insecurity and associated problems in families could help reduce the burden of mental health problems in children and reduce social inequalities in development.

  14. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort study.

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    Mary B Pierce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. CONCLUSIONS: Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the

  15. Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitrow, Melissa J; Moore, Vivienne M; Rumbold, Alice R; Davies, Michael J

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the timing, dose, and source of folate during pregnancy on childhood asthma by using data from an Australian prospective birth cohort study (n = 557) from 1998 to 2005. At 3.5 years and 5.5 years, 490 and 423 mothers and children participated in the study, respectively. Maternal folate intake from diet and supplements was assessed by food frequency questionnaire in early (late (30-34 weeks) pregnancy. The primary outcome was physician-diagnosed asthma, obtained by maternal-completed questionnaire. Asthma was reported in 11.6% of children at 3.5 years (n = 57) and in 11.8% of children at 5.5 years (n = 50). Folic acid taken in supplement form in late pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma at 3.5 years (relative risk (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.43) and with persistent asthma (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69). The effect sizes did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. The association was similar at 5.5 years but did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.42) in univariable models. These findings on childhood asthma support previous observations that supplementation with folate in pregnancy leads to an allergic asthma phenotype in mice via epigenetic mechanisms and is associated with poorer respiratory outcomes in young children.

  16. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  17. Amniotic Fluid Chemokines and Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study Utilizing a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls. Material...... and Methods A Danish historic birth cohort (HBC) kept at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen was utilized. Using data from Danish nation-wide health registers, a case-control study design of 414 cases and 820 controls was adopted. Levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α and RANTES were analyzed using Luminex xMAP technology...... (elevated 90th percentile adjusted OR: 2.32 [95% CI: 1.17 – 4.61]) compared to controls. An increased risk for infantile autism with elevated MCP-1 was also found (adjusted OR: 2.28 [95% CI: 1.16 – 4.48]). Elevated levels of MCP-1 may decipher an etiologic immunologic dysfunction or play rather an indirect...

  18. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  19. Early life origins of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela B von Bondorff

    Full Text Available There is some evidence linking sub-optimal prenatal development to an increased risk of disability pension (DP. Our aim was to investigate whether body size at birth was associated with transitioning into all-cause and cause-specific DP during the adult work career.10 682 people born in 1934-44 belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study had data on birth weight extracted from birth records, and on time, type and reason of retirement between 1971 and 2011 extracted from the Finnish Centre for Pensions.Altogether 21.3% transitioned into DP during the 40-year follow-up, mainly due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Average age of transitioning into DP was 51.3 (SD 8.4 for men and 52.2 (SD 7.6 for women. Cohort members who did not transition into DP retired 10 years later on average. Among men, higher birth weight was associated with a lower hazard of transitioning into DP, adjusted hazard ratio (HR being 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.99 for 1 SD increase in birth weight. For DP due to mental disorders the adjusted HR was 0.90, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99. A similar but non-significant trend was found for DP due to cardiovascular disease. Among women there were no associations between body size at birth and all-cause DP (p for interaction gender*birth weight on DP p = 0.007.Among men disability pension, particularly due to mental disorders, may have its origins in prenatal development. Given that those who retire due to mental health problems are relatively young, the loss to the workforce is substantial.

  20. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Salatino-Oliveira; Joseph Murray; Christian Kieling; Júlia Pasqualini Genro; Guilherme Polanczyk; Luciana Anselmi; Fernando Wehrmeister; Barros, Fernando C; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Luis Augusto Rohde; Mara Helena Hutz

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val 158 Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire w...

  1. The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC:a study of autism spectrum disorders in MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Surén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. In most cases, the cause of ASD is likely to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures occurring in fetal life or early infancy. Consequently, a prospective pregnancy cohort like MoBa represents an ideal platform for studies of ASDs in children.Methods: The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC Study has identified potential ASD cases in MoBa through questionnaire- based screening, parental and professional referrals, and linkages to the Norwegian Patient Register. ASD diagnoses have been ascertained through in-person clinical assessments and medical record reviews.Current results: By the end of 2012, the ABC Study had identified 518 ASD cases in MoBa. The ASD prevalence in school-age children is 0.7-0.8%, which is in line with nationwide estimates for Norway. The most important source of ASD case identification was registry linkages, while only a minority was detected through early screening. Published findings show that screening at 18 months misses the majority of ASD cases. Analyses of risk factors for ASDs have shown that maternal use of folic acid supplements in early pregnancy may lower the child’s risk of developing ASDs and that paternal obesity appears to increase the child’s risk of ASDs.Future plans: ASD case identification will continue through annual registry linkages and subsequent reviews of medical records. Analyses of plasma samples and RNA samples will be conducted to investigate prenatal and perinatal microbial exposures, innate immune and inflammatory responses, biomarkers of autism risk, and exposures to xenobiotics. Analyses of deciduous teeth will also investigate the effect of medications and environmental toxins. Exome sequencing of DNA from ASD cases and their parents is ongoing, and will elucidate the

  2. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  3. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Clemmensen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years....... Our findings support the notion of PE as a vulnerability marker of transdiagnostic psychosis. The effect of psychosis in first-degree relatives may operate through shared genetic and environmental factors....

  4. Spontaneous Abortion and a Diet Drug Containing Caffeine and Ephedrine: A Study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Howards, Penelope P.; Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Bech, Bodil H.; Nohr, Ellen A; Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; Charles Poole; Jørn Olsen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medications may be consumed periconceptionally before a woman knows she is pregnant. In this study, the authors evaluate the association of a prescription diet drug (Letigen) containing ephedrine (20 mg) and caffeine (200 mg) with spontaneous abortion (SAB) in the Danish National Birth Cohort. METHODS: Women were recruited during their first prenatal visit from 1996-2002. Pre-conception and early pregnancy medication use was reported on the enrollment form, and pregnancy outcome w...

  5. Seasonal variations of neuromotor development by 14 months of age: Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for mothers and children (HBC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji J Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.

  6. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hye-Youn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.

  7. Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. METHODOLOGY: Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. RESULTS: About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7, depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6, and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (<20 cigarettes/day OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.03; 1.84] and ≥ 20 cigarettes/day OR = 2.11[95% CI 1.31; 3.40]. Smoking by the partner was associated with decreased offspring happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.

  8. Active commuting throughout adolescence and central fatness before adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martinez-Gomez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active commuting is a good opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA across the lifespan that potentially might influence central body fat. We aimed to examine the prospective associations of active commuting at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with central body fat at 18 years. METHODS: Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3,649 participants. Active commuting, leisure-time PA and income were self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years. Waist circumference and trunk fat mass were collected at 18 years with the use of a 3-dimensional photonic scanner and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. RESULTS: Active commuting at 11 years was not prospectively associated with central body fat. However, we found that active commuting at 15 and 18 years were prospectively and cross-sectionally associated with central body fat variables, respectively, in boys but not in girls. Also, boys in the highest tertile of accumulated active commuting (i.e., average of active commuting at 11, 13 and 18 years were associated with -2.09 cm (95%CI: -3.24; -0.94 of waist circumference and -1.11 kg (95%CI: -1.74; -0.48 of trunk fat mass compared to boys in the lowest tertile. Analyses on changes in tertiles of active commuting from 11 and 15 years to 18 years with central body fat variables at 18 years showed that boys who remained consistently in the highest tertile or moved to a higher tertile had lower levels of central body fat compared to those consistently in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Active commuting throughout adolescence in boys, especially during middle and late adolescence, is associated with lower levels in central fatness before adulthood.

  9. Twin-singleton differences in intelligence: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine the difference in intelligence between singletons and twins in young adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. The study base consisted of data on the 445,463 males who were born alive in either single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20). Within this study base, there were data on 1,653 sibships of full brothers that included at least one man born in single birth and at least one man born in twin birth (4,307 persons, including 2,378 twins and 1,929 singletons). The intelligence scores of the singletons were 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-14%) of a standard deviation higher than those of the twins, after adjustment for birth year, birth order, parental ages at delivery, parental education levels, and other factors. The adjusted within-family difference was also 11% (95 % CI: 6-16%) of a standard deviation, indicating that unmeasured factors shared by siblings (e.g., maternal body height) have not influenced the estimate in important ways. When gestational age at birth was added to the model, the estimate for the difference in intelligence score was approximately the same. Including birth weight in the model strongly reduced the estimate. In conclusion, twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 had slightly lower intelligence in early adulthood compared with the singletons.

  10. Prospective validation of a prognostic model for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in late preterm infants: a multicenter birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten O Blanken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to update and validate a prediction rule for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV hospitalization in preterm infants 33-35 weeks gestational age (WGA. STUDY DESIGN: The RISK study consisted of 2 multicenter prospective birth cohorts in 41 hospitals. Risk factors were assessed at birth among healthy preterm infants 33-35 WGA. All hospitalizations for respiratory tract infection were screened for proven RSV infection by immunofluorescence or polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to update an existing prediction model in the derivation cohort (n = 1,227. In the validation cohort (n = 1,194, predicted versus actual RSV hospitalization rates were compared to determine validity of the model. RESULTS: RSV hospitalization risk in both cohorts was comparable (5.7% versus 4.9%. In the derivation cohort, a prediction rule to determine probability of RSV hospitalization was developed using 4 predictors: family atopy (OR 1.9; 95%CI, 1.1-3.2, birth period (OR 2.6; 1.6-4.2, breastfeeding (OR 1.7; 1.0-2.7 and siblings or daycare attendance (OR 4.7; 1.7-13.1. The model showed good discrimination (c-statistic 0.703; 0.64-0.76, 0.702 after bootstrapping. External validation showed good discrimination and calibration (c-statistic 0.678; 0.61-0.74. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospectively validated prediction rule identifies infants at increased RSV hospitalization risk, who may benefit from targeted preventive interventions. This prediction rule can facilitate country-specific, cost-effective use of RSV prophylaxis in late preterm infants.

  11. Socioeconomic disparities in birth weight and body mass index during infancy through age 7 years: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Howe, Laura D; Rasmussen, Mette; Due, Pernille; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated with birthweight z-scores and with BMI z-scores at age 5 and 12 months and 7 years, and we examined the socioeconomic differences in the tracking of these z-scores across infancy and childhood. Methods The associations were studied in a cohort of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort, single born between 1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. Results Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards between birth and age 7 years. At age 5 and 12 months, there were no educational gradient. A low maternal educational level was associated with lower birth weight for gestational age z-scores at birth for boys (−0.199; 95% CI −0.230 to −0.169) and girls (−0.198; 95% CI −0.229 to −0.167) and higher BMI z-scores at age 7 for boys (0.198; 95% CI 0.154 to 0.242) and girls (0.218; 95% CI 0.173 to 0.264). There was not a similarly clear pattern in the tracking between different household income groups. However, a low household income level was associated with higher z-scores of both birth weight and BMI at age 7 years, but with a much weaker gradient at 5 and 12 months. Conclusions The educational gradient shifts from positive with birth weight, to none during infancy to inverse with BMI at age 7 years. In contrast, the income gradient was positive at birth and at 7 years and much weaker during infancy. PMID:28110282

  12. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrandeur Jane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern

  13. Antiretroviral Therapy in Relation to Birth Outcomes among HIV-infected Women: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Sando, Mary Mwanyika; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Liu, Enju; Sando, David; Machumi, Lameck; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-04-01

    Although the beneficial effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for preventing mother-to-child transmission are indisputable, studies in developed and developing countries have reported conflicting findings on the association between ARV exposure and adverse birth outcomes. We conducted a prospective observational study at 10 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and treatment centers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Multivariate log-binomial regression was used to investigate the associations between ARV use and adverse birth outcomes among HIV-negative HIV-exposed infants. Our findings demonstrate an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes associated with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and identify the safest ARV regimens for use during pregnancy.

  14. Teenage Pregnancy and Female Educational Underachievement: A Prospective Study of a New Zealand Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2000-01-01

    Study examined the relationship between teenage pregnancy and educational underachievement in a sample of women studied from birth to 21 years. Findings suggest that rates of teenage pregnancy might be elevated among women who leave school early, rather than rates of early school leaving being elevated among women who become pregnant. (Author/JDM)

  15. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National BirthCohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, L; Andersen, AM;

    2006-01-01

    asked about laboratory work tasks during pregnancy in an interview (at around 16 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linking the cohort to the national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) of late fetal loss and diagnosing of congenital malformations were calculated by using Cox...... regression, and odds ratios (ORs) of preterm birth and small for gestational age were calculated by using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, there were no significant differences in pregnancy outcomes between laboratory technicians and teachers. However, we found that laboratory technicians working...... with radioimmunoassay or radiolabelling had an increased risk of preterm birth (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 0.8 to 6.2 for radioimmunoassay, and OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.8 to 4.6 for radiolabelling) and "major" malformations (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7 for radioimmunoassay, and HR = 1.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.7 for radiolabelling). The ORs...

  16. The impact of maternal celiac disease on birthweight and preterm birth: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes have been associated with maternal celiac disease (CD). In this study, we investigate the effect of treated and untreated maternal CD on infant birthweight and preterm birth. METHODS: A population-based cohort study consisted of all singleton live births in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 was used. A total of 1,504,342 babies were born to 836,241 mothers during the study period. Of those, 1105 babies were born to women with diagnosed CD and 346 were born to women with undiagnosed CD. Women with diagnosed CD were considered as treated with a gluten free diet while women with undiagnosed CD were considered as untreated. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small for gestational age (SGA: birthweight <10th centile), very small for gestational age (VSGA: birthweight <5th centile) and preterm birth. We compared these measures in treated and untreated women with those of a reference group (no history of CD). RESULTS: Women with untreated CD delivered smaller babies [difference = -98 g (95% CI: -130, -67)], with a higher risk of SGA infants [OR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.63)], VSGA infants [OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.03)] and preterm birth [OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.72)] compared with women without CD. Women with treated CD had no increased risk of reduced mean birthweight, risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants or preterm birth compared with women without CD. CONCLUSION: Untreated maternal CD increases the risk of reduced birthweight, the risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants and preterm birth. Diagnosis and presumed treatment of maternal CD with a gluten-free diet appeared to result in a birthweight and preterm birth rate similar to those in women without CD.

  17. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Bladder Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    The evidence is limited on the relationship between reproductive factors and bladder cancer (BC). We studied 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton delivery between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. Each woman in the study cohort was tracked from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009. Vital status of the women was determined by crosswalking records with a computerized mortality database. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of death from BC associated with maternal age at first birth and parity. The data showed 63 BC deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. BC mortality rate was 0.90 cases for every 100,000 person-years. Compared with women who gave birth under the age of 23, the adjusted HR was 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66–2.35) for women who gave birth between age 23 and 26 and 2.30 (95% CI = 1.21–4.39) for women who gave birth over the age of 26. Increasing age at first birth (p for trend = 0.01) is associated with a trend in increasing risk of BC mortality. Relative to women who had a single childbirth, the adjusted HRs were 1.17 (95% CI = 0.51–2.69) for women who gave birth to two children, and 1.31 (95% CI = 0.56–3.10) for women with three or more childbirths, respectively. These results were not statistically significant. Study results suggests that giving birth at an early age may confer a protective effect on the risk of death from BC. PMID:27918463

  18. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Amy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.

  19. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies.

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    Lise Geisler Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and Finnish individuals born 1924-1976. Linkage to national registers for hospitalization and causes of death identified 8,805 CHD events during up to 33 years of follow-up (median = 24 years after age 25 years. Analyses were conducted with Cox regression based on restricted cubic splines. Using median birth weight of 3.4 kg as reference, a non-linear relation between birth weight and CHD was found. It was not significantly different between cohorts, or between men and women, nor was the association altered by childhood BMI. For birth weights below 3.4 kg, the risk of CHD increased linearly and reached 1.28 (95% confidence limits: 1.13 to 1.44 at 2 kg. Above 3.4 kg the association weakened, and from about 4 kg there was virtually no association. BMI at age seven years was strongly positively associated with the risk of CHD and the relation was not altered by birth weight. The excess risk in individuals with a birth weight of 2.5 kg and a BMI of 17.7 kg/m(2 at age seven years was 44% (95% CI: 30% to 59% compared with individuals with median values of birth weight (3.4 kg and BMI (15.3 kg/m(2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years appeared independently associated with the risk of CHD in adulthood. From a public health perspective we suggest that particular attention should be paid to children with a birth weight below the average in combination with excess relative weight in childhood.

  20. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with folic acid (FA was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW. This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04. This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To

  1. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Granström, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim...... was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish...... National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel...

  2. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  3. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring : A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Wang, August

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... offspring born 1959-1961 and their parents from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Cohort members and their parents who had committed suicide were identified in the Danish Causes of Death Registry (follow-up until December 31, 2005), while information on psychiatric hospitalisation history was obtained from...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...

  4. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross...

  5. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

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    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  6. Risk of selected postpartum infections after cesarean section compared with vaginal birth: A five-year cohort study of 32,468 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Rita Andersen; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich;

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the risk of postpartum infections within 30 days after vaginal birth, emergency, or elective cesarean section (CS). Design. Register-based cohort study in Denmark. Participants. A total of 32,468 women giving birth in hospitals in the County of Aarhus, Denmark, during...

  7. Timing of infection and development of wheeze, eczema, and atopic sensitization during the first 2 yr of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Thijs, C.; Stelma, F.F.; Penders, J.; Reimerink, J.; Ree, R. van; Koopmans, M.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if infections in pregnancy and very early in life present a risk for wheezing, eczema, or atopic sensitization in later infancy. A total of 2319 children enrolled before birth in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study were followed during their first 2 yr of life using repeated questionnaires.

  8. Acute respiratory symptoms and general illness during the first year of life: a population-based birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants....... In this population-based birth cohort study, 228 healthy infants from Copenhagen, Denmark were followed from birth to 1 year of age during 2004-2006. Symptoms were registered using daily diaries and monthly home visits. Interviews were performed at inclusion and every second month. Risk factor analysis was carried...... out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes...

  9. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional investigations or trials with a large sample and the tracking of folate status throughout pregnancy are recommended.

  10. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Mayhoub

    Full Text Available The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002 and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]. Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively. Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively. The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  11. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small......, however, be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power, and we suggest that future studies include detailed, individual information on job functions and ergonomic routines of lifting procedures....

  12. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: A study in the danish national birth cohort study

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    Kaerlev Linda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce. Objectives We analyse occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal and paternal occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of 45,341 male singleton deliveries in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1997-2009. Information on work during pregnancy was obtained by telephone interviews around gestational week 16. Parents' job titles were classified according to DISCO-88. A job exposure matrix for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs was implemented to assess occupational exposures. The Medical Birth and National Hospital Register provided data on congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth or during follow-up, which ended in 2009. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR were obtained from Cox regression models. Results Among all pregnancies, 6.3% were classified as possibly or probably exposed to EDCs. The most prevalent occupations conferring possible exposure were cleaners, laboratory technicians, hairdressers and agricultural workers (58% of all potentially exposed. The final cumulative incidence of cryptorchidism in boys was 2.2% (1002 cases, and of hypospadias 0.6% (262 cases. The occurrence of hypospadias increased when mothers were probably [HRa = 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-2.6] or possibly exposed to one or more EDCs [HRa = 2.6 (95% CI 1.8-3.4. Possible paternal exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of hypospadias [HRa 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-3.4] and cryptorchidism [HRa 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7]. None of the exposure groups reached statistical significance. Conclusion The study provides some but limited evidence that occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy increases the risk of

  13. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  14. Can prenatal malaria exposure produce an immune tolerant phenotype? A prospective birth cohort study in Kenya.

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    Indu Malhotra

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy can expose the fetus to malaria-infected erythrocytes or their soluble products, thereby stimulating T and B cell immune responses to malaria blood stage antigens. We hypothesized that fetal immune priming, or malaria exposure in the absence of priming (putative tolerance, affects the child's susceptibility to subsequent malaria infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective birth cohort study of 586 newborns residing in a malaria-holoendemic area of Kenya who were examined biannually to age 3 years for malaria infection, and whose malaria-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were assessed. Newborns were classified as (i sensitized (and thus exposed, as demonstrated by IFNgamma, IL-2, IL-13, and/or IL-5 production by cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs to malaria blood stage antigens, indicative of in utero priming (n = 246, (ii exposed not sensitized (mother Plasmodium falciparum [Pf]+ and no CBMC production of IFNgamma, IL-2, IL-13, and/or IL-5, n = 120, or (iii not exposed (mother Pf-, no CBMC reactivity, n = 220. Exposed not sensitized children had evidence for prenatal immune experience demonstrated by increased IL-10 production and partial reversal of malaria antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness with IL-2+IL-15, indicative of immune tolerance. Relative risk data showed that the putatively tolerant children had a 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.43; p = 0.024 and 1.34 (95% CI 0.95-1.87; p = 0.097 greater risk for malaria infection based on light microscopy (LM or PCR diagnosis, respectively, compared to the not-exposed group, and a 1.41 (95%CI 0.97-2.07, p = 0.074 and 1.39 (95%CI 0.99-2.07, p = 0.053 greater risk of infection based on LM or PCR diagnosis, respectively, compared to the sensitized group. Putatively tolerant children had an average of 0.5 g/dl lower hemoglobin levels (p = 0.01 compared to the other two groups. Exposed not sensitized children also had 2- to 3-fold

  15. Binge drinking during pregnancy and risk of seizures in childhood: a study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2009-01-01

    Seizures are often found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome, but it is not known whether binge drinking during pregnancy by nonalcoholic women is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study of 80,526 liveborn...... singletons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on maternal binge drinking (intake of > or = 5 drinks on a single occasion) was collected in 2 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy. Children were followed for up to 8 years. Information on neonatal seizures, epilepsy......, and febrile seizures was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register. Results showed that exposure to binge drinking episodes during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children, except for those exposed at 11-16 gestational weeks. These children had a 3...

  16. Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts - a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskorn, L; Holmboe, S A; Jacobsen, R; Jensen, T K; Lassen, T H; Skakkebaek, N E

    2012-06-01

    The fertility rate has recently declined in many parts of the World, including Europe. To a large extent, this change can be explained by the socio-economic development. However, increasing fertility problems and widespread occurrence of poor semen quality could in part explain the few births. The objective of this registry based study was to investigate birth cohort related trends in fertility and childlessness among Danish men. The study population comprised all 1 616 677 men in Denmark born from 1945 to 1980 of whom 1 359 975 (84.1%) were native Danes. Data were obtained from Statistics Denmark and contained information from The National Danish Birth Registry and The Danish In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Registry. For consecutive birth cohorts of native Danish men cumulative fertility rates at age 45 declined from 1.91 children per man in the 1945 birth cohort to 1.71 for men born in 1960. The proportion of childless men at age 45 increased from 14.8% to 21.9% in the same birth cohorts. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) seemed to compensate partly for the lower fertility and to reduce the proportion of childless men. In contrast, recent reports on corresponding birth cohorts of Danish women showed that the proportion remaining childless throughout life has been lower than in men and has not shown a similar increase. In conclusion, using unique Danish registries the study showed a birth cohort related decline in fertility rates and an increase in childlessness among men. In the more recent cohorts more than one in five men remained childless. The causes behind the findings are likely multi-factorial. Hitherto, most attention has been given to socio-economic factors which undoubtedly play a major role. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the high prevalence of low sperm counts among young Danish men may be a contributing factor.

  17. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  18. Epigenetic Alterations and Exposure to Air Pollutants: Protocol for a Birth Cohort Study to Evaluate the Association Between Adverse Birth Outcomes and Global DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Majid; Moattari, Syamak

    2017-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to air pollutants can increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes and susceptibility to a number of complex disorders later in life. Despite this general understanding, the molecular and cellular responses to air pollution exposure during early life are not completely clear. Objective The aims of this study are to test the association between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and to determine whether the levels of maternal and cord blood and of placental DNA methylation during pregnancy predict adverse birth outcomes in polluted areas. Methods This is a birth cohort study. We will enroll pregnant healthy women attending prenatal care clinics in Tehran, Iran, who are resident in selected polluted and unpolluted regions before the 14th week of pregnancy. We will calculate the regional background levels of fine particulate matter (particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) and nitrogen dioxide for all regions of by using data from the Tehran Air Quality Control Company. Then, we will select 2 regions as the polluted and unpolluted areas of interest. Healthy mothers living in the selected polluted and non polluted regions will be enrolled in this study. A maternal health history questionnaire will be completed at each trimester. During the first and second trimester, we will draw mothers’ blood for biochemical and DNA methylation analyses. At the time of delivery time, we will collect maternal and cord blood for biochemical, gene expression, and DNA methylation analyses. We will also record birth outcomes (the newborn’s sex, birth date, birth weight and length, gestational age, Apgar score, and level of neonatal care required). Results The project was funded in March 2016 and enrollment will be completed in August 2017. Data analysis is under way, and the first results are expected to be submitted for publication in November 2017. Conclusions We supposed that prenatal exposures to air pollutants can influence fetal

  19. Health related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Geir E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of infants born before the last trimester now grow up. However, knowledge on subsequent health related quality of life (HRQoL is scarce. We therefore aimed to compare HRQoL in children born extremely preterm with control children born at term. Furthermore, we assessed HRQoL in relation to perinatal and neonatal morbidity and to current clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Method The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50 and a general questionnaire were applied in a population based cohort of 10 year old children born at gestational age ≤ 28 weeks or with birth weight ≤ 1000 grams in Western Norway in 1991-92 and in term-born controls, individually matched for gender and time of birth. The McNemar test and paired t-tests were used to explore group differences between preterms and matched controls. Paired regression models and analyses of interaction (SPSS mixed linear model were used to explore potential effects of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL in the two groups. Results All 35 eligible preterm children participated. None had major impairments. Learning and/or attention problems were present in 71% of preterms and 20% of controls (odds ratio (OR: 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.2 to 27.6. Insufficient professional support was described by 36% of preterm vs. 3% of control parents (OR: infinite; CI: 2.7 to infinite. Preterms scored lower on eight CHQ-PF50 sub-scales and the two summary scores, boys accounting for most of the deficits in areas of behavior, psychosocial functioning and parental burden. HRQoL was associated with learning and/or attention problems in both preterm and control children, significantly more so in preterms in areas related to health and parental burden. Within the preterm group, HRQoL was mostly unrelated to perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions HRQoL for children born extremely preterm, and particularly for boys, was described by parents to

  20. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Shari [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E., E-mail: Tye.Arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fraser, William D. [Sainte Justine University Hospital Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne [Center for Perinatal, Pediatric & Environmental Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); King, Will [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  1. Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts - a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Holmboe, Stine; Jacobsen, R;

    2012-01-01

    The fertility rate has recently declined in many parts of the World, including Europe. To a large extent, this change can be explained by the socio-economic development. However, increasing fertility problems and widespread occurrence of poor semen quality could in part explain the few births....... The objective of this registry based study was to investigate birth cohort related trends in fertility and childlessness among Danish men. The study population comprised all 1 616 677 men in Denmark born from 1945 to 1980 of whom 1 359 975 (84.1%) were native Danes. Data were obtained from Statistics Denmark....... The proportion of childless men at age 45 increased from 14.8% to 21.9% in the same birth cohorts. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) seemed to compensate partly for the lower fertility and to reduce the proportion of childless men. In contrast, recent reports on corresponding birth cohorts of Danish women...

  2. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2011-02-10

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. METHOD: Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: 'very popular with other children', 'unusually happy and contented', 'makes friends extremely easily' and 'extremely energetic, never tired'. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. RESULTS: Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father's social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity, leadership

  3. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    -for-gestational age (LGA) or small-for-gestational age and postpartum weight retention (PPWR). Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002), including data on gestational and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and 18 months postpartum. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Information...

  4. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. METHODS: Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) is a clinical birth cohort......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed...... study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external...

  5. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  6. Neonatal outcomes among multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestational age: Does mode of conception have an impact? A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Woojin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies comparing perinatal outcomes in multiples conceived following the use of artificial reproductive technologies (ART vs. spontaneous conception (SC have reported conflicting results in terms of mortality and morbidity. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare composite outcome of mortality and severe neonatal morbidities amongst preterm multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestation infant born following ART vs. SC. Methods We conducted a single center cohort study at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data on all preterm multiple births (≤ 32 weeks GA discharged between July 2005 and June 2008 were retrospectively collected from a prospective database at our centre. Details regarding mode of conception were collected retrospectively from maternal health records. Preterm multiple births were categorized into those born following ART vs. SC. Composite outcome was defined as combination of death or any of the three neonatal morbidities (grade 3/4 intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; retinopathy of prematurity > stage 2 or chronic lung disease. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were preformed after adjustment of confounders (maternal age, parity, triplets, gestational age, sex, and small for gestational age. Results One hundred and thirty seven neonates were born following use of ART and 233 following SC. The unadjusted composite outcome rate was significantly higher in preterm multiples born following ART vs. SC [43.1% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.001; OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.13, 3.45]; however, when adjusted for confounders the difference between groups was not statistically significant [OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.67, 2.89]. Conclusion In our population of preterm multiple births, the mode of conception had no detectable effect on the adjusted composite neonatal outcome of mortality and/or three neonatal morbidities.

  7. Hospital work and pregnancy outcomes: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Varela, María M Morales; Kaerlev, Linda; Zhu, Jin Liang;

    2009-01-01

    In hospitals, women of reproductive age do a range of work tasks, some of which are known to carry potential risks. Tasks such as working with radiation, chemicals, and infectious agents, as well as performing heavy lifting or tasks requiring erratic sleep patterns have been reported to increase...... the risk of reproductive failures. Our aim was to study pregnancy outcomes in female hospital workers in Denmark. We performed a cohort study of 5976 female hospital workers and used as a reference group 60,890 women employed outside of hospitals. The reproductive health of hospital workers working during...... pregnancy is comparable to those of non-hospital workers for the majority of reproductive failures studied. However, an increased prevalence of congenital abnormalities was noted in some subgroups of hospital workers, which may indicate that some hospital work still entails fetotoxic hazards....

  8. Hospital work and pregnancy outcomes: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Varela, María M Morales; Kaerlev, Linda; Zhu, Jin Liang; Bonde, Jens Peter; Nøhr, Ellen-Aagaard; Llopis-González, Agustín; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    In hospitals, women of reproductive age do a range of work tasks, some of which are known to carry potential risks. Tasks such as working with radiation, chemicals, and infectious agents, as well as performing heavy lifting or tasks requiring erratic sleep patterns have been reported to increase the risk of reproductive failures. Our aim was to study pregnancy outcomes in female hospital workers in Denmark. We performed a cohort study of 5976 female hospital workers and used as a reference group 60,890 women employed outside of hospitals. The reproductive health of hospital workers working during pregnancy is comparable to those of non-hospital workers for the majority of reproductive failures studied. However, an increased prevalence of congenital abnormalities was noted in some subgroups of hospital workers, which may indicate that some hospital work still entails fetotoxic hazards.

  9. Systolic blood pressure reactions to acute stress are associated with future hypertension status in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Painter, Rebecca C; Tessa J Roseboom; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2012-01-01

    These analyses examined the association between blood pressure reactions to acute psychological stress and subsequent hypertension status in a substantial Dutch cohort. Blood pressure was recorded during a resting baseline and during three acute stress tasks, Stroop colour word, mirror tracing and speech. Five years later, diagnosed hypertension status was determined by questionnaire. Participants were 453 (237 women) members of the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort. In analysis adjusting for a n...

  10. Birth dimensions, parental mortality, and mortality in early adult age: a cohort study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    . Furthermore, the relationship between offspring birth dimensions and parental mortality is addressed. METHODS: In all 10 753 male singletons born in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 1953 whose birth certificates had been traced manually in 1965 were followed from 1968 to 2002 for information...... on parents' and own vital status by linkage with the Civil Registration System. Causes of death for the cohort members were identified by record linkage with the Cause-of-Death Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% CI were calculated using Cox regression models. RESULTS: Low birthweight and especially short birth...... and paternal lifespan. The associations between birthweight/birth length and mortality were stronger for the age group 35-49 years compared with the age group 15-34 years. Cause-specific mortality was inversely related to small birth dimensions for all causes of death, but strongest and graded for death from...

  11. VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundArea-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

  12. Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Eli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b introduction of solid food, c intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d fluoride exposure, and e oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.

  13. Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrijkotte Tanja GM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. The present study assesses the (predictive role of prenatal and postnatal growth on 5 components of cardiovascular and metabolic function in children aged 5. The potential association of timing of postnatal growth acceleration with these outcomes will be explored. Methods and design Prospective multiethnic community-based cohort study of 8266 pregnancies (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development, ABCD study. Up till now, anthropometry of 5104 children from the original cohort was followed during the first 5 years of life, with additional information about birth weight, pregnancy duration, and various potential confounding variables. At age 5, various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function are being measured. Outcome variables are body size, body composition and fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. Discussion This study will be one of the first population-based prospective cohort studies to address the association between measures of both prenatal and postnatal growth and various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function. Specific attention is paid to the timing of acceleration in growth and its potential association with the outcome variables. Importantly, the longitudinal design of this study gives us the opportunity to gain more insight into growth trajectories associated with adverse outcomes in later life. If identified as an independent risk factor, this provides further basis for the hypothesis that accelerated growth during

  14. Restrained and external-emotional eating patterns in young overweight children-results of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hirsch

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in Western countries. Abnormal eating behavior is thought to be a developmental trajectory to obesity. The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C has not been used for children as young as eight years, and possible associations with body weight have not yet been established. Five hundred and twenty-one children of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS; age eight filled out the EPI-C and BMI was assessed. Adequacy of the scales was tested with confirmatory factor analysis and a MANOVA and cluster analysis established associations between eating patterns and BMI. The factor structure of the EPI-C was confirmed (GFI = .968 and abnormal eating behavior was associated with overweight (χ(2(8 =79.29, p<.001. The EPI-C is a valid assessment tool in this young age group. Overweight children consciously restrain their eating.

  15. Restrained and external-emotional eating patterns in young overweight children-results of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Kluckner, Viktoria J; Brandt, Stephanie; Moss, Anja; Weck, Melanie; Florath, Ines; Wabitsch, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Christiansen, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in Western countries. Abnormal eating behavior is thought to be a developmental trajectory to obesity. The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) has not been used for children as young as eight years, and possible associations with body weight have not yet been established. Five hundred and twenty-one children of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS; age eight) filled out the EPI-C and BMI was assessed. Adequacy of the scales was tested with confirmatory factor analysis and a MANOVA and cluster analysis established associations between eating patterns and BMI. The factor structure of the EPI-C was confirmed (GFI = .968) and abnormal eating behavior was associated with overweight (χ(2)(8) =79.29, peating.

  16. Pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and risk of wheezing and asthma in children: A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol use has been associated with increased prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and one study reported an association between pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and asthma in early childhood. METHODS: To examine if pre-natal exposure to paracetamol is associated...... with the risk of asthma or wheezing in early childhood, we selected 66 445 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom we had information on paracetamol use during pregnancy and who participated in an interview when their children were 18-months-old and 12 733 women whose children had reached the age...... of 7 and estimated the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing at the ages of 18 months and 7 years. We also linked our population to the Danish National Hospital Registry to record all hospitalizations due to asthma up to age of 18 months. RESULTS: Paracetamol use during any time...

  17. The joint influence of marital status, interpregnancy interval, and neighborhood on small for gestational age birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuquan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpregnancy interval (IPI, marital status, and neighborhood are independently associated with birth outcomes. The joint contribution of these exposures has not been evaluated. We tested for effect modification between IPI and marriage, controlling for neighborhood. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 98,330 live births in Montréal, Canada from 1997–2001 to assess IPI and marital status in relation to small for gestational age (SGA birth. Births were categorized as subsequent-born with short (intermediate (12–35 months, or long (36+ months IPI, or as firstborn. The data had a 2-level hierarchical structure, with births nested in 49 neighborhoods. We used multilevel logistic regression to obtain adjusted effect estimates. Results Marital status modified the association between IPI and SGA birth. Being unmarried relative to married was associated with SGA birth for all IPI categories, particularly for subsequent births with short (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–1.95 and intermediate (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.26–1.74 IPIs. Subsequent births had a lower likelihood of SGA birth than firstborns. Intermediate IPIs were more protective for married (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.47–0.54 than unmarried mothers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56–0.76. Conclusion Being unmarried increases the likelihood of SGA birth as the IPI shortens, and the protective effect of intermediate IPIs is reduced in unmarried mothers. Marital status should be considered in recommending particular IPIs as an intervention to improve birth outcomes.

  18. Prediction Value of CRIB-II in Outcome of Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants: a Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Heidarzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common methods of identifying mortality risk is the Clinical Risk Index for Babies scoring system (CRIB- II. The aim of this study was assessing the value of CRIB- II in predicting mortality risk in preterm and low birth weight infants in East Azerbaijan- Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out in 2013-2014 during 6 months in NICUs of Alzahra, Taleqani and Children hospitals of Tabriz-Iran. All infants ≤ 32 weeks’ gestational age or ≤ 1500gr birth weight were included in the study using consecutive method. After calculating CRIB- II score, the infants were followed up at 3 months of age and their outcome was determined. The data was analyzed using SPSS-13, t- test, receiver operating characteristics (ROC and area under curve (AUC and relative risk (RR. Results: Of total 215 infants, 64 infants (29.7% died in the hospital and one infant (0.4% died after discharging from the hospital. 150 (68.8% infants, were alive at 3 months age follow up. The mean of CRIB- II score in the group of dead infants was higher and statistically significant compared to the group of alive infants (P

  19. Infant malnutrition and obesity in three population-based birth cohort studies in Southern Brazil: trends and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Araújo, Cora L; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the evolution of nutritional deficits and overweight in one-year-old children from three birth cohorts started in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples from the 1982 and 1993 cohorts and all children from 2004 were weighed and measured, and their mothers interviewed. Anthropometric deficits and overweight were assessed using both NCHS and WHO growth standards. A comparison of the existence of nutritional deficits showed that, after a decline between 1982 and 1993, its prevalence stabilized between 1993 and 2004. Across the whole period, a decrease in all deficits was observed. Obesity, on the other hand, increased. A deficit in the ratio of body length to age was found to be strongly associated with family income. The group with income below one minimum wage was the only to present a significant reduction of stunting during the study period. The most significant improvements in the reduction of nutritional deficits occurred in the first half of the study period, while social differentials remained. Fighting malnutrition is still necessary among the 40% of the population considered poor, and must be accompanied by efforts to combat overweight which is being observed in all social strata.

  20. Parental and grandparental ages in the autistic spectrum disorders: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Golding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ASD. Mean maternal and paternal ages of ASD cases were raised, but this appears to be secondary to a maternal grandmother age effect (P = 0.006: OR = 1.66[95%CI 1.16, 2.37] for each 10-year increase in the grandmother's age at the birth of the mother. Trait measures also revealed an association between the maternal grandmother's age and the major autistic trait-the Coherence Scale (regression coefficient b = 0.142, [95%CI = 0.057, 0.228]P = 0.001. After allowing for confounders the effect size increased to b = 0.217[95%CI 0.125, 0.308](P<0.001 for each 10 year increase in age. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between maternal grandmother's age and ASD and a major autistic trait was unexpected, there is some biological plausibility, for the maternal side at least, given that the timing of female meiosis I permits direct effects on the grandchild's genome during the grandmother's pregnancy. An alternative explanation is the meiotic mismatch methylation (3 M hypothesis, presented here for the first time. Nevertheless the findings should be treated as hypothesis generating pending corroborative results from other studies.

  1. Birth by caesarean section and prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in young adults: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conflicting findings on the risk of obesity among subjects born by caesarean section have been published. Caesarean section should also increase the risk of obesity related cardiovascular risk factors if type of delivery is associated with obesity later in life. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of type of delivery on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 1982, maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city have been followed. In 2000, when male subjects undertook the Army entrance examination (n=2200, fat mass and fat free mass were estimated through bioimpedance. In 2004-2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort (n=4297, and the following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; random blood glucose, C-reactive protein, waist circumference and body mass index. The estimates were adjusted for the following confounders: family income at birth; maternal schooling; household assets index in childhood; maternal skin color; birth order; maternal age; maternal prepregnancy weight; maternal height; maternal smoking during pregnancy; birthweight and family income at early adulthood. RESULTS: In the crude analyses, blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure and body mass index were higher among subjects who were delivered through caesarean section. After controlling for confounders, systolic blood pressure was 1.15 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.05; 2.25 higher among subjects delivered by caesarean section, and BMI 0.40 kg/m(2 (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.71. After controlling for BMI the effect on systolic blood pressure dropped to 0.60 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.47; 1.67. Fat mass at 18 years of age was also higher among subjects born by caesarean section. CONCLUSION: Caesarean section was associated with a small

  2. Spontaneous abortion and a diet drug containing caffeine and ephedrine: a study within the Danish national birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope P Howards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medications may be consumed periconceptionally before a woman knows she is pregnant. In this study, the authors evaluate the association of a prescription diet drug (Letigen containing ephedrine (20 mg and caffeine (200 mg with spontaneous abortion (SAB in the Danish National Birth Cohort. METHODS: Women were recruited during their first prenatal visit from 1996-2002. Pre-conception and early pregnancy medication use was reported on the enrollment form, and pregnancy outcome was determined by linking the mother's Civil Registration Number to the Medical Birth Registry and the National Hospital Discharge Register. Of 97,903 eligible pregnancies, 4,443 ended in SAB between 5 and 20 completed gestational weeks, inclusive. Letigen use was reported for 565 pregnancies. Cox regression models accounting for left truncation were fit to estimate the effect of pre-conception and early pregnancy Letigen use on SAB. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The estimated maternal age-adjusted hazard ratio for SAB was 1.1 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.6 for any periconceptional Letigen use compared to no periconceptional use. CONCLUSIONS: Although Letigen has high levels of caffeine (the recommended 3 pills/day are approximately equivalent to caffeine from 6 cups of coffee, periconceptional use does not appear to be associated with an appreciably increased hazard of clinically recognized SAB.

  3. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesilje B. Petersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year (n = 53,922. In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23 of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06. The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02. In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.

  4. Adaptation and Validation of the HOME-SF as a Caregiver-Report Home Environment Measure for Use in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang; Bradley, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a brief caregiver-report instrument for measuring the home environment of children aged three and under, as part of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS). Instrument development was conducted by translating and adapting the Home Observation for the Measurement of Environment Inventory-Short Form (HOME-SF) which comprises…

  5. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children : the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Smit, Henriette A.; Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were an

  6. Overdiagnosis by mammographic screening for breast cancer studied in birth cohorts in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.; Fracheboud, J.; Koning, H.J. de; Ravesteyn, N.T. van; Broeders, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A drawback of early detection of breast cancer through mammographic screening is the diagnosis of breast cancers that would never have become clinically detected. This phenomenon, called overdiagnosis, is ideally quantified from the breast cancer incidence of screened and unscreened cohorts of women

  7. Perinatal and maternal outcomes by planned place of birth for healthy women with low risk pregnancies: the Birthplace in England national prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocklehurst, P.; Kwee, A.; Birthplace in England Collaborative Group

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare perinatal outcomes, maternal outcomes, and interventions in labour by planned place of birth at the start of care in labour for women with low risk pregnancies. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: England: all NHS trusts providing intrapartum care at home, all freestandi

  8. A long-term follow up study of a birth cohort of boxer dogs in The Netherlands : genetic and environmental risk factors for diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, Marjan Antonia Elisabeth van

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term follow up of a birth cohort of boxer dogs to study disease incidence, mortality, as well as genetic and environmental risk factors in a purebred dog population in The Netherlands. During the last decades, both the number of genetic disorders and the disease rate o

  9. Increased Burden of Respiratory Disease in the First Six Months of Life Due to Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Krakow Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Alek Sander; Flak, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Penar, Agnieszka; Spengler, John; Perera, Frederica P.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prenatal tobacco smoke on respiratory symptoms and on doctor consultations in a birth cohort of 445 infants who had no smoking mothers and who had no postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Before and after delivery, questionnaires and interviews with mothers were…

  10. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate\\'s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children\\'s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent\\'s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor\\/fair health and\\/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  11. Mode of delivery and cord blood cytokines: a birth cohort study

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    DuBois Andrea M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms for the association between birth by cesarean section and atopy and asthma are largely unknown. Objective To examine whether cesarean section results in neonatal secretion of cytokines that are associated with increased risk of atopy and/or asthma in childhood. To examine whether the association between mode of delivery and neonatal immune responses is explained by exposure to the maternal gut flora (a marker of the vaginal flora. Methods CBMCs were isolated from 37 neonates at delivery, and secretion of IL-13, IFN-γ, and IL-10 (at baseline and after stimulation with antigens [dust mite and cat dander allergens, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide] was quantified by ELISA. Total and specific microbes were quantified in maternal stool. The relation between mode of delivery and cord blood cytokines was examined by linear regression. The relation between maternal stool microbes and cord blood cytokines was examined by Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results Cesarean section was associated with increased levels of IL-13 and IFN-γ. In multivariate analyses, cesarean section was associated with an increment of 79.4 pg/ml in secretion of IL-13 by CBMCs after stimulation with dust mite allergen (P Conclusion Cesarean section is associated with increased levels of IL-13 and IFN-γ, perhaps because of lack of labor and/or reduced exposure to specific microbes (e.g., gram-positive anaerobes at birth.

  12. Gestational age, mode of birth and breastmilk feeding all influence acute early childhood gastroenteritis: a record-linkage cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Jason P; Simpson, Judy M; Bowen, Jenny R.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Roberts, Christine L; Nassar, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of infectious morbidity in childhood. Clinical studies have implicated caesarean section, early birth and formula feeding in modifying normal gut microbiota development and immune system homeostasis in early life. Rates of early birth and cesarean delivery are also increasing worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of the mode and timing of birth and breastmilk feeding with AGE hospitalisati...

  13. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissing Nadja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. Methods Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external reference. Results A total of 6134 medical events were reported at the COPSAC interviews. Additional 586 medical events were recorded by family practitioners but not reported at the interview. There were no missed events related to asthma, eczema or allergy. Respiratory, infectious and skin related symptoms showed completeness above 90%, other diseases showed lower completeness around 77%. There was no meaningful influence from concurrent asthma or socioeconomics. Conclusions The COPSAC study exhibited full sensitivity to the main study objectives, atopic disease, and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. Our findings support the validity of parental interviews in longitudinal cohort studies investigating atopic disease and illness in childhood.

  14. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P valuesdiet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  15. Particular characteristics of allergic symptoms in tropical environments: follow up to 24 months in the FRAAT birth cohort study

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    Acevedo Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early wheezing and asthma are relevant health problems in the tropics. Mite sensitization is an important risk factor, but the roles of others, inherent in poverty, are unknown. We designed a birth-cohort study in Cartagena (Colombia to investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for asthma and atopy, considering as particular features perennial exposure to mites, parasite infections and poor living conditions. Methods Pregnant women representative of the low-income suburbs of the city were randomly screened for eligibility at delivery; 326 mother-infant pairs were included at baseline and biological samples were collected from birth to 24 months for immunological testing, molecular genetics and gene expression analysis. Pre and post-natal information was collected using questionnaires. Results 94% of families were from the poorest communes of the city, 40% lacked sewage and 11% tap-water. Intestinal parasites were found as early as 3 months; by the second year, 37.9% of children have had parasites and 5.22% detectable eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in stools (Median 3458 epg, IQR 975-9256. The prevalence of "wheezing ever" was 17.5% at 6 months, 31.1% at 12 months and 38.3% at 24 months; and recurrent wheezing (3 or more episodes 7.1% at 12 months and 14.2% at 24 months. Maternal rhinitis [aOR 3.03 (95%CI 1.60-5.74, p = 0.001] and male gender [aOR 2.09 (95%CI 1.09 - 4.01, p = 0.026], increased risk for wheezing at 6 months. At 24 months, maternal asthma was the main predisposing factor for wheezing [aOR 3.65 (95%CI 1.23-10.8, p = 0.01]. Clinical symptoms of milk/egg allergy or other food-induced allergies were scarce (1.8% and no case of atopic eczema was observed. Conclusions Wheezing is the most frequent phenotype during the first 24 months of life and is strongly associated with maternal asthma. At 24 months, the natural history of allergic symptoms is different to the "atopic march" described in some industrialized

  16. Occupational exposure to pesticides and pregnancy outcomes in gardeners and farmers: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Andersen, AM;

    2006-01-01

    regression was applied to analyze late fetal loss and congenital malformations, and logistic regression was used to analyze preterm birth and small for gestational age. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the studied pregnancy outcomes between gardeners or farmers and all other workers, except...... for an increased risk of very preterm birth for gardeners and a favorable birth weight for farmers. With the exception of biologic approach used in gardening, neither work activities nor exposure to pesticides showed a significant increased risk of adverse birth outcomes among gardeners or farmers. CONCLUSIONS...

  17. Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally Premature Birth in a Cohort of Couples with Documented Parental Exposure to Military Attacks: Observational Study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Manduca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents to weapons containing metal contaminants, during attacks in 2009. We detect, in significantly higher amounts than in normal babies, different specific teratogen or toxicant elements, known weapons’ components, characteristic for each of birth defect or premature babies. This is the first attempt to our knowledge to directly link a phenotype at birth with the in utero presence of specific teratogen and/or toxicant metals in a cohort with known episodes of acute exposure of parents to environmental contamination by these same metals, in this case delivered by weaponry The babies were conceived 20–25 months after the major known parental exposure; the specific link of newborn phenotypes to war-remnant metal contaminants, suggests that mothers’ contamination persists in time, and that the exposure may have a long term effect.

  18. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-07-18

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val(158)Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14-1.34; p gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09-1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings.

  19. Sedentary behavior in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumith, Samuel C; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana M B; Araújo, Cora Luiza

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sedentary behavior and investigate associated factors in adolescents 11 years of age from the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Sedentary behavior was investigated with a questionnaire, and was defined as spending more than two hours per day watching television, playing videogames, or using the computer. Of the 4,452 adolescents interviewed, 98% reported watching television, 44% playing videogames, and 22% using the computer. The average time spent on each of these electronic media was 197, 36, and 17 minutes per day, respectively. Prevalence of sedentary behavior was 79.7% (95%CI: 78.6; 80.9) and showed a positive association with socioeconomic level and nutritional status and a negative association with well-being. These 11-year-olds spent extensive time at TV viewing, videogames, and the computer. Special attention should be given to the most exposed groups of adolescents, including the more affluent, overweight, and those with limited schooling.

  20. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7. CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  1. Prenatal recruitment of participants for a birth cohort study including cord blood collection: results of a feasibility study in Bremen, Germany

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    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prospective birth cohort studies comprising follow up of children from pregnancy or birth over a long period of time, and collecting various biological samples at different times through the life-course offer a promising approach to enhance etiologic knowledge of various diseases. Especially for those where early lifetime exposures and conditions are thought to play an important role. The collection and storage of biological samples is a critical component in epidemiological studies, notably for research regarding prenatal exposures to various environmental factors as well as for DNA extraction. Our feasibility study for a birth cohort within the scope of etiology of childhood leukemia with prospective sampling of mothers and their future newborns aimed to investigate the willingness of pregnant women to participate in a birth cohort study involving collection of blood and umbilical cord blood samples. The overall aim was to develop practice-based research recommendations for a possible German birth cohort study. Methods: The study was conducted in Bremen, Germany, between January 2012 and March 2013. Pregnant women were eligible for recruitment if (i their expected date of delivery was during the study recruitment phase (September 2012–February 2013, (ii they planned to give birth at the cooperating hospital’s obstetric unit and (iii their knowledge of the German language was sufficient to understand study materials, details of participation and to fill out the prenatal self-administered questionnaire. Maternal blood and umbilical cord blood samples to be used for later research activities were collected and stored at a stem cell bank already collaborating with the hospital. 22 primary care gynecologists were invited to enroll pregnant women for the study and cooperation with one hospital was established. Expectant women were recruited during the last trimester of pregnancy, either during one of their prenatal care visits at

  2. 1970 British Cohort Study

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    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  3. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  4. Systolic blood pressure reactions to acute stress are associated with future hypertension status in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2012-08-01

    These analyses examined the association between blood pressure reactions to acute psychological stress and subsequent hypertension status in a substantial Dutch cohort. Blood pressure was recorded during a resting baseline and during three acute stress tasks, Stroop colour word, mirror tracing and speech. Five years later, diagnosed hypertension status was determined by questionnaire. Participants were 453 (237 women) members of the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort. In analysis adjusting for a number of potential confounders, systolic blood pressure reactivity was positively related to future hypertension. This was the case irrespective of whether reactivity was calculated as the peak or the average response to the stress tasks. The association was strongest for reactions to the speech and Stroop tasks. Diastolic blood pressure reactivity was not significantly associated with hypertension. The results provide support for the reactivity hypothesis.

  5. Association of bacteria and viruses with wheezy episodes in young children: prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    To study the association between wheezy symptoms in young children and the presence of bacteria in the airways.......To study the association between wheezy symptoms in young children and the presence of bacteria in the airways....

  6. Positive Effect of Human Milk Feeding during NICU Hospitalization on 24 Month Neurodevelopment of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Italian Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dino Gibertoni; Luigi Corvaglia; Silvia Vandini; Paola Rucci; Silvia Savini; Rosina Alessandroni; Alessandra Sansavini; Maria Pia Fantini; Giacomo Faldella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths ...

  7. Childhood Behavior Problems Linked to Sexual Risk Taking in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrakha, Sandhya; Bell, Melanie L.; Paul, Charlotte; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n =…

  8. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering on Educational and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. Method: A secondary analysis of a British…

  9. Birth outcomes after exposure to mebendazole and pyrvinium during pregnancy - A Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Arendse; Jimenez-Solem, Espen; Cejvanovic, Vanja;

    2016-01-01

    worldwide. Limited safety data of anthelmintics during pregnancy exists and the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to mebendazole or pyrvinium during pregnancy and the adverse pregnancy outcomes: congenital malformations, stillbirths, neonatal mortality and small...

  10. Adolescent mental health and subsequent parenting: a longitudinal birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Byford, M; Abbott, R A; Maughan, B.; Richards, M.; Kuh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescent mental health problems are associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adulthood but little is known about the effects on adult parenting practices. This study aimed to examine prospective associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and subsequent parenting behaviours in adulthood. Methods The study sample comprised 1110 members from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Prospective data were collected from teacher reports of conduct an...

  11. The protective effect of adenoidectomy on pediatric tympanostomy tube re-insertions: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    Full Text Available Adenoidectomy in conjunction with tympanostomy tube insertion for treating pediatric otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media has been debated for decades. Practice differed surgeon from surgeon. This study used population-based data to determine the protective effect of adenoidectomy in preventing tympanostomy tube re-insertion and tried to provide more evidence based information for surgeons when they do decision making.Retrospective birth cohort study.This study used the National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000-2009 in Taiwan. The tube reinsertion rate and time to tube re-insertion among children who received tympanostomy tubes with or without adenoidectomy were compared. Age stratification analysis was also done to explore the effects of age.Adenoidectomy showed protective effects on preventing tube re-insertion compared to tympanostomy tubes alone in children who needed tubes for the first time (tube re-insertion rate 9% versus 5.1%, p = 0.002 and longer time to re-insertions, p = 0.01, especially those aged over 4 years when they had their first tube surgery. After controlling the effect of age, adenoidectomy reduced the rate of re-insertion by 40% compared to tympanostomy tubes alone (aHR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41-0.89. However, the protective effect of conjunction adenoidectomy was not obvious among children with a second tympanostomy tube insertion. Children who needed their first tube surgery at the age 2-4 years were most prone to have tube re-insertions, followed by the age group of 4-6 years.Adenoidectomy has protective effect in preventing tympanostomy tube re-insertions compared to tympanostomy tubes alone, especially for children older than 4 years old and who needed tubes for the first time. Nonetheless, clinicians should still weigh the pros and cons of the procedure for their pediatric patients.

  12. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children : The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C. E.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriette A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,1

  13. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, J.; Fries, M.C.E.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Smit, H.A.; Koppelman, G.H.; Wijga, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,1

  14. Psychotic experiences and hyper-theory-of-mind in preadolescence - a birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemmensen, L.; van Os, J.; Drukker, M.; Munkholm, A.; Rimvall, M. K.; Vaever, M.; Rask, C. U.; Bartels-Velthuis, A. A.; Skovgaard, A. M.; Jeppesen, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge on the risk mechanisms of psychotic experiences (PE) is still limited. The aim of this population-based study was to explore developmental markers of PE with a particular focus on the specificity of hyper-theory-of-mind (HyperToM) as correlate of PE as opposed to correlate of a

  15. Breastfeeding, overweight and asthma in Dutch children. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to a lower risk of overweight and asthma in children, however the results of previous studies are conflicting and controversy remains. An important gap in the current knowledge on the association between breastfeeding and overweight and asthma is whether and how the ass

  16. Parental perception of child's weight status and subsequent BMIz change: The KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, S.M.P.L.; Gubbels, J.S.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents often fail to correctly perceive their children's weight status, but no studies have examined the association between parental weight status perception and longitudinal BMIz change (BMI standardized to a reference population) at various ages. We investigated whether parents are a

  17. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooven, E.H. van den; Jaddoe, V.W.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Hofman, A.; MacKenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.; Miedema, H.M.; Pierik, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity

  18. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. van den Hooven (Edith); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Y. de Kluizenaar (Yvonne); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); H.M. Miedema (Henk); F.H. Pierik (Frank)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residenti

  19. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring: a birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adu...

  20. Gas cooking, respiratory and allergic outcomes in the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Weiwei; Gehring, Ulrike; Oldenwening, Marieke; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Postma, Dirkje; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence for a relationship between gas cooking and childhood respiratory health is inconsistent and few longitudinal studies have been reported. Our aim was to examine the association between gas cooking and the development of respiratory and allergic outcomes longitudinally in a prospec

  1. Childhood behaviour problems predict crime and violence in late adolescence: Brazilian and British birth cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Joseph; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hickman, Matthew; Maughan, Barbara; Giraldo Gallo, Erika Alejandra; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gonçalves, Helen; Anselmi, Luciana; Assunção, Cecília F.; Fernando C. Barros; Victora, Cesar G.

    2014-01-01

    This is the final published version, published by Springer in Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00127-014-0976-z). Purpose. Most children live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), many of which have high levels of violence. Research in high-income countries shows that childhood behaviour problems are important precursors of crime and violence. Evidence is lacking on whether this is also true in LMICs. This study examines pre...

  2. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    Full Text Available Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory infections, and overweight, health related school absence and family socio-economic status on children's school performance.We used data from 1,865 children in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. School performance was measured as the teacher's assessment of a suitable secondary school level for the child, and the child's score on a standardized achievement test (Cito Test. Both school performance indicators were standardised using Z-scores. Childhood health was indicated by eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and health related school absence. Children's health conditions were reported repeatedly between the age of one to eleven. School absenteeism was reported at age eleven. Highest attained educational level of the mother and father indicated family socio-economic status. We used linear regression models with heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors for our analyses with adjustment for sex of the child.The health indicators used in our study were not associated with children's school performance, independently from parental educational level, with the exception of asthma symptoms (-0.03 z-score / -0.04 z-score with Cito Test score after adjusting for respectively maternal and paternal education and missing more than 5 schooldays due to illness (-0.18 z-score with Cito Test score and -0.17 z-score with school level assessment after adjustment for paternal education. The effect estimates for these health indicators were much smaller though than the effect estimates for parental education, which was strongly associated with children's school performance.Children's school performance was affected only

  3. Sleep patterns in children with ADHD: a population-based cohort study from birth to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicola; Blair, Peter S; Emond, Alan M; Fleming, Peter J; Humphreys, Joanna S; Henderson, John; Gringras, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Associations between sleep duration and disturbance in infancy and early childhood and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnoses were investigated. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of children born in 1991-1992 in South-West England, were employed. Eight thousand, one hundred and ninety-five children were assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. One hundred and seventy-three cases (2.1%) met criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Parental report at eight time points showed children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder slept less than peers. Absolute differences were small and mainly restricted to night-time sleep, with no strong evidence of differences from controls, except at 69 months [5 years 9 months; 12 min (95% CI: 5-19), P = 0.001], at 81 months [6 years 9 months; 15 min (95% CI: 8-22), P night-waking at every age, significant from about 5 years. When tracking children's sleep along a normative centiles chart, a shift in sleep duration from one centile to a lower centile was a useful predictor of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Age-specific decreases of >1SD in sleep duration across adjacent time points was a significant predictor of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at 3-5 years (P = 0.047). In children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, shorter sleep duration and sleep disturbances appear early and predate the usual age of clinical diagnosis. The rate of change of sleep duration relative to an individual, rather than absolute sleep duration at any stage, may prove beneficial in identifying increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  4. Social Inequality in Children’s ADHD Diagnosis: Evidence from a Danish birth Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling; Oldrup, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC) linked to national register data and by means of event history techniques, we examine the impact of parental education, parental occupation, household income, and household structure on the likelihood and timing of children with similar behavioral issues receiving......Children's development is high on the international policy agenda. Research has consistently found that resources available during early childhood are strongly associated with children's behavioral development. This study adds to this literature by investigating the role of socio-economic resources...... in early childhood on the likelihood and timing of children’s ADHD diagnosis in the Danish context. In the Danish setting receiving an ADHD diagnosis is associated with increased access to additional resources ensuring the best possible support and care for the child. Using data from the Danish...

  5. Cohort profile update: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Body composition, mental health and genetic assessment at the 6 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Zanini, Roberta; Chrestani Cesar, Maria Aurora; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-10-01

    This is an update of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort profile, originally published in 2011. In view of the high prevalence of overweight and mental health problems among Brazilian children, together with the availability of state-of-the-art equipment to assess body composition and diagnostic tests for mental health in childhood, the main outcomes measured in the fifth follow-up (mean age 6.8 years) included child body composition, mental health and cognitive ability. A total of 3722 (90.2%) of the original mothers/carers were interviewed and their children examined in a clinic where they underwent whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and a 3D photonic scan. Saliva samples for DNA were obtained. Clinical psychologists applied the Development and Well-Being Assessment questionnaire and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to all children. Results are being compared with those of the two earlier cohorts to assess the health effects of economic growth and full implementation of public policies aimed at reducing social inequalities in the past 30 years. For further information visit the programme website at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/coorte_2004/questionarios.php]. Applications to use the data should be made by contacting 2004 cohort researchers and filling in the application form available at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/estudos/formularios.php].

  6. Maternal Mental Health and Its Association with Infant Growth at 6 Months in Ethnic Groups: Results from the Born-in-Bradford Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma D Traviss; West, Robert M.; House, Allan O

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with infant growth up to 6 months, with a particular focus on maternal distress, and to explore the effect of ethnicity on any relation between maternal distress and infant growth. METHODS: Cohort study recruiting White and Pakistani women in the United Kingdom (UK). Infant growth was measured at birth and 6 months. Standard assessment of mental health (GHQ-28) was undertaken in pregnancy (26-28 weeks gestation) and 6 months postpartum. Modelling incl...

  7. Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative, a pooled birth cohort of 13 pregnancy studies in Africa and the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Holger W; Gutman, Julie; Briand, Valerie; Fievet, Nadine; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Landis, Sarah H; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Dellicour, Stephanie; Ouma, Peter; Slutsker, Laurence; Terlouw, Dianne J; Kariuki, Simon; Ayisi, John; Nahlen, Bernard; Desai, Meghna; Madanitsa, Mwayi; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Kenneth; Mueller, Ivo; Stanisic, Danielle; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Lusingu, John; Westreich, Daniel; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Meshnick, Steven; Rogerson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria–nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. Participants Data were pooled on 14 635 singleton, live birth pregnancies from women who had participated in 1 of 13 pregnancy studies. The 13 studies cover 8 countries in Africa and Papua New Guinea in the Western Pacific conducted from 1996 to 2015. Findings to date Data are available at the time of antenatal enrolment of women into their respective parent study and at delivery. The data set comprises essential data such as malaria infection status, anthropometric assessments of maternal nutritional status, presence of anaemia and birth weight, as well as additional variables such gestational age at delivery for a subset of women. Participating studies are described in detail with regard to setting and primary outcome measures, and summarised data are available from each contributing cohort. Future plans This pooled birth cohort is the largest pregnancy data set to date to permit a more definite evaluation of the impact of plausible interactions between poor nutritional status and malaria infection in pregnant women on fetal growth and gestational length. Given the current comparative lack of large pregnancy cohorts in malaria-endemic settings, compilation of suitable pregnancy cohorts is likely to provide adequate statistical power to assess malaria–nutrition interactions, and could point towards settings where such interactions are most relevant. The M3 cohort may thus help to identify pregnant women at high risk of adverse outcomes who may benefit from tailored intensive antenatal care including nutritional supplements and alternative or intensified malaria prevention regimens, and the settings in which these interventions would be most effective. PMID:28003287

  8. Relationship between birth weight and overweight/obesity among students in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Elizandra Rossi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Being born heavier than 4 kg is associated with current overweight and obesity over the long term. The objective here was to ascertain whether birth weight was related to overweight or obese status, among 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren, taking into consideration the possible interactions between socioeconomic factors and other biological variables.DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study on a probabilistic sample of 2,696 children and adolescents living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.METHODS: The following data were collected: anthropometric (student's weight, height and age; and parents' weight and height, socioeconomic (family income, number of people in house and parental schooling level, birth weight and gestational age. Overweight and obesity were classified using percentiles of body mass index and triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The outcome variables were overweight and obesity and the main explanatory variables were birth weight and birth weight according to gestational age. The control variables were the parents' nutritional status, their schooling level and theper capita family income. Poisson multivariate regressions were carried out.RESULTS: Higher prevalence of high birth weight was observed among overweight male adolescents (PR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.02-1.27; P = 0.03, but this was not observed among obese male adolescents. Low birth weight and being born small for gestational age were also not associated with the outcomes. Among overweight and obese children, birth weight was not significantly different from that of normal-weight children.CONCLUSION: No significant association between birth weight and obesity was observed. However, there was a weak but significant association between high birth weight and overweight, among male adolescents.

  9. Long-term impact of preterm birth on exercise capacity in healthy young men: a national population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Svedenkrans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993-2001 and born in Sweden 1973-1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2. Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt, as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. CONCLUSION: Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight.

  10. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  11. Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llop, S.; Casas, L.; Santa-Marina, L.; Estarlich, M.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Esplugues, A.; Jimenez, A.; Zock, J.P.; Tardón, A.; Marco, A.; Ballester, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2 456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the begi

  12. Improving activities of daily living in danish centenarians--but only in women: A comparative study of two birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians has increased rapidly since the 1950s. In Denmark, 42% more of the 1905 birth cohort made it to 100 years of age compared to the 1895 cohort. We tested whether this increased survival proportion has resulted in an increased disability level in the more recent......) and Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADLs) were assessed in both cohorts. RESULTS: The 1905 cohort displayed better self-reported ADLs than the 1895 cohort did. Stratified by gender, this apparent cohort advantage was due to women in the 1905 cohort performing significantly better than their female...

  13. Risk of preterm birth after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among women attending colposcopy in England: retrospective-prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanon, Alejandra; Brocklehurst, Peter; Evans, Heather; Peebles, Donald; Singh, Naveena; Walker, Patrick; Patnick, Julietta

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between preterm delivery and treatment at colposcopy. Design Retrospective-prospective cohort study using record linkage. Setting 12 National Health Service hospitals in England. Participants Women who had a cervical histology sample taken between 1987 and 2009. These women were linked by hospital episode statistics to hospital obstetric records between 1998 and 2009 for the whole of England to identify singleton live births between 20-43 gestational weeks before or after cervical histology. Main outcome measures Proportion of preterm births (<37 weeks); the relative risk for the strength of association between preterm births and treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Results 18 441 singleton births occurred: 4176 before histology and 14 265 after histology. Of the singleton births after histology, 9.0% (n=1284) were preterm compared with 6.7% of all births in England over the same period (excess risk 2.3 per 100 births, 95% confidence interval 1.8% to 2.8%). Among first births after histology, the adjusted relative risk associated with previous treatment was 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.41); among first births before histology the relative risk associated with subsequent treatment was 1.47 (1.05 to 2.05). Combining these, the relative risk associated with treatment adjusted for timing relative to histology was 0.91 (0.66 to 1.26) corresponding to an absolute difference of −0.25 (−2.61 to 2.11) per 100 singleton births. Among 372 women who gave birth both before and after treatment, there were 30 preterm births after treatment and 32 before treatment (relative risk 0.94, 0.62 to 1.43). Conclusion The risk of preterm delivery in women treated by colposcopy in England was substantially less than that in many other studies, predominantly from Nordic countries. The increased risk may be a consequence of confounding and not caused by treatment. Although this study is reassuring for large loop excision of

  14. Preterm birth and reduced birthweight in first and second teenage pregnancies: a register-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher risks of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies have been reported in teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between first and second teenage pregnancies and preterm birth, birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: All women aged 14 to 29 yrs who gave birth to live singletons in the North Western Region of England between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2006 were identified. Women were classified in three groups; 14-17 yrs, 18-19 yrs and 20-29 yrs (reference group). The outcome measures were preterm birth, very preterm birth, birthweight, SGA (< 5th percentile), very SGA (VSGA< 3rd percentile). We compared these outcome measures in teenagers\\' first and second pregnancies with those of mothers aged 20 to 29 yrs. RESULTS: The risk of preterm birth was increased in first (OR = 1.21, [95% CI: 1.01-1.45]) and second (OR = 1.93, [95% CI: 1.38-2.69]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. Birthweight was reduced in the first (mean difference = -24 g; [95% CI: -40, -7]) and second (mean difference = -80 g; [95% CI: -115, -46]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. There was some evidence of a protective effect against VSGA in 14-17 yr old first time mothers (OR = 0.79, [95% CI: 0.63-0.99]). CONCLUSIONS: Teenage mothers are at increased risk of preterm birth compared to adult mothers and this risk is further increased in second time teen pregnancies. This study highlights the importance of ensuring pregnant teenagers have appropriate antenatal care. A first pregnancy may be the first and only time a pregnant teenager interacts with health services and this opportunity for health education and the promotion of contraception should not be overlooked.

  15. Preterm birth and reduced birthweight in first and second teenage pregnancies: a register-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Philip N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher risks of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies have been reported in teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between first and second teenage pregnancies and preterm birth, birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA. Methods All women aged 14 to 29 yrs who gave birth to live singletons in the North Western Region of England between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2006 were identified. Women were classified in three groups; 14-17 yrs, 18-19 yrs and 20-29 yrs (reference group. The outcome measures were preterm birth, very preterm birth, birthweight, SGA (th percentile, very SGA (VSGArd percentile. We compared these outcome measures in teenagers' first and second pregnancies with those of mothers aged 20 to 29 yrs. Results The risk of preterm birth was increased in first (OR = 1.21, [95% CI: 1.01-1.45] and second (OR = 1.93, [95% CI: 1.38-2.69] time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. Birthweight was reduced in the first (mean difference = -24 g; [95% CI: -40, -7] and second (mean difference = -80 g; [95% CI: -115, -46] time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. There was some evidence of a protective effect against VSGA in 14-17 yr old first time mothers (OR = 0.79, [95% CI: 0.63-0.99]. Conclusions Teenage mothers are at increased risk of preterm birth compared to adult mothers and this risk is further increased in second time teen pregnancies. This study highlights the importance of ensuring pregnant teenagers have appropriate antenatal care. A first pregnancy may be the first and only time a pregnant teenager interacts with health services and this opportunity for health education and the promotion of contraception should not be overlooked.

  16. Oral health in a life-course : birth-cohorts from 1929 to 2006 in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. METHODS: The material compri

  17. Potential determinants of vitamin D in Finnish adults: a cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Saranya; Hyppönen, Elina; Williams, Dylan M; Jokelainen, Jari; Lowry, Estelle; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that vitamin D may reduce multimorbidity, but very few studies have investigated specific determinants of vitamin D2 and D3 (two isoforms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D). The aim of the study was to investigate the determinants of vitamin D2 and D3 and to identify the risk factors associated with hypovitaminosis D. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Participants 2374 male and 2384 female participants with data on serum 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations measured at 31 years of age (1997), together with comprehensive measures of daylight, anthropometric, social, lifestyle and contraceptive cofactors. Methods We assessed a wide range of potential determinants prior to a nationwide fortification programme introduced in Finland. The determinants of 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed by linear regression and risk factors for being in lower tertile of 25(OH)D concentration by ordinal logistic regression. Results At the time of sampling, 72% of the participants were vitamin D sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). Low sunlight exposure period (vs high) was associated positively with 25(OH)D2 and negatively with 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Use of oral contraceptives (vs non-users) was associated with an increase of 0.17 nmol/L (95% CI 0.08 to 0.27) and 0.48 nmol/L (95% CI 0.41 to 0.56) in 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Sex, season, latitude, alcohol consumption and physical activity were the factors most strongly associated with 25(OH)D concentration. Risk factors for low vitamin D status were low sunlight exposure defined by time of sampling, residing in northern latitudes, obesity, higher waist circumference, low physical activity and unhealthy diet. Conclusions We demonstrate some differential associations of environmental and lifestyle factors with 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 raising important questions related to personalised healthcare. Future strategies

  18. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children from birth up to age 14 years : the PIAMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Den Berg, Saskia W.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Boer, Jolanda M A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children and the development of this association between birth and 14 years of age, taking into account relevant mother and child covariates. METHODS: The study population consisted

  19. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children from birth up to age 14 years : the PIAMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Saskia W.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children and the development of this association between birth and 14 years of age, taking into account relevant mother and child covariates. The study population consisted of 3684 Dutch chi

  20. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  1. Looking for effects of environmental contaminants in a large birth cohort: Summarizing results of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per

    2017-01-06

    The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) includes about 113 000 pregnancies, recruited during the years 1999-2008. Using information from questionnaires and biological samples, a major purpose has been to estimate the association between exposures to environmental contaminants and disease occurrence in parents and children. The intention of this article is to describe the available data in MoBa together with a short synopsis of some recent MoBa-publications that relate to exposure assessment and associations between toxicants and health outcomes. The majority of these papers display negative results, in the sense that no strong associations between contaminants and health outcomes have been found, whereas others suggest adverse effects. The positive associations between fetal exposure to contaminants and child growth and development will need replication in other cohorts and further risk assessment. Large prospective pregnancy cohorts remain an important resource for surveillance and detection of effects of environmental hazards on human health.

  2. Adult body height of twins compared with that of singletons: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether childhood differences in body height between singletons and twins persist into adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. This study used data on the 457,999 males who were born alive and without physical anomalies in single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years; 1985-2003). For sibling comparisons, the authors selected the 1,721 sibships of full brothers that included at least 1 male born in a single birth and at least 1 male born in a twin birth (4,520 persons, including 2,493 twins and 2,027 singletons). An analysis of the total study population using generalized estimating equations showed that the twins were 0.6 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.7) shorter than were the singletons after adjustment for a series of background factors. The fixed-effects regression analysis of the sibships that included both twins and singletons showed that the twins were 0.9 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.2) shorter than were their singleton brothers. The study suggests that male twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 were slightly shorter in early adulthood than were singletons.

  3. An ADAM33 polymorphism associates with progression of preschool wheeze into childhood asthma: a prospective case-control study with replication in a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester M M Klaassen

    Full Text Available The influence of asthma candidate genes on the development from wheeze to asthma in young children still needs to be defined.To link genetic variants in asthma candidate genes to progression of wheeze to persistent wheeze into childhood asthma.In a prospective study, children with recurrent wheeze from the ADEM (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study were followed until the age of six. At that age a classification (transient wheeze or asthma was based on symptoms, lung function and medication use. In 198 children the relationship between this classification and 30 polymorphisms in 16 asthma candidate genes was assessed by logistic regression. In case of an association based on a p<0.10, replication analysis was performed in an independent birth cohort study (KOALA study, n = 248 included for the present analysis.In the ADEM study, the minor alleles of ADAM33 rs511898 and rs528557 and the ORMDL3/GSDMB rs7216389 polymorphisms were negatively associated, whereas the minor alleles of IL4 rs2243250 and rs2070874 polymorphisms were positively associated with childhood asthma. When replicated in the KOALA study, ADAM33 rs528557 showed a negative association of the CG/GG-genotype with progression of recurrent wheeze into childhood asthma (0.50 (0.26-0.97 p = 0.04 and no association with preschool wheeze.Polymorphisms in ADAM33, ORMDL3/GSDMB and IL4 were associated with childhood asthma in a group of children with recurrent wheeze. The replication of the negative association of the CG/GG-genotype of rs528557 ADAM33 with childhood asthma in an independent birth cohort study confirms that a compromised ADAM33 gene may be implicated in the progression of wheeze into childhood asthma.

  4. A Birth-cohort testing intervention identified hepatitis c virus infection among patients with few identified risks: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Southern, William N.; Norton, Brianna; Steinman, Meredith; DeLuca, Joseph; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Smith, Bryce D.; Litwin, Alain H.

    2015-01-01

    Background International guidelines and U.S. guidelines prior to 2012 only recommended testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients at risk, but adherence to guidelines is poor, and the majority of those infected remain undiagnosed. A strategy to perform one-time testing of all patients born during 1945–1965, birth cohort testing, may diagnose HCV infection among patients whose risk remains unknown. We sought to determine if a birth-cohort testing intervention for HCV antibody...

  5. Cohort profile: cerebral palsy in the Norwegian and Danish birth cohorts (MOBAND-CP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg; Petersen, Tanja Gram; Moster, Dag; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. Participants MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts—the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. Findings to date Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. Future plans Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays conducted on these specimens for other projects. The study size allows consideration of CP subtypes, which is rare in aetiological studies of CP. In addition, MOBAND-CP provides a platform within the context of a merged birth cohort of exceptional size that could, after appropriate permissions have been sought, be used for cohort and case-cohort studies of other relatively rare health conditions of infants and children. PMID:27591025

  6. Risk factors for hospital admission with RSV bronchiolitis in England: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Murray

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the timing and duration of RSV bronchiolitis hospital admission among term and preterm infants in England and to identify risk factors for bronchiolitis admission. DESIGN: A population-based birth cohort with follow-up to age 1 year, using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. SETTING: 71 hospitals across England. PARTICIPANTS: We identified 296618 individual birth records from 2007/08 and linked to subsequent hospital admission records during the first year of life. RESULTS: In our cohort there were 7189 hospital admissions with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis, 24.2 admissions per 1000 infants under 1 year (95%CI 23.7-24.8, of which 15% (1050/7189 were born preterm (47.3 bronchiolitis admissions per 1000 preterm infants (95% CI 44.4-50.2. The peak age group for bronchiolitis admissions was infants aged 1 month and the median was age 120 days (IQR = 61-209 days. The median length of stay was 1 day (IQR = 0-3. The relative risk (RR of a bronchiolitis admission was higher among infants with known risk factors for severe RSV infection, including those born preterm (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.8-2.0 compared with infants born at term. Other conditions also significantly increased risk of bronchiolitis admission, including Down's syndrome (RR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.7 and cerebral palsy (RR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-4.0. CONCLUSIONS: Most (85% of the infants who are admitted to hospital with bronchiolitis in England are born at term, with no known predisposing risk factors for severe RSV infection, although risk of admission is higher in known risk groups. The early age of bronchiolitis admissions has important implications for the potential impact and timing of future active and passive immunisations. More research is needed to explain why babies born with Down's syndrome and cerebral palsy are also at higher risk of hospital admission with RSV bronchiolitis.

  7. How the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort study has contributed to the understanding of the impact of birth weight and early life socioeconomic position on disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Mann, Kay D; Relton, Caroline L; Francis, Roger M; Steele, James G; Craft, Alan W; Parker, Louise

    2012-05-01

    Much has been made of the potential influence of birth weight and early socioeconomic disadvantage in influencing adult health, but little has been published in terms of how important these associations may be with respect to exposures throughout the lifecourse. The objective of this review is to describe the contributions of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study in understanding the relative impacts of factors in early life, particularly birth weight and socio-economic position at birth, in influencing health in later life. The Newcastle Thousand Families Study is a prospective birth cohort established in 1947. It originally included all births to mothers resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, in northern England, in May and June of that year. Study members were followed extensively throughout childhood and intermittently in adulthood. At the age of 49-51 years, study members underwent a large-scale follow-up phase enabling an assessment of how early life may influence their later health, and also incorporating adult risk factors which enabled the relative contributions of factors at different stages of life to be assessed. While some findings from the study do support birth weight and early socio-economic position having influences on adult health status, the associations are generally small when compared to risk factors later in life. Using path analyses on longitudinal data of this nature enables mediating pathways between early life and later health to be assessed and if more studies were to take this approach, the relative importance of early life on adult disease risk could be better understood.

  8. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case–cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32+0–36+6 weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. Study design A population-based case–cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Results Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Conclusions Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. PMID:25972442

  9. The influence of maternal and paternal factors on time to pregnancy--a Dutch population-based birth-cohort study : the GECKO Drenthe study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Groen, H.; Huiting, H. G.; Kuchenbecker, W. K. H.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Land, J. A.; Stolk, R. P.; Hoek, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both maternal and paternal factors have been suggested to influence a couple's fecundity. To investigate this, we examined the role of several maternal and paternal lifestyle and socio-demographic factors as determinants of time to pregnancy (TTP) in a Dutch birth-cohort. METHODS: Gronin

  10. Maternal labor force participation and differences by education in an urban birth cohort study – 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkauskas, Natasha; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maternal labor force participation has increased dramatically over the last 40 years, yet surprisingly little is known about longitudinal patterns of maternal labor force participation in the years after a birth, or how these patterns vary by education. OBJECTIVE We document variation by maternal education in mothers’ labor force participation (timing, intensity, non-standard work, multiple job-holding) over the first nine years after the birth of a child. METHODS We use the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N~3000) to predict longitudinal labor force participation in a recent longitudinal sample of mothers who gave birth in large US cities between 1998 and 2000. Families were followed until children were age 9, through 2010. RESULTS Labor force participation gradually increases in the years after birth for mothers with high school or less education, whereas for mothers with some college or more, participation increases between ages 1 and 3 and then remains mostly stable thereafter. Mothers with less than high school education have the highest rates of unemployment (actively seeking work), which remain high compared with all other education groups, whose unemployment declines over time. Compared with all other education groups, mothers with some college have the highest rates of labor force participation, but also high rates of part-time employment, non-standard work, and multiple job-holding. CONTRIBUTION Simple conceptualizations of labor force participation do not fully capture the dynamics of labor force attachment for mothers in terms of intensity, timing of entry, and type of work hours, as well as differences by maternal education.

  11. The Danish National Birth Cohort: selected scientific contributions within perinatal epidemiology and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    , physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has......INTRODUCTION: In this review a selection of studies published during the period 2002-2010, based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort linked with other health registers, is described. Illustrative examples of studies addressing perinatal health outcomes (pregnancy complications and fetal...... that this investment in epidemiologic infrastructure was well spent. The existence of the Danish National Birth Cohort together with other cohorts and national registers has given Denmark a leading position in reproductive epidemiology....

  12. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijasevich Alicia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48 months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%, while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%. In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight.

  13. Survey of motivation to participate in a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Midori; Fujita, Misuzu; Mori, Chisato; Hata, Akira

    2016-09-01

    For a longitudinal prospective cohort study to be successful, participants' motivation to provide information must be maintained. Therefore, this study aimed to identify items that effectively promote participants' motivation. Questionnaires were mailed to 4541 mothers and expectant mothers in Chiba Prefecture, Japan who participated in a nationwide birth cohort. A total of 2387 (52.6%) responses were received. The following items were identified as primary motivating factors among our cohort: "benefits to the participants' children", "monetary compensation" and "contribution to a better future environment". More than 30% of the respondents expressed a lack of understanding regarding the study purpose and requirements for participation. About 14% were concerned about the leakage of personal information, and 13% felt burdened by having to make a long-term commitment to the study. Cluster analysis identified four groups, two of which, one with extremely low levels of motivation and the other motivated by only money or goods, lacked an understanding of the study and tended to be concerned about the associated risks and burdens. Participants in these groups were considered to be at a high risk of dropout. Therefore, implementing measures to provide participants with a better understanding of cohort studies could lead to more successful results.

  14. Cohort fertility in Western Europe: comparing fertility trends in recent birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopflinger, F

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of fertility levels among cohorts of women born in 1940, 1945, 1950, 1955, and 1960 in 16 European countries was undertaken using vital statistics data. The average number of live birth/woman for each of the 5 cohorts by age 20, 25, 30, and 35 was computed by cumulating age-specific fertility rates of women born in specific years. Median age at childbirth and completed fertility were estimated for the 3 oldest cohorts (1940, 1945, and 1950). 2 estimations of completed fertility were made. 1 was based on the assumption of a constant age-specific fertility rate, and the other was based on a relational Gompertz model. Where possible cohort fertility was disaggregated by birth order. Since the data for the countries was not fully comparable, it was not possible to use sophisticated analytical techniques. Other limits of the study were that fertility, especially for the more recent cohorts was incomplete, parity specific data was not available for all the countries, and open cohorts rather than closed cohorts were used. The analysis indicated that completed cohort fertility was lower for the 1950 cohort than for the 1940 cohort in all 16 countries. For the 1940 cohort, only Germany's estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00. For the other 15 countries, estimated completed fertility ranged from 2.04 (Finland) to 3.36 (Ireland). For the 1950 cohort, estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00 in 8 of the countries. Estimated completed fertility was lowest in Finland and Switzerland (1.82) and highest in Ireland (3.33). No marked increase in childlessness was observed, and for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts, childlessness did not exceed 20% in any of the countries and was considerably less than 20% in most of the countries. There was a trend toward delayed childbearing in most of the countries. An examination of available parity data for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts lead to the conclusion that the major factor contributing toward the decline in

  15. Rates of preterm birth following antenatal exposure to severe life events: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; McNamee, R.; Abel, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    ) in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2002 were linked to data on their children, parents, siblings and partners. We defined exposure as death or serious illness in close relatives in the first or second trimesters or in the 6 months before conception. Log-linear binomial regression was used...... months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 16% (relative risk, RR = 1.16, [95% CI: 1.08-1.23]). Severe life events in older children in the 6 months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 23% (RR = 1.23, [95% CI: 1.02-1.49]) and the risk of very preterm birth by 59......BACKGROUND: Preterm birth and other pregnancy complications have been linked to maternal stress during pregnancy. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to severe life events and risk of preterm birth. METHODS: Mothers of all singleton live births (n = 1.35 million births...

  16. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibertoni, Dino; Corvaglia, Luigi; Vandini, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fantini, Maria Pia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  17. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Gibertoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  18. The C9ORF72 expansion sizes in patients with psychosis: a population-based study on the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solje, Eino; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttila, Riikka; Helisalmi, Seppo; Laitinen, Marjo; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Isohanni, Matti; Hiltunen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Remes, Anne M

    2016-04-01

    Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) have many psychotic symptoms, especially at the onset of the disease. The C9ORF72 expansion is the most common genetic etiology observed with bvFTD and the prevalence of the expansion is notably high among Finnish bvFTD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion among the clearly characterized patients with psychosis, mainly schizophrenia, in early midlife. The C9ORF72 repeat sizes were analyzed in 130 (48% women) patients with psychosis from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N=11,017), the mean onset age being 27.9 (SD 7.0) years. Despite the high frequency of psychiatric symptoms in bvFTD patients and the extremely high prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion in Finland, pathogenic expansion (>40 repeats) was not detected among the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 individuals with psychosis, indicating that these disorders, especially schizophrenia before the age of 43 years, may not be associated with the C9ORF72 expansion. However, we identified four cases with intermediate size repeats (17-26), but the role of the intermediate repeats in the etiology of psychosis is unknown.

  19. Air pollution exposure estimation using dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data in a prospective birth cohort study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Hooven Edith H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies suggest that pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. A prospective cohort study in pregnant women and their children enables identification of the specific effects and critical periods. This paper describes the design of air pollution exposure assessment for participants of the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in 9778 women in the Netherlands. Individual exposures to PM10 and NO2 levels at the home address were estimated for mothers and children, using a combination of advanced dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data, taking into account the spatial and temporal variation in air pollution concentrations. Full residential history was considered. We observed substantial spatial and temporal variation in air pollution exposure levels. The Generation R Study provides unique possibilities to examine effects of short- and long-term air pollution exposure on various maternal and childhood outcomes and to identify potential critical windows of exposure.

  20. Patterns in mortality among people with severe mental disorders across birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissler, Mika; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Osby, Urban;

    2013-01-01

    Mortality among patients with mental disorders is higher than in general population. By using national longitudinal registers, we studied mortality changes and excess mortality across birth cohorts among people with severe mental disorders in Denmark and Finland....

  1. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity.

  2. Low Birth Weight and Risk of Progression to End Stage Renal Disease in IgA Nephropathy-A Retrospective Registry-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal Ruggajo

    Full Text Available Low Birth Weight (LBW is a surrogate for fetal undernutrition and is associated with impaired nephron development in utero. In this study, we investigate whether having been born LBW and/or small for gestational age (SGA predict progression to ESRD in IgA nephropathy (IgAN patients.Retrospective registry-based cohort study.The Medical Birth Registry has recorded all births since 1967 and the Norwegian Renal Registry has recorded all patients with ESRD since 1980. Based on data from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry we included all patients diagnosed with IgAN in Norway from 1988-2013. These registries were linked and we analysed risk of progression to ESRD associated with LBW (defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile and/or SGA (defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational week by Cox regression statistics.We included 471 patients, of whom 74 developed ESRD. As compared to patients without LBW, patients with LBW had a hazard ratio (HR of 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.7 for the total cohort, 2.2 (1.1-4.4 for males and 1.3 (0.30-5.8 for females. Corresponding HRs for SGA were 2.2 (1.1-4.2, 2.7 (1.4-5.5 and 0.8 (0.10-5.9. Further analyses showed that as compared to patients with neither LBW nor SGA, patients with either SGA or LBW did not have significantly increased risks (HRs of 1.3-1.4 but patients who were both LBW and SGA had an increased risk (HR 3.2 (1.5-6.8.Mean duration of follow-up only 10 years and maximum age only 46 years.Among IgAN patients, LBW and/or SGA was associated with increased risk for progression to ESRD, the association was stronger in males.

  3. Health and function assessments in two adjacent Danish birth cohorts of centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Skytthe, Axel;

    2016-01-01

    Using the results from measures of functional ability, cognitive and physical performance from two adjacent birth cohorts of 100-year-old adults, we aimed to elucidate the possible impact of difference in participation rates, design, and interviewer mode. Participants were birth cohort members born...... in terms of ADL and cognitive functioning. Caution is warranted when comparing studies of centenarians with different participation rates, design, and interviewer mode, and further studies of these methodological issues are required....

  4. Malnutrition Is Associated with Protection from Rotavirus Diarrhea: Evidence from a Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans; Sobuz, Shihab; Ma, Jennie Z.; Petri, Sarah E.; Reichman, Dan; Qadri, Firdausi; Haque, Rashidul

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea and death among infants and children globally, particularly in communities of the developing world. While numerous studies have described the complex relationships among infectious diarrhea, growth faltering, and poverty, the impact of nutritional status on susceptibility to rotavirus diarrhea is not well understood. In a longitudinal study conducted over the first 3 years of life among 626 slum-dwelling infants enrolled at birth in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we observed that common measures of healthy growth and development were positively associated with a risk of symptomatic rotavirus infection. This finding runs counter to the idea that improving childhood nutrition will implicitly decrease the incidence of symptomatic infection by enteric pathogens. As childhood nutrition improves worldwide, rotavirus infection may remain a public health challenge, making universal vaccination of even greater importance. PMID:27510830

  5. Do dietary trajectories between infancy and toddlerhood influence IQ in childhood and adolescence? Results from a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G Smithers

    Full Text Available We examined whether trajectories of dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months of age are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ in childhood and adolescence.Participants were children enrolled in a prospective UK birth cohort (n = 7,652 who had IQ measured at age 8 and/or 15 years. Dietary patterns were previously extracted from questionnaires when children were aged 6, 15 and 24 months using principal component analysis. Dietary trajectories were generated by combining scores on similar dietary patterns across each age, using multilevel mixed models. Associations between dietary trajectories and IQ were examined in generalized linear models with adjustment for potential confounders.Four dietary pattern trajectories were constructed from 6 to 24 months of age and were named according to foods that made the strongest contribution to trajectory scores; Healthy (characterised by breastfeeding at 6 months, raw fruit and vegetables, cheese and herbs at 15 and 24 months; Discretionary (biscuits, chocolate, crisps at all ages, Traditional (meat, cooked vegetables and puddings at all ages and, Ready-to-eat (use of ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months, biscuits, bread and breakfast cereals at 24 months. In fully-adjusted models, a 1 SD change in the Healthy trajectory was weakly associated with higher IQ at age 8 (1.07 (95%CI 0.17, 1.97 but not 15 years (0.49 (-0.28, 1.26. Associations between the Discretionary and Traditional trajectories with IQ at 8 and 15 years were as follows; Discretionary; 8 years -0.35(-1.03, 0.33, 15 years -0.73(-1.33, -0.14 Traditional; 8 years -0.19(-0.71, 0.3315 years -0.41(-0.77, -0.04. The Ready-to-eat trajectory had no association with IQ at either age (8 years 0.32(-4.31, 4.95, 15 years 1.11(-3.10, 5.33.The Discretionary and Traditional dietary pattern trajectories from 6 to 24 months of age, over the period when food patterns begin to emerge, are weakly associated with IQ in adolescence.

  6. Early signs of ADHD in Toddlers: A follow-up study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemcke, Sanne; Thorlund Parner, Erik; Bjerrum, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Studies of the early signs characteristic of ADHD later on are sparse. The aim is to study whether prospectively collected information from mothers regarding deviations in their child’s development and behaviour during the first two years of life can predict the risk...... National Patient Register. Thus, it is possible to identify children with ADHD in the DNBC and analyses of the information in DNBC will provide information about signs of ADHD before the age of two years. Results: The analyses are preliminary. In august 2010 the study cohort consisted of 76,441 children......; of which 681 children were diagnosed with ADHD at follow-up. Deviations reported by mothers when the child was 6 months did not show any associations to later ADHD diagnosis. Some deviations at 18 months of age reported especially in the language and motor field showed statistically significant increased...

  7. Effect of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure on birth outcomes: the Polish mother and child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Dettbarn, Gerhard; Jurewicz, Joanna; Sobala, Wojciech; Magnus, Per; Seidel, Albrecht; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of PAH exposure on various anthropometric measures of birth outcomes. The study population consisted of 210 nonsmoking pregnant women. Urine samples collected between 20th and 24th week of pregnancy were used for analysis of the following PAH metabolites: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-OH-PHE), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR), 1,6 + 1,8-dihydroxypyrene (DI-OH-PYR), phenanthrene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol (PHE-1,2-diol), and phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol (PHE-9,10-diol) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) was assessed by cotinine level in saliva using a stable isotope dilution LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The mean PAH metabolite concentrations were in the range of 0.15 µg/g creatinine for 9-OH-PHE to 5.9 µg/g creatinine for PHE-9,10-diol. It was shown that none of the individual PAH exposure markers demonstrate a statistically significant influence on birth outcomes. Interestingly a statistically significant association was found between the sum of OH-PHE along with cotinine level and the cephalization index after adjusting for potential confounders (P = 0.04). This study provides evidence that combined exposure of pregnant women to common environmental pollutants such as PAH and ETS might adversely affect fetal development. Thus, reduction of human exposure to these mixtures of hazardous compounds would in particular result in substantial health benefits for newborns.

  8. Effect of Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure on Birth Outcomes: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of PAH exposure on various anthropometric measures of birth outcomes. The study population consisted of 210 nonsmoking pregnant women. Urine samples collected between 20th and 24th week of pregnancy were used for analysis of the following PAH metabolites: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-OH-PHE, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR, 1,6 + 1,8-dihydroxypyrene (DI-OH-PYR, phenanthrene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol (PHE-1,2-diol, and phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol (PHE-9,10-diol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS was assessed by cotinine level in saliva using a stable isotope dilution LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The mean PAH metabolite concentrations were in the range of 0.15 µg/g creatinine for 9-OH-PHE to 5.9 µg/g creatinine for PHE-9,10-diol. It was shown that none of the individual PAH exposure markers demonstrate a statistically significant influence on birth outcomes. Interestingly a statistically significant association was found between the sum of OH-PHE along with cotinine level and the cephalization index after adjusting for potential confounders (P=0.04. This study provides evidence that combined exposure of pregnant women to common environmental pollutants such as PAH and ETS might adversely affect fetal development. Thus, reduction of human exposure to these mixtures of hazardous compounds would in particular result in substantial health benefits for newborns.

  9. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  10. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: a study to examine influences on cognitive ageing from age 11 to age 70 and beyond

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    Whalley Lawrence J

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive ageing is a major burden for society and a major influence in lowering people's independence and quality of life. It is the most feared aspect of ageing. There are large individual differences in age-related cognitive changes. Seeking the determinants of cognitive ageing is a research priority. A limitation of many studies is the lack of a sufficiently long period between cognitive assessments to examine determinants. Here, the aim is to examine influences on cognitive ageing between childhood and old age. Methods/Design The study is designed as a follow-up cohort study. The participants comprise surviving members of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (SMS1947; N = 70,805 who reside in the Edinburgh area (Lothian of Scotland. The SMS1947 applied a valid test of general intelligence to all children born in 1936 and attending Scottish schools in June 1947. A total of 1091 participants make up the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They undertook: a medical interview and examination; physical fitness testing; extensive cognitive testing (reasoning, memory, speed of information processing, and executive function; personality, quality of life and other psycho-social questionnaires; and a food frequency questionnaire. They have taken the same mental ability test (the Moray House Test No. 12 at age 11 and age 70. They provided blood samples for DNA extraction and testing and other biomarker analyses. Here we describe the background and aims of the study, the recruitment procedures and details of numbers tested, and the details of all examinations. Discussion The principal strength of this cohort is the rarely captured phenotype of lifetime cognitive change. There is additional rich information to examine the determinants of individual differences in this lifetime cognitive change. This protocol report is important in alerting other researchers to the data available in the cohort.

  11. Fetal growth and preterm birth in children exposed to maternal or paternal rheumatoid arthritis. A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess indicators of fetal growth and risk of preterm birth in children of parents with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Through linkage of Danish national registries, we identified all children born in Denmark between 1977 and 2008. We used general linear regression models...... to estimate mean differences in indicators of fetal growth among children with a parent with RA compared to unexposed children. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of preterm birth were calculated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of the 1,917,723 children included, a total...... of 13,556 children were exposed to maternal RA or maternal preclinical RA. Children exposed to maternal RA (n = 2,101) had approximately similar length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference at birth compared with children of mothers without RA. Birth weight was 87 gm lower (mean difference...

  12. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  13. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  14. Birth weight, growth and feeding pattern in early infancy predict overweight/obesity status at two years of age: a birth cohort study of Chinese infants.

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    Jianduan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.

  15. Contactable Non-responders Show Different Characteristics Compared to Lost to Follow-Up Participants: Insights from an Australian Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu-Kay; Scott, Rani; Scuffham, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Objective This research aims to identify predictors of attrition in a longitudinal birth cohort study in Australia and assess differences in baseline characteristics and responses in subsequent follow-up phases between contactable non-responders and uncontactable non-responders deemed "lost to follow-up (LTF)". Methods 3368 women recruited from three public hospitals in Southeast Queensland and Northern New South Wales during antenatal visits in 2006-2011 completed a baseline questionnaire to elicit information on multiple domains of exposures. A follow-up questionnaire was posted to each participant at 1 year after birth to obtain mother's and child's health and development information. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the association between exposures and respondents' status at 1 year. The effect of an inverse-probability-weighting method to adjust for non-response was studied. Results Overall attrition at 1-year was 35.4 %; major types of attrition were "contactable non-response" (27.6 %) and "LTF" (6.7 %). These two attrition types showed different responses at the 3-year follow-up and involved different predictors. Besides shared predictors (first language not English, higher risk of psychological distress, had smoked during pregnancy, higher levels of family conflict), distinguishable predictors of contactable non-responders were younger age, having moved home in the past year and having children under 16 in the household. Attrition rates increased substantially from 20 % in 2006 to 54 % in 2011. Conclusions This observed trend of increased attrition rates raises concern about the use of traditional techniques, such as "paper-based" questionnaires, in longitudinal cohort studies. The supplementary use of electronic communications, such as online survey tools and smart-device applications, could provide a better alternative.

  16. IQ in Childhood and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle Age: Extended Follow-Up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, David G.

    2009-01-01

    IQ in early adulthood has been inversely associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in midlife. We tested this association in the British 1946 birth cohort, which assessed IQ at age eight years and ascertained the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years based on modified (non-fasting blood) ATPIII criteria. Childhood IQ was inversely associated…

  17. Fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression: a prospective study based on a large national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2009-01-01

    that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might have a beneficial effect on depression. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the association between intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy and PPD in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). DESIGN: Exposure information from the DNBC...... was linked to the Danish patient and prescription registries for data on clinically identified cases of depression up to 1 y postpartum. Intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs was assessed in midpregnancy with a food-frequency questionnaire. Admission to the hospital for PPD (PPD-admission) and prescription...... of antidepressants (PPD-prescription) were treated as separate outcomes. A total of 54,202 women were included in the present study sample. RESULTS: Rates of depression were 0.3% (PPD-admission) and 1.6% (PPD-prescription). No association was observed between fish intake and risk of PPD-admission [crude odds ratio...

  18. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: A birth cohort study (COCOA

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    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OHD concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OHD in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OHD in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2. One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3% showed 25(OHD concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6% showed 25(OHD concentrations of 25.0&#8211;74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1% showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OHD concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004. Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively. Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.

  19. Effects of paternal and maternal lifestyle factors on pregnancy complications and perinatal outcome. A population-based birth-cohort study : the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Groen, H.; Buiter-Van der Meer, A.; Sijtsma, A.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Land, J. A.; Mol, B. W.; Corpeleijn, E.; Hoek, A.

    2014-01-01

    Do paternal and maternal lifestyle factors influence the risk of hypertensive pregnancy complications, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), spontaneous preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age (SGA)? Paternal lifestyle factors do not exert an independent effect on the investigated outcomes while

  20. Association of diabetes in pregnancy with child weight at birth, age 12 months and 5 years--a population-based electronic cohort study.

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    Kelly Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. METHODS: A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offspring size, adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, age and smoking status. FINDINGS: We identified 1,250 (0.9% pregnancies with existing diabetes (27.8% with type 1 diabetes, 1,358 with gestational diabetes (0.9% and 635 (0.4% who developed diabetes post-pregnancy. Children whose mothers had existing diabetes were less likely to be large at 12 months (OR: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6, 0.8 than those without diabetes. Maternal diabetes was associated with high weight at age 5 years in children whose mothers had a high pre-pregnancy weight tertile (gestational diabetes, (OR:2.1 (95%CI:1.25-3.6, existing diabetes (OR:1.3 (95%CI:1.0 to 1.6. CONCLUSION: The prevention of childhood obesity should focus on mothers with diabetes with a high maternal pre-pregnancy weight. We found little evidence that diabetes in pregnancy leads to long term obesity 'programming'.

  1. Early-life determinants of total and HDL cholesterol concentrations in 8-year-old children; the PIAMA birth cohort study.

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    Marga B M Bekkers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and adolescents is scarce and conflicting. We investigated the influence of 6 different perinatal risk factors on childhood total and HDL cholesterol concentrations and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio measured at 8 years of age, and additionally we studied the role of the child's current Body Mass Index (BMI. METHODS: Anthropometric measures and blood plasma samples were collected during a medical examination in 751 8-year-old children participating in the prospective Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study. Linear and logistic regression were performed to estimate associations of total and HDL cholesterol concentrations with breastfeeding, birth weight, infant weight gain, maternal overweight before pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal smoking during pregnancy, taking into account the child's current BMI. RESULTS: Linear regressions showed an association between total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio and maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (β = 0.15, Confidence Interval 95% (CI: 0.02, 0.28, rapid infant weight gain (β = 0.13, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.26, and maternal smoking during pregnancy (β = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.00, 0.29. These associations were partly mediated by the child's BMI. CONCLUSION: Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in 8-year-old children was positively associated with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid infant weight gain.

  2. Undercontrolled Temperament at Age 3 Predicts Disordered Gambling at Age 32: A Longitudinal Study of a Complete Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related problems). A 90-min observational assessment at age 3 was used to categorize children into five temperament groups, including one primarily characterized by behavioral and emotional undercontrol. The children with undercontrolled temperament at 3 years of age were more than twice as likely to evidence disordered gambling at ages 21 and 32 than were children who were well-adjusted at age 3. These associations could not be explained by differences in childhood IQ or family socioeconomic status. Cleanly demonstrating the temporal relation between behavioral undercontrol and adult disordered gambling is an important step toward building more developmentally sensitive theories of disordered gambling and may put researchers in a better position to begin considering potential routes to disordered-gambling prevention through enhancing self-control and emotional regulation. PMID:22457426

  3. Association between prenatal exposure to antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: an analysis of the French perinatal cohort study (ANRS CO1/CO11.

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    Jeanne Sibiude

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV drug used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388 were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%-4.7%, according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%. Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.8, p = 0

  4. Testicular function in a birth cohort of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, R J; Doherty, D A; McLachlan, R I

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: By investigating a birth cohort with a high ongoing participation rate to derive an unbiased population, what are the parameters and influences upon testicular function for a population not selected with regard to fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: While varicocele, cryptorchidism...... biased sources such as recruits from infertility clinics, self-selected volunteer sperm donors for research or artificial insemination or once-fertile men seeking vasectomy. It is well known that studies requiring semen analysis have low recruitment rates which consequently question their validity....... However, there has been some concern that a surprisingly high proportion of young men may have semen variables that do not meet all the WHO reference range criteria for fertile men, with some studies reporting that up to one half of participants have not meet the reference range for fertile men. Reported...

  5. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life.

  6. Limitations in the Activity of Mobility at Age 6 Years After Difficult Birth at Term : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, Patricia A. M.; Algra, Annechien M.; Bakker, Saskia C. M.; Jonker, Arnold J. H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-01-01

    Background. A difficult birth at term (DBAT) may manifest as fetal acidosis and low Apgar scores and is often referred to as "perinatal asphyxia," especially when infants show signs of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). In contrast to DBAT resulting in moderate-to-severe NE, which is associated with neur

  7. Prenatal and childhood growth, and hospitalization for alcohol use disorders in adulthood: the Helsinki birth cohort study.

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    Jari Lahti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small birth size - an indicator of a sub-optimal prenatal environment - and variation in growth after birth have been associated with non-communicable diseases in later life. We tested whether birth size or growth in childhood associated with the risk of hospital admission for alcohol use disorders (AUDs from early to late adulthood. METHODS: The sample comprised 6544 men and 6050 women born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland. Data on anthropometric measures were extracted from medical records and diagnoses of AUD from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Causes of Death Register covering a 40-year period from 1969 to 2008. RESULTS: Altogether 171 women (2.8% and 657 men (10.0% were diagnosed at a hospital with AUD. After adjusting for major confounders, shorter length at birth, shorter height up to two years of age, and lower weight at two years associated with hospitalization for AUD in women. In men, slower growth in height, particularly from 2 to 7 years, and slower weight gain from 7 to 11 years as well as shorter height and lower weight at 7 and 11 years associated with a diagnosis of AUD in men. CONCLUSIONS: Pre- and postnatal growth associates with the risk for AUD later in life differently in women than in men: the fetal period and infancy seem to be the sensitive periods for women, whereas those for men the occur from toddlerhood onwards.

  8. Predicting the risk of newborn children to become overweight later in childhood: the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steur, M.; Smit, H.A.; Schipper, C.M.A.; Scholtens, S.; Kerkhof, van de M.; Jongste, de J.C.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Brunekreef, B.; Wijga, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To develop a decision rule by which children with a high risk to develop overweight can be distinguished at birth from children at low risk. Design, setting and participants. Data of 1 687 Dutch children born in 1996/1997 who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite

  9. Predicting the risk of newborn children to become overweight later in childhood : The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steur, Marinka; Smit, Henriette A.; Schipper, C. Maarten A.; Scholtens, Salome; Kerkhof, Marjan; De Jongste, Johan C.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Brunekreef, Bert; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To develop a decision rule by which children with a high risk to develop overweight can be distinguished at birth from children at low risk. Design, setting and participants. Data of 1 687 Dutch children born in 1996/1997 who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite

  10. Down syndrome : A novel risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - A prospective birth-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, Beatrijs L. P.; van Furth, Marceline; Weijerman, Michel E.; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Broers, Chantal J. M.; van den Ende, Kimberly; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Strengers, Jan L. M.; Bont, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Respiratory syncytial virus is the single-most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. Preterm birth and congenital heart disease are known risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections. Although Down syndrome is associated with a high risk of

  11. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood: a prospective birth cohort study.

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    Thomas Lund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most previous studies on reliance on social benefits have focused on health, sickness absence, work environment and socioeconomic status in adulthood. Extending the focus to include early life circumstances may improve our understanding of processes leading to educational and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. METHODS: Of a cohort of 3,681 born in 1989 in the county of Ringkjoebing, Denmark, 3,058 (83% completed a questionnaire in 2004. They were followed in a register on social benefits for 12 months in 2010-2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between negative life events in childhood and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 16.1% (parents' divorce for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 4.9% for witnessing a violent event. CONCLUSIONS: Information on childhood conditions may increase the understanding of determinants of labour market participation for

  12. Caesarean section among referred and self-referred birthing women: a cohort study from a tertiary hospital, northeastern Tanzania

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    Oneko Olola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inequity in emergency obstetric care access in Tanzania is unsatisfactory. Despite an existing national obstetric referral system, many birthing women bypass referring facilities and go directly to higher-level care centres. We wanted to compare Caesarean section (CS rates among women formally referred to a tertiary care centre versus self-referred women, and to assess the effect of referral status on adverse outcomes after CS. Methods We used data from 21,011 deliveries, drawn from the birth registry of a tertiary hospital in northeastern Tanzania, during 2000-07. Referral status was categorized as self-referred if the woman had bypassed or not accessed referral, or formally-referred if referred by a health worker. Because CS indications were insufficiently registered, we applied the Ten-Group Classification System to determine the CS rate by obstetric group and referral status. Associations between referral status and adverse outcomes after CS delivery were analysed using multiple regression models. Outcome measures were CS, maternal death, obstetric haemorrhage ≥ 750 mL, postpartum stay > 9 days, neonatal death, Apgar score Results Referral status contributed substantially to the CS rate, which was 55.0% in formally-referred and 26.9% in self-referred birthing women. In both groups, term nulliparous singleton cephalic pregnancies and women with previous scar(s constituted two thirds of CS deliveries. Low Apgar score (adjusted OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86 and neonatal ward transfer (adjusted OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.35 were significantly associated with formal referral. Early neonatal death rates after CS were 1.6% in babies of formally-referred versus 1.2% in babies of self-referred birthing women, a non-significant difference after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.87-2.16. Absolute neonatal death rates were > 2% after CS in breech, multiple gestation and preterm deliveries in both referral

  13. Alcohol intake in pregnancy increases the child's risk of atopic dermatitis. the COPSAC prospective birth cohort study of a high risk population.

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    Charlotte Giwercman Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis has increased four-fold over the recent decades in developed countries, indicating that changes in environmental factors associated with lifestyle may play an important role in this epidemic. It has been proposed that alcohol consumption may be one contributing risk factor in this development. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of alcohol intake during pregnancy on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life. METHOD: The COPSAC cohort is a prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study of 411 children born to mothers with a history of asthma, followed up for 7 years with scheduled visits every 6 months as well as visits for acute exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Risk of atopic dermatitis from any alcohol consumption during pregnancy was analyzed as time-to-diagnosis and adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS: 177 of 411 children developed atopic dermatitis before age 7 years. We found a significant effect of alcohol intake during pregnancy on atopic dermatitis development (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99 p=0.024. This conclusion was unaffected after adjustment for smoking, mother's education and mother's atopic dermatitis. LIMITATIONS: The selection of a high-risk cohort, with all mothers suffering from asthma, and all children having a gestational age above 35 weeks with no congenital abnormality, systemic illness, or history of mechanical ventilation or lower airway infection. CONCLUSION: Alcohol intake by pregnant women with a history of asthma, is significantly associated with an increased risk for the child for developing atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life.

  14. Birth cohort effect on the obesity epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lina W; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Holst, Claus;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the obesity epidemic has developed in phases. To investigate if this has been a birth cohort phenomenon, we explored the secular trend in the prevalence of obesity among boys and young men. METHODS: We calculated body mass index (BMI; kg/m) over time for 163,835 Danish boys...

  15. Assessing the effect of a guideline change on prevalence of benzodiazepine use by including the birth cohort dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten J.; Hak, Eelko; Bos, Jens H.; De Jong-Van Den Berg, Lolkje T.; Janssen, Fanny

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of guideline changes on trends of prescription drug use are commonly studied by age and over time period. This masks the birth cohort dimension which affects the age-specific trends in each time period. Objectives: We investigated whether including the birth cohort dimension i

  16. Polymorphism in xenobiotic and estrogen metabolizing genes, exposure to perfluorinated compounds and subsequent breast cancer risk: A nested case-control study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Røge, Durita Mohr; Olsen, Jørn; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2017-04-01

    In the present case-cohort study based on prospective data from Danish women, we aimed to estimate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes known to be involved in the steroid hormone metabolic pathway and xenobiotic metabolism on the risk of developing breast cancer. We also studied a possible effect measure modification between genotypes and levels of serum perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) on the risk to breast cancer. We have previously reported a weak association between serum PFASs levels and the risk of breast cancer for this study population of Danish pregnant nulliparous women as well as in a smaller case-control study of Greenlandic women. The study population consisted of 178 breast cancer cases and 233 controls (tabnulliparous and frequency matched on age) nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which was established in 1996-2002. Blood samples were drawn at the time of enrollment (6-14 week of gestation). Serum levels of 10 perfluorocarboxylated acids (PFCAs), 5 perfluorosulfonated acids (PFSAs) and 1 sulfonamide (perflurooctane-sulfonamide, PFOSA) were measured. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1→ A2; rs743572); CYP19A1 (C→T; rs10046) by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. In overall, no significant associations were found between the investigated polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in this study among Danish women. The previously found association between PFOSA and risk of breast cancer did vary between different genotypes, with significantly increased risk confined to homozygous carriers of the following alleles: COMT (Met), CYP17 (A1) and CYP19 (C).

  17. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated....... These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  18. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  19. Risk of infection and adverse outcomes among pregnant working women in selected occupational groups: A study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

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    Llopis-González Agustín

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to infectious pathogens is a frequent occupational hazard for women who work with patients, children, animals or animal products. The purpose of the present study is to investigate if women working in occupations where exposure to infections agents is common have a high risk of infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort, a population-based cohort study and studied the risk of Infection and adverse outcomes in pregnant women working with patients, with children, with food products or with animals. The regression analysis were adjusted for the following covariates: maternal age, parity, history of miscarriage, socio-occupational status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption. Results Pregnant women who worked with patients or children or food products had an excess risk of sick leave during pregnancy for more than three days. Most of negative reproductive outcomes were not increased in these occupations but the prevalence of congenital anomalies (CAs was slightly higher in children of women who worked with patients. The prevalence of small for gestational age infants was higher among women who worked with food products. There was no association between occupation infections during pregnancy and the risk of reproductive failures in the exposed groups. However, the prevalence of CAs was slightly higher among children of women who suffered some infection during pregnancy but the numbers were small. Conclusion Despite preventive strategies, working in specific jobs during pregnancy may impose a higher risk of infections, and working in some of these occupations may impose a slightly higher risk of CAs in their offspring. Most other reproductive failures were not increased in these occupations.

  20. Rhinovirus wheezing illness in infancy is associated with medically attended third year wheezing in low risk infants: results of a healthy birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Janneke J H; Bont, Louis; Wilbrink, Berry; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Smit, Henriette A; Houben, Michiel L

    2015-12-01

    Rhinoviruses may be pathogens contributing to the development of childhood wheezing. However, their role in low risk infants without an asthmatic predisposition is unknown. Knowing which healthy, low risk children are at increased risk for childhood wheezing after rhinovirus wheezing illness (RV-WI) in infancy, might help in developing prevention and treatment strategies for childhood wheezing. The aim of this study was to determine the association of medically attended wheezing at the age of three with RV-WI in the first year of life in low risk children without parental asthma. In a low risk, prospective birth cohort study, we followed 181 healthy born children from birth through the third year of life. We considered children 'low risk' if neither parent had a doctor's diagnosis of asthma. We determined infant RV-WI by parent-reported wheezing (based on daily logs) and simultaneous molecular rhinovirus detection in the first year of life. Respiratory function and blood eosinophil count were both measured in the first month of life. The primary outcome, third year wheezing, was defined as the use of prescribed inhaled asthma medications together with a doctor's visit for respiratory symptoms in the third year of life. We calculated the association of RV-WI with medically attended third year wheezing and other known possible risk factors for wheezing at the age of three. Among low risk children, third year wheezing was observed in 7 out of 18 (39%) children with versus 10 out of 163 (6%) children without infant RV-WI (OR 9.7, 95% CI 3.1-33.5, P third year wheezing was unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders such as eosinophilia and atopic eczema. RV-WI is a robust and independent risk factor for third year wheezing in low risk children without parental asthma. Future research will identify and protect those children at increased risk for RV-WI.

  1. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of human bocavirus in Danish infants: results from a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Høgh, Mette; Høgh, Birthe

    2008-01-01

    home visits. RESULTS: HBoV was detected in 57 (8.2%) of 697 nasal swab specimens from children with ARTI, in 1 (2.3%) of 44 swabs from children with diarrhea, and in 13 (8.6%) of 152 swabs from asymptomatic children. HBoV was present mainly during the winter months. An additional respiratory virus......BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a recently discovered parvovirus that has been detected in respiratory samples from children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) and in feces from children with gastroenteritis. However, its role as a causative agent of respiratory disease...... is not determined. METHODS: We investigated the presence of HBoV by real-time polymerase-chain reaction of nasal swab specimens obtained from 228 healthy children followed in the community from birth to 1 year of age for a 2-year period from 2004 to 2006. Nasal swabs and symptom diaries were collected at monthly...

  2. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Aspectos metodológicos da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 em Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Gomes Victora

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city's hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings.Descrever aspectos metodológicos do estudo da coorte de crianças que podem ser relevantes para pesquisadores que estejam planejando investigações semelhantes. Em 1993, uma coorte de base populacional foi recrutada em Pelotas, RS. Os 5.249 recém-nascidos nos hospitais da cidade foram acompanhados com um, três e seis meses, e com um e quatro anos de idade. Subestudos estão sendo realizados sobre saúde bucal, desenvolvimento psicológico e saúde mental, composição corporal e aspectos etnográficos. Em 2004-5 foi possível entrevistar 87,5% da coorte inicial, com a idade de 10-12 anos. Estudos de coortes de nascimentos são essenciais para investigar os determinantes precoces da morbidade e estado nutricional de adultos. No entanto, há poucos estudos com esta metodologia em países de renda média e baixa, e alguns dos determinantes da situação de saúde podem ser distintos daqueles observados em países ricos.

  3. Life-Course Relationship between Socioeconomic Circumstances and Timing of First Birth in a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roode, Thea; Sharples, Katrina; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the influence of socioeconomic circumstances in childhood (childhood SES) and adulthood (adult SES) on timing of first birth by age 37. Methods A longitudinal study of a 1972–1973 New Zealand birth cohort collected information on socioeconomic characteristics from age 3–32 and reproductive histories at 21, 26, 32 and 38; information on first birth was available from 978 of the original 1037. Relative Risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using Poisson regression to examine first live birth prior to age 21, from 21–25, from 26–31, and from 32–37, by socioeconomic characteristics at different ages. Results Overall, 68.5% of men had fathered a child and 75.9% of women had given birth, by age 37; with overall differences in parenthood to age 31 for men, and 37 for women evident by childhood SES. While parenthood by age 20 was strongly associated with lower childhood SES for both sexes, first entry into motherhood from 32–37 was more likely with higher adult SES at age 32 (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0 for medium and RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.3 for high compared with low). Education also differientated age at parenthood, with those with higher education more likely to defer fatherhood past age 31, and motherhood past age 25 followed by a period of increased likelihood of motherhood for women with higher levels of education from age 32–37 (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.87–2.2 and RR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6 for medium and high respectively compared with low). Conclusions SES varies across the lifecourse, and SES at the time has the strongest association with first births at that time. Low childhood SES drives adolescent parenthood, with resulting cumulative differences in parenthood past age 30. Those with more education and higher adult SES are deferring parenthood but attempt to catch up in the mid to late thirties. PMID:28085935

  4. Maternal mental health and its association with infant growth at 6 months in ethnic groups: results from the Born-in-Bradford birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma D Traviss

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with infant growth up to 6 months, with a particular focus on maternal distress, and to explore the effect of ethnicity on any relation between maternal distress and infant growth. METHODS: Cohort study recruiting White and Pakistani women in the United Kingdom (UK. Infant growth was measured at birth and 6 months. Standard assessment of mental health (GHQ-28 was undertaken in pregnancy (26-28 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. Modelling included social deprivation, ethnicity, and other known influences on infant growth such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Maternal distress improved markedly from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum. At both times Pakistani women had more somatic and depression symptoms than White women. Depression in pregnancy (GHQ subscale D was associated with lower infant growth at 6 months. Self-reported social dysfunction in pregnancy (GHQ subscale C was associated with lower gestational age.. Pakistani women reported higher GHQ scores during pregnancy associated with smaller infants at birth. They lived in areas of higher social deprivation, reported less alcohol consumption and smoking postnatally, all independent influences on growth at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mental health in pregnancy is an independent influence on infant growth up to 6 months and is associated with ethnicity which was itself associated with deprivation in our sample. There is a complex relationship between symptoms of maternal distress, ethnicity, deprivation, health behaviours, and early infant growth. Measures should include both emotional and somatic symptoms and interventions to reduce risks of poor early growth need to include psychological and social components.

  5. Women’s Choice of Positions during Labour: Return to the Past or a Modern Way to Give Birth? A Cohort Study in Italy

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    Salvatore Gizzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Childbirth medicalization has reduced the parturient’s opportunity to labour and deliver in a spontaneous position, constricting her to assume the recumbent one. The aim of the study was to compare recumbent and alternative positions in terms of labour process, type of delivery, neonatal wellbeing, and intrapartum fetal head rotation. Methods. We conducted an observational cohort study on women at pregnancy term. Primiparous women with physiological pregnancies and single cephalic fetuses were eligible for the study. We considered data about maternal-general characteristics, labour process, type of delivery, and neonatal wellbeing at birth. Patients were divided into two groups: Group-A if they spent more than 50% of labour in a recumbent position and Group-B when in alternative ones. Results. 225 women were recruited (69 in Group-A and 156 in Group-B. We found significant differences between the groups in terms of labour length, Numeric Rating Scale score and analgesia request rate, type of delivery, need of episiotomy, and fetal occiput rotation. No differences were found in terms of neonatal outcomes. Conclusion. Alternative maternal positioning may positively influence labour process reducing maternal pain, operative vaginal delivery, caesarean section, and episiotomy rate. Women should be encouraged to move and deliver in the most comfortable position.

  6. Be(ing) prepared: Guide and Scout participation, childhood social position and mental health at age 50—a prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibben, Chris; Playford, Chris; Mitchell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental health is a major concern in many countries. We explore whether youth participation in the Scouts and Guides could protect mental health in later life and in particular whether it might reduce inequalities in mental health associated with early life socioeconomic position. Methods Using the 1958 birth cohort National Child Development Study, we tested whether Scouts–Guide attendance was associated with mental health (SF-36, Mental Health Index (MHI-5)) controlling for childhood risk factors and interacted with social class. Results Of the 9603 cohort members, 28% had participated in the Scouts–Guides. The average MHI-5 score was 74.8 (SD 18.2) at age 50. After adjustment, for potential childhood confounders, participation in Scouts–Guides was associated with a better MHI-5 score of 2.22 (CI 1.32 to 3.08). Among those who had not been a Scout–Guide, there was a gradient in mental health at age 50 by childhood social position, adjusting for other childhood risk factors. This gradient was absent among those who had been a Scout–Guide. Scout–Guides had an 18% lower odds of an MHI-5 score indicative of mood or anxiety disorder. The findings appeared robust to various tests for residual confounding. Conclusions Participation in Guides or Scouts was associated with better mental health and narrower mental health inequalities, at age 50. This suggests that youth programmes that support resilience and social mobility through developing the potential for continued progressive self-education, ‘soft’ non-cognitive skills, self-reliance, collaboration and activities in natural environments may be protective of mental health in adulthood. PMID:27834224

  7. Development and validation of a vitamin D status prediction model in Danish pregnant women: a study of the Danish National Birth Cohort.

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    Camilla Bjørn Jensen

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been hypothesized to reduce risk of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preterm delivery. However, many of these outcomes are rare and require a large sample size to study, representing a challenge for cohorts with a limited number of preserved samples. The aims of this study were to (1 identify predictors of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD among pregnant women in a subsample (N = 1494 of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC and (2 develop and validate a score predicting 25(OHD-status in order to explore associations between vitamin D and maternal and offspring health outcomes in the DNBC. In our study sample, 42.3% of the population had deficient levels of vitamin D (<50 nmol/L 25(OHD and average levels of 25(OHD-status were 56.7(s.d. 24.6 nmol/L. A prediction model consisting of intake of vitamin D from diet and supplements, outdoor physical activity, tanning bed use, smoking, and month of blood draw explained 40.1% of the variance in 25(OHD and mean measured 25(OHD-level increased linearly by decile of predicted 25(OHD-score. In total 32.2% of the women were placed in the same quintile by both measured and predicted 25(OHD-values and 69.9% were placed in the same or adjacent quintile by both methods. Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient (Κ = 0.3 reflected fair agreement between measured 25(OHD-levels and predicted 25(OHD-score. These results are comparable to other settings in which vitamin D scores have shown similar associations with disease outcomes as measured 25(OHD-levels. Our findings suggest that predicted 25(OHD-scores may be a useful alternative to measured 25(OHD for examining associations between vitamin D and disease outcomes in the DNBC cohort, but cannot substitute for measured 25(OHD-levels for estimates of prevalence.

  8. Association between Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors in Drinking Water and Preterm Birth, Taking Neighborhood Deprivation into Account: A Historic Cohort Study

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    Marion Albouy-Llaty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between preterm birth (PTB and endocrine disruptor exposure in drinking-water has only occasionally been studied. The objective of this work was to investigate the relation between exposure to atrazine metabolites, or atrazine/nitrate mixtures, in drinking-water during pregnancy and prevalence of PTB neonates, while taking neighborhood deprivation into account. Method: A historic cohort study in Deux-Sèvres, France, between 2005 and 2010 with a multiple imputation model for data of exposure to atrazine metabolites and a logistic regression were carried out. Results: We included 13,654 mother/neonate pairs living in 279 different census districts. The prevalence of PTB was 4%. Average atrazine metabolite concentration was 0.019 ± 0.009 (0.014–0.080 µg/L and 39% of mothers lived in less deprived areas. The individual data were associated with risk of PTB. The risk of PTB when exposed to highest concentration of atrazine metabolite adjusted for confounders, was ORa 1.625 95% CI [0.975; 2.710]. Taking, or not, neighborhood deprivation into account did not change the result. Exposure to atrazine/nitrate mixtures remained non-significant. Conclusions: Even if we took neighborhood deprivation into account, we could not show a significant relationship between exposure to atrazine metabolites, or mixtures, in drinking-water during the second trimester of pregnancy and PTB.

  9. Neonatal sepsis and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants in Matanzas, Cuba 2006-2010: a prospective cohort study

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    Gerardo Rogelio Robaina Castellanos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La sepsis neonatal se ha asociado a peor resultado del neurodesarrollo en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso. En Cuba se desconoce el impacto de la sepsis neonatal en el neurodesarrollo de los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso, egresados de sus unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. OBJETIVO Determinar el impacto de la sepsis neonatal como factor de riesgo de alteraciones del neurodesarrollo en una población de recién nacidos cubanos de muy bajo peso. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio de cohorte con 89 neonatos con peso al nacer 15 mg/dl (odds ratio 4,0; IC 95%: 1,1-14,3; p=0,03. CONCLUSIONES La sepsis neonatal debe considerarse como una causa importante, dentro de los múltiples eventos causales, de daño cerebral en el recién nacido pretérmino.

  10. Trends in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among birth cohorts of 1926-1970 in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A; Mons, U

    2005-10-01

    This study examines temporal differences in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among male and female birth cohorts of 1926-1970 born in Germany. Based on the German Federal Health Survey 1998 the sample is divided into a series of 5-year sex-birth cohorts, beginning with those born between 1926 and 1930 and extending to those born between 1966 and 1970. The final data file consists of a sample of 5110 people. Ever-smoking prevalence among men varies from 60 to 70% between the birth cohorts, while in women born 1926-1930 ever-smoking increases from 20 to about 50% in those born 1966-1970. A reduction of the median age at starting smoking also takes place between the cohorts. With 8.5 years this decrease is more incisive among women, compared with a drop of 2 years among men. Regarding cessation patterns the analysis shows a shift towards a shorter duration of smoking with succeeding birth cohorts, again this shift is more incisive in women. But even in the youngest cohort still more than 50% of ever-smokers smoke regularly for more than 25 years. In Germany tobacco-control activities are required in order to take antismoking actions that especially prevent youth from starting to smoke and that support smokers in quitting.

  11. Post-neonatal mortality, morbidity, and developmental outcome after ultrasound-dated preterm birth in rural Malawi: a community-based cohort study.

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    Melissa Gladstone

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is considered to be associated with an estimated 27% of neonatal deaths, the majority in resource-poor countries where rates of prematurity are high. There is no information on medium term outcomes after accurately determined preterm birth in such settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This community-based stratified cohort study conducted between May-December 2006 in Southern Malawi followed up 840 post-neonatal infants born to mothers who had received antenatal antibiotic prophylaxis/placebo in an attempt to reduce rates of preterm birth (APPLe trial ISRCTN84023116. Gestational age at delivery was based on ultrasound measurement of fetal bi-parietal diameter in early-mid pregnancy. 247 infants born before 37 wk gestation and 593 term infants were assessed at 12, 18, or 24 months. We assessed survival (death, morbidity (reported by carer, admissions, out-patient attendance, growth (weight and height, and development (Ten Question Questionnaire [TQQ] and Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool [MDAT]. Preterm infants were at significantly greater risk of death (hazard ratio 1.79, 95% CI 1.09-2.95. Surviving preterm infants were more likely to be underweight (weight-for-age z score; p<0.001 or wasted (weight-for-length z score; p<0.01 with no effect of gestational age at delivery. Preterm infants more often screened positively for disability on the Ten Question Questionnaire (p = 0.002. They also had higher rates of developmental delay on the MDAT at 18 months (p = 0.009, with gestational age at delivery (p = 0.01 increasing this likelihood. Morbidity-visits to a health centre (93% and admissions to hospital (22%-was similar for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 years of life, infants who are born preterm in resource poor countries, continue to be at a disadvantage in terms of mortality, growth, and development. In addition to interventions in the immediate neonatal period, a refocus on early childhood is

  12. Associations between skeletal growth in childhood and cognitive function in mid-life in a 53-year prospective birth cohort study.

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    Robert Stewart

    Full Text Available Several studies have found that shorter stature (height and limb length in late life is associated with dementia and cognitive impairment. The extent to which childhood environment and early life cognitive function accounts for these associations is not clear.We investigated associations of adult trunk height and leg length with cognitive function in middle age, analysing data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development: a cohort followed from birth to age 53, 1677 of whom had data on all covariates. The four cognitive tests measured verbal ability, word list memory, verbal fluency and speed/concentration. Early life environmental measures included parental education, poverty, parental divorce, physical health, cognitive ability at age 15, own education and own adult social class.After adjusting for gender, shorter trunk length was associated with lower cognitive function on all four tests and shorter leg length with lower verbal intelligence and word list memory. These associations were only partially attenuated following adjustment for childhood adversity/health but were substantially accounted for by cognitive ability at age 15.Shorter stature was associated with lower cognitive function at age 53, the majority of this association being accounted for by cognitive function at age 15. Reduced cognitive reserve may well account for later associations between anthropometric measures and dementia.

  13. Occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors and time to pregnancy among couples in a large birth cohort study: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, C.A.; Brouwers, M.M.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Roeleveld, N.; Burdorf, A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) on time to pregnancy (TTP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis within a prospective, population-based cohort study. SETTING: Medical center. PATIENT(S): Mothers and fathers who filled out a questionnaire during mi

  14. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in planned home and obstetric unit births in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications: secondary analysis of the Birthplace national prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting OUs and planned home births in England. Population 8180 ‘higher risk’ women in the Birthplace cohort. Methods We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Main outcome measures Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. Results The risk of ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31–0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97–3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. Conclusions The babies of ‘higher risk’ women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between

  15. Can mothers rely on the Brazilian health system for their deliveries? An assessment of use of the public system and out-of-pocket expenditure in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldi Andréa D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a country where comprehensive free health care is provided via a public health system (SUS, an unexpected high frequency of catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure has been described. We studied how deliveries were financed among mothers of a birth cohort and whether they were an important source of household out-of-pocket expenditure. Methods All deliveries occurring in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. All mothers were interviewed just after birth and three months later. Comprehensive data on the pregnancy, delivery, birth conditions and newborn health were collected, along with detailed information on expenses related to the delivery. Results The majority of the deliveries (81% were financed by the public health system, a proportion that increased to more than 95% among the 40% poorest mothers. Less than 1% of these mothers reported some out-of-pocket expenditure. Even among those mothers covered by a private health plan, nearly 50% of births were financed by the SUS. Among the 20% richest, a third of the deliveries were paid by the SUS, 50% by private health plans and 17% by direct payment. Conclusion The public health system offered services in quantity and quality enough to attract even beneficiaries of private health plans and spared mothers from the poorest strata of the population of practically any expense.

  16. Air pollution and development of asthma, allergy and infections in a birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, M.; Hoek, G.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Kerkhof, M.; Brunekreef, B.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have addressed associations between traffic-related air pollution and respiratory disease in young children. The present authors assessed the development of asthmatic/allergic symptoms and respiratory infections during the first 4 yrs of life in a birth cohort study (n=similar to 4,000).

  17. Moderators of the longitudinal relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play in children: The KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, T.; Kann, D. van; Gubbels, J.; Schmidt, S.; Vries, S. de; Ettema, D.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting unstructured outside play is a promising vehicle to increase children's physical activity (PA). This study investigates if factors of the social environment moderate the relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play. Study design: 1875 parents from the KOALA Birt

  18. Moderators of the longitudinal relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play in children: the KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, T.; Van Kann, D.; Gubbels, J.; Schmidt, S.; De Vries, S.; Ettema, D.; Kremers, S. P. J.; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting unstructured outside play is a promising vehicle to increase children’s physical activity (PA). This study investigates if factors of the social environment moderate the relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play. Study design: 1875 parents from th

  19. Early feeding practices and severe early childhood caries in four-year-old children from southern Brazil: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, C A; Giugliani, E R J; Vigo, Á; Vítolo, M R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between feeding practices in the first year of life and the occurrence of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) at 4 years of age. A birth cohort study (n = 500) was conducted in children who were born within the public health system in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Feeding practices were assessed using standardized methods at 6 and 12 months of age. A total of 340 children were examined at 4 years of age. S-ECC was defined as recommended by an expert panel for research purposes: ≥1 cavitated, missing or filled smooth surfaces in primary maxillary anterior teeth or d(1+) mfs ≥5. Poisson regression with robust variance was used in order to determine the early feeding practices which represent risk factors for the occurrence of S-ECC at 4 years of age. The multivariable model showed a higher adjusted risk of S-ECC for the following dietary practices at 12 months: breastfeeding ≥7 times daily (RR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.45-2.68), high density of sugar (RR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08-1.89), bottle use for liquids other than milk (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.08-1.86), as well as number of meals and snacks >8 (RR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.02-1.97). Mother's education ≤8 years was also associated with the outcome. The present study identified early feeding practices which represent risk factors for caries severity in subsequent years. These findings may contribute to developing general and oral health interventions, with special attention to families with low maternal education.

  20. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gallastegi (Mara); M. Guxens (Mònica ); A. Jiménez-Zabala (Ana); I. Calvente (Irene); M. Fernández (Marta); L. Birks (Laura); B. Struchen (Benjamin); M. Vrijheid (Martine); M. Estarlich (Marisa); M.F. Fernandez (Mariana); M. Torrent (Maties); F. Ballester (Ferran); J.J. Aurrekoetxea (Juan José); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); D. Guerra (David); J. González (Julián); M. Röösli (Martin); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol de

  1. Longitudinal association of neighborhood variables with body mass index in dutch school-age children: The KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, S.C.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Vries, S.I. de; Gubbels, J.; Thijs, C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body w

  2. Gene-Environment Interaction in Externalizing Problems among Adolescents: Evidence from the Pelotas 1993 Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieling, Christian; Hutz, Mara H.; Genro, Julia P.; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Anselmi, Luciana; Camey, Suzi; Hallal, Pedro C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study of gene-environment interactions (G by E) is one of the most promising strategies to uncover the origins of mental disorders. Replication of initial findings, however, is essential because there is a strong possibility of publication bias in the literature. In addition, there is a scarcity of research on the topic originated…

  3. Leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M; Jørgensen, T; Jensen, M L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. DESIGN: Prospective study with elements of retrospective data collection. SETTING: Denmark 1996-2002. POPULATION: A total of 92,671 pregnant women enrolled in the Danish...

  4. Temporal trends of copper-bearing intrauterine device discontinuation: a population-based birth-cohort study of contraceptive use among rural married women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Tan, Xiaodong; Song, Xiangjing; Zhang, Kaining; Fang, Jing; Peng, Lin; Qi, Wencai; Nie, Zonghui; Li, Ming; Deng, Rui; Yan, Chaofang

    2015-03-01

    Copper-bearing intrauterine device (IUD) insertion for long-term contraceptive use is high in China, but there has been evidence that first-year discontinuation rate of copper-bearing IUD has also increased rapidly in recent years especially among rural married women. To investigate long-term use of copper-bearing IUD, the authors examined the 7-year temporal trends of copper-bearing IUD discontinuation in a population-based birth-cohort study among 720 rural married women in China, from 2004 to 2012. Women requesting contraception were followed-up twice per year after the insertion of IUD. The gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates were calculated for each of the main reasons for discontinuation as well as for all reasons combined. By the end of 7 years, 384 discontinuations were observed. With a stepped-up trend, the gross cumulative life table rate for discontinuation increased from 10.06 (95% confidence interval = 7.86-12.27) per 100 women by the first year to 52.69 (95% confidence interval = 48.94-56.44) per 100 women by the end of 7 years, which increased rapidly in the first 2 years after copper-bearing IUD insertion, flattened out gradually in the following 2 years, then increased again in the last 3 years. Among reported method failure, expulsion and side effects were the main reasons for discontinuation of the copper-bearing IUD but not pregnancy. Personal reasons, such as renewal by personal will had influenced copper-bearing IUD use since the second year and should not be neglected. Based on this study, the temporal trends of copper-bearing IUD discontinuation was in a stepped-up trend in 7 years after insertion. Both reported method failure (expulsion and side effect) and personal reason had effect on the discontinuation of copper-bearing IUD, but pregnancy was no more the most important reason affecting the use of copper-bearing IUD.

  5. Genetic variation in the beta2-adrenergic receptor but not catecholamine-O-methyltransferase predisposes to chronic pain: results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Lynne J; Smith, Blair H; Jones, Gareth T; Reid, David M; Strachan, David P; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2010-04-01

    More than 1 in 10 adults in the general population experience chronic widespread body pain (CWP), which lies at one end of a continuous spectrum of pain ranging in both severity and duration. Neuroendocrine factors can modify the effect of known psychological and psychosocial risk factors for progression along the spectrum of pain and development of CWP, and genetic variants that affect neuroendocrine and neural processing potentially affect susceptibility to chronic pain development. We have examined variants across genes encoding the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) - key neuroendocrine signalling factors - in a large population-based sample to determine whether these may be involved in pain progression and CWP development. A nested association study was conducted using individuals from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study who had been assessed for pain status. Genotypes were available for nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across ADRB2 and 11 SNPs across COMT. ADRB2 SNPs rs12654778 and rs1042713 were associated either with CWP alone (p=0.02 for both) or with position along pain spectrum (pain status; p=0.04). Common functional ADRB2 haplotype combinations were also associated with pain status (p(model)=0.002) and, further, with both extent and duration of pain (p(model)=0.003 and p(model)=0.002, respectively). There were no associations of either CWP or pain status with COMT genotypes or haplotypes. These results are the first to suggest that functional ADRB2 variants are involved in regulating pain status at a population level. A role for COMT in chronic pain development was not identified, though could not be excluded.

  6. The association between characteristics of fathering in infancy and depressive symptoms in adolescence: A UK birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourfield, Jonathan; Culpin, Iryna; Gunnell, David; Dale, Caroline; Joinson, Carol; Heron, Jon; Collin, Simon M

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the quality of fathers' parenting has an impact on psychological outcomes during adolescence, but less is known about which aspects of fathering have the strongest effects. This study, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), considers which paternal attitudes towards and experiences of child care in infancy are most strongly associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, and whether father effects are independent of maternal influence and other risk factors. Primary exposures were fathers' attitudes to and experiences of child care at 8 weeks, 8 months and 21 months coded as continuous scores; the primary outcome was self-reported depressive symptoms at 16 years (Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire score ≥11). Multivariable logistic regression models showed reasonably strong evidence that parental reports indicating potential paternal abuse when children were toddlers were associated with a 22% increased odds of depressive symptoms at age 16 (odds ratio [OR] 1.22 [95% CI 1.11, 1.34] per SD). There was some evidence for an interaction with social class (p=0.04): for children living in higher social class households (professional, managerial and technical classes), an increase in the potential abuse scale increased the odds of depressive symptoms by 31% (OR 1.31 [1.13, 1.53] per SD), whereas there was no effect in the lower social class categories. The potential paternal abuse measure needs to be validated and research is needed on what circumstances predict anger and frustration with child care. Effective interventions are needed to help fathers cope better with parenting stress.

  7. Sports, smoking, and overweight during adolescence as predictors of sciatica in adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study of a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivinoja, Anni E; Paananen, Markus V; Taimela, Simo P; Solovieva, Svetlana; Okuloff, Annaleena; Zitting, Paavo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro I

    2011-04-15

    Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, and level of physical activity predict low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. The authors investigated whether participating in sports, smoking, and being overweight or obese at 14 years of age predicted hospitalizations due to LBP or sciatica in adulthood. In 1980, at the age of 14 years, a total of 11,399 members of the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort returned the postal questionnaire. Patients from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort who were hospitalized because of LBP or sciatica were followed to the end of 2008 through the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Data were analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards multistate model with the Markov clock forward time scale. During follow-up, 119 females (2.7%) and 254 males (5.6%) had been hospitalized at least once because of LBP or sciatica. Among females, overweight was associated with an increased risk of second-time hospitalization for surgical treatment for sciatica (hazard ratio = 7.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 34.4). Among males, smoking was associated with an increased risk of first-time nonsurgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.7) and second-time surgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 8.2). The authors found potentially modifiable risk factors in adolescence that predicted hospital treatments for low back disorders during adolescence and young adulthood.

  8. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, Linda S.; Fall, Caroline HD; Osmond, Clive; Aryeh D. Stein; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. Methods We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guate...

  9. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study Efeitos da amamentação e dos hábitos de sucção sobre as oclusopatias num estudo de coorte

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Glazer Peres; Aluísio J D Barros; Marco Aurélio Peres; César Gomes Victora

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding breastf...

  10. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999 (a

  11. Birth Cohort Changes in Chinese College Students' Loneliness and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sufei; Xin, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic recent changes in Chinese society, Chinese college students' average levels of loneliness and social support might also have changed across their birth cohorts. The present cross-temporal meta-analysis of 56 studies (N = 21,541) found that Chinese college students' scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) increased…

  12. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development : Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Kluemper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kraemer, Ursula; Larroque, Beatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Remy; Sorensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardon, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Goeran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands), DUISB

  13. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  14. Antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and later treated asthma, a population based birth cohort study of 143,000 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95% CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded.

  15. Early life exposures to home dampness, pet ownership and farm animal contact and neuropsychological development in 4 year old children: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Torrent, Maties; Zock, Jan-Paul; Doekes, Gert; Forns, Joan; Guxens, Mònica; Täubel, Martin; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to biocontaminants is associated with behavioural problems and poorer cognitive function. Our study assesses the associations between early life exposure to home dampness, pets and farm animal contact and cognitive function and social competences in 4-year old children, and the associations between these indoor factors and microbial compounds (bacterial endotoxin and fungal extracellular polysaccharides). A Spanish population-based birth-cohort enrolled 482 children, and 424 of them underwent psychometric testing at 4 years of age, including the McCarthy Scales of Child Abilities (MSCA) and the California Preschool Social Competence Scale (CPSCS). Information on pet ownership, farm animal contact and home dampness was periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. Microbial compounds were measured in living room sofa dust collected at the age of 3 months. Persistent home dampness during early life significantly decreased the general score of MSCA by 4.9 points (95% CI: -8.9; -0.8), and it decreased the CPSCS by 6.5 points (95% CI: -12.2; -0.9) in the child's bedroom. Cat or dog ownership were not associated with the outcomes, but occasional farm animal contact increased the general cognitive score of MSCA by 5.6 points (95% CI: 1.8; 9.3). Cat and dog ownership were associated with higher levels of endotoxins in home dust. None of the measured microbial compounds were related with the psychometric tests scores. In conclusion, damp housing in early life may have adverse effects on neuropsychological development at 4 years old. More research is needed to explore the possible involvement of mycotoxins in the observed results.

  16. Oral health investigations of indigenous participants in remote settings: a methods paper describing the dental component of wave III of an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayers Susan M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study has been underway in Australia's Northern Territory since 1987. Inclusion of oral epidemiological information in a follow-up study required flexible and novel approaches with unconventional techniques. Documenting these procedures may be of value to researchers interested in including oral health components in remotely-located studies. The objectives are to compare and describe dental data collection methods in wave III of the ABC study with a more conventional oral health investigation. Methods The Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH was considered the 'conventional' study. Differences between this investigation and the dental component of the ABC study were assessed in terms of ethics, location, recruitment, consent, privacy, equipment, examination, clinical data collection and replication. In the ABC study, recording of clinical data by different voice recording techniques were described and assessed for ease-of-use portability, reliability, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Results Conventional investigation recruitment was by post and telephone. Participants self presented. Examinations took place in dental clinics, using customised dental chairs with standard dental lights attached. For all examinations, a dental assistant recorded dental data directly onto a laptop computer. By contrast, follow-up of ABC study participants involved a multi-phase protocol with reliance on locally-employed Indigenous advocates bringing participants to the examination point. Dental examinations occurred in settings ranging from health centre clinic rooms to improvised spaces outdoors. The dental chair was a lightweight, portable reclining camp chair and the dental light a fire-fighter's head torch with rechargeable batteries. The digital voice recorder was considered the most suitable instrument for clinical dental data collection in the ABC study in comparison with

  17. Development of atopic dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Høst, Arne;

    2009-01-01

    Eller E, Kjaer HF, Høst A, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. Development of Atopic Dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SThe aim was to describe the relapsing pattern, sensitization and prognosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the first 6 yr...... was measured by objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD). Point-prevalence of AD peaked at 18 months of age (10%) and decreased at 36 and 72 months to slightly below 7%. The 6-yr cumulative incidence was 22.8% and sensitization was found in 43% of children with AD. It was predominately sensitization...

  18. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP > 12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTP 12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS: Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  19. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth: findings from the Danish National Birth Cohort using a job exposure matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emina Mocevic

    Full Text Available We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM.For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting was collected around gestational week 16. We established a JEM based on information from women, who were still pregnant when interviewed. The JEM provided mean total loads lifted per day within homogeneous exposure groups as informed by job and industry codes. All women were assigned an exposure estimate from the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates.We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal death, we found a hazard ratio (HR of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01 for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80 for total loads >200 kg per day. These findings correspond to an excess fraction of 11% for stillbirth and 10% for preterm birth.We found an increased risk of stillbirth among women with a prior fetal death, who lifted >200 kg/day, and an exposure-response relationship between occupational lifting and preterm birth among primigravid women. The study adds to a large body of prospective studies on occupational lifting and adverse pregnancy outcomes by refined exposure assessment.

  20. TP53 gene polymorphism: Importance to cancer, ethnicity and birth weight in a Brazilian cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Helena S Thurow; Ricardo Haack; Fernando P Hartwig; Isabel Ode Oliveira; Odir A Dellagostin; Denise P Gigante; Bernardo L Horta; Tiago Collares; Fabiana K Seixas

    2011-12-01

    Arg72Pro SNP of p53 has been associated with many types of cancer as well as with survival and longevity. We evaluated the Arg72Pro SNP frequencies of a Brazilian birth cohort and their association with current, demographic and birth epidemiological parameters available. In 1982, all hospital births of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and studied prospectively. In 2004–5, blood samples were collected and DNA extracted. PCR-RFLP was used to genotype the Arg72Pro SNP in 3794 individual samples of the Brazil birth cohort and DNA sequencing was performed to confirm the genotypes. The genotype distribution, which was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, showed a predominance of the arginine amino acid with a frequency of 46.9% Arg/Arg, 42.2% Arg/Pro and 10.9% Pro/Pro. The allele frequency was 0.68 of Arginine and 0.32 of Proline. The Arg72Pro SNP genotype and allelic frequency were related to skin colour where proline amino acid was observed more among black subjects, while arginine amino acid was observed more among white subjects. The individuals without family history of cancer and those with low birth weight were associated with arginine amino acid. The Arg72Pro SNP was strongly associated with important epidemiological variables confirming that genetic profiles on cohort studies can improve our understanding of the susceptibility of diseases and its risk factors.

  1. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  2. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert; Bergström, Anna; Bonde, Jens Peter; Botton, Jérémie; Chévrier, Cecile; Cordier, Sylvaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hohmann, Cynthia; Keil, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Tischer, Christina G; Toft, Gunnar; Wickman, Magnus; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2013-01-23

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research

  3. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate esters and asthma: a 9-year follow-up study of a taiwanese birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Ying Ku

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that phthalate exposure in childhood is associated with the development of respiratory problems. However, few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalates on the development of asthma later in childhood. Therefore, we assessed the impact of prenatal and postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of asthma and wheezing using a Taiwanese birth cohort. A total of 430 pregnant women were recruited, and 171 (39.8% of them had their children followed when they were aged 2, 5, and 8 years. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess asthma and wheezing symptoms and serum total immunoglobulin E levels were measured at 8 years of age. Urine samples were obtained from 136 women during their third trimester of pregnancy, 99 children at 2 years of age, and 110 children at 5 years. Four common phthalate monoester metabolites in maternal and children's urine were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal urinary mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP] concentrations were associated with an increased occurrence of wheezing in boys at 8 years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 4.95 (95% CI 1.08-22.63, for upper quintile compared to the others after controlling for parental allergies and family members' smoking status. Urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP] levels over the quintile at 2-year-old were associated with increased asthma occurrence (adjusted OR = 6.14 (1.17-32.13 in boys. Similarly, the sum of di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate [DEHP] metabolites at 5 years was associated with asthma in boys (adjusted OR = 4.36 (1.01-18.86. Urinary MEHP in maternal and 5-year-old children urine were significantly associated with increased IgE in allergic children at 8 years. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate was associated with the occurrence of asthma in children, particularly for boys.

  4. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

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    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  5. Dose-dependent relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulates and exhaled carbon monoxide in non-asthmatic children. A population-based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław A. Jędrychowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fi ne particulate matter (PM2.5 and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measured in non-asthmatic children. Material and Methods: The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fi ne particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. Results: The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive signifi cant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042. The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58–2.66 ppm than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47–1.73 ppm and the difference was statistically signifi cant (p = 0.036. As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057. In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children’s cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Conclusion: Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to

  6. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (predominately sugars, and soft drinks and other sweetened beverages, and low intake of (fluoridated water. The prevalence of childhood obesity is also at a concerning level in most countries and there is an opportunity to determine interventions for addressing both of these largely preventable conditions through sustainable and equitable solutions. This study aims to prospectively examine the impact of drink choices on child obesity risk and oral health status. Methods/Design This is a two-stage study using a mixed methods research approach. The first stage involves qualitative interviews of a sub-sample of recruited parents to develop an understanding of the processes involved in drink choice, and inform the development of the Discrete Choice Experiment analysis and the measurement instruments to be used in the second stage. The second stage involves the establishment of a prospective birth cohort of 500 children from disadvantaged communities in rural and regional Victoria, Australia (with and without water fluoridation. This longitudinal design allows measurement of changes in the child's diet over time, exposure to fluoride sources including water, dental caries progression, and the risk of childhood obesity. Discussion This research will provide a unique contribution to integrated health, education and social policy and program directions, by providing clearer policy relevant evidence on strategies to counter

  7. Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

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    de Vries Nanne K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children's diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of energy balance-related parenting practices at age 5, as well as the associations of these practices with children's diet, activity behavior, and body mass index (BMI development. Methods Questionnaire data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study for ages 5 (N = 2026 and 7 (N = 1819. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the association of child and parent background characteristics with parenting practices (i.e., diet- and activity-related restriction, monitoring and stimulation, and to examine the associations between these parenting practices and children's diet (in terms of energy intake, dietary fiber intake, and added sugar intake and activity behavior (i.e., physical activity and sedentary time at age 5, as well as BMI development from age 5 to age 7. Moderation analyses were used to examine whether the associations between the parenting practices and child behavior depended on child characteristics. Results Several child and parent background characteristics were associated with the parenting practices. Dietary monitoring, stimulation of healthy intake and stimulation of physical activity were associated with desirable energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., dietary intake and/or activity behavior and desirable BMI development, whereas restriction of sedentary time showed associations with undesirable behaviors and BMI development. Child eating style and weight status, but not child gender or activity style, moderated the associations between parenting practices and behavior. Dietary restriction and monitoring showed weaker, or even undesirable associations for children with a deviant eating style, whereas these

  8. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children: the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentzen, Nina E; Smit, Henriëtte A; Bekkers, Marga B M; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; De Jongste, Johan C; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H

    2014-02-01

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were analysed. In total 1481 children aged 11-12 years completed a questionnaire (including questions on sleep) and underwent a medical examination. We measured body mass index, waist circumference, total- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. Results showed that in girls, some sleep characteristics were related to anthropometrics (body mass index, waist circumference) and cholesterol. Girls who had a long time in bed (11-12.5 h) had 0.16 lower body mass index z-score (95% confidence interval -0.31; -0.01) and 0.99 cm smaller waist circumference (95% confidence interval -2.01; -0.13) compared with girls who spent 10-10.5 h in bed. Girls who went to bed late and rose early had 0.16 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.31) and 0.08 mm higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.14) than 'early to bed/early rise' girls. Girls with night-time awakenings had 0.14 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.03; 0.25) than girls without night-time awakenings. Girls who felt sleepy/tired ≥1 day per week had 0.10 mm lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval -0.16; -0.04) and 0.17 mm higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.32) than girls who did not feel sleepy. No associations were found for boys. Sleep characteristics were not related to blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin, and effect sizes of the associations in girls were small. Therefore, we consider it premature to propose that improved sleep could reduce cardiovascular risk during childhood.

  9. Early-Life Determinants of Total and HDL Cholesterol Concentrations in 8-Year-Old Children; The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Oldenwening, Marieke; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and adol

  10. Reproductive outcomes of women and men born very preterm and/or with a very low birth weight in 1983 : a longitudinal cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendt, A.W. van; Pal, S.M. van der; Hermes, W.; Walther, F.J.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Groot, C.J.M. de

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze reproductive outcomes of women and men born very preterm (gestational age <32 weeks) or with a very low birth weight (<1500 g) in 1983 in the Netherlands and to compare their reproductive outcomes with the total population at a similar age of 28 years. Young ad

  11. Termination of pregnancy among very preterm births and its impact on very preterm mortality : results from ten European population-based cohorts in the MOSAIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papiernik, E.; Zeitlin, J.; Delmas, D.; Draper, E. S.; Gadzinowski, J.; Kuenzel, W.; Cuttini, M.; Di Lallo, D.; Weber, T.; Kollee, L.; Bekaert, A.; Breart, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of terminations of pregnancy (TOP) on very preterm mortality in Europe. Design European prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Ten regions from nine European countries participating in the MOSAIC (Models of OrganiSing Access to Intensive Care for very preter

  12. Termination of pregnancy among very preterm births and its impact on very preterm mortality: results from ten European population-based cohorts in the MOSAIC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papiernik, E.; Zeitlin, J.; Delmas, D.; Draper, E.S.; Gadzinowski, J.; Kunzel, W.; Cuttini, M.; Lallo, D. di; Weber, T.; Kollee, L.A.A.; Bekaert, A.; Breart, G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of terminations of pregnancy (TOP) on very preterm mortality in Europe. DESIGN: European prospective population-based cohort study. SETTING: Ten regions from nine European countries participating in the MOSAIC (Models of OrganiSing Access to Intensive Care for very pre

  13. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  14. Body Mass Index and Risk of Infections Among Women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Nielsen, Nete M; Friis-Møller, Nina;

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the possible association between body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and hospitalization or treatment for acute infection in a prospective cohort study. We linked 75,001 women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1996 to 2002, who had information on BMI...... and a broad range of confounders, to data on infectious diseases and use of antimicrobial agents from the National Patient Register and the Danish Prescription Register. Associations were tested using Cox proportional hazards models. During 12 years of follow-up, we observed a U-shaped association between...

  15. Revitalising the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort: background, aims and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Lund, Rikke;

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that factors operating during childhood are related to adult health. Thus, longitudinal studies with information on subsequent phases may be key to understanding later health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to describe the history and design of a Danish birth...... mobility. At age 12 years, 9537 of these cohort members completed a questionnaire in school, which included cognitive measures and information on social aspirations and leisure time activities. In 1966 educational performance tests were administered for these boys and, in 1968, mothers of 2890 cohort...... in early life, birth dimensions, and childhood cognition on adult health experience are at various stages of completion. A questionnaire-based postal follow-up survey is planned. Thus, the Metropolit study provides an important opportunity to examine the processes by which factors that operate over...

  16. Fear of childbirth and risk for birth complications in nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M; Johansen, C; Hedegaard, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between fear of childbirth and emergency caesarean section and between fear of childbirth and dystocia or protracted labour and fetal distress. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish National Birth Cohort. POPULATION: A total of 25 297 healthy...... for emergency caesarean section of women who feared childbirth; risk for dystocia/protracted labour or fetal distress of women who feared childbirth. RESULTS: Fear of childbirth in early (16 weeks, 6 +/- 29 days) and late (31 weeks, 4 +/- 21 days) pregnancy was associated with emergency caesarean section: OR, 1.......23 (1.05-1.47) and 1.32 (1.13-1.55), respectively. When fear of childbirth was expressed at both interviews, the OR was 1.43 (1.13-1.80). Women who feared childbirth had an increased risk for dystocia or protracted labour (OR, 1.33; 1.15-1.54), but not for fetal distress (OR, 0.94; 0...

  17. Twenty Years of Schizophrenia Research in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Jääskeläinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Birth cohort designs are useful in studying adult disease trajectories and outcomes, such as schizophrenia. We review the schizophrenia research performed in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966, which includes 10,934 individuals living in Finland at 16 years of age who have been monitored since each mother’s mid-pregnancy. By the age of 44, 150 (1.4% had developed schizophrenia. There are 77 original papers on schizophrenia published from the NFBC 1966. The early studies have found various risk factors for schizophrenia, especially related to pregnancy and perinatal phase. Psychiatric and somatic outcomes were heterogeneous, but relatively poor. Mortality in schizophrenia is high, especially due to suicides. Several early predictors of outcomes have also been found. Individuals with schizophrenia have alterations in brain morphometry and neurocognition, and our latest studies have found that the use of high lifetime doses of antipsychotics associated with these changes. The schizophrenia research in the NFBC 1966 has been especially active for 20 years, the prospective study design and long follow-up enabling several clinically and epidemiologically important findings. When compared to other birth cohorts, the research in the NFBC 1966 has offered also unique findings on course and outcome of schizophrenia.

  18. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  19. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen A Nohr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk of a high birth weight. Estimates for ponderal index showed the same pattern indicating an increasing risk of neonatal fatness with severity of obesity. Infant obesity measured one year after birth was also increased in children of severely obese mothers. CONCLUSION: Severe obesity is correlated with a substantial disease burden in reproductive health. Although the causal mechanisms remain elusive, these findings are useful for making predictions and

  20. [Proportional hazards model of birth intervals among marriage cohorts since the 1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, K

    1987-01-01

    With a view to investigating the possibility of an attitudinal change towards the timing of 1st and 2nd births, proportional hazards model analysis of the 1st and 2nd birth intervals and univariate life table analysis were both carried out. Results showed that love matches and conjugal families immediately after marriage are accompanied by a longer 1st birth interval than others, even after controlling for other independent variables. Marriage cohort analysis also shows a net effect on the relative risk of having a 1st birth. Marriage cohorts since the mid-1960s demonstrate a shorter 1st birth interval than the 1961-63 cohort. With regard to the 2nd birth interval, longer 1st birth intervals, arranged marriages, conjugal families immediately following marriage, and higher ages at 1st marriage of women tended to provoke a longer 2nd birth interval. There is no interaction between the 1st birth interval and marriage cohort. Once other independent variables were controlled, with the exception of the marriage cohorts of the early 1970s, the authors found no effect of marriage cohort on the relative risk of having a 2nd birth. This suggests that an attitudinal change towards the timing of births in this period was mainly restricted to that of a 1st birth. Fluctuations in the 2nd birth interval during the 1970-72 marriage cohort were scrutinized in detail. As a result, the authors found that conjugal families after marriage, wives with low educational status, women with husbands in white collar professions, women with white collar fathers, and wives with high age at 1st marriage who married during 1970-72 and had a 1st birth interval during 1972-74 suffered most from the pronounced rise in the 2nd birth interval. This might be due to the relatively high sensitivity to a change in socioeconomic status; the oil crisis occurring around the time of marriage and 1st birth induced a delay in the 2nd birth. The unanimous decrease in the 2nd birth interval among the 1973

  1. Birth weight in offspring and leukaemia risk in parents-A nation-wide register-based cohort study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, Maria; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hjalgrim, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by previous observations we assessed the relationship between offspring birth weight and parental leukaemia risk in a register-based investigation including 2.4 million parents of 2 million Danish children. Regardless of analytical approach, offspring birth weight was not associated...... with parental risk of leukaemia overall or of leukaemia subtypes except for a twofold increased acute lymphatic leukaemia risk in fathers of high birth weight offspring and an increasing paternal risk of chronic myeloid leukaemia with increasing offspring birth weight. These may both be chance findings. Our...... investigation indicates that offspring birth weight is not strongly associated with parental leukaemia risk....

  2. Cohort Profile Update: The GAZEL Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie

    2015-02-01

    The original GAZEL cohort was composed of 20 625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies (15 011 male employees then aged 40 to 50 years and 5614 women between 35 and 50 years old) at its inception in 1989. A Cohort Profile article was published in 2007. By the end of 2013, participants were aged 60-75, and almost all of them retired during follow-up. Accordingly, the main focus of research in the past decade was devoted to the study of the persistent, long-term effects of occupational exposures after retirement; of the transition between professionally active life and retirement; and on determinants of early ageing. Accordingly, in addition to the health, behavioural and social data collected yearly since the beginning of the follow-up, new data were thus collected on cognitive complaints, cognitive and physical functioning, limitations in daily activities, time use and social relationships of retirees. This update presents the main findings of research within the GAZEL Cohort Study during the past 7 years. Any research group, in France or elsewhere, can submit a research proposal to work on the GAZEL cohort. To do this, interested researchers should contact one of the principal investigators of the GAZEL Cohort Study.

  3. Prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure is associated with decreased gestational length but not birth weight: archived samples from the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezios Katrina L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, known endocrine disruptors, were banned in 1979 but persist in the environment. Previous studies are inconsistent regarding prenatal exposure to PCBs and pregnancy outcomes. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to PCBs and gestational length and birth weight. Methods In a sample of 600 infants (born between 1960 and 1963 randomly selected from Child Health and Development Studies participants followed through adolescence we measured 11 PCB congeners in maternal post partum sera (within three days of delivery. Length of gestation was computed from the reported first day of the last menstrual period (LMP and delivery date. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between PCB exposure and gestational age and birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders. PCBs were grouped according to hypothesized biological action (1b (sum of weak phenobarbital inducers, 2b (sum of limited dioxin activity, and 3 (sum of CYP1A and CYP2b inducers or degree of ortho- substitution (mono, di, tri. Secondary analyses examined associations between total PCB exposure and exposure to individual congeners. Results Each unit increase in mono-ortho substituted PCBs was associated with a 0.30 week decrease (95% confidence interval (CI -0.59, -0.016, corresponding to a 2.1 (95% CI −4.13, -0.11 day decrease in length of gestation. Similar associations were estimated for di-ortho substituted PCBs, (1.4 day decrease; (95% CI −2.9, 0.1 and group 3 PCBs (0.84 day decrease; (95% CI −1.8, 0.11. We found similar associations in congener specific analyses and for the sum of congeners. Conclusions Our study provides new evidence that PCB exposure shortens length of gestation in humans. This may have public health implications for population exposures.

  4. Labour Force Participation and the Likelihood of Abortion in Finland over Three Birth Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, Heini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies on the association between labour force participation and abortion. This study examined how the likelihood of having an abortion depends on being employed, unemployed, student or outside the workforce using Finnish register data from three birth cohorts (born in 1955-59, 1965-69 and 1975-79 of nearly 260,000 women. The results differed depending on whether all women or only pregnant women were studied and on the cohort analysed. Unemployed women had a high likelihood of abortion when all women were studied, but among pregnant women students had the highest likelihood. The direction and strength of the association varied by relationship status, age, and parity. The results show that the likelihood of abortion depends on women’s economic position. More studies on contraceptive use and pregnancy intentions in Finland are needed to identify the mechanisms behind these findings.

  5. The role of birth cohorts in long-term trends in liver cirrhosis mortality across eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trias-Llimós, Sergi; Bijlsma, Maarten J; Janssen, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Understanding why inequalities in alcohol-related mortality trends by sex and country exist, is essential for developing health policies. Birth cohort effects, indicative of differences by generation in drinking, have rarely been studied. This study estimated the relative contri

  6. Evidence-Based Neonatal Unit Practices and Determinants of Postnatal Corticosteroid-Use in Preterm Births below 30 Weeks GA in Europe. A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuytten, Alexandra; Behal, Hélène; Duhamel, Alain; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Mazela, Jan; Milligan, David; Gortner, Ludwig; Piedvache, Aurélie; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Truffert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background Postnatal corticosteroids (PNC) were widely used to treat and prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants until studies showed increased risk of cerebral palsy and neurodevelopmental impairment. We aimed to describe PNC use in Europe and evaluate the determinants of their use, including neonatal characteristics and adherence to evidence-based practices in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Methods 3917/4096 (95,6%) infants born between 24 and 29 weeks gestational age in 19 regions of 11 European countries of the EPICE cohort we included. We examined neonatal characteristics associated with PNC use. The cohort was divided by tertiles of probability of PNC use determined by logistic regression analysis. We also evaluated the impact of the neonatal unit’s reported adherence to European recommendations for respiratory management and a stated policy of reduced PNC use. Results PNC were prescribed for 545/3917 (13.9%) infants (regional range 3.1–49.4%) and for 29.7% of infants in the highest risk tertile (regional range 5.4–72.4%). After adjustment, independent predictors of PNC use were a low gestational age, small for gestational age, male sex, mechanical ventilation, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to treat persistent ductus arteriosus and region. A stated NICU policy reduced PNC use (odds ratio 0.29 [95% CI 0.17; 0.50]). Conclusion PNC are frequently used in Europe, but with wide regional variation that was unexplained by neonatal characteristics. Even for infants at highest risk for PNC use, some regions only rarely prescribed PNC. A stated policy of reduced PNC use was associated with observed practice and is recommended. PMID:28114369

  7. The 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study: methods A visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993: métodos

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    Cora Luiza Araújo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the methodology of the 2004-2005 follow-up visit of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort. All children born in Pelotas in 1993 and whose mothers lived in the city at that time were eligible to be enrolled in a longitudinal study. Between July 2004 and March 2005, all cohort participants were sought for a follow-up visit. Several strategies were used to help trace cohort members, including a census of the city's schools and a census of all households in the municipality. The Mortality Information System was monitored in order to identify deaths among cohort members. Of the 5,249 cohort members, 4,452 were interviewed in 2004-5. When added to the 141 deaths, these represent 87.5% of the original cohort. In spite of the logistic and financial difficulties, it is possible to carry out prospective studies with long-term follow-up in the Brazilian context.O objetivo deste artigo é descrever a metodologia do acompanhamento realizado em 2004-2005 da coorte de nascidos em 1993 na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Todas as crianças nascidas em 1993 nessa cidade, cujas mães residiam no município, foram elegíveis para um estudo longitudinal. Entre os meses de julho de 2004 e março de 2005, todos os participantes da coorte foram procurados para um acompanhamento. Diversas estratégias de busca foram utilizadas para auxiliar na localização dos participantes, sendo as principais um censo em todas as escolas do município e um censo domiciliar. O Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade foi monitorado para detecção de óbitos de participantes da coorte. Dos 5.249 participantes da coorte, 4.452 foram entrevistados em 2004-2005, os quais, somados aos 141 óbitos detectados, representam 87,5% da coorte original. Apesar das dificuldades logísticas e financeiras, é possível realizar estudos prospectivos com altas taxas de acompanhamento em longo prazo no contexto brasileiro.

  8. Cohort trends in premarital first births: what role for the retreat from marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Paula; Wu, Lawrence L; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2013-12-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women's years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a "shotgun marriage"). For women born between 1920-1924 and 1945-1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945-1949 and 1960-1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions-a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning "marriageable" men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth.

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo;

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic v...

  10. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2005-01-01

    ) 0.86-1.02] for all pregnancies and 0.98 (95% CI 0.86-1.13) for first pregnancies. A healthy worker effect was found for the laboratory technicians working with the work processes under study. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not suggest that laboratory work in Denmark at present impairs female fecundity.......OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...

  11. The Danish National Birth Cohort--its background, structure and aim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F;

    2001-01-01

    ) was established. A large cohort of pregnant women with long-term follow-up of the offspring was the obvious choice because many of the exposures of interest cannot be reconstructed with sufficient validity back in time. The study needs to be large, and it is aimed to recruit 100,000 women early in pregnancy...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...

  12. Using text messaging to obtain weekly data on infant feeding in a Danish birth cohort resulted in high participation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to use text message questions to obtain prospective, real-time data on exclusive and partial breastfeeding and introduction to complementary foods in a Danish birth cohort. We also wanted to identify factors influencing breastfeeding initiation and cessation. METHODS: This study ...

  13. Fear of childbirth: predictors and temporal changes among nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M.; Hedegaard, M.; Johansen, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between fear of childbirth and social, demographic and psychological factors in a cohort of 30 480 healthy nulliparous women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth Cohort....... POPULATION: Healthy nulliparous women (n= 30 480) with singleton pregnancies. METHODS: Data from computer-assisted telephone interviews twice in pregnancy linked with national health registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characteristics of women with fear of childbirth in early (mean, 16 weeks) and late...... pregnancy (mean, 32 weeks) and changes in fear of childbirth between 1997 and 2003. RESULTS: Low educational level, lack of a social network, young age and unemployment were associated with fear of childbirth, as were being a smoker and having low self-rated health. The odds ratio for fear of childbirth...

  14. Cognitive Enhancement in Infants Associated with Increased Maternal Fruit Intake During Pregnancy: Results from a Birth Cohort Study with Validation in an Animal Model

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    Francois V. Bolduc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In-utero nutrition is an under-studied aspect of cognitive development. Fruit has been an important dietary constituent for early hominins and humans. Among 808 eligible CHILD-Edmonton sub-cohort subjects, 688 (85% had 1-year cognitive outcome data. We found that each maternal daily serving of fruit (sum of fruit plus 100% fruit juice consumed during pregnancy was associated with a 2.38 point increase in 1-year cognitive development (95% CI 0.39, 4.37; p < 0.05. Consistent with this, we found 30% higher learning Performance index (PI scores in Drosophila offspring from parents who consumed 30% fruit juice supplementation prenatally (PI: 85.7; SE 1.8; p < 0.05 compared to the offspring of standard diet parents (PI: 65.0 SE 3.4. Using the Drosophila model, we also show that the cyclic adenylate monophosphate (cAMP pathway may be a major regulator of this effect, as prenatal fruit associated cognitive enhancement was blocked in Drosophila rutabaga mutants with reduced Ca2+-Calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase. Moreover, gestation is a critical time for this effect as postnatal fruit intake did not enhance cognitive performance in either humans or Drosophila. Our study supports increased fruit consumption during pregnancy with significant increases in infant cognitive performance. Validation in Drosophila helps control for potential participant bias or unmeasured confounders.

  15. Cognitive Enhancement in Infants Associated with Increased Maternal Fruit Intake During Pregnancy: Results from a Birth Cohort Study with Validation in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Francois V; Lau, Amanda; Rosenfelt, Cory S; Langer, Steven; Wang, Nan; Smithson, Lisa; Lefebvre, Diana; Alexander, R Todd; Dickson, Clayton T; Li, Liang; Becker, Allan B; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Pei, Jacqueline; Sears, Malcolm R; Mandhane, Piush J

    2016-06-01

    In-utero nutrition is an under-studied aspect of cognitive development. Fruit has been an important dietary constituent for early hominins and humans. Among 808 eligible CHILD-Edmonton sub-cohort subjects, 688 (85%) had 1-year cognitive outcome data. We found that each maternal daily serving of fruit (sum of fruit plus 100% fruit juice) consumed during pregnancy was associated with a 2.38 point increase in 1-year cognitive development (95% CI 0.39, 4.37; p<0.05). Consistent with this, we found 30% higher learning Performance index (PI) scores in Drosophila offspring from parents who consumed 30% fruit juice supplementation prenatally (PI: 85.7; SE 1.8; p<0.05) compared to the offspring of standard diet parents (PI: 65.0 SE 3.4). Using the Drosophila model, we also show that the cyclic adenylate monophosphate (cAMP) pathway may be a major regulator of this effect, as prenatal fruit associated cognitive enhancement was blocked in Drosophila rutabaga mutants with reduced Ca(2+)-Calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase. Moreover, gestation is a critical time for this effect as postnatal fruit intake did not enhance cognitive performance in either humans or Drosophila. Our study supports increased fruit consumption during pregnancy with significant increases in infant cognitive performance. Validation in Drosophila helps control for potential participant bias or unmeasured confounders.

  16. Growth of a cohort of very low birth weight infants in Johannesburg, South Africa

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    Cooper Peter A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the growth of VLBW infants in South Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the growth of a cohort of VLBW infants in Johannesburg. Methods A secondary analysis of a prospective cohort was conducted on 139 VLBW infants (birth weight ≤1500 g admitted to Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. Growth measurements were obtained from patient files and compared with the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHO-CGS and with a previous cohort of South African VLBW infants. The sample size per analysis ranged from 11 to 81 infants. Results Comparison with the WHO-CGS showed initial poor growth followed by gradual catch up growth with mean Z scores of 0.0 at 20 months postmenstrual age for weight, -0.8 at 20 months postmenstrual age for length and 0.0 at 3 months postmenstrual age for head circumference. Growth was comparable with that of a previous cohort of South African VLBW infants in all parameters. Conclusions Initial poor growth in the study sample was followed by gradual catch up growth but with persistent deficits in length for age at 20 months postmenstrual age relative to healthy term infants.

  17. Birth size, risk factors across life and cognition in late life: protocol of prospective longitudinal follow-up of the MYNAH (MYsore studies of Natal effects on Ageing and Health) cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Murali; Kumar, G Mohan; Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Karat, Samuel Christaprasad; Coakley, Patsy; Osmond, Clive; Copeland, John R M; Chandak, Giriraj; Bhat, Dattatray; Varghese, Mathew; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Introduction For late-life neurocognitive disorders, as for other late-life chronic diseases, much recent interest has focused on the possible relevance of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Programming by undernutrition in utero, followed by overnutrition in adult life may lead to an increased risk, possibly mediated through cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population. Methods and analysis From 1934 onwards, the birth weight, length and head circumference of all babies born in the CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India, were recorded in obstetric notes. Approximately 800 men and women from the Mysore Birth Records Cohort aged above 55 years, and a reliable informant for each, will be asked to participate in a single cross-sectional baseline assessment for cognitive function, mental health and cardiometabolic disorders. Participants will be assessed for hypertension, type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease, nutritional status, health behaviours and lifestyles, family living arrangements, economic status, social support and social networks. Additional investigations include blood tests (for diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, anaemia, vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, renal impairment, thyroid disease and Apolipoprotein E genotype), anthropometry, ECG, blood pressure, spirometry and body composition (bioimpedance). We will develop an analysis plan, first using traditional univariate and multivariable analytical paradigms with independent, dependent and mediating/confounding/interacting variables to test the main hypotheses. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the research ethics committee of CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital. The findings will be disseminated locally and at international meetings, and will be published in open access peer

  18. How multiple episodes of exclusive breastfeeding impact estimates of exclusive breastfeeding duration: report from the eight‐site MAL‐ED birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambikapathi, Ramya; Kosek, Margaret N.; Lee, Gwenyth O.; Mahopo, Cloupas; Patil, Crystal L.; Maciel, Bruna L.; Turab, Ali; Islam, M Munirul; Ulak, Manjeswori; Bose, Anuradha; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Pendergast, Laura L.; Murray‐Kolb, Laura E.; Lang, Dennis; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is often defined as the time from birth to the first non‐breast milk food/liquid fed (EBFLONG), or it is estimated by calculating the proportion of women at a given infant age who EBF in the previous 24 h (EBFDHS). Others have measured the total days or personal prevalence of EBF (EBFPREV), recognizing that although non‐EBF days may occur, EBF can be re‐initiated for extended periods. We compared breastfeeding metrics in the MAL‐ED study; infants' breastfeeding trajectories were characterized from enrollment (median 7 days, IQR: 4, 12) to 180 days at eight sites. During twice‐weekly surveillance, caretakers were queried about infant feeding the prior day. Overall, 101 833 visits and 356 764 child days of data were collected from 1957 infants. Median duration of EBFLONG was 33 days (95% CI: 32–36), compared to 49 days based on the EBFDHS. Median EBFPREV was 66 days (95% CI: 62–70). Differences were because of the return to EBF after a non‐EBF period. The median number of returns to EBF was 2 (IQR: 1, 3). When mothers re‐initiated EBF (second episode), infants gained an additional 18.8 days (SD: 25.1) of EBF, and gained 13.7 days (SD: 18.1) (third episode). In settings where women report short gaps in EBF, programmes should work with women to return to EBF. Interventions could positively influence the duration of these additional periods of EBF and their quantification should be considered in impact evaluation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:27500709

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo;

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic...... variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height...... variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent...

  20. Pooling Bio-Specimens in the Presence of Measurement Error and Non-Linearity in Dose-Response: Simulation Study in the Context of a Birth Cohort Investigating Risk Factors for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Heavner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the potential effects of pooling on power, false positive rate (FPR, and bias of the estimated associations between hypothetical environmental exposures and dichotomous autism spectrum disorders (ASD status. Simulated birth cohorts in which ASD outcome was assumed to have been ascertained with uncertainty were created. We investigated the impact on the power of the analysis (using logistic regression to detect true associations with exposure (X1 and the FPR for a non-causal correlate of exposure (X2, r = 0.7 for a dichotomized ASD measure when the pool size, sample size, degree of measurement error variance in exposure, strength of the true association, and shape of the exposure-response curve varied. We found that there was minimal change (bias in the measures of association for the main effect (X1. There is some loss of power but there is less chance of detecting a false positive result for pooled compared to individual level models. The number of pools had more effect on the power and FPR than the overall sample size. This study supports the use of pooling to reduce laboratory costs while maintaining statistical efficiency in scenarios similar to the simulated prospective risk-enriched ASD cohort.

  1. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

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    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. METHODS: We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. RESULTS: In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  2. Association of maternal and paternal IQ with offspring conduct, emotional and attention problem scores: trans-generational evidence from the 1958 British birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Elise; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Context Lower IQ individuals have an increased risk of psychological disorders, mental health problems, and suicide; similarly, children with low IQ scores are more likely to have behavioural, emotional and anxiety disorders. However, very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the mental health outcomes of their children. Objective To determine whether maternal and paternal IQ score is associated with offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores. Design Cohort. Setting General population. Participants Members of 1958 National Child Development Study and their offspring. Of 2,984 parent-offspring pairs, with non-adopted children aged 4+ years, 2,202 pairs had complete data on all variables of interest and were included in the analyses. Outcome measure Offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores based on Behavioural Problems Index for children aged 4-6 years or the Rutter A scale for children aged 7 and over. Results There was little evidence of any association of parental IQ with conduct or emotional problems in younger (aged 4-6) children. However, among children aged 7+, there was strong evidence from age- and sex-adjusted models to support a decrease in conduct, emotional and attention problems in those whose parents had higher IQ scores. These associations were linear across the full IQ range. Individual adjustments for socioeconomic status and child’s own IQ had limited impact while adjustments for Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores and parental malaise attenuated associations with mother’s IQ but, again, had little impact on associations with father’s IQ. Strong associations were no longer evident in models that simultaneously adjusted for all four potential mediating variables. Conclusions Children whose parents score poorly on IQ tests may have an increased risk of conduct, emotional and attention problems. Home environment, parental malaise, and child’s own IQ may have a role in explaining these

  3. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinyai Masukume

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609, to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation.The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work was the main method of analysis.The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%, that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78, and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without.In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Birth Weight: A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet;

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO ...... (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  5. Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Casas, Lidia; Santa Marina, Loreto; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Esplugues, Ana; Jimenez, Ana; Zock, Jan-Paul; Tardón, Adonina; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-02-15

    This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2,456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy between 2003 and 2008 in four regions of Spain. Socio-demographic, environmental and lifestyle information was obtained at two interviews during pregnancy, one at the first (mean:13.8±2.6 weeks of gestation) and the other at the third trimester (mean: 33.3±2.3 weeks of gestation). Information about prenatal use of indoor and outdoor insecticides (type, timing, place of application, place of storage) was obtained from the second interview. In a 3rd interview (mean: 16.2±6.9 months of age of children), information about postnatal indoor and outdoor insecticide use was obtained. Regression models examined the association between demographic and lifestyle factors and pesticide use to determine which characteristics predicted use prenatally and postnatally. Fifty-four percent of women reported using indoor insecticides during pregnancy, 45% in their bedroom and 47% elsewhere in the house. Plug-in devices were the most frequent application methods used in the pregnant woman's bedroom and insecticide sprays elsewhere in the house. The maternal factors related to prenatal use of indoor insecticides were parity, country of birth, educational level, region of residence, having a garden or yard with plants, and living near an agricultural area. These products continued to be used postnatally, although 20% of the women stopped using them. Foetuses and children are especially vulnerable to pesticide exposure; thus knowing how pesticides are used during pregnancy and infancy may be a starting point for the study of their potential effects on health as well as useful for designing preventive actions.

  6. Intrauterine exposure to smoking and wheezing in adolescence: the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhmeister, F C; Nunes, B P; Loret de Mola, C; Gómez-Cofré, N; de Oliveira, P D; Marco, P L; Assunção, M C F; Gonçalves, H; Horta, B L; Menezes, A M B

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and asthma symptoms such as wheezing during childhood. However, few have evaluated this association in adolescence, especially in populations with high prevalence of wheezing as in Brazil. Using the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort, a longitudinal study set in southern Brazil of 5249 urban live births, we aimed to evaluate the association between maternal and the partner's smoking during pregnancy and wheezing at 11 and 15 years of age. We evaluated smoking during pregnancy using number of cigarettes/day, and our main outcomes were as follows: wheezing in the last year and number of wheezing crises, at both 11 and 15 years of age, as well as persistent wheezing (having crises at 11 and 15 years of age) and medical asthma diagnosis at age 15. In addition, other socio-demographic variables were included as possible confounders and mediators of this association. We used Poisson regression models to evaluate crude and adjusted associations. Of the 5249 live births in 1993, 87.5% and 85.7% were followed-up to 11 and 15 years of age, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy showed a dose-response association with number of wheezing crises at age 15 (P = 0.023), presence of persistent wheezing (P = 0.034) and asthma diagnosis (P = 0.023). Partner's smoking was not associated with any wheezing variables. Maternal smoking during pregnancy appears to exert an effect on respiratory morbidity of adolescents, evaluated by wheezing symptoms.

  7. Use of antiepileptic or benzodiazepine medication and suicidal ideation--The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, I; Jääskeläinen, E; Isohanni, M; Koponen, H; Ansakorpi, H; Miettunen, J

    2015-05-01

    Both antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and benzodiazepines (BZDs) have previously been associated with an increased risk of suicidality. Our aim was to study the association between the use of conventional AEDs and BZDs and suicidal ideation in a large population-based cohort. Information on the medications used in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was collected from the subjects at the age of 31 years, using a postal questionnaire (N=8211). The presence of suicidal ideation and other symptoms of depression and anxiety was assessed via the Hopkins Symptom Checklist - 25 questionnaire. The associations between medications and suicidal ideation were studied in different diagnostic groups and adjusted for symptoms of depression and anxiety. No difference was observed in suicidal ideation between AED users (n=54) and nonusers (n=8157). Subjects using BZDs (n=147) had greater suicidal ideation compared with nonusers (n=8064). Antiepileptic drug and benzodiazepine users more often exhibited other depression and anxiety symptoms. After adjustment for these symptoms, both AED and BZD users had less suicidal ideation compared with nonusers. In conclusion, in this population-based cohort, neither the use of AEDs nor that of BZDs was found to be associated with increased suicidal ideation when the symptoms of depression and anxiety were taken into account.

  8. How Do Persons with Intellectual Disability Manage in the Open Labour Markets? A Follow-Up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taanila, A.; Rantakallio, P.; Koiranen, M.; von Wendt, L.; Jarvelin, M.-R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to study how many of the individuals with intellectual disability (ID; IQ70) in an age cohort were not receiving a disability pension by the age of 34 years and what their life situation was like in terms of employment, education and morbidity. In 2000, the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=12058 live-born) included 129 individuals…

  9. The human milk study, HUMIS. Presentation of a birth cohort study which aims to collect milk samples from 6000 mothers, for the assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPS), relating it to exposure factors and health outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, M.; Stigum, H.; Becher, G.; Magnus, P. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Polder, A.; Skaare, J.U. [The Norwegian School of Veterinay Science, Oslo (Norway); Lindstroem, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Although PCB has been forbidden for more than 20 years now, and its levels in human milk is declining, it remains among the chemicals in human milk causing most concern with regard to its possible detrimental effects on the fetus and the breastfed child. Due to our industry, amongst others, the Norwegian population has been rather heavily exposed to PCB. Furthermore, new environmental toxicants are steadily entering the scene, such as the Brominated flame retardants. The level of Brominated flame retardants in human milk has shown an exponential increase during the last ten years, and this group of chemicals, are causing increasingly more concern. Studies from Sweden has shown that the levels differ greatly between individuals, however, for reasons yet unknown. In Norway, the highest levels of Brominated flame retardants ever measured in the world was reported from fish in Mjoesa. Surprisingly few attempts has been made to identify dietary habits or other life style factors that are associated with the levels of these toxicants in human milk. Such knowledge is needed in order for accurate prophylactic measures to be taken by the population and of special importance to women before and during child bearing age, in order to keep the levels in human milk as low as possible. Furthermore, there is great need for more knowledge of the effects of these toxicants on child health. The need for more research in this field, especially the need for prospective exposure data and the need for interdisciplinary approaches has been specifically targeted. Therefore a research initiative was taken in Norway to establish a prospective birth cohort which aims to recruit 6000 mother/child pairs, in whom human milk samples are collected in infancy and information on health outcomes are collected throughout the child's first seven years of life. The aim of this presentation is to describe this project in more detail and to give some preliminary results.

  10. Uso de medicamentos do nascimento aos dois anos: Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas, RS, 2004 Uso de medicamentos desde el nacimiento hasta los dos años: Cohorte de Nacimientos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, 2004 Medicine use from birth to age two years: the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Almeida de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    ógicos. Hubo aumento en la utilización de: medicamentos anti-infecciosos sistémicos, destinados al sistema músculo esquelético, al sistema respiratorio, analgésicos, antiparasitarios, insecticidas y repelentes. CONCLUSIONES: La utilización de medicamentos en esta cohorte fue elevada y remite a la necesidad de priorizar el uso racional de medicamentos en los primeros años de vida.OBJECTIVE: To describe medicine use by children at three, 12 and 24 months of age. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Southern Brazil, including: 3,985 children at three months, 3,907 children at 12 months, and 3,868 children at 24 months of age. The outcome investigated was use of medicine in the 15 days preceding the interview. Information on independent variables (medicine used, who indicated it, how it was obtained, periodicity of use, and therapeutic group were collected using a standardized questionnaire administered during a home interview with the child's parents. RESULTS: Prevalence of medicine use at three, 12, and 24 months was 65.0% (95% CI: 63.5;66.5, 64.4% (95% CI: 62.9;65.9, and 54.7% (95% CI: 53.1;56.2, respectively. As age increased, there was a reduction in the total number of medicines used and an increase in self-medicine, which reached 34% at 24 months. Furthermore, frequency of sporadic medicine use increased, while that of continuous use decreased. Medicine was purchased mainly using private resources, with roughly 10% of drugs being purchased through the Brazilian National Health Care System. The profile of medicine types used also changed with age. The type of medicine most frequently used were dermatological products (36% at three months; respiratory system drugs (24% at 12 months; and analgesics (26% at 24 months of age. Compared to three months, medicine use at 24 months was characterized by decreased use of digestive tract and metabolism drugs, drugs for the sensory organs, cardiovascular system drugs, and dermatological

  11. 孕中期血糖水平与新生儿出生体重的队列研究%Mid-gestational glucose levels and newborn birth weight: birth cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄三唤; 徐叶清; 陈茂林; 黄锟; 潘维君; 葛星; 严双琴; 毛雷婧; 牛影

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the association between the blood glucose levels of pregnant women in second trimester detected by 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the birth weight of neonates.Methods Demographic information collection and OGTT were conducted for 3 081 pregnant women at ≤14 gestational weeks and 24-28 gestational weeks respectively.Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to identify the factors associated with the birth weight and the risks of large for gestational age (LGA) in three levels (FPG,OGTT-1 h and OGTT-2 h) of OGTT percentile group,multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between maternal glucose levels and neonate birth weight.Results Pre-pregnancy obesity (24.0 kg/m2≤ BMI<28.0 kg/m2)(OR=1.4,95%CI:1.0-2.0,P=0.029) and gestational diabetes mellitus (OR=2.4,95% CI:1.8-3.2,P<0.001) were the risk factors.Pre-pregnancy underweight (BMI< 18.5 kg/m2) (OR=1.6,95%CI:1.2-2.2,P=0.003),preeclampsia (OR=4.0,95%CI:1.9-8.4,P<0.001) increased the risk for small for gestational age (SGA).Multiple linear regression analysis showed neonate birth weight was positive correlated with maternal glucose levels (β were 91.99,33.60,32.00,respectively,P<0.001).Percentile groups of each OGTT level was linearly positive associated with increased mean value of neonate birth weight,and so with the risk of LGA.Conclusions There were positive correlations between maternal glucose levels and neonate birth weight.The risk of LGA increased with the maternal glucose levels,but there was no statistical association between SGA and maternal glucose levels.FPG level is one of the predictors of LGA.Active surveillance and control of maternal glucose level can effectively reduce the risk of LGA.%目的 探讨孕中期孕妇75 g口服糖耐量试验(OGTT)的3项血糖值与出生体重的关系.方法 参与前瞻性队列研究的3 081名孕妇于孕≤14周时收集基础人口统计学信息,在孕24~ 28

  12. Effect of prenatal PAH exposure on birth outcomes and neurocognitive development in a cohort of newborns in Poland. Study design and preliminary ambient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W.; Whyatt, R.M.; Camann, D.E.; Bawle, U.V.; Peki, K.; Spengler, J.D.; Dumyahn, T.S.; Penar, A.; Perera, F.F. [Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland). Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Collegium Medicum

    2003-07-01

    Preliminary data suggest an association between infant mortality rates and several measures of ambient air pollution, including dustfall and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The effects of airborne PAH components on fetal growth and early childhood development are of primary interest since we have previously demonstrated that these pollutants were associated with significant decrements in birth weight, length and head circumference in Polish newborn babies. The undertaken research combines a state-of-the-art environmental monitoring and molecular approaches with comprehensive neurodevelopment assessments. A further innovation is the incorporation of biomarkers (lead and antioxidants in cord blood) to control for potential confounding of exposure-effect. The mean overall concentrations of specific PAH compounds in Krakow, Poland were highest for benzo(b)fluoranthene (23 ng/m{sup 3}), benzo(a)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, chyresene and benzo(a)pyrene. Concentrations of the PAH compounds measured by personal monitoring were higher in residents of the higher polluted area of the city. Comparison between the Krakow and New York City ambient data demonstrates that the concentrations and proportions of specific compounds in the total PAH mixture differ widely across these cities. Thus, one may expect that the PAH-related health risks would differ between the two areas not only because exposures are different, but also because the PAH profile differs. Presumably, this different profile is a consequence of variations in the sources of fossil and solid fuels used to produce energy. In Poland, more coal is used than in New York City. Auto emissions for example, are low in benzo(a)pyrene, whereas such emissions from refuse burning are high. 31 refs.

  13. Bisphenol A and Adiposity in an Inner-City Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Lori A.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Widen, Elizabeth M.; Hassoun, Abeer; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Mueller, Noel T.; Diaz, Diurka; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) may contribute to the development of obesity. Prospective evidence in humans on this topic is limited. Objectives: We examined prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures in relation to childhood measures of adiposity in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) New York City birth cohort. Methods: BPA concentrations were measured in prenatal (n = 375) and child ages 3 (n = 408) and 5 years (n = 518) spot urine samples. Childhood anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance outcomes included body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) at 5 and 7 years, and fat mass index (FMI), percent body fat (%BF), and waist circumference (WC) at 7 years. Associations were evaluated using multiple linear regression with continuous and tertile BPA concentrations. Results: Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were positively associated with child age 7 FMI (β = 0.31 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.60, p = 0.04), %BF (β = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.03, 1.55, p = 0.04), and WC (β = 1.29 cm; 95% CI: 0.29, 2.30, p = 0.01), but not BMIZ, or change in BMIZ between ages 5 and 7 years (all p-values > 0.1). FMI results were sex-specific. Child urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric outcomes (all p-values > 0.05). Conclusions: Analyses of the CCCEH longitudinal birth cohort found associations between prenatal urinary BPA concentrations and FMI, %BF, and WC. Our results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to developmental origins of adiposity. These findings are consistent with several prior studies, raising concern about the pervasiveness of BPA. Citation: Hoepner LA, Whyatt RM, Widen EM, Hassoun A, Oberfield SE, Mueller NT, Diaz D, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Rundle AG. 2016. Bisphenol A and adiposity in an inner-city birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1644–1650; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP205 PMID:27187982

  14. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  15. Helicobacter pylori and the birth cohort effect: Evidence for stabilized colonization rates in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); A.J. Vila (Anne J.); I.L. Holster (Ingrid); G.I. Perez-Perez (Guillermo I.); M.J. Blaser (Martin J.); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori has declined over recent decades in developed countries. The increasing prevalence with age is largely because of a birth cohort effect. We previously observed a decline in H. pylori prevalence in 6- to 8-year-old Dutch children from 19%

  16. Childhood social circumstances and health behaviour in midlife: the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the association between social disadvantage in childhood and adult mortality could come about through processes related to the family environment in which the child is raised. This study examines the relationship of fathers' social class with health behaviour...... in middle age and assesses the potential mediating role of cognitive function, educational status and social integration in young adulthood in these relationships. METHODS: We used data from the Metropolit cohort which includes 11 532 Danish men born in 1953 with information on fathers' social class...... at participants' birth and assessments of cognitive performance, education and social integration in early adulthood. In 2004, 6292 of these men participated in a follow-up survey on health and behaviour. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of father's social class with smoking, alcohol...

  17. Effect of antenatal parasitic infections on anti-vaccine IgG levels in children: a prospective birth cohort study in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to malaria and/or helminths affects the pattern of infant immune responses to standard vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae (Hib, diphtheria (DT, hepatitis B (Hep B and tetanus toxoid (TT.450 Kenyan women were tested for malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF, and intestinal helminths during pregnancy. After three standard vaccinations at 6, 10 and 14 weeks, their newborns were followed biannually to age 36 months and tested for absolute levels of IgG against Hib, DT, Hep B, and TT at each time point. Newborns' cord blood (CB lymphocyte responses to malaria blood-stage antigens, soluble Schistosoma haematobium worm antigen (SWAP, and filaria antigen (BMA were also assessed. Three immunophenotype categories were compared: i tolerant (those having Plasmodium-, Schistosoma-, or Wuchereria-infected mothers but lacking respective Th1/Th2-type recall responses at birth to malaria antigens, SWAP, or BMA; ii sensitized (those with infected/uninfected mothers and detectable Th1/Th2-type CB recall response to respective parasite antigen; or iii unexposed (no evidence of maternal infection or CB recall response. Overall, 78.9% of mothers were infected with LF (44.7%, schistosomiasis (32.4%, malaria (27.6% or hookworm (33.8%. Antenatal maternal malaria, LF, and hookworm were independently associated with significantly lower Hib-specific IgG. Presence of multiple maternal infections was associated with lower infant IgG levels against Hib and DT antigens post-vaccination. Post-vaccination IgG levels were also significantly associated with immunophenotype: malaria-tolerized infants had reduced response to DT, whereas filaria-tolerized infants showed reduced response to Hib.There is an impaired ability to develop IgG antibody responses to key protective antigens of Hib and diphtheria in infants of mothers infected with

  18. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  19. Cohort profile: Shahroud Eye Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yazdani, Kamran; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Koohian, Hassan; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Malihi, Sarvenaz; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2013-10-01

    The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study was set up to determine the prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and major eye conditions in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud as a Middle Eastern population. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2009-10. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 Shahroud inhabitants were invited for ophthalmologic examinations; of these, 5190 participants completed phase 1 (participation rate of 82.2%). All participants were interviewed to collect data on participants' demographics, occupation status, socioeconomic status, history of smoking, and medical and ophthalmic history, as well as history of medication, and the quality and duration of their insurance. DNA and plasma samples, as well as four dots of whole blood were collected from participants. Extensive optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed for each participant, including lensometry of current glasses, testing near and far visual acuity; determining objective and subjective refraction; eye motility; cycloplegic refraction; colour vision test; slit-lamp biomicroscopy and intraocular pressure measurement; direct and indirect fundoscopy; perimetry test; ocular biometry; corneal topography; lens and fundus photography; and the Schirmer's (1008 participants) and tear breakup time tests (1013 participants). The study data are available for collaborative research at Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

  20. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  1. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  2. Preterm newborns at Kangaroo Mother Care: a cohort follow-up from birth to six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexsandra da S. Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate clinical outcomes, growth and exclusive breastfeeding rates in premature infants assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care at birth, at discharge and at six months of life.METHODS: Prospective study of a premature infants cohort assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care in a tertiary public maternity in Northeast Brazil with birth weight ≤1750g and with clinical conditions for Kangaroo care.RESULTS: The sample was composed by 137 premature infants, being 62.8% female, with average birth weight of 1365±283g, average gestational age of 32±3 weeks and 26.2% were adequate for gestational age. They have been admitted in the Kangaroo Ward with a median of 13 days of life, weighing 1430±167g and, at this time, 57.7% were classified as small for corrected gestational age. They were discharged with 36.8±21.8 days of chronological age, weighing 1780±165g and 67.9% were small for corrected gestational age. At six months of life (n=76, they had an average weight of 5954±971g, and 68.4% presented corrected weight for gestational age between percentiles 15 and 85 of the World Health Organization (WHO weight curve. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was 56.2% and, at six months of life, 14.4%.CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, almost two thirds of the children assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care were, at six months of life, between percentiles 15 and 85 of the WHO weight curves. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was low.

  3. Infant Growth and Risk of Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes in Children From 2 Scandinavian Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granström, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    -onset type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a cohort study using information from 2 population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), of children born between February 1998 and July 2009...... proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: A total of 99,832 children were included in the study, with 59,221 in MoBa (51.2% boys and 48.8% girls; mean age at end of follow-up, 8.6 years [range, 4.6-14.2 years]) and 40,611 in DNBC (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls; mean age at end of follow-up, 13.0 years [range, 10.......4-15.7 years]). The incidence rate of type 1 diabetes from age 12 months to the end of follow-up was 25 cases per 100,000 person-years in DNBC and 31 cases per 100,000 person-years in MoBa. The change in weight from birth to 12 months was positively associated with type 1 diabetes (pooled unadjusted HR = 1...

  4. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Timpson, Nicholas J; Andersen, Camilla S;

    2009-01-01

    -reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI) for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate...... increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.......5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk...

  5. Associations of maternal o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE levels with birth outcomes in a Bolivian cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrebola, Juan P.; Cuellar, Miriam; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential association of maternal serum levels of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE with gestation time and with anthropometric measurements and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of newborns in a Bolivian birth cohort. Two hundred mothers were consecutively recruited between...... January and March 2013 at the "Hospital de la Mujer Dr. Percy Boland" in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Potential confounders were derived from an ad hoc questionnaire. o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were quantified in cord serum by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear...... regression analyses were performed, with POP concentrations as independent variables and log-transformed newborn birth outcomes (newborn weight, gestational age, head circumference, birth height, ponderal index, and TSH levels) as dependent variables. o,p'-DDT was detected in 82.5% of samples at median...

  6. Associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding duration with attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood : a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oken, Emily; Osterdal, Marie Louise; Gillman, Matthew W.; Knudsen, Vibeke K.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Strom, Marin; Bellinger, David C.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the overall effect of maternal fish intake during pregnancy on child development or examined whether the developmental benefits of maternal fish intake are greater in infants breastfed for a shorter duration. Objective: We aimed to study associations of maternal

  7. Childhood Predictors of Use and Costs of Antidepressant Medication by Age 24 Years: Findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24…

  8. Exploring the Variety of Parental Talk during Shared Book Reading and Its Contributions to Preschool Language and Literacy: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Foster, Tricia D.

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have explored shared book reading between preschoolers and their families, very few have examined this practice within a large, nationally representative sample. Using the ECLS-B dataset, this study investigated shared reading among nearly 700 families of diverse ethnic, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Coding of…

  9. Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative, a pooled birth cohort of 13 pregnancy studies in Africa and the Western Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unger, Holger W; Cates, Jordan E; Gutman, Julie;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria-nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. PARTICIPANTS: Data were pooled on 14 635...... and alternative or intensified malaria prevention regimens, and the settings in which these interventions would be most effective....

  10. Early life exposures to home dampness, pet ownership and farm animal contact and neuropsychological development in 4 year old children: a prospective birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, L.; Torrent, M.; Zock, J.P.; Doekes, G.; Forns, J.; Guxens, M.; Täubel, M.; Heinrich, J.; Sunyer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to biocontaminants is associated with behavioural problems and poorer cognitive function. Our study assesses the associations between early life exposure to home dampness, pets and farm animal contact and cognitive function and social competences in 4-year old children, and the associations

  11. Breastfeeding, weight gain in infancy, and overweight at seven years of age - The prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Gehring, Ulrike; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    2007-01-01

    Compared with nonbreastfed children, breastfed children tend to have a lower body mass index (BMI) at about 1 year of age. How the BMI of breastfed children develops after the first year when this difference in BMI at 1 year of age is considered is not clear. The authors studied the association betw

  12. Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative, a pooled birth cohort of 13 pregnancy studies in Africa and the Western Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unger, Holger W; Cates, Jordan E; Gutman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria-nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. PARTICIPANTS: Data were pooled on 14 635 ...

  13. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  14. Risk of infection and adverse outcomes among pregnant working women in selected occupational groups: A study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Kaerlev, Linda; Zhu, Jin Liang;

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to infectious pathogens is a frequent occupational hazard for women who work with patients, children, animals or animal products. The purpose of the present study is to investigate if women working in occupations where exposure to infections agents is common have a high risk of infections...

  15. Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Vries, S.I. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, N.K. de; Buuren, S. van; Thijs, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children’s diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of

  16. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  17. Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.A. de Hoog; M. van Eijsden; K. Stronks; R.J.B.J. Gemke; T.G.M. Vrijkotte

    2011-01-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed

  18. Chronic suppurative otitis media in a birth cohort of children in Greenland: population-based study of incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben; Pipper, Christian Bressen;

    2011-01-01

    Inuits of the Arctic experience very high rates of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), yet world-wide, very little is known about the epidemiology of CSOM. The study aims were to determine incidence, median age at debut, risk factors, and associated population attributable risks for CSOM...... in young children in Sisimiut, the second biggest town of Greenland (population 5400), where living conditions are relatively western and approximately 90% are Inuits....

  19. Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries Nanne K; Dagnelie Pieter C; Goldbohm R Alexandra; de Vries Sanne I; Stafleu Annette; Kremers Stef PJ; Gubbels Jessica S; van Buuren Stef; Thijs Carel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children's diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of energy balance-related parenting practices at age 5, as well as the associations of these practices with children's diet, activity behavior, and body mass index (BMI) development. Methods ...

  20. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL AIRBORNE PAH EXPOSURE ON VENTILATORY LUNG FUNCTION OF NON-ASTHMATIC PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN KRAKOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camman, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5–9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25–75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37ng/m3) amounted to 53 mL (p = 0.050) and the deficit of FEF25–75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m3) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25–75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m3) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71mL, p = 0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. PMID:25300014

  1. Long term effects of prenatal and postnatal airborne PAH exposures on ventilatory lung function of non-asthmatic preadolescent children. Prospective birth cohort study in Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camann, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5 and 9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25-75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37 ng/m(3)) amounted to 53 mL (p=0.050) and the deficit of FEF25-75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m(3)) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25-75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m(3)) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71 mL, p=0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure.

  2. Pregnancy outcomes among female hairdressers who participated in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar;

    2006-01-01

    the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1997 and 2003. Information on job characteristics was reported by the women in the first interview (around 17 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linkage to the national registers. Developmental milestones were reported by the mother at the fourth...... interview, when the child was approximately 19 months old. Cox regression was applied to analyze fetal loss and congenital malformation. Logistic regression was used to analyze other pregnancy outcomes and developmental milestones. RESULTS: We found no significant differences in fetal loss, multiple births...

  3. Change in HbA1c levels between the age of 8 years and the age of 12 years in Dutch children without diabetes: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Jansen

    Full Text Available HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the effects of growth on change in HbA1c and the tracking of HbA1c between the age of 8 and 12 years.Anthropometric measurements were taken and HbA1c levels were assessed in 955 children without diabetes aged around 12 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. In 363 of these children HbA1c was also measured at age 8 years. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires.We found no significant association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c at age 12 years. Mean(SD change in HbA1c between ages 8 and 12 years was 0.6(0.7 mmol/mol per year (or 0.1(0.1 %/yr. Anthropometric measures at age 8 and their change between age 8 and 12 years were not associated with the change in HbA1c. 68.9% of the children remained in the same quintile or had an HbA1c one quintile higher or lower at age 8 years compared to age 12 years.The lack of association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c suggest that HbA1c in children without diabetes is relatively unaffected by factors associated with glycaemia. HbA1c at age 8 years is by far the most important predictor of HbA1c at age 12. Therefore, the ranking of HbA1c levels appear to be fairly stable over time.

  4. Estimating the trend of the French BSE epidemic over six birth cohorts through the analysis of abattoir screening in 2001 and 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bonnardière, Claude; Calavas, Didier; Abrial, David; Morignat, Eric; Ducrot, Christian

    2004-01-01

    A bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) testing programme at the abattoir started in 2001 in France. A total of 5 281 293 bovines were tested in 2001 and 2002; 87 were found positive in 2001--37 per million (95% CI 30-46)--, whereas only 71 in 2002--24 per million (95% CI 19-30). Logistic regression models were run to compare the prevalence of BSE on successive birth cohorts, using a pair-wise method of controlling for age at testing; the prevalence on the first one, determined on animals slaughtered in 2001, was compared to the prevalence on the following one determined on animals slaughtered in 2002. Five models were performed in order to compare the birth cohorts preceding and following the months of June 1993 (i.e. July 92-June 93 birth cohort compared to July 93-June 94 birth cohort) (8.5 years old cattle), June 1994 (7.5 years old cattle), June 1995 (6.5 years old cattle), June 1996 (5.5 years old cattle) and June 1997 (4.5 years old cattle). The models were adjusted for the production type of cattle and the test used. The results showed a significant increase (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.08-4.9) of the BSE prevalence between the July 93-June 94 and July 94-June 95 cohorts, and then a significant decrease over the next two birth cohorts; the July 95-June 96 birth cohort was significantly less affected than the July 94-June 95 one (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.78), and the July 96-June 97 birth cohort was significantly less affected than the July 95-June 96 one (OR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.37). The increase in BSE prevalence between the July 93-June 94 and July 94-June 95 cohorts was in agreement with modelling studies, but needs to be confronted to the data on fallen stock at the national level. The decrease in BSE prevalence on the birth cohorts born after June 1995 was in agreement with the findings on the fallen stock in the western part of France and matches the implementation of the removal of specified risk materials (SRM) and dead animals from the processing of meat

  5. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma: European Union-funded initiatives - a MeDALL, CHICOS, ENRIECO, and GA²LEN joint paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vrijheid, Martine; Keil, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks.

  6. Does Low Participation in Cohort Studies Induce Bias?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2006-01-01

    the source population, including 15,373 participants in the cohort study. Based on independent data collection, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) in the source population and among participants for three exposure-risk associations: a) in vitro fertilization and preterm birth, b) smoking during pregnancy...... and similar cohorts of pregnant women. The methodology used to compute confidence intervals for the relative odds ratios performed well in the scenarios considered....

  7. Infant motor development predicts sports participation at age 14 years: northern Finland birth cohort of 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L Ridgway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. METHODS: Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE. Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001 and standing unaided (p = <0.001. Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p = 0.003 and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p = 0.043. These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life.

  8. Birth cohort effects on mortality in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    the mothers of the babyboomers, and the women most heavily hit by the epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases in the mid 1940s. These generations of women furthermore entered the Danish labour market in massive numbers in the 1960s. In the present study we examine the mortality of Danish women and compare...

  9. Birth cohort differences in fluid cognition in old age: comparisons of trends in levels and change trajectories over 30 years in three population-based samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Peter; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Gudmundsson, Pia; Johansson, Boo

    2015-03-01

    Later-born cohorts of older adults tend to outperform earlier born on fluid cognition (i.e., Flynn effect) when measured at the same chronological ages. We investigated cohort differences in level of performance and rate of change across three population-based samples born in 1901, 1906, and 1930, drawn from the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Gothenburg, Sweden (H70), and measured on tests of logical reasoning and spatial ability at ages 70, 75, and 79 years. Estimates from multiple-group latent growth curve models (LGCM) revealed, in line with previous studies, substantial differences in level of performance where later-born cohorts outperformed earlier born cohorts. Somewhat surprisingly, later-born cohorts showed, on average, a steeper decline than the earlier-born cohort. Gender and education only partially accounted for observed cohort trends. Men outperformed women in the 1906 and 1930 cohorts but no difference was found in the 1901 cohort. More years of education was associated with improved performance in all three cohorts. Our findings confirm the presence of birth cohort effects also in old age but indicate a faster rate of decline in later-born samples. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  10. Neonatal bleeding in haemophilia : a European cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, M.; Lissalde, G. Lavigne; Combescure, C.; Batorova, A.; Dolan, G.; Fischer, K.; Klamroth, R.; Lambert, T.; Lopez-Fernandez, M.; Perez, R.; Rocino, A.; Fijnvandraat, K.

    2012-01-01

    Birth is the first haemostatic challenge for a child with haemophilia. Our aim was to examine the association between perinatal risk factors and major neonatal bleeding in infants with haemophilia. This observational cohort study in 12 European haemophilia treatment centres (HTC) incorporated 508 ch

  11. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  12. Social integration and maternal smoking: A longitudinal analysis of a national birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9,050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with general growth mixture model (GGMM), and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5 to 6 year period beginning three months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5%), temporary quitters (9.4%), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3%), delayed initiators (5.1%), and persistent smokers (11.7%). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond six months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers’ emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, is a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  13. Metodologia do estudo da coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Metodologia de estudio de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Methodology of the Pelotas birth cohort study from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C Barros

    2008-12-01

    years. CONCLUSIONS: Birth cohort studies can be carried out successfully in developing countries, and the methods employed in this life-cycle study have allowed us to investigate the influence of early exposures in determining disease outcomes in adult life.

  14. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen

    1998-07-01

    Objective: The search for quality, cost-effective health care programs in the United States is now a major focus in the era of health care reform. New programs need to be evaluated as alternatives are developed in the health care system. The BirthPlace program provides comprehensive perinatal services with certified nurse-midwives and obstetricians working together in an integrated collaborative practice serving a primarily low-income population. Low-risk women are delivered by nurse-midwives in a freestanding birth center (The BirthPlace), which is one component of a larger integrated health network. All others are delivered by team obstetricians at the affiliated tertiary hospital. Wellness, preventive measures, early intervention, and family involvement are emphasized. The San Diego Birth Center Study is a 4-year research project funded by the U.S. Federal Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (#R01-HS07161) to evaluate this program. The National Birth Center Study (NEJM, 1989; 321(26): 1801-11) described the advantages and safety of freestanding birth centers. However, a prospective cohort study with a concurrent comparison group of comparable risk had not been conducted on a collaborative practice-freestanding birth center model to address questions of safety, cost, and patient satisfaction.Methods: The specific aims of this study are to compare this collaborative practice model to the traditional model of perinatal health care (physician providers and hospital delivery). A prospective cohort study comparing these two health care models was conducted with a final expected sample size of approximately 2,000 birth center and 1,350 traditional care subjects. Women were recruited from both the birth center and traditional care programs (private physicians offices and hospital based clinics) at the beginning of prenatal care and followed through the end of the perinatal period. Prenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and infant morbidity and mortality are being

  15. Predicting Depression with Psychopathology and Temperament Traits: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Miettunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the concurrent, predictive, and discriminate validity of psychopathology scales (e.g., schizotypal and depressive and temperament traits for hospitalisations due to major depression. Temperament, perceptual aberration, physical and social anhedonia, Depression Subscale of Symptom Checklist (SCL-D, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Schizoidia Scale, and Bipolar II Scale were completed as part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=4941; 2214 males. Several of the scales were related to depression. Concurrent depression was especially related to higher perceptual aberration (effect size when compared to controls, d=1.29, subsequent depression to high scores in SCL-D (d=0.48. Physical anhedonia was lower in subjects with subsequent depression than those with other psychiatric disorders (d=−0.33, nonsignificant. Participants with concurrent (d=0.70 and subsequent (d=0.54 depression had high harm avoidance compared to controls, while differences compared to other psychiatric patients were small. Subjects with depression differed from healthy controls in most of the scales. Many of the scales were useful predictors for future hospital treatments, but were not diagnosis-specific. High harm avoidance is a potential indicator for subsequent depression.

  16. Psychiatric disorder in early adulthood and risk of premature mortality in the 1946 British Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Richard D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of the association between psychiatric disorder and premature death have adjusted for key confounders and used structured psychiatric interviews. We aimed to investigate if psychiatric disorder was associated with a higher risk of mortality and whether any excess mortality was due to suicide, or explained by other health or socioeconomic risk factors. Methods We used data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally representative UK birth cohort. 3283 men and women completed the Present State Examination at age 36. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality before age 60. Results Those with psychiatric disorder at age 36 had a higher risk of death even after adjusting for potential confounders (Hazard ratio = 1.84, 95% C.I. 1.22-2.78. Censoring violent deaths and suicides led to similar results. Conclusions Psychiatric disorder was associated with excess premature mortality not explained by suicide or other health or socioeconomic risk factors.

  17. Impact of perinatal different intrauterine environments on child growth and development in the first six months of life - IVAPSA birth cohort: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi Juliana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. Method/Design This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life.

  18. The Autism Birth Cohort: a paradigm for gene-environment-timing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, C; Schjølberg, S; Bresnahan, M; Hornig, M; Hirtz, D; Dahl, C; Lie, K K; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Schreuder, P; Alsaker, E; Øyen, A-S; Magnus, P; Surén, P; Susser, E; Lipkin, W I

    2010-07-01

    The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased by 5- to 10-fold over the past 20 years. Whether ASDs are truly more frequent is controversial; nonetheless, the burden is profound in human and economic terms. Although autism is among the most heritable of mental disorders, its pathogenesis remains obscure. Environmental factors are proposed; however, none is implicated. Furthermore, there are no biomarkers to screen for ASD or risk of ASD. The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC) was initiated to analyze gene x environment x timing interactions and enable early diagnosis. It uses a large, unselected birth cohort in which cases are prospectively ascertained through population screening. Samples collected serially through pregnancy and childhood include parental blood, maternal urine, cord blood, milk teeth and rectal swabs. More than 107,000 children are continuously screened through questionnaires, referral, and a national registry. Cases are compared with a control group from the same cohort in a 'nested case-control' design. Early screening and diagnostic assessments and re-assessments are designed to provide a rich view of longitudinal trajectory. Genetic, proteomic, immunologic, metagenomic and microbiological tools will be used to exploit unique biological samples. The ABC is a paradigm for analyzing the role of genetic and environmental factors in complex disorders.

  19. Exposure to brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and phenols in European birth cohorts: ENRIECO evaluation, first human biomonitoring results, and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, M.; Chevrier, C.; Hond, E.D.; Fernandez, M.F.; Pierik, F.; Philippat, C.; Slama, R.; Toft, G.; Vandentorren, S.; Wilhelm, M.; Vrijheid, M.

    2013-01-01

    There are emerging concerns about potential effects on child health and development of early-life exposure to substances such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), phthalates and phenols (including bisphenol A (BPA)); pregnancy and birth cohort studies are ideally d

  20. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  1. Risk Factors of Early Otitis Media in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Niclasen, Janni;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM) in six-months-old children. METHOD: The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more...... associated with a risk of OM. When a Bonferroni correction was introduced, gender, prematurity, parity, maternal age, maternal self-estimated health, taking penicillin during pregnancy, and terminating breastfeeding before age six months, was associated with a risk of early OM. The adjusted ORs of OM...... less than 6 months, had an increased OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.28-1.58) compared to children being breastfeed beyond 6 months. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that prenatal factors are of less importance regarding early OM before the age of six months. Postnatal risk factors seem to pose the main risk...

  2. Cohort birth order, parity progression ratio and parity distribution trends in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Sardon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major changes in childbearing patterns are continuously taking place in the majority of low-fertility populations with postponement being virtually universal. Almost everywhere the two-child family became dominant. Proportions of childless women and one-child families were increasing recently. Changes in childbearing patterns in Central and Eastern Europe have been profound justifying the label of an historic transformation. Young women are bearing considerably fewer children compared to older cohorts. Especially proportions of women having second births in most CEE countries were declining rapidly and these were lower than in western countries. Postponement of childbearing might be nearing cessation in some western countries.

  3. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National BirthCohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP>12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTPwith TTP>12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  4. Cognitive and kidney function: results from a British birth cohort reaching retirement age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Silverwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. METHODS: Cognitive function at age 60-64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment, prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity. RESULTS: Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306-1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure. Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required.

  5. Prevalência e fatores associados à prática de esportes individuais e coletivos em adolescentes pertencentes a uma coorte de nascimentos Individual and collective sports practice and associated factors among adolescents belonging to a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suele Manjourany Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a prática de esportes individuais e coletivos e fatores associados em jovens com idade média de 11 anos, pertencentes a uma coorte de nascimentos. Informações dos jovens e de suas mães foram coletadas por meio de questionários. O desfecho foi dividido em prática de esportes individuais e coletivos. Uma análise por meio de regressão de Poisson foi conduzida para estabelecer os fatores associados à prática esportiva, obedecendo a um modelo conceitual de análise com as variáveis independentes hierarquizadas. Um total de 4350 jovens foi estudado. A prática de esportes coletivos foi menor nas meninas - 68,1% (IC95% 66,2 - 70,0 em comparação aos meninos - 82,1% (IC95% 80,5 - 83,7. Nos esportes individuais, a prevalência foi de 12,9% (IC95% 11,6 - 14,4 e 18,9% (IC95% 17,3 - 20,6 em meninas e meninos, respectivamente. Entre as meninas, a prática de esportes individuais relacionou-se diretamente com nível econômico e inversamente com assistir televisão. Nos meninos este desfecho associou-se com estudar em escolas privadas e ter mães fisicamente ativas. Em esportes coletivos, a prática foi menor naqueles que despendem maior tempo assistindo TV. Em ambos os sexos houve uma relação direta entre o uso regular do vídeo-game e a prática de esportes. Políticas públicas devem considerar os diferentes aspectos relacionados à prática esportiva e atender a disparidades socioeconômicas no acesso a diferentes modalidades esportivas. Além disso, o maior acesso a diferentes locais de práticas esportivas, bem como o incentivos de pais, amigos e ambiente escolar devem ser fortalecidos.The present study investigated individual and collective sports practice and associated factors among adolescents with a mean age of 11 years, belonging to a birth cohort study. Information on the adolescents and on their mothers were obtained through questionnaires. The outcome variable was divided into practice of individual

  6. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life...... was obtained from 99.7% of the children in the cohort. Of 5,898 eligible children, 3,501 participated in the SDQ assessment (59%). The overall estimated 6-month prevalence of mental health problems was 4.8% (95% CI 4.1-5.6). Conduct problems were found in 3.0% (95% CI 2.4-3.6), problems of hyperactivity...

  7. Increased traffic exposure and negative birth outcomes: a prospective cohort in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lee-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women exposed to traffic pollution have an increased risk of negative birth outcomes. We aimed to investigate the size of this risk using a prospective cohort of 970 mothers and newborns in Logan, Queensland. Methods We examined two measures of traffic: distance to nearest road and number of roads around the home. To examine the effect of distance we used the number of roads around the home in radii from 50 to 500 metres. We examined three road types: freeways, highways and main roads. Results There were no associations with distance to road. A greater number of freeways and main roads around the home were associated with a shorter gestation time. There were no negative impacts on birth weight, birth length or head circumference after adjusting for gestation. The negative effects on gestation were largely due to main roads within 400 metres of the home. For every 10 extra main roads within 400 metres of the home, gestation time was reduced by 1.1% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.5; p-value = 0.001. Conclusions Our results add weight to the association between exposure to traffic and reduced gestation time. This effect may be due to the chemical toxins in traffic pollutants, or because of disturbed sleep due to traffic noise.

  8. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units.

  9. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study Efeitos da amamentação e dos hábitos de sucção sobre as oclusopatias num estudo de coorte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Glazer Peres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits was collected at birth, in the first, third, sixth and 12th months of life, and at six years of age. Control variables included maternal schooling and child's birthweight, cephalic perimeter, and sex. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Prevalence of anterior open bite was 46.2%, and that of posterior cross bite was 18.2%. Non-nutritive sucking habits between 12 months and four years of age and digital sucking at age six years were the main risk factors for anterior open bite. Breastfeeding for less than nine months and regular use of pacifier between age 12 months and four years were risk factors for posterior cross bite. Interaction between duration of breastfeeding and the use of pacifier was identified for posterior cross bite. CONCLUSIONS: Given that breastfeeding is a protective factor for other diseases of infancy, our findings indicate that the common risks approach is the most appropriate for the prevention of posterior cross bite in primary or initial mixed dentition.OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência de oclusopatias e o efeito da amamentação e dos hábitos de sucção não nutritivos aos seis anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal aninhado numa coorte de nascidos vivos em Pelotas, RS, em 1999. Crianças com seis anos de idade (n=359 foram examinadas e suas mães entrevistadas. Utilizaram-se os critérios de Foster & Hamilton para a definição dos desfechos mordida

  10. Risk of placenta previa in second birth after first birth cesarean section: a population-based study and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurol-Urganci Ipek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective: To compare the risk of placenta previa at second birth among women who had a cesarean section (CS at first birth with women who delivered vaginally. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 399,674 women who gave birth to a singleton first and second baby between April 2000 and February 2009 in England. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust the estimates for maternal age, ethnicity, deprivation, placenta previa at first birth, inter-birth interval and pregnancy complications. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of the reported results in peer-reviewed articles since 1980. Results The rate of placenta previa at second birth for women with vaginal first births was 4.4 per 1000 births, compared to 8.7 per 1000 births for women with CS at first birth. After adjustment, CS at first birth remained associated with an increased risk of placenta previa (odds ratio = 1.60; 95% CI 1.44 to 1.76. In the meta-analysis of 37 previously published studies from 21 countries, the overall pooled random effects odds ratio was 2.20 (95% CI 1.96-2.46. Our results from the current study is consistent with those of the meta-analysis as the pooled odds ratio for the six population-based cohort studies that analyzed second births only was 1.51 (95% CI 1.39-1.65. Conclusions There is an increased risk of placenta previa in the subsequent pregnancy after CS delivery at first birth, but the risk is lower than previously estimated. Given the placenta previa rate in England and the adjusted effect of previous CS, 359 deliveries by CS at first birth would result in one additional case of placenta previa in the next pregnancy.

  11. Patterns of deliveries in a Brazilian birth cohort: almost universal cesarean sections for the better-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio J D Barros

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the patterns of deliveries in a birth cohort and to compare vaginal and cesarean section deliveries. METHODS: All children born to mothers from the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. Mothers were contacted and interviewed during their hospital stay when extensive information on the gestation, the birth and the newborn, along with maternal health history and family characteristics was collected. Maternal characteristics and childbirth care financing - either private or public healthcare (SUS patients - were the main factors investigated along with a description of C-sections distribution according to day of the week and delivery time. Standard descriptive techniques, Χ² tests for comparing proportions and Poisson regression to explore the independent effect of C-section predictors were the methods used. RESULTS: The overall C-section rate was 45%, 36% among SUS and 81% among private patients, where 35% of C-sections were reported elective. C-sections were more frequent on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, reducing by about a third on Sundays, while normal deliveries had a uniform distribution along the week. Delivery time for C-sections was markedly different among public and private patients. Maternal schooling was positively associated with C-section among SUS patients, but not among private patients. CONCLUSIONS: C-sections were almost universal among the wealthier mothers, and strongly related to maternal education among SUS patients. The patterns we describe are compatible with the idea that C-sections are largely done to suit the doctor's schedule. Drastic action is called for to change the current situation.

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Genes Are Associated with Measures of Cognitive Ageing in the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936

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    Gillian Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease patients have deficits in specific cognitive domains, and susceptibility genes for this disease may influence human cognition in nondemented individuals. To evaluate the role of Alzheimer's disease-linked genetic variation on cognition and normal cognitive ageing, we investigated two Scottish cohorts for which assessments in major cognitive domains are available: the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921 and the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936, consisting of 505 and 998 individuals, respectively. 158 SNPs from eleven genes were evaluated. Single SNP analyses did not reveal any statistical association after correction for multiple testing. One haplotype from TRAPPC6A was associated with nonverbal reasoning in both cohorts and combined data sets. This haplotype explains a small proportion of the phenotypic variability (1.8%. These findings warrant further investigation as biological modifiers of cognitive ageing.

  13. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  14. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  15. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne K Küpers

    Full Text Available To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors.In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains.Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%.Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

  16. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...... in 1997-2003. Altogether 6250 female teachers formed the reference group. A discrete-time survival analysis with a complementary log-log link was applied to estimate the fecundability ratio between the exposed and unexposed women, with adjustment for maternal age, gravidity, smoking, prepregnancy body...... mass index, and paternal job. RESULTS: No difference in time to pregnancy was found between the laboratory technicians and teachers or between the laboratory technicians with different exposures. The adjusted fecundability ratio for the laboratory technicians was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI...

  17. Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Madsen, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    . About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate......Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88 200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression...... more likely to increase their activity level substantially from early to late pregnancy than comparison groups. In conclusion, exercising during pregnancy correlated with a number of maternal characteristics. The findings may be used to identify pregnant women not likely to exercise, to target...

  18. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  19. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L.; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p-value for interaction=0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25-3.75 kg......Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. We investigated the association between birth weight and adult PLC......, and after accounting for diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders, viral hepatitis, and biliary cirrhosis. Prenatal exposures influence the risk of adult PLC, and the effects at the high birth weight levels appear to be sex-specific. Our findings underscore the importance of considering sex...

  20. Family pet ownership during childhood: findings from a UK birth cohort and implications for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Coyne, Karen P; German, Alexander J; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-10-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  1. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Heron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  2. 高出生体重对儿童期血压影响的队列研究%The influence of high birth weight on the blood pressure during childhood—a cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉艳; 武俊青; 余金明; 戎芬; 任静朝; 高尔生; 李春英; 华芹; 卢斐杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高出生体重对儿童期血压的影响.方法 对无锡市1993-1995年建立的高出生体重(暴露组)队列于2005-2007年进行随访,每个暴露对象按“出生日期±2个月”、“性别”匹配一个非暴露(正常体重儿).共随访到1435对研究对象,对其进行问卷调查,测量身高、体重、血压.结果 高出生体重组的收缩压中位数为100mmHg(Q1~Q3∶90~ 110mmHg),舒张压为64 mm Hg(Q1~ Q3∶60~ 70mmHg);正常体重儿组的收缩压为100 mm Hg(Q1 ~Q3∶90~108mmHg),舒张压为62 mm Hg(Q1~ Q3∶60~ 70 mm Hg),两组相比差异均无统计学意义.暴露组“血压升高”(高血压前期和高血压)的比例为13.66%;非暴露组为11.57% (P=0.055).调整儿童期体重指数、性别、儿童随访时年龄、母亲生育年龄、孕龄、婴儿喂养方式、儿童期是否有挑食习惯、儿童期运动时间的多因素二项式回归模型显示,高出生体重导致血压升高的RR值为1.06(0.92 ~ 1.21),未达到统计学显著水平.结论 未发现高出生体重与儿童期血压有显著关联.%Objective To explore the effects of high birth weight (HBW) on blood pressure (BP) during childhood.Methods A total of 1435 couples with high or normal birth weight were selected from a birth cohort who were born between 1993 and 1995 in Wuxi,China and,followed between 2005 and 2007.A questionnaire survey was conducted,with their height,weight and blood pressure measured.Results The medians of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP)of HBW group were 100 mm Hg (Q1-Q3∶90-110 mm Hg),64 mm Hg (Q1-Q3∶60-70 mm Hg) in the high birth weight group,respectively,while they were 100 mm Hg (Q1-Q3∶90-108 mm Hg),62 mm Hg (Q1-Q3∶60-70 mm Hg) in the normal weight group.No statistical significant difference was found between the exposed and unexposed groups.The proportion of elevated BP,including prehypertension and hypertension,in exposed group was 13.66%,a bit higher

  3. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones.

  4. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  5. Economic evaluation of vaccination programme of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to the birth cohort in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2012-05-09

    Aiming to introduce 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PVC-7) into routine vaccination schedule, the government of Japan gives a temporary budget to encourage municipalities in launching public vaccination programme which started on November 26, 2010 and ends on March 31, 2012. This study aims to appraise the 'value for money' of PCV-7 vaccination programme from the societal perspective and the budget impact from the perspective of municipalities, which is responsible for providing routine vaccination. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov modelling and calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) value of launching such programme with two levels of co-payment, ¥1000 (US$13) or ¥0, and two scenarios of the uptake of vaccine (vaccinated-alone or co-vaccinated with other vaccines). We found that when vaccinated-alone, ICERs in QALY were ¥7,441,000 (US$93,013) or ¥9,065,000 (US$113,313), and when co-vaccinated ¥7,441,000 (US$93,013) or ¥5,489,000 (US$68,613), without or with productivity loss, respectively, regardless of co-payment level of the programme. Co-vaccinated programmes had lower ICER than vaccinated-alone programmes due to the savings in productivity loss. By adopting WHO's classification that an intervention is 'cost-effective' if ICER (in QALY) is between 1 and 3 times of GDP as a criterion, PCV-7 vaccination programme in Japan is concluded as "cost-effective" from the perspective of society. The introduction of either no co-payment or ¥1000 (US$13) co-payment vaccination programme appears to be not budget saving for the first 6 years, whereas the level of budget impact are less than ¥11,000,000 (US$137,500) or ¥8,500,000 (US$106,250), respectively, for a municipality with 1000 birth cohort in the 1st year and 2nd to 5th year birth cohort proportional to the birth cohort population of estimated future population.

  6. Size at birth and blood pressure in young adults: findings from a Brazilian birth cohort study Tamaño al nacer y presión arterial en adultos jóvenes: resultados de una cohorte de nacimientos brasileña Tamanho ao nascer e pressão arterial em adultos jovens: achados de uma coorte de nascimentos brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cunha Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de presión arterial limítrofe (PAL e hipertensión (HT entre adultos jóvenes y evaluar la asociación entre tamaño al nacer y PAL/HT. MÉTODOS: : Los datos fueron colectados en el primer estudio de cohorte de nacimientos brasileño en Ribeirao Preto (sureste de Brasil, iniciado en 1978/79. De 6.827 recién nacidos de parto único hospitalario, 2.060 fueron evaluados a los 23/25 años. Se realizaron colecta de sangre, evaluación antropométrica y obtenidas informaciones sobre ocupación, escolaridad, hábitos de vida y enfermedades crónicas. Presión arterial (PA fue clasificada en: 1 PAL: PA sistólica (PAS ≥ 130 y OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de pressão arterial limítrofe (PAL e hipertensão (HT entre adultos jovens e avaliar a associação entre tamanho ao nascer e PAL/HT. MÉTODOS: Dados foram coletados do primeiro estudo brasileiro de coorte de nascimentos em Ribeirão Preto (sudeste do Brasil, iniciado em 1978/79. De 6.827 recém-nascidos de parto único hospitalar, 2.060 foram avaliados aos 23/25 anos. Foram realizadas coleta de sangue, avaliação antropométrica e obtidas informações sobre ocupação, escolaridade, hábitos de vida e doenças crônicas. Pressão arterial (PA foi classificada em: 1 PAL: PA sistólica (PAS ≥ 130 e < 140 mm Hg e/ou PA diastólica (PAD ≥ 85 e < 90 mmHg; 2 HT: PAS ≥ 140 e/ou PAD ≥ 90 mm Hg. Foi aplicado modelo de regressão logística politômica. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de PAL foi de 13,5% (homens 23,2% e a de HT, 9,5% (homens 17,7%. PAL foi independentemente associada com sexo masculino (RR 8,84; IC95%: 6,09;12,82, comprimento ao nascer ≥ 50 cm (RR 1,97; 1,04; 3,73, índice de massa corporal (IMC ≥ 30 kg/m² (RR 3,23; 2,02; 5,15 e circunferência de cintura alterada (RR 1,61; 1,13;2,29, enquanto HT associou-se com sexo masculino (RR 15,18; 8,92;25,81, IMC ≥ 30 kg/m² (RR 3,68; 2,23;6,06, circunferência de cintura alterada (RR 2,68; 1

  7. Inverse birth cohort effects in ovarian cancer : Increasing risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and decreasing risk in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janet R.; Mourits, Marian J.; Teixeira, Natalia; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. BRCA1/2 carriers are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, and some reports suggest an increasing risk in more recent birth cohorts. In contrast, decreasing incidences have been observed in the general population. The aim was to assess the birth cohort effect on ovarian cancer risk in BRCA

  8. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvente, I. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Fernández, M.F. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Pérez-Lobato, R.; Dávila-Arias, C.; Ocón, O.; Ramos, R. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Ríos-Arrabal, S. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Villalba-Moreno, J. [CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-04-15

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100 kHz–6 GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (E{sub RMS}) and power density (S{sub RMS}) values were, respectively, 195.79 mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01 µW/m{sup 2} (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80 mV/m and 285.94 µW/m{sup 2}, respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01 V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. - Highlights: • Spot measurements were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. • Mean root mean-square electric field and power density values were calculated. • Most recorded values were far below international standard guideline limits. • Data demonstrate spatial variability in the distribution of exposure levels. • While adverse effects are proven, application of the precautionary principle may

  9. Cohort Profile Update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per; Birke, Charlotte; Vejrup, Kristine; Haugan, Anita; Alsaker, Elin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Handal, Marte; Haugen, Margaretha; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Paltiel, Liv; Schreuder, Patricia; Tambs, Kristian; Vold, Line; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2016-04-01

    This is an update of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) cohort profile which was published in 2006. Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination were initially invited. The first child was born in October 1999 and the last in July 2009. The participation rate was 41%. The cohort includes more than 114 000 children, 95 000 mothers and 75 000 fathers. About 1900 pairs of twins have been born. There are approximately 16 400 women who participate with more than one pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from mothers and children (umbilical cord) after birth. Samples of DNA, RNA, whole blood, plasma and urine are stored in a biobank. During pregnancy, the mother responded to three questionnaires and the father to one. After birth, questionnaires were sent out when the child was 6 months, 18 months and 3 years old. Several sub-projects have selected participants for in-depth clinical assessment and exposure measures. The purpose of this update is to explain and describe new additions to the data collection, including questionnaires at 5, 7, 8 and 13 years as well as linkages to health registries, and to point to some findings and new areas of research. Further information can be found at [www.fhi.no/moba-en]. Researchers interested in collaboration and access to the data can complete an electronic application available on the MoBa website above.

  10. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.08-1.49, poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60, more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83, more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73, and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41. The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio

  11. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in 10 European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, E.S.; Zeitlin, J.; Fenton, A.C.; Weber, T.; Gerrits, J.; Martens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Breart, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS:

  12. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A H; Shapira, S K; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; LIN, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation and birth defects in a case–control study of cases comprising over 60 different types of birth defects (n=9998) and non-malformed controls (n=4066) with dates of delivery between 1997 and 2004. Me...

  13. Examining the „developmental origins of diseases“ hypothesis by using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    of diseases“ hypothesis. Using data from the DNBC, we conducted research on the possible effects of infertility treatment as well as the underlying infertility problems in parents on the development and health of children. In this paper, we presented as an example our study about the effects of parental......Recent findings suggest that many adult diseases may originate in utero and early childhood. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) has collected data on many exposures during pregnancy and childhood, which enables researchers to examine many possible links related to the „developmental origins...... infertility and treatment on the risk of developmental coordination disorder in children, a common disease in school-age children. With continuing follow up of children born in the DNBC, we expect more research in this area in the future....

  14. Maternal Characteristics of a Cohort of Preterm Infants with a Birth Weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, Marieke J.; de Vries, Linda S.; Bruinse, Hein W.

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to describe the obstetric complications of women who delivered an extremely low-birth-weight infant by comparing two consecutive 5-year periods and infants appropriate for gestational age (AGA) versus infants small for gestational age (SGA). This descriptive study included women

  15. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Ängquist, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal prepregnancy adiposity may influence child adiposity beyond the transmitted genetic effects, which, if true, may accelerate the obesity epidemic, but the evidence for this mechanism is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether the associations of maternal body mass...... index (BMI) with child anthropometric measurements from birth through infancy and at 7 y of age exceed those of paternal associations. DESIGN: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, information on parental and child anthropometric measures is available for 30,655 trio families from maternal interviews...... during pregnancy and the postpartum period and from a 7-y follow-up. By using multiple linear and logistic regression models of child SD (z) scores of weight and BMI at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 7 y of age, and of child overweight at age 7 y, we compared associations with maternal prepregnancy...

  16. Cohort profile: the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise

    2014-12-01

    The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk.

  17. Women's perceptions of caesarean birth: a Roy international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aber, Cynthia; Haussler, Susan; Weiss, Marianne; Myers, Sheila Taylor; Hall, Jaye L; Waters, V Lynn; King, Charlette; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu; Rantanen, Anja; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Newton, Jennifer; Silva, Virginia

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this Roy adaptation model-based multi-site international mixed method study was to examine the relations of type of caesarean birth (unplanned/planned), number of caesarean births (primary/repeat), and preparation for caesarean birth to women's perceptions of and responses to caesarean birth. The sample included 488 women from the United States (n = 253), Finland (n = 213), and Australia (n = 22). Path analysis revealed direct effects for type of and preparation for caesarean birth on responses to caesarean birth, and an indirect effect for preparation on responses to caesarean birth through perception of birth the experience.

  18. Associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a population-based birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbison G Peter

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have reported an association between asthma and gastro-oesophageal reflux, but it is unclear which condition develops first. The role of obesity in mediating this association is also unclear. We explored the associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function, and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a birth cohort of approximately 1000 individuals. Methods Information on respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, lung function and airway responsiveness was obtained at multiple assessments from childhood to adulthood in an unselected birth cohort of 1037 individuals followed to age 26. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux and irritable bowel syndrome were recorded at age 26. Results Heartburn and acid regurgitation symptoms that were at least "moderately bothersome" at age 26 were significantly associated with asthma (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.6–6.4, wheeze (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.7–7.2, and nocturnal cough (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 2.1–8.7 independently of body mass index. In women reflux symptoms were also associated with airflow obstruction and a bronchodilator response to salbutamol. Persistent wheezing since childhood, persistence of asthma since teenage years, and airway hyperresponsiveness since age 11 were associated with a significantly increased risk of heartburn and acid regurgitation at age 26. There was no association between irritable bowel syndrome and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Reflux symptoms are associated with respiratory symptoms in young adults independently of body mass index. The mechanism of these associations remains unclear.

  19. Associations of Pet Ownership with Wheezing and Lung Function in Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Collin

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and differential effects of pet ownership on non-atopic versus atopic asthma have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pet ownership during pregnancy and early childhood was associated with wheezing from birth to age 7 years and with lung function at age 8 years in a UK population-based birth cohort.Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC were used to investigate associations of pet ownership at six time-points from pregnancy to age 7 years with concurrent episodes of wheezing, wheezing trajectories (phenotypes and lung function at age 8 years using logistic regression models adjusted for child's sex, maternal history of asthma/atopy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and family adversity.4,706 children had complete data on pet ownership and wheezing. From birth to age 7 years, cat ownership was associated with an overall 6% lower odds of wheezing (OR=0.94 (0.89-0.99. Rabbit and rodent ownership was associated with 21% (OR=1.21 (1.12-1.31 and 11% (OR=1.11 (1.02-1.21 higher odds of wheezing, respectively, with strongest effects evident during infancy. Rabbit and rodent ownership was positively associated with a 'persistent wheeze' phenotype. Pet ownership was not associated with lung function at age 8 years, with the exception of positive associations of rodent and bird ownership with better lung function.Cat ownership was associated with reduced risk, and rabbit and rodent ownership with increased risk, of wheezing during childhood. The mechanisms behind these differential effects warrant further investigation.

  20. The role of dairy products and milk in adolescent obesity: evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Lin Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies, mainly from Western populations, suggest dairy consumption is inversely associated with adiposity. However, in these populations the intake range is limited and both diet and obesity may share social patterning. Evidence from non-Western developed settings with different social patterning, is valuable in distinguishing whether observed associations are biologically mediated or socially confounded. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of milk or other dairy product consumption with adolescent obesity. METHODS: We used multivariable linear regression models to examine the associations of milk or other dairy product consumption, obtained from a food frequency questionnaire, at 11 years with body mass index (BMI z-scores at 13 years and waist hip ratio (WHR at 11 years, in 5,968 adolescents from a Chinese birth cohort, comprising 88% of births in April and May 1997. We used multiple imputation for missing exposures and confounders. RESULTS: Only 65.7% regularly consumed milk and 72.4% other dairy products. Milk and other dairy product consumption was positively associated with socio-economic position but not with BMI z-score or WHR, with or without adjustment for sex, mother's birthplace, parental education, physical activity and other food consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of association of milk and other dairy product consumption with adiposity in a non-Western setting was not consistent with the majority of evidence from Western settings. Observed anti-obesigenic effects in Western settings may be due to socially patterned confounding.

  1. Relative validity of fruit and vegetable intake estimated by the food frequency questionnaire used in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Tina B.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Rasmussen, Salka E.

    2007-01-01

    study with 88 participants was made. A seven-day weighed food diary (FD) and three different biomarkers were employed as comparison methods. Results: Significant correlations between FFQ and FD-based estimates were found for fruit (r=0.66); vegetables (r=0.32); juice (r=0.52); fruit and vegetables (F......&V) (r=0.57); and fruit, vegetables, and juice (F&V&J) (r=0.62). Sensitivities of correct classification by FFQ into the two lowest and the two highest quintiles of F&V&J intake were 58-67% and 50-74%, respectively, and specificities were 71-79% and 65-83%, respectively. F&V&J intake estimated from......Objective: To validate the fruit and vegetable intake estimated from the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) used in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Subjects and setting: The DNBC is a cohort of 101,042 pregnant women in Denmark, who received a FFQ by mail in gestation week 25. A validation...

  2. Interplay between heritability of smoking and environmental conditions? A comparison of two birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vink Jacqueline M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attitudes and policy towards smoking changed over the past years in many countries including the Netherlands. Generally, this led to a decrease in smoking prevalence. As demonstrated in twin and family studies, individual differences in smoking behavior are partly influenced by genetic factors. We explore whether the current change in environmental conditions has influenced the genetic architecture of smoking. This would constitute evidence for Gene × Environment (G×E interaction. Methods Data on smoking were available from 2 cohorts of young adult twins (18-25 year registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. The first cohort completed a survey in 1993-1995 (n = 2669 and the second in 2009-2010 (n = 2339. Prevalence and genetic architecture of smoking were compared across cohorts using structural equation models in MX. Results Smoking prevalence decreased from 40-51% to 22-23% between 1993-1995 and 2009-2010. Genetic analyses, making use of the different genetic resemblance in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, showed that the heritability was the same in both cohorts. Conclusions The change in policy and smoking attitudes that led to a decrease in prevalence of smoking did not change the heritability of smoking and thus no evidence was found for GxE interaction.

  3. Data collected on maternal dietary exposures in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjúrdur Fródi; Mikkelsen, Tina Broby; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard;

    2007-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the diet consumed in, or shortly before, pregnancy can potentially lead to maldevelopment and diseases in the offspring, which may become apparent at any time from the embryonic stage until old age. For example, maternal diet may affect the chance of twinning (and as...... details the information available in the database on early nutritional exposures with emphasis on maternal dietary intake. We also present distributions of selected nutritional exposures. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan......Recent research suggests that the diet consumed in, or shortly before, pregnancy can potentially lead to maldevelopment and diseases in the offspring, which may become apparent at any time from the embryonic stage until old age. For example, maternal diet may affect the chance of twinning (and....... At present, the Danish National Birth Cohort is likely to be the largest epidemiological database containing extensive information on maternal dietary exposures. By October 2002, 100 000 women had been recruited in early pregnancy, for long-term follow-up of themselves and their offspring. The present paper...

  4. Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, M; Madsen, M; Andersen, A-M N; Andersen, P K; Olsen, J

    2012-02-01

    Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88,200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression. About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate alcohol consumption, and a healthy diet. Multiparity, a normal or less good self-rated health, smoking, and a less health conscious diet were the strongest predictors of not doing exercise. Women of 25 years or older, with metabolic or psychiatric disorders, or who had received subfecundity treatment were more likely to increase their activity level substantially from early to late pregnancy than comparison groups. In conclusion, exercising during pregnancy correlated with a number of maternal characteristics. The findings may be used to identify pregnant women not likely to exercise, to target activities that may fit their needs, and, for research purposes, to identify adjustment variables or guide sensitivity analyses when data on confounders are lacking.

  5. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals.

  6. Early childhood infections and immunisation and the development of allergic disease in particular asthma in a high-risk cohort: A prospective study of allergy-prone children from birth to six years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jennifer A; Widjaja, Constance; Darmaputra, Abbi A P; Lowe, Adrian; Matheson, Melanie C; Bennett, Catherine M; Allen, Katrina; Abramson, Michael J; Hosking, Cliff; Hill, David; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2010-11-01

    The role of early childhood infections and immunisation in the development of allergic diseases remains controversial. To examine these associations, six hundred and twenty infants with first-degree relatives with allergic diseases were recruited into the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. Information on risk factors and outcomes was collected by interviewer administered questionnaire and was based on parental report and/or a physician's diagnosis. Risk factors examined included early childhood infections (including gastroenteritis, otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections) and immunisations in the first 2 yr of life. Outcomes were current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema at 6 yr of age. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were used to estimate relative risk (RR) and assess confounding. By 6 yr, 79% of the original cohort remained in the study. Those with at least three episodes of gastroenteritis showed an increased risk (crude RR 2.36, 95%CI 1.41 3.95; adjusted RR 2.03 95%CI 1.50 2.75) for the later development of asthma at age 6. Of the scheduled immunisations, Sabin immunisation in the second year had a reduced risk of asthma at 6 yr (crude RR 0.60, 95%CI 0.37 0.98; adjusted RR 0.63 95%CI 0.39 1.02). Combined diphtheria and tetanus (CDT) immunisation in the first year had an increased risk of asthma at 6 yr (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.11 2.78; adjusted RR 1.88 95%CI 1.28 2.77). Recurrent gastroenteritis in early childhood is associated with a later risk of asthma. This may reflect a cause and effect relationship, or exposure to common risk factors. In contrast, Sabin immunisation in the second year is associated with a decreased risk of asthma in later childhood. CDT immunisation in the first year may be a risk factor for asthma, but the need for CDT immunisation may also be a marker of increased risk of asthma in later childhood.

  7. Changes in birth-cohort pattern of peptic ulcer mortality in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Katschinski, B. D.; Logan, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have described the secular trends in peptic ulcer mortality in England and Wales as being characteristic of a cohort phenomenon. The most recent data on ulcer mortality, however, show increasing mortality rates from duodenal ulcer in women over 65 and from gastric ulcer in women over 75 years. While the rise in mortality rates in the oldest age groups is partly explained by their greater life expectancy, the increase in mortality from duodenal ulcer in older w...

  8. Investigating the effects of child maltreatment and household dysfunction on child physical development in a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...

  9. A Retrospective Perinatal Data Analysis of Immigrant and German Women from Representative Birth Cohorts at the Virchow Hospital, Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, R.; von Rennenberg, R.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to define and characterise differences in the level of obstetric care provided to immigrant and German women. Materials and Methods: An analysis of the Virchow Hospitalʼs birth registers was conducted for the years 1974, 1984 and 1994. The study population of 5445 patients was grouped according to ancestry/family origin on the basis of a name analysis, and subsequently also according to parity (primiparous or multiparous). On name analysis 2741 women were defined as German, 1598 were grouped as women of Turkish origin and 810 as immigrants of other origin. χ2 tests and Fisherʼs exact test were used for significance testing (significance level p episiotomy, higher grade perineal tears and severe postpartum haemorrhage did not differ between the groups. There were however significant differences in the use of uterine stimulants, analgesics in labour and both local and regional anaesthesia, with women of Turkish origin and other immigrants receiving anaesthesia less, but oxytocin more often. Rooming-in was more common among German primipara and multipara from 1984 onwards. Discussion: This retrospective analysis of three historical birth cohorts showed significant differences in perinatal care between German and immigrant women, presumably reflecting deficits in care. It seems remarkable that this trend has not changed over a time span of three decades despite a continuous increase in immigration and acculturation. A “research paradox”, however, remains: Despite these increasing rates, there are no current or older, prospective or systematic studies of obstetric care in immigrants. PMID:27904165

  10. Genetic determinants of height growth assessed longitudinally from infancy to adulthood in the northern Finland birth cohort 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sovio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified dozens of common variants associated with adult height. However, it is unknown how these variants influence height growth during childhood. We derived peak height velocity in infancy (PHV1 and puberty (PHV2 and timing of pubertal height growth spurt from parametric growth curves fitted to longitudinal height growth data to test their association with known height variants. The study consisted of N = 3,538 singletons from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with genotype data and frequent height measurements (on average 20 measurements per person from 0-20 years. Twenty-six of the 48 variants tested associated with adult height (p<0.05, adjusted for sex and principal components in this sample, all in the same direction as in previous GWA scans. Seven SNPs in or near the genes HHIP, DLEU7, UQCC, SF3B4/SV2A, LCORL, and HIST1H1D associated with PHV1 and five SNPs in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, and DOT1L with PHV2 (p<0.05. We formally tested variants for interaction with age (infancy versus puberty and found biologically meaningful evidence for an age-dependent effect for the SNP in SOCS2 (p = 0.0030 and for the SNP in HHIP (p = 0.045. We did not have similar prior evidence for the association between height variants and timing of pubertal height growth spurt as we had for PHVs, and none of the associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The fact that in this sample, less than half of the variants associated with adult height had a measurable effect on PHV1 or PHV2 is likely to reflect limited power to detect these associations in this dataset. Our study is the first genetic association analysis on longitudinal height growth in a prospective cohort from birth to adulthood and gives grounding for future research on the genetic regulation of human height during different periods of growth.

  11. Incidence of otitis media in a contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Todberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In recent years welfare in Denmark has increased which might be expected to reduce otitis media (OM incidence. We examined the age-specific incidence of OM in a nation-wide cohort of children aged 0-7 years born in 1996-2003 (Danish National Birth Cohort, DNBC. Only selection was ability to understand and speak Danish. METHODS: Information of OM and ventilation tubes (VT was collected through three maternal interviews at 6-month, 18-month and 7-years of age and based on this age-specific and cumulative incidence of OM was calculated. As different numbers of the total population answered the different interviews, the calculations are done with different denominators. The information in DNBC was validated against two population based registries containing information of VT insertions. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of OM at 7 years was 60.6% (31,982/52,755. For children with OM, 16.2% (7143/44194 had their first OM episodes between 0-6 months of age, 44.3% (19579/44194 between 7-18 months, and 39.5% (17472/44194 between 19 months and 7 years. Four or more OM episodes before 7 years were reported by 39.5% (12620/31982 and by 64.0% (2482/3881 of those who had their OM debut between 0-6 months; by 48.2% (4998/10378 with debut between 7-18 months; and by 28.7% (4996/17344 with debut between 19 months and 7 years. These figures are essentially unchanged from earlier figures from Denmark. VT insertion at least once was reported by 26,1% in the 7-year interview. Assuming recordings in the Danish National Patient Registry to be gold standard, maternal self-reportings in DNBC of insertion of VT showed high sensitivity (96.4%, specificity (98.2%, and positive (94.8% and negative predictive values (98.8%. CONCLUSION: OM affects nearly 2/3 of preschool children in Denmark despite reduction in known OM risk factors.

  12. Use of Medicines with Unknown Fetal Risk among Parturient Women from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To estimate the exposure to medicines with unknown fetal risk during pregnancy and to analyze the maternal characteristics associated with it. Methods. A questionnaire was administered to 4,189 mothers of children belonging to the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study about use of any medicine during gestation. We evaluated the associations between use of medicines with unknown fetal risk and the independent variables through logistic regression models. Unknown fetal risk was defined as medicines in which studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the fetus, and no controlled studies in women, or studies in women and animals, are available. Results. Out of the 4,189 women, 52.5% used at least one medicine from unknown fetal risk. Use of these medicines was associated with white skin color, high schooling, high income, six or more antenatal care consultations, hospital admission during pregnancy, and morbidity during gestation. Conclusion. The use of unknown fetal risk medicines is high, suggesting that their use must be addressed with caution with the aim of restricting their use to cases in which the benefits are greater than the potential risks.

  13. The development of the MeDALL Core Questionnaires for a harmonized follow-up assessment of eleven European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohmann, Cynthia; Pinart, Mariona; Tischer, Christina

    2014-01-01

    -translation of the harmonized English MeDALL-CQ into 8 other languages and (iv) implementation of the harmonized follow-up. RESULTS: Three harmonized MeDALL-CQs (2 for parents of children aged 4-9 and 14-18, 1 for adolescents aged 14-18) were developed and used for a harmonized follow-up assessment of 11 European birth cohorts......BACKGROUND: Numerous birth cohorts have been initiated in the world over the past 30 years using heterogeneous methods to assess the incidence, course and risk factors of asthma and allergies. The aim of the present work is to provide the stepwise proceedings of the development and current version...... of the harmonized MeDALL-Core Questionnaire (MeDALL-CQ) used prospectively in 11 European birth cohorts. METHODS: The harmonization of questions was accomplished in 4 steps: (i) collection of variables from 14 birth cohorts, (ii) consensus on questionnaire items, (iii) translation and back...

  14. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

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    Sandoval Carlos A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3 during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to

  15. Pneumococcal vaccination and otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants: comparison of two birth cohorts before and after introduction of vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Grant

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in remote Australia have high rates of complicated middle ear disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media in this setting. Methods We compared two birth cohorts, one enrolled before (1996–2001, and the second enrolled after introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate and booster 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (2001–2004. Source populations were the same for both cohorts. Detailed examinations including tympanometry, video-recorded pneumatic otoscopy and collection of discharge from tympanic membrane perforations, were performed as soon as possible after birth and then at regular intervals until 24 months of life. Analyses (survival, point prevalence and incidence were adjusted for confounding factors and repeated measures with sensitivity analyses of differential follow-up. Results Ninety-seven vaccinees and 51 comparison participants were enrolled. By age 6 months, 96% (81/84 of vaccinees and 100% (41/41 of comparison subjects experienced otitis media with effusion (OME, and by 12 months 89% and 88% experienced acute otitis media (AOM, 34% and 35% experienced tympanic membrane perforation (TMP and 14% and 23% experienced chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. Age at the first episode of OME, AOM, TMP and CSOM was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusted incidence of AOM (incidence rate ratio: 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69–1.13] and TMP (incidence rate ratio: 0.63 [0.36–1.11] was not significantly reduced in vaccinees. Vaccinees experienced less recurrent TMP, 9% (8/95 versus 22% (11/51, (odds ratio: 0.33 [0.11–1.00]. Conclusion Results of this study should be interpreted with caution due to potential bias and confounding. It appears that introduction of pneumococcal vaccination among Aboriginal infants was not associated with significant changes

  16. Early life characteristics and late life burden of cerebral small vessel disease in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Thalia S.; Doubal, Fergus N.; Johnson, Wendy; Backhouse, Ellen; McHutchison, Caroline; Cox, Simon; Corley, Janie; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Shenkin, Susan; Cvoro, Vera; Morris, Zoe; Staals, Julie; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether relations between early-life factors and overall health in later life apply to burden of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), a major cause of stroke and dementia. We explored relations between early-life factors and cSVD in the Lothian Birth Cohort, a healthy aging cohort. Participants were recruited at age 70 (N = 1091); most had completed a test of cognitive ability at age 11 as part of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. Of those, 700 participants had brain MRI that could be rated for cSVD conducted at age 73. Presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were summed in a score of 0-4 representing all MRI cSVD features. We tested associations with early-life factors using multivariate logistic regression. Greater SVD score was significantly associated with lower age-11 IQ (OR higher SVD score per SD age-11 IQ = .78, 95%CI 0.65-.95, p=.01). The associations between SVD score and own job class (OR higher job class, .64 95%CI .43-.95, p=.03), age-11 deprivation index (OR per point deprivation score, 1.08, 95%CI 1.00-1.17, p=.04), and education (OR some qualifying education, .60 95%CI .37-.98, p=.04) trended towards significance (p<.05 for all) but did not meet thresholds for multiple testing. No early-life factor was significantly associated with any one individual score component. Early-life factors may contribute to age-73 burden of cSVD. These relations, and the potential for early social interventions to improve brain health, deserve further study. PMID:27652981

  17. Cohort profile of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study at final follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sakauchi, Fumio; Motohashi, Yutaka; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Mikami, Haruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hashimoto, Shuji; Wada, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu; Date, Chigusa; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shibata, Akira; Okamoto, Naoyuki; Shio, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city mergers throughout Japan in the year 2000, and reduced funding. Thus, we decided to terminate the JACC Study follow-up at the end of 2009. As a final point of interest, we reviewed the population registry information of survivors. A total of 207 (0.19%) subjects were ineligible, leaving 110 585 eligible participants (46 395 men and 64 190 women). Moreover, errors in coding date of birth and sex were found in 356 (0.32%) and 59 (0.05%) cases, respectively, during routine follow-up and final review. Although such errors were unexpected, their impact is believed to be negligible because of the small numbers relative to the large total study population. Here, we describe the final cohort profile at the end of the JACC Study along with selected characteristics of the participants and their status at the final follow-up. Although follow-up of the JACC Study participants is finished, we will continue to analyze and publish study results.

  18. Risk of pre-eclampsia in first and subsequent pregnancies: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether pre-eclampsia is more common in first pregnancies solely because fewer affected women, who presumably have a higher risk of recurrence, go on to have subsequent pregnancies. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants: 763 795 primiparous mothers who had their first births in Sweden, 1987-2004. Main outcome measures: Pre-eclampsia. Results: The risk of pre-eclampsia was 4.1% in the first pregnancy and 1.7% in later ...

  19. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  20. Oral clefts and life style factors - a case-cohort study based on prospective Danish data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Vach, Werner

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between oral clefts and first trimester maternal lifestyle factors based on prospective data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort includes approximately 100,000 pregnancies. In total 192 mothers gave birth to child with an oral cleft during 1997......-2003. Information on risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, tea, coffee, cola, and food supplements was obtained during pregnancy for these and 828 randomly selected controls. We found that first trimester maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR): 1.50; 95...

  1. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  2. Is Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Related to Brain and Behavior Impairments in Humans? Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Karen; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Pinto, Lauriane; Poulton, Richie; Williams, Benjamin S.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan parasite present in around a third of the human population. Infected individuals are commonly asymptomatic, though recent reports have suggested that infection might influence aspects of the host’s behavior. In particular, Toxoplasma infection has been linked to schizophrenia, suicide attempt, differences in aspects of personality and poorer neurocognitive performance. However, these studies are often conducted in clinical samples or convenience samples. Methods/Results In a population-representative birth-cohort of individuals tested for presence of antibodies to T. gondii (N = 837) we investigated the association between infection and four facets of human behavior: neuropsychiatric disorder (schizophrenia and major depression), poor impulse control (suicidal behavior and criminality), personality, and neurocognitive performance. Suicide attempt was marginally more frequent among individuals with T. gondii seropositivity (p = .06). Seropositive individuals also performed worse on one out of 14 measures of neuropsychological function. Conclusion On the whole, there was little evidence that T. gondii was related to increased risk of psychiatric disorder, poor impulse control, personality aberrations or neurocognitive impairment. PMID:26886853

  3. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  4. Is Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Related to Brain and Behavior Impairments in Humans? Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sugden

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is a protozoan parasite present in around a third of the human population. Infected individuals are commonly asymptomatic, though recent reports have suggested that infection might influence aspects of the host's behavior. In particular, Toxoplasma infection has been linked to schizophrenia, suicide attempt, differences in aspects of personality and poorer neurocognitive performance. However, these studies are often conducted in clinical samples or convenience samples.In a population-representative birth-cohort of individuals tested for presence of antibodies to T. gondii (N = 837 we investigated the association between infection and four facets of human behavior: neuropsychiatric disorder (schizophrenia and major depression, poor impulse control (suicidal behavior and criminality, personality, and neurocognitive performance. Suicide attempt was marginally more frequent among individuals with T. gondii seropositivity (p = .06. Seropositive individuals also performed worse on one out of 14 measures of neuropsychological function.On the whole, there was little evidence that T. gondii was related to increased risk of psychiatric disorder, poor impulse control, personality aberrations or neurocognitive impairment.

  5. Do Cognitive and Physical Functions Age in Concert from Age 70 to 76? Evidence from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-12-05

    The present study concerns the relation of mental and bodily characteristics to one another during ageing. The 'common cause' theory of ageing proposes that declines are shared across multiple, seemingly-disparate functions, including both physical and intellectual abilities. The concept of 'reserve' suggests that healthier cognitive (and perhaps bodily) functions from early in life are protective against the effects of senescence across multiple domains. In three waves of physical and cognitive testing data from the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 1,091 at age 70 years; n = 866 at 73; n = 697 at 76), we used multivariate growth curve modeling to test the 'common cause' and 'reserve' hypotheses. Support for both concepts was mixed: although levels of physical functions and cognitive functions were correlated with one another, physical functions did not decline together, and there was little evidence for shared declines in physical and mental functions. Early-life intelligence, a potential marker of system integrity, made a significant prediction of the levels, but not the slopes, of later life physical functions. These data suggest that common causes, which are likely present within cognitive functions, are not as far-reaching beyond the cognitive arena as has previously been suggested. They also imply that bodily reserve may be similar to cognitive reserve in that it affects the level, but not the slope, of ageing-related declines.

  6. Risk of respiratory morbidity in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Kirkeby; Wisborg, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between elective caesarean sections and neonatal respiratory morbidity and the importance of timing of elective caesarean sections. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospectively collected data from the Aarhus birth cohort, Denmark. SETTING: Obstetric department...... and neonatal department of a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All liveborn babies without malformations, with gestational ages between 37 and 41 weeks, and delivered between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2006 (34 458 babies). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respiratory morbidity (transitory tachypnoea...

  7. The Finnish Twin Cohort Study: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-02-01

    In 2002 and 2006, review papers have described the Finnish Twin Cohort and studies conducted on these population-based, longitudinal data sets with extensive follow-up data. Three cohorts have been established: the older twin cohort in the 1970s, and the Finntwin12 and Finntwin16 studies initiated in the 1990s. The present review provides on update on the latest data collections conducted since the previous review. These cover the fourth waves of data collection in the older cohort (twins born before 1958) and Finntwin12 (twins born 1983-1987). The fifth wave of data collection in Finntwin16 (twins born 1975-1979) also included assessments of their spouses/partners. An analysis of mortality in the older cohort from 1975 to 2009 indicates that the mortality of adult twins (as individuals) does not differ from the population at large. Based on the cohorts, many sub-studies with more detailed phenotyping and collection of omics data have been conducted or are in progress. We also contribute to numerous national and international collaborations.

  8. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  9. Characterizing trends in HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Australia by birth cohorts: results from a modified back-projection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wand Handan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We set out to estimate historical trends in HIV incidence in Australian men who have sex with men with respect to age at infection and birth cohort. Methods A modified back-projection technique is applied to data from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance System in Australia, including "newly diagnosed HIV infections", "newly acquired HIV infections" and "AIDS diagnoses", to estimate trends in HIV incidence over both calendar time and age at infection. Results Our results demonstrate that since 2000, there has been an increase in new HIV infections in Australian men who have sex with men across all age groups. The estimated mean age at infection increased from ~35 years in 2000 to ~37 years in 2007. When the epidemic peaked in the mid 1980s, the majority of the infections (56% occurred among men aged 30 years and you