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Sample records for birth cohort ecls-b

  1. Resident Father-Child Involvement: Associations with Young Children's Social Development and Kindergarten Readiness in the ECLS-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation examined continuity from 9-months to 4-years of age in father-child interaction in instrumental child care activities, as well as enrichment and play activities, using data collected from 8,450 children with residential fathers included in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Additionally, social…

  2. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  3. Stepping Back to Gain Perspective: Pregnancy Loss History, Depression, and Parenting Capacity in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2008-01-01

    Previous empirical studies of pregnancy loss have predominantly focused on complex grief response and emergent problems associated with future parenting in self-selected samples of bereaved women. This article presents findings from a retrospective secondary data analysis conducted with a racially and ethnically diverse sample of currently…

  4. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  5. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    and infant health) of a variety of exposures during pregnancy, as well as examples showing different methodological approaches in design and analyses of the studies, are presented. RESEARCH TOPICS: The exposures of interest include alcohol drinking, coffee intake, smoking, use of nicotine substitutes...... that this investment in epidemiologic infrastructure was well spent. The existence of the Danish National Birth Cohort together with other cohorts and national registers has given Denmark a leading position in reproductive epidemiology....

  6. CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort. Crossing BMI centiles and early adiposity rebound associated with adult metabolic syndrome. BMI gain in infancy and early childhood – associated more with adult lean mass. BMI gain in later childhood / adolescence – associated more with adult fat mass and constituents of ...

  7. Cohort profile: Mysore parthenon birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-02-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6-12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross......-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net....

  10. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  11. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated i...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks.......Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...

  12. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrijheid, M.; Casas, M.; Bergström, A.; Carmichael, A.; Cordier, S.; Eggesbø, M.; Eller, E.; Fantini, M. P.; Fernández, M. F.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Hohmann, C.; Karvonen, A. M.; Keil, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Koppen, G.; Krämer, U.; Kuehni, C. E.; Magnus, P.; Majewska, R.; Andersen, A. M. N.; Patelarou, E.; Petersen, M. S.; Pierik, F. H.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Santos, A. C.; Slama, R.; Šrám, Radim; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Toft, G.; Trnovec, T.; Vandentorren, S.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wright, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2012), s. 29-37 ISSN 0091-6765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : environment pollution * child health * European birth cohorts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2012

  13. Determinants of father involvement with young children: Evidence from the ECLS-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study used data from the ECLS-B to explore determinants of resident father involvement. Families (N=2900) were measured at three time points (9-months, 2 years, and 4 years of age). Father, mother, and child factors were examined in relation to father caregiving and play. Latent change score models indicated that fathers engaged in more caregiving and play behaviors and increased at a faster rate when they more strongly identified with their role as a father. Fathers engaged in more caregiving when mothers reported higher depressive symptoms and increased in play more slowly when marital conflict was higher. In addition, a mother depressive symptoms X marital conflict interaction emerged indicating that fathers differed in their levels of caregiving depending on mothers’ report of depressive symptoms but only when marital conflict was low. Fathers also increased in caregiving at a faster rate with girls than boys. A comprehensive framework for examining resident father involvement is presented. PMID:26437143

  14. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review...

  15. Determinants of father involvement with young children: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

    2016-02-01

    The current study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; Snow et al., 2007) to explore determinants of resident father involvement. Families (N = 2,900) were measured at 3 time points (9 months, 2 years, and 4 years of age). Father, mother, and child factors were examined in relation to father caregiving and play. Latent change score models indicated that fathers engaged in more caregiving and play behaviors and increased at a faster rate when they more strongly identified with their role as a father. Fathers engaged in more caregiving when mothers reported higher depressive symptoms and increased in play more slowly when marital conflict was higher. In addition, a Mother Depressive Symptoms × Marital Conflict interaction emerged indicating that fathers differed in their levels of caregiving depending on mothers' report of depressive symptoms, but only when marital conflict was low. Fathers also increased in caregiving at a faster rate with girls than boys. A comprehensive framework for examining resident father involvement is presented. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. 'Birth to Ten' - pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth to Ten' is a birth cohort study currently being conducted in the Johannesburg-Soweto area. This paper describes the various pilot studies that were undertaken to investigate the feasibility of a cohort study in an urban area. These studies were designed to determine the monthly birth rate, the timing, frequency and ...

  17. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  18. Patterns of Crime in a Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L M; Cliff, N; Cudeck, R A; McCormik, D J; Zatkin, J L

    1983-07-01

    Most attempts at developing typologies of criminal behavior have not involved empirical research. This paper describes an exploratory empirical approach to identifying patterns in criminal behavior. Two data-reduction techniques, factor analysis and cluster analysis, are applied to the official arrest records of a Danish birth cohort of 28,879 men. Four factors emerged from the factor analysis: GENERAL CRIME, TRAFFIC OFFENSES, WHITE-COLLAR CRIME, and SEX OFFENSES. The cluster analysis revealed GENERAL CRIME and TRAFFIC OFFENSES clusters. A substantial number of offenses are shown by both analyses to be independent of any pattern. The results show good split-sample cross-validation and for the most part are robust across the two analytic approaches.

  19. Geography of breast cancer incidence according to age & birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, David I; Ford, Chandler; Samociuk, Holly

    2017-06-01

    Geographic variation in breast cancer incidence across Connecticut was examined according to age and birth cohort -specific groups. We assigned each of 60,937 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in Connecticut, 1986-2009, to one of 828 census tracts around the state. Global and local spatial statistics estimated rate variation across the state according to age and birth cohorts. We found the global distribution of incidence rates across places to be more heterogeneous for younger women and later birth cohorts. Concurrently, the spatial scan identified more locations with significantly high rates that pertained to larger proportions of at-risk women within these groups. Geographic variation by age groups was more pronounced than by birth cohorts. Geographic patterns of cancer incidence exhibit differences within and across age and birth cohorts. With the continued insights from descriptive epidemiology, our capacity to effectively limit spatial disparities in cancer will improve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES) of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, singl...

  1. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, outcome and exposure parameters at each time point. RESULTS: We identified and assessed 18 European birth cohorts on asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Six of these studies also focused on food allergies. The birth cohorts were mostly initiated in the 1990s with predominantly urban...

  2. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  3. Non-Resident Father Involvement with Their Two-Year-Old Children: Findings from the ECLS-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of non-residential father-child involvement with their children at age 2. This study utilized secondary analysis of data collected through the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort. Participants included 650 biological fathers who did not reside with their child at age 2. Significant…

  4. Birth cohort effects on mortality in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    groups. The data was analysed using descriptive techniques, Age-period-cohort modelling and age-decomposing of life expectancies. Results: The results showed no similar birth cohort effect for Norway and Sweden when compared to Denmark and a relatively high impact of the birth cohort effect on life......Background Understanding and then reducing disparities in health and life expectancy within and between countries, has been described as an important issue on the public health agenda for the this century. In this context it is of interest that Danish women, had a lower increase in life expectancy...... during the last decades then other countries in the European Union and now has the lowest life expectancy in EU. The low life expectancy of Danish women is strongly influenced by a birth cohort effect for Danish women born between the two World Wars. The high risk generations of women were in part...

  5. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Damm, Peter; Bech, Bodil H; Vaag, Allan A; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-05-01

    The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792 pregnancies for which a pregnancy interview for self-reported diabetes in pregnancy was available. From the randomly selected group the combined information from register and interviews could correctly identify 96% (95% CI 80-99.9%) of all cases in the entire Danish National Birth Cohort population. Positive predictive value, however, was only 59% (56-61%). The combined use of data from register and interview provided a high sensitivity for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The low positive predictive value, however, suggests that systematic validation by hospital record review is essential not to underestimate the health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus in future studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  7. Perinatal health in the Danube region - new birth cohort justified.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knudsen, L. E.; Andersen, Z.J.; Šrám, Radim; Braun Kohlová, M.; Gurzau, E.S.; Fucic, A.; Gribaldo, L.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Máca, V.; Zvěřinová, I.; Gajdošová, D.; Moshammer, H.; Rudnai, P.; Ščasný, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2017), s. 9-14 ISSN 2191-0308 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : birth cohort * child health * Danube region * environmental exposures Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Public and environmental health

  8. Etiology of atopy in infancy: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Thijs, C.; Penders, J.; Snijders, B.E.P.; Stelma, F.; Reimerink, J.; Koopmans, M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Huber, M.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bie, R. de; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora

  9. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to id...

  10. Breastfeeding and snoring: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bronwyn K; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina; Cistulli, Peter A; Webb, Karen; Marshall, Nathaniel S

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.

  11. Breastfeeding and snoring: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn K Brew

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. METHODS: In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. RESULTS: Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81 and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00. Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71. The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.

  12. Breastfeeding and Snoring: A Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bronwyn K.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, Catarina; Cistulli, Peter A.; Webb, Karen; Marshall, Nathaniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. Methods In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. Results Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. Conclusions Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:24416321

  13. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  14. Outcomes of independent midwifery attended births in birth centres and home births: a retrospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yaeko; Eto, Hiromi; Iida, Mariko

    2013-08-01

    the objective of this study was to describe and compare perinatal and neonatal outcomes of women who received care from independent midwives practicing home births and at birth centres in Tokyo. a retrospective cohort study. birth centres and homes serviced by independent midwives in Tokyo. of the 43 eligible independent midwives 19 (44%) (10 assisted birth at birth centres, nine assisted home birth) participated in the study. A total of 5477 women received care during their pregnancy and gave birth assisted by these midwives between 2001 and 2006. researchers conducted a retrospective chart review of women's individual data. Collected data included demographic characteristics, process of pregnancy and perinatal and neonatal outcomes. We also collected data about independent midwives and their practice. of the 5477 women, 83.9% gave birth at birth centres and 16.1% gave birth at home. The average age was 31.7 years old and the majority (70.6%) were multiparas. All women had vaginal spontaneous deliveries, with no vacuum, forceps or caesarean section interventions. No maternal fatalities were reported, nor were breech or multiple births. The average duration of the first and second stages of labour was 14.9 hours for primiparas and 6.2 hours for multiparas. Most women (97.1%) gave birth within 24 hours of membrane rupture. Maternal position during labour varied and family attended birth was common. The average blood loss was 371.3mL, while blood loss over 500mL was 22.6% and over 1000mL was 3.6%. Nearly 60% of women had intact perinea. There were few preterm births (0.6%) and post mature births (1.3%). Infant's average birth weight was 3126g and 0.5% were low-birthweight-infants, while 3.3% had macrosomia. Among primiparas, the birth centre group had more women experiencing an excess of 500mL blood loss compared to the home birth group (27.2% versus 17.6% respectively; RR 1.54; 95%CI 1.10 to 2.16). Multiparas delivering at birth centres were more likely to have a

  15. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Ana Daniela Izoton de; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas

    To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative) due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend<0.001). Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. The Hokkaido Birth Cohort Study on Environment and Children's Health: cohort profile-updated 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Araki, Atsuko; Minatoya, Machiko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Ait Bamai, Yu; Yamazaki, Keiko; Miura, Ryu; Tamura, Naomi; Ito, Kumiko; Goudarzi, Houman

    2017-05-18

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary study goals are (1) to examine the effects of low-level environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) to follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders and perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) to identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) to identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco smoking. The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the Hokkaido Study, to summarize the recent results, and to suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the basic characteristics of the cohort populations, discusses the population remaining in the cohorts and those who were lost to follow-up at birth, and introduces the newly added follow-up studies and case-cohort study design. In the Sapporo cohort of 514 enrolled pregnant women, various specimens, including maternal and cord blood, maternal hair, and breast milk, were collected for the assessment of exposures to dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances, phthalates, bisphenol A, and methylmercury. As follow-ups, face-to-face neurobehavioral developmental tests were conducted at several different ages. In the Hokkaido cohort of 20,926 enrolled pregnant women, the prevalence of complicated pregnancies and birth outcomes, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age were examined. The levels of exposure to environmental chemicals were relatively low in these study populations compared to those reported previously. We also studied environmental chemical exposure in association with health outcomes

  17. Maternal urinary paraben levels and offspring size at birth from a Chinese birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuansha; Huo, Wenqian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Wan, Yanjian; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhou, Aifen; Chen, Zhong; Qian, Minzheng; Zhu, Yingshuang; Jiang, Yangqian; Liu, Hongxiu; Hu, Jie; Chen, Xi; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing

    2017-04-01

    Parabens are suspected to impair fetal growth because of their endocrine disrupting effects. Epidemiological studies regarding the effects of prenatal exposure to parabens on birth outcomes are limited. Our aim was to evaluate the association between prenatal paraben exposure and size of infants at birth. Within the longitudinal Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC) in Hubei Province, China, we randomly selected 1006 mother-infant pairs recruited in Wuhan City in 2014. Concentrations of parabens were measured in maternal urine collected before delivery. General linear models were used to analyze the associations of maternal parabens exposure levels with birth weight and birth length. The specific gravity adjusted geometric means for urinary concentrations of methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), and propyl paraben (PrP) were 5.41, 0.11, and 0.94 ng/mL, respectively. Maternal urinary concentrations of parabens tended to be positively associated with birth weight in boys, while opposite trends were found in girls, though these associations were not significant. Higher maternal urinary levels of MeP were positively associated with birth length in boys (β = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.58 for the medium tertile, and β = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.58 for the highest tertile compared to the lowest tertile); however, no significant associations with birth length were observed in girls. Maternal urinary levels of MeP were positively associated with length at birth in boys. Besides, we did not find strong associations of the current exposure levels of parabens in Chinese pregnant women with size of infants at birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Revitalising the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Lund, Rikke

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that factors operating during childhood are related to adult health. Thus, longitudinal studies with information on subsequent phases may be key to understanding later health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to describe the history and design of a Danish birth...... mobility. At age 12 years, 9537 of these cohort members completed a questionnaire in school, which included cognitive measures and information on social aspirations and leisure time activities. In 1966 educational performance tests were administered for these boys and, in 1968, mothers of 2890 cohort....... In total, 7969 cohort members had been hospitalised for any somatic illness and, according to the Psychiatric Central Register, 1382 men had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital or ward. In the Cancer Registry we found 363 of our study participants. Analyses exploring the influence of social conditions...

  19. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  20. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesize that perinatal exposures, in particular the human microbiome and maternal nutrition during pregnancy, interact with the genetic predisposition to cause an abnormal immune modulation in early life towards a trajectory to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and others. The aim...... for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze. Seven hundred and thirty‐eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over‐representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction....... The cohort has a high adherence rate promising strong data to elucidate the interaction between genomics and the exposome in perinatal life leading to lifestyle‐related chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma....

  1. Prenatal Heavy Metal Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Myanmar: A Birth-Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyi Mar Wai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium and lead are well-known environmental contaminants, and their toxicity at low concentration is the target of scientific concern. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential effects of prenatal heavy metal exposure on the birth outcomes among the Myanmar population. This study is part of a birth-cohort study conducted with 419 pregnant women in the Ayeyarwady Division, Myanmar. Face-to-face interviews were performed using a questionnaire, and maternal spot urine samples were collected at the third trimester. Birth outcomes were evaluated at delivery during the follow up. The median values of adjusted urinary arsenic, cadmium, selenium and lead concentration were 74.2, 0.9, 22.6 and 1.8 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that prenatal cadmium exposure (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01–1.21; p = 0.043, gestational age (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72–0.95; p = 0.009 and primigravida mothers (adjusted OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.31–13.65; p = 0.016 were the predictors of low birth weight. The present study identified that Myanmar mothers were highly exposed to cadmium. Prenatal maternal cadmium exposure was associated with an occurrence of low birth weight.

  2. Late preterm birth and neurocognitive performance in late adulthood: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tuovinen, Soile; Osmond, Clive; Raikkonen, Katri

    2015-04-01

    We studied if late preterm birth (34 weeks 0 days-36 weeks 6 days of gestation) is associated with performance on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) in late adulthood and if maximum attained lifetime education moderated these associations. Participants were 919 Finnish men and women born between 1934 and 1944, who participated in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. They underwent the CERAD-NB at a mean age of 68.1 years. Data regarding gestational age (late preterm versus term) were extracted from hospital birth records, and educational attainment data were gathered from Statistics Finland. After adjustment for major confounders, those born late preterm scored lower on word list recognition (mean difference: -0.33 SD; P = .03) than those born at term. Among those who had attained a basic or upper secondary education, late preterm birth was associated with lower scores on word list recognition, constructional praxis, constructional praxis recall, clock drawing, Mini-Mental State Examination, and memory total and CERAD total 2 compound scores (mean differences: >0.40 SD; P values late preterm birth was not associated with CERAD-NB scores. Our findings offer new insight into the lifelong consequences of late preterm birth, and they add late preterm birth as a novel risk factor to the list of neurocognitive impairment in late adulthood. Our findings also suggest that attained lifetime education may mitigate aging-related neurocognitive impairment, especially among those born late preterm. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Development of atopic dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Høst, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Eller E, Kjaer HF, Høst A, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. Development of Atopic Dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SThe aim was to describe the relapsing pattern, sensitization and prognosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the first 6 yr...... was measured by objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD). Point-prevalence of AD peaked at 18 months of age (10%) and decreased at 36 and 72 months to slightly below 7%. The 6-yr cumulative incidence was 22.8% and sensitization was found in 43% of children with AD. It was predominately sensitization...

  4. Birth cohort effect on the obesity epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lina W; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Holst, Claus

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the obesity epidemic has developed in phases. To investigate if this has been a birth cohort phenomenon, we explored the secular trend in the prevalence of obesity among boys and young men. METHODS: We calculated body mass index (BMI; kg/m) over time for 163,835 Danish boys...... examined at ages 7-11 years and for 708,342 male draftees examined at age 19 years. Obesity was defined according to age-specific criteria for boys and as BMI >or=31 kg/m for men. We examined trends in the prevalence of obesity from 1930 through 1999, expressing time as the subjects' year of measurement...... and as year of birth. RESULTS: When expressed by year of measurement, 4 phases in the prevalence of obesity emerged for the boys and the young men, but they occurred at different times. However, when expressed by year of birth, the 2 stable periods and the 2 periods with sharp increases in obesity occurred...

  5. Maternal attitudes towards home birth and their effect on birth outcomes in Iceland: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Sveinsdottir, Herdis

    2016-03-01

    to examine the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and birth outcomes, and whether women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected this relationship. a prospective cohort study. the study was set in Iceland, a sparsely populated island with harsh terrain, 325,000 inhabitants, high fertility and home birth rates, and less than 5000 births a year. a convenience sample of women who attended antenatal care in Icelandic health care centres, participated in the Childbirth and Health Study in 2009-2011, and expressed consistent attitudes towards home birth (n=809). of the participants, 164 (20.3%) expressed positive attitudes towards choosing home birth and 645 (79.7%) expressed negative attitudes. Women who had a positive attitude towards home birth had significantly more positive attitudes towards birth and more negative attitudes towards intervention than did women who had a negative attitude towards home birth. Of the 340 self-reported low-risk women that answered questionnaires on birth outcomes, 78 (22.9%) had a positive attitude towards home birth and 262 (77.1%) had a negative attitude. Oxytocin augmentation (19.2% (n=15) versus 39.1% (n=100)), epidural analgesia (19.2% (n=15) versus 33.6% (n=88)), and neonatal intensive care unit admission rates (0.0% (n=0) versus 5.0% (n=13)) were significantly lower among women who had a positive attitude towards home birth. Women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and oxytocin augmentation or epidural analgesia. the beneficial effect of planned home birth on maternal outcome in Iceland may depend to some extent on women's attitudes towards birth and intervention. Efforts to de-stigmatise out-of-hospital birth and de-medicalize women's attitudes towards birth might increase women׳s use of health-appropriate birth services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Late-preterm birth and lifetime socioeconomic attainments: the Helsinki birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Barker, David J; Osmond, Clive; Raikkonen, Katri

    2013-10-01

    We examined if those born late-preterm (at 34 to 36 weeks of gestation) differed from those born at term in their maximum attained lifetime socioeconomic position (SEP) across the adult years up to 56 to 66 years, and in intergenerational social mobility from childhood parental SEP to own attained SEP. Participants were 8993 Finnish men and women of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born between 1934 and 1944. Gestational age was extracted from hospital birth records and socioeconomic attainments from Finnish National Census. Compared with those born at term, those born late-preterm were more likely to be manual workers, have a basic or upper secondary level of education, belong to the lowest third based on their incomes, and less likely to belong to the highest third based on their incomes. Late-preterm individuals were also less likely to be upwardly mobile and more likely to be downwardly mobile; they were less likely to have higher occupations and more likely to have lower occupations than their fathers. They were also less likely to be upwardly mobile if incomes were used as the outcome of own attained SEP, and men were more likely to be downwardly mobile if education was used as the outcome of own attained SEP. This study demonstrates that there are considerable long-term socioeconomic disadvantages associated with late-preterm birth, which are not explained by the parent-of-origin SEP.

  7. Differences in optimality index between planned place of birth in a birth centre and alternative planned places of birth, a nationwide prospective cohort study in The Netherlands: results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, M.A.A.; Hitzert, M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Franx, A.; Graaf, J.P. de; Lith, J.M.M. van; Steegers, E.E.; Wiegers, T.A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the Optimality Index of planned birth in a birth centre with planned birth in a hospital and planned home birth for low-risk term pregnant women who start labour under the responsibility of a community midwife. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Low-risk pregnant women

  8. Life-Course Relationship between Socioeconomic Circumstances and Timing of First Birth in a Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea van Roode

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of socioeconomic circumstances in childhood (childhood SES and adulthood (adult SES on timing of first birth by age 37.A longitudinal study of a 1972-1973 New Zealand birth cohort collected information on socioeconomic characteristics from age 3-32 and reproductive histories at 21, 26, 32 and 38; information on first birth was available from 978 of the original 1037. Relative Risks (RR and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were calculated using Poisson regression to examine first live birth prior to age 21, from 21-25, from 26-31, and from 32-37, by socioeconomic characteristics at different ages.Overall, 68.5% of men had fathered a child and 75.9% of women had given birth, by age 37; with overall differences in parenthood to age 31 for men, and 37 for women evident by childhood SES. While parenthood by age 20 was strongly associated with lower childhood SES for both sexes, first entry into motherhood from 32-37 was more likely with higher adult SES at age 32 (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for medium and RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3 for high compared with low. Education also differientated age at parenthood, with those with higher education more likely to defer fatherhood past age 31, and motherhood past age 25 followed by a period of increased likelihood of motherhood for women with higher levels of education from age 32-37 (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.87-2.2 and RR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6 for medium and high respectively compared with low.SES varies across the lifecourse, and SES at the time has the strongest association with first births at that time. Low childhood SES drives adolescent parenthood, with resulting cumulative differences in parenthood past age 30. Those with more education and higher adult SES are deferring parenthood but attempt to catch up in the mid to late thirties.

  9. Fear of childbirth and risk for birth complications in nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M; Johansen, C; Hedegaard, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between fear of childbirth and emergency caesarean section and between fear of childbirth and dystocia or protracted labour and fetal distress. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish National Birth Cohort. POPULATION: A total of 25 297 healthy...

  10. Oral health in a life-course : birth-cohorts from 1929 to 2006 in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. METHODS: The material

  11. Health and function assessments in two adjacent Danish birth cohorts of centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Skytthe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Using the results from measures of functional ability, cognitive and physical performance from two adjacent birth cohorts of 100-year-old adults, we aimed to elucidate the possible impact of difference in participation rates, design, and interviewer mode. Participants were birth cohort members born...... in DK-1910 (66.9 % (273/408)) (p home was significantly lower (44 vs. 54 %, respectively). Higher...

  12. Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llop, S.; Casas, L.; Santa-Marina, L.; Estarlich, M.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Esplugues, A.; Jimenez, A.; Zock, J.P.; Tardón, A.; Marco, A.; Ballester, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2 456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the

  13. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  14. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    -for-gestational-age (SGA), abdominal circumference, head circumference, and placental weight. METHODS: We analyzed birth size from the Danish Medical Birth Registry of 66 693 live-born children in the Danish National Birth Cohort according to the mother's self-reported information on occupational lifting from telephone...

  15. Infertility, infertility treatment, and congenital malformations: Danish national birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether infertile couples (with a time to pregnancy of > 12 months), who conceive naturally or after treatment, give birth to children with an increased prevalence of congenital malformations. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Danish national birth cohort. Participants Three groups of liveborn children and their mothers: 50 897 singletons and 1366 twins born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy ≤ 12 months), 5764 singletons and 100 twins born of infertile couples who conceived naturally (time to pregnancy > 12 months), and 4588 singletons and 1690 twins born after infertility treatment. Main outcome measures Prevalence of congenital malformations determined from hospital discharge diagnoses. Results Compared with singletons born of fertile couples, singletons born of infertile couples who conceived naturally or after treatment had a higher prevalence of congenital malformations—hazard ratios 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.35) and 1.39 (1.23 to 1.57). The overall prevalence of congenital malformations increased with increasing time to pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to singletons born of infertile couples, babies born after treatment had an increased prevalence of genital organ malformations (hazard ratio 2.32, 1.24 to 4.35) compared with babies conceived naturally. No significant differences existed in the overall prevalence of congenital malformations among twins. Conclusions Hormonal treatment for infertility may be related to the occurrence of malformations of genital organs, but our results suggest that the reported increased prevalence of congenital malformations seen in singletons born after assisted reproductive technology is partly due to the underlying infertility or its determinants. The association between untreated infertility and congenital malformations warrants further examination. PMID:16893903

  16. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Menon

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia.Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group.Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2% were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6% were norovirus GI, 150(8.1% norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4% were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4% were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8% were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6% GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0% with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3% ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428 were at a significantly lower risk (48/190 of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01.This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease.

  17. Cohort profile update: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort follow-up visits in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cf; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana Mb

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we update the profile of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, with emphasis on a shift of priority from maternal and child health research topics to four main categories of outcome variables, collected throughout adolescence: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); (iv) human capital. We were able to trace 81.3% (n = 4106) of the original cohort at 18 years of age. For the first time, the 18-years visit took place entirely on the university premises, in a clinic equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for the assessment of body composition. We welcome requests for data analyses from outside scientists. For more information, refer to our website (http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.projetos_de_pesquisas/estudos/coorte_1993) or e-mail the corresponding author. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  18. [Proportional hazards model of birth intervals among marriage cohorts since the 1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, K

    1987-01-01

    With a view to investigating the possibility of an attitudinal change towards the timing of 1st and 2nd births, proportional hazards model analysis of the 1st and 2nd birth intervals and univariate life table analysis were both carried out. Results showed that love matches and conjugal families immediately after marriage are accompanied by a longer 1st birth interval than others, even after controlling for other independent variables. Marriage cohort analysis also shows a net effect on the relative risk of having a 1st birth. Marriage cohorts since the mid-1960s demonstrate a shorter 1st birth interval than the 1961-63 cohort. With regard to the 2nd birth interval, longer 1st birth intervals, arranged marriages, conjugal families immediately following marriage, and higher ages at 1st marriage of women tended to provoke a longer 2nd birth interval. There is no interaction between the 1st birth interval and marriage cohort. Once other independent variables were controlled, with the exception of the marriage cohorts of the early 1970s, the authors found no effect of marriage cohort on the relative risk of having a 2nd birth. This suggests that an attitudinal change towards the timing of births in this period was mainly restricted to that of a 1st birth. Fluctuations in the 2nd birth interval during the 1970-72 marriage cohort were scrutinized in detail. As a result, the authors found that conjugal families after marriage, wives with low educational status, women with husbands in white collar professions, women with white collar fathers, and wives with high age at 1st marriage who married during 1970-72 and had a 1st birth interval during 1972-74 suffered most from the pronounced rise in the 2nd birth interval. This might be due to the relatively high sensitivity to a change in socioeconomic status; the oil crisis occurring around the time of marriage and 1st birth induced a delay in the 2nd birth. The unanimous decrease in the 2nd birth interval among the 1973

  19. Neonatal outcomes after preterm birth by mothers’ health insurance status at birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsdóttir Kristjana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. Methods The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32–36 weeks gestation from Western Australia during 1998–2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time until establishment of unassisted breathing (>1 minute, neonatal resuscitation (endotracheal intubation or external cardiac massage and admission to a neonatal special care unit. Results Compared with infants of privately insured women, infants of publicly insured women were more likely to receive a low Apgar score (ARR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.06-6.52 and take longer to establish unassisted breathing (ARR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, yet, they were less likely to be admitted to a special care unit (ARR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.80-0.87. No significant differences were evident in neonatal resuscitation between the groups (ARR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54-2.67. Conclusions The underlying reasons for the lower rate of special care admissions in infants of publicly insured women compared with privately insured women despite the higher rate of low Apgar scores is yet to be determined. Future research is

  20. Moisture damage and asthma: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anne M; Hyvärinen, Anne; Korppi, Matti; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Renz, Harald; Pfefferle, Petra I; Remes, Sami; Genuneit, Jon; Pekkanen, Juha

    2015-03-01

    Excess moisture and visible mold are associated with increased risk of asthma. Only a few studies have performed detailed home visits to characterize the extent and location of moisture damage and mold growth. Structured home inspections were performed in a birth cohort study when the children were 5 months old (on average). Children (N = 398) were followed up to the age of 6 years. Specific immunoglobulin E concentrations were determined at 6 years. Moisture damage and mold at an early age in the child's main living areas (but not in bathrooms or other interior spaces) were associated with the risk of developing physician-diagnosed asthma ever, persistent asthma, and respiratory symptoms during the first 6 years. Associations with asthma ever were strongest for moisture damage with visible mold in the child's bedroom (adjusted odds ratio: 4.82 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-18.02]) and in the living room (adjusted odds ratio: 7.51 [95% confidence interval: 1.49-37.83]). Associations with asthma ever were stronger in the earlier part of the follow-up and among atopic children. No consistent associations were found between moisture damage with or without visible mold and atopic sensitization. Moisture damage and mold in early infancy in the child's main living areas were associated with asthma development. Atopic children may be more susceptible to the effects of moisture damage and mold. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Pregnancy and Birth Cohort Resources in Europe: a Large Opportunity for Aetiological Child Health Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Larsen, P. S.; Kamper-Jorgensen, M.; Adamson, A.; Barros, H.; Bonde, J. P.; Brescianini, S.; Brophy, S.; Cacas, M.; Devereux, G.; Eggesbø, M.; Fantini, M. P.; Frey, U.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Henriksen, T. B.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Heude, B.; Hryhorczuk, D.; Inskip, H.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Lawlor, D. A.; Ludvigsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kiess, W.; Koletzko, B.; Kuehni, C. E.; Kull, I.; Kyhl, H. B.; Magnus, P.; Momas, I.; Murray, D.; Pekkanen, J.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Poulsen, G.; Richiardi, L.; Roeleveld, N.; Skovgaard, A. M.; Šrám, Radim; Strandberg-Larsen, K.; Thijs, C.; Van Eijsden, M.; Wright, J.; Vrijheid, M.; Andersen, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), s. 393-414 ISSN 0269-5022 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : European pregnancy birth cohort * cohort characteristics * cross-cohort collaboration Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2013

  2. The change in the sex ratio in multiple sclerosis is driven by birth cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdacic-Gross, V; Schmid, M; Mutsch, M; Steinemann, N; von Wyl, V; Bopp, M

    2017-01-01

    Birth cohort effects have greatly shaped long-term trends in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined whether birth cohort effects have also determined trends in the sex ratio. Age-period-cohort analyses were applied to Swiss mortality data, 1901-2010, using logit models. Sex was introduced as an additional main effect (overall effect) and in interaction terms with A, P and C. Birth cohort effects strongly impacted the trends of MS risk in Switzerland, with a peak in cohorts born in the 1910s and 1920s. Similarly, birth cohort effects accounted for the change in the sex ratios during the 20th century. The balanced sex ratio at the beginning of the 20th century has been superseded by a ratio with a preponderance of women. Despite similarities in timing, the patterns of overall and sex-specific birth cohort estimates were not congruent. The change in the sex ratio in MS is driven by birth cohort related factors. Overall and sex-specific trends indicate that the appearance of MS has changed dramatically in the 20th century. The driving force behind these trends is related to yet unknown environmental factors. © 2016 EAN.

  3. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self......-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week...

  4. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors...... mediate the association. METHODS: The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This......, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Mothers with preterm birth compared...

  5. Ambient air pollution and preterm birth: A prospective birth cohort study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin; Liang, Shengwen; Yang, Shaoping; Trevathan, Edwin; Huang, Zhen; Yang, Rong; Wang, Jing; Hu, Ke; Zhang, Yiming; Vaughn, Michael; Shen, Longjiao; Liu, Wenjin; Li, Pu; Ward, Patrick; Yang, Li; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Wei; Dong, Guanghui; Zheng, Tongzhang; Xu, Shunqing; Zhang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Although studies in western countries suggest that ambient air pollution is positively associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, the upper levels of pollutant exposures have been relatively low, thus eroding confidence in the conclusions. Meanwhile, in Asia, where upper levels of exposure have been greater, there have been limited studies of the association between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The primary objective was to evaluate whether high levels of pollution, including particulate matter pollution with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) are related to increased occurrence of preterm birth (PTB). We conducted a population-based study in Wuhan, China in a cohort of 95,911 live births during a two-year period from 2011 to 2013. The exposure was estimated based on daily mean concentrations of pollutants estimated using the pollutants' measurements from the nine closest monitors. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationships between exposure to each of the pollutants during different pregnancy periods and PTB while controlling for key covariates. We found 3% (OR=1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), 2% (OR=1.02; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03), 15% (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.19), and 5% (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07) increases in risk of PTB with each 5-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, 100-μg/m(3) increase in CO concentrations, and 10-μg/m(3) increase in O3 concentrations, respectively. There was negligible evidence for associations for SO2 and NO2. The effects from two-pollutant models were similar to the estimated effects from single pollutant models. No critical exposure windows were identified consistently: the strongest effect for PTB was found in the second trimester for PM2.5, PM10, and CO, but for SO2 it was in the first trimester, second month, and third month. For NO2 it was in the first

  6. Trajectories of dental anxiety in a birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W. M.; Broadbent, J. M.; Locker, D.; Poulton, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine predictors of dental anxiety trajectories in a longitudinal study of New Zealanders. Methods Prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in 1972/73 in Dunedin, New Zealand, with dental anxiety scale (DAS) scores and dental utilization determined at ages 15, 18, 26 and 32 years. Personality traits were assessed at a superfactor and (more fine-grained) subscale level via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire at age 18 years. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to identify dental anxiety trajectories. Results DAS scores from at least three assessments were available for 828 participants. Six dental anxiety trajectories were observed: stable nonanxious low (39.6%); stable nonanxious medium (37.9%); recovery (1.6%); adult-onset anxious (7.7%); stable anxious (7.2%) and adolescent-onset anxious (5.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that males and those with higher DMFS at age 15 years were more likely to be in the stable nonanxious low trajectory group. Membership of the stable nonanxious medium group was predicted by the dental caries experience at age 15 years. Participants who had lost one or more teeth between ages 26 and 32 years had almost twice the relative risk for membership of the adult-onset anxious group. Personality traits predicted group membership. Specifically, high scorers (via median split) on the ‘stress reaction’ subscale had over twice the risk of being in the stable anxious group; low scorers on the traditionalism subscale were more likely to be members of the recovery trajectory group; and high scorers on the ‘social closeness’ subscale had half the risk of being in the stable anxious group. Dental caries experience at age 5 years was also a predictor for the stable anxious group. Membership of the late-adolescent-onset anxious group was predicted by higher dental caries experience by age 15 years, but none of the other predictors was significant. Conclusion Six discrete trajectories of dental anxiety

  7. Serum cholesterol and cognitive functions: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Janie; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2015-03-01

    We examined the associations between serum cholesterol measures, statin use, and cognitive function measured in childhood and in old age. The possibility that lifelong (trait) cognitive ability accounts for any cross-sectional associations between cholesterol and cognitive performance in older age, seen in observational studies, has not been tested to date. Participants were 1,043 men and women from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study, most of whom had participated in a nationwide IQ-type test in childhood (Scottish Mental Survey of 1947), and were followed up at about age 70 years. Serum cholesterol measures included total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio. Cognitive outcome measures were age 70 IQ (using the same test as at age 11 years), general cognitive ability (g), processing speed, memory, and verbal ability. Higher TC, higher HDL-C, and lower triglycerides were associated with higher age 70 cognitive scores in most cognitive domains. These relationships were no longer significant after covarying for childhood IQ, with the exception a markedly attenuated association between TC and processing speed, and triglycerides and age 70 IQ. In the fully adjusted model, all conventionally significant (p IQ predicted statin use in old age. Statin users had lower g, processing speed, and verbal ability scores at age 70 years after covarying for childhood IQ, but significance was lost after adjusting for TC levels. These results suggest that serum cholesterol and cognitive function are associated in older age via the lifelong stable trait of intelligence. Potential mechanisms, including lifestyle factors, are discussed.

  8. Identification of atopic dermatitis subgroups in children from two longitudinal birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternoster, Lavinia; Savenije, Olga E M; Heron, Jon; Evans, David M; Vonk, Judith M; Brunekreef, Bert; Wijga, Alet H; Henderson, A John; Koppelman, Gerard H; Brown, Sara J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent disease with variable natural history. Longitudinal birth cohort studies provide an opportunity to define subgroups based on disease trajectories, which may represent different genetic and environmental pathomechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the

  9. Famine, third-trimester pregnancy weight gain, and intrauterine growth: the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A. D.; Ravelli, A. C.; Lumey, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study were analyzed to assess the influence of acute famine on the relation of maternal weight gain to birth weight, length, and ponderal index. Records were examined for 734 women receiving at least one month of prenatal care and delivering live-born

  10. Examining Non-Participation to the Maternal Follow-up Within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Liew, Zeyan; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    A follow-up questionnaire on maternal health has been distributed within the Danish National Birth Cohort (established 1996-2002) 14 years after the index birth. Answers were obtained for 41,466 of 78,010 (53.2%) eligible mothers. To ensure the appropriate use of these data, the possibility of se...

  11. Trends in birth asphyxia, obstetric interventions and perinatal mortality among term singletons: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Sabine; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate trends in birth asphyxia and perinatal mortality in the Netherlands over the last decade. A nationwide cohort study among women with a term singleton pregnancy. We assessed trends in birth asphyxia in relation to obstetric interventions for fetal

  12. Cohort Trends in Premarital First Births: What Role for the Retreat From Marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2015-01-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women’s years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a “shotgun marriage”). For women born between 1920–1924 and 1945–1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945–1949 and 1960–1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions—a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning “marriageable” men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth. PMID:24072609

  13. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-01

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The role of under-employment and unemployment in recent birth cohort effects in Australian suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Milner, Allison; Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard

    2013-09-01

    High suicide rates evident in Australian young adults during an epidemic period in the 1990s appear to have been sustained in older age-groups in the subsequent decade. This period also coincides with changes in employment patterns in Australia. This study investigates age, period, and birth cohort effects in Australian suicide over the 20th century, with particular reference to the period subsequent to the 1990s youth suicide epidemic in young males. Period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide were examined for 1907-2010 based on descriptive analysis of age-specific suicide rates and a series of age-period-cohort (APC) models using Poisson regression. Under-employment rates (those employed part-time seeking additional hours of work) and unemployment rates (those currently seeking employment) for the latter part of this time series (1978-2010) were also examined and compared with period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide. A significant increasing birth cohort effect in male suicide rates was evident in birth cohorts born after 1970-74, after adjusting for the effects age and period. An increasing birth cohort effect was also evident in female suicide rates, but was of a lesser magnitude. Increases in male cohort-specific suicide rates were significantly correlated with increases in cohort-specific under-employment and unemployment rates. Birth cohorts that experienced the peak of the suicide epidemic during the 1990s have continued to have higher suicide rates than cohorts born in earlier epochs. This increase coincides with changes to a labour force characterised by greater 'flexibility' and 'casualised' employment, especially in younger aged cohorts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The predictive role of support in the birth experience: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Valgerdur Lisa; Gamble, Jennifer; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sveinsdottir, Herdis; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2017-12-01

    Several risk factors for negative birth experience have been identified, but little is known regarding the influence of social and midwifery support on the birth experience over time. The aim of this study was to describe women's birth experience up to two years after birth and to detect the predictive role of satisfaction with social and midwifery support in the birth experience. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with a convenience sample of pregnant women from 26 community health care centres. Data was gathered using questionnaires at 11-16 weeks of pregnancy (T1, n=1111), at five to six months (T2, n=765), and at 18-24 months after birth (T3, n=657). Data about sociodemographic factors, reproductive history, birth outcomes, social and midwifery support, depressive symptoms, and birth experience were collected. The predictive role of midwifery support in the birth experience was examined using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of negative birth experience was 5% at T2 and 5.7% at T3. Women who were not satisfied with midwifery support during pregnancy and birth were more likely to have negative birth experience at T2 than women who were satisfied with midwifery support. Operative birth, perception of prolonged birth and being a student predicted negative birth experience at both T2 and T3. Perception of negative birth experience was relatively consistent during the study period and the role of support from midwives during pregnancy and birth had a significant impact on women's perception of birth experience. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends in Dementia Incidence in a Birth Cohort Analysis of the Einstein Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Carol A; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B

    2017-11-01

    Trends in dementia incidence rates have important implications for planning and prevention. To better understand incidence trends over time requires separation of age and cohort effects, and few prior studies have used this approach. To examine trends in dementia incidence and concomitant trends in cardiovascular comorbidities among individuals aged 70 years or older who were enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study between 1993 and 2015. In this birth cohort analysis of all-cause dementia incidence in persons enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study from October 20, 1993, through November 17, 2015, a systematically recruited, population-based sample of 1348 participants from Bronx County, New York, who were 70 years or older without dementia at enrollment and at least one annual follow-up was studied. Poisson regression was used to model dementia incidence as a function of age, sex, educational level, race, and birth cohort, with profile likelihood used to identify the timing of significant increases or decreases in incidence. Birth year and age. Incident dementia defined by consensus case conference based on annual, standardized neuropsychological and neurologic examination findings, using criteria from the DSM-IV. Among 1348 individuals (mean [SD] baseline age, 78.5 [5.4] years; 830 [61.6%] female; 915 [67.9%] non-Hispanic white), 150 incident dementia cases developed during 5932 person-years (mean [SD] follow-up, 4.4 [3.4] years). Dementia incidence decreased in successive birth cohorts. Incidence per 100 person-years was 5.09 in birth cohorts before 1920, 3.11 in the 1920 through 1924 birth cohorts, 1.73 in the 1925 through 1929 birth cohorts, and 0.23 in cohorts born after 1929. Change point analyses identified a significant decrease in dementia incidence among those born after July 1929 (95% CI, June 1929 to January 1930). The relative rate for birth cohorts before July 1929 vs after was 0.13 (95% CI, 0.04-0.41). Prevalence of stroke and myocardial infarction

  17. Prenatal phthalate exposure and placental size and shape at birth: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-Duo; Gao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Zhang, Yun-Wei; Cai, Xiu-Xiu; Yao, Hui-Yuan; Mao, Lei-Jing; Ge, Xing; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Zhong-Xiu; Sheng, Jie; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Pan, Wei-Jun; Hao, Jia-Hu; Zhu, Peng; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2018-01-01

    There is concern over the potential placental effects of prenatal phthalate exposure, and the potential adverse effects of prenatal phthalate exposure require further study; however, few data are available in humans. We investigated the associations between phthalate exposure in each trimester and both placental size and shape at birth. We measured the urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites among 2725 pregnant women in the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort. Before collecting urine samples from each of the three trimesters, the pregnant women were interviewed via questionnaires. Placental information was obtained from hospital records. We estimated the sex-specific associations between urinary phthalate concentrations in each trimester and both placental size and shape at birth using adjusted multiple regression. A linear mixed model was used for the repeated measures analysis with subject-specific random intercepts and slopes for gestational age at sample collection to test the effect of phthalate levels on placental size and shape and to estimate the effect sizes. Overall, placental breadth increased by 0.148cm (95% CI: 0.078, 0.218) with each 1 ln-concentration increase in MBP in the first trimester. The difference between placental length and breadth (length-breadth) decreased by 0.086cm (95% CI: -0.159, -0.012) and 0.149cm (95% CI: -0.221, -0.076) with each 1 ln-concentration increase in MMP and MBP, respectively, in the first trimester. In the second trimester, placental thickness increased by 0.017cm (95% CI: 0.006, 0.027), 0.020cm (95% CI: 0.004, 0.036), 0.028cm (95% CI: 0.007, 0.048), and 0.035cm (95% CI: 0.018, 0.053) with each 1 ln-concentration increase in MMP, MBP, MEOHP, and MEHHP, respectively. In the third trimester, placental thickness increased by 0.037cm (95% CI: 0.019, 0.056) and 0.019cm (95% CI: 0, 0.037) with each 1 ln-concentration increase in MBP and MEHP, respectively. Multiple linear regression for each offspring sex indicated that prenatal

  18. Cesarean Outcomes in US Birth Centers and Collaborating Hospitals: A Cohort Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Patrick; McFarlin, Barbara L; Park, Chang; Rankin, Kristin; Schorn, Mavis; Finnegan, Lorna; Stapleton, Susan

    2017-01-01

    High rates of cesarean birth are a significant health care quality issue, and birth centers have shown potential to reduce rates of cesarean birth. Measuring this potential is complicated by lack of randomized trials and limited observational comparisons. Cesarean rates vary by provider type, setting, and clinical and nonclinical characteristics of women, but our understanding of these dynamics is incomplete. We sought to isolate labor setting from other risk factors in order to assess the effect of birth centers on the odds of cesarean birth. We generated low-risk cohorts admitted in labor to hospitals (n = 2527) and birth centers (n = 8776) using secondary data obtained from the American Association of Birth Centers (AABC). All women received prenatal care in the birth center and midwifery care in labor, but some chose hospital admission for labor. Analysis was intent to treat according to site of admission in spontaneous labor. We used propensity score adjustment and multivariable logistic regression to control for cohort differences and measured effect sizes associated with setting. There was a 37% (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.79) to 38% (adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49-0.79) decreased odds of cesarean in the birth center cohort and a remarkably low overall cesarean rate of less than 5% in both cohorts. These findings suggest that low rates of cesarean in birth centers are not attributable to labor setting alone. The entire birth center care model, including prenatal preparation and relationship-based midwifery care, should be studied, promoted, and implemented by policy makers interested in achieving appropriate cesarean rates in the United States. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic v...

  20. Mode of Delivery and Asthma at School Age in 9 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusconi, Franca; Zugna, Daniela; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Evidence on the association between mode of delivery and asthma at school age is inconclusive. We assessed the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma in children from 9 European birth cohorts that enrolled participants between 1996 and 2006. Cohort-specific crude and adjusted ...

  1. Influence of birth cohort on age of onset cluster analysis in bipolar I disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, M.; Glenn, T.; Alda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset......, using a large, international database. Methods: The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth...... for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups. Conclusion: These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based...

  2. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2008-10-01

    Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors mediate the association. The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. Mothers with preterm birth compared with mothers with >12 years of education and the association interacted with parity, while income and occupation affected the risk to a lesser degree. The adjusted HR for less educated nulliparous and parous women were 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.42) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.31-1.87), respectively, compared with women with >12 years of education. For parous women with preterm birth to 1.43 (95% CI 1.19-1.72). Maternal educational level was the strongest predictor of preterm birth among five socioeconomic measures and the gradient did not differ significantly according to the degree of preterm birth. For parous women smoking explained some of the educational gradient but in general the selected risk factors only reduced the relative educational gradient in preterm birth marginally.

  3. Impact of maternal thyroid autoantibodies positivity on the risk of early term birth: Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Mao, Lei-Jing; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Ren, Ling-Ling; Hong, Shu-Qing; Gao, Hui; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Pan, Wei-Jun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Zhu, De-Fa; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2018-05-01

    We aim to investigate associations of maternal serum anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) with duration of gestation. We aim to investigate whether maternal TPOAb positivity is associated with the risk of premature or early term birth. This was a prospective birth cohort study performed in an iodine sufficient area of China. Serum samples were collected from 2931 women at both the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and TPOAb levels were measured. Data on gestational age at birth was obtained from delivery records. The prevalence of early term birth was 23.8%, while the prevalence of premature birth was 4.2%. The prevalence of TPOAb positivity was 12.1% in the first trimester and was 7.2% in the second trimester. Gestational age at birth was inversely associated with lgTPOAb both in the first trimester (β, -0.283, 95% CI -0.408, -0.158; P < 0.001) and in the second trimester (β, -0.174, 95% CI -0.319, -0.030; P = 0.018), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. There was a positive association of TPOAb positivity with the risk of early term birth both in the first (OR = 1.691, 95% CI 1.302, 2.197) and second trimesters (OR = 1.644, 95% CI 1.193, 2.264), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. TPOAb positivity in the second trimester was associated with a 1.863-fold higher risk of premature birth (OR = 1.863, 95% CI 1.009, 3.441), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Our results show that TPOAb is associated with shorter duration of gestation and with higher risk of premature and early term birth.

  4. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat......Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... were mailed to a stratified random sample from the Norwegian population registry in 1996 and 2001. Complete data sets for both periods were obtained from N = 4590 respondents. Data were analyzed by means of multivariate linear models. Results indicate that overall consumption of fat fish and processed...

  5. Brighter children? The association between seasonality of birth and child IQ in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootendorst-van Mil, Nina H; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-02-17

    Season of birth has repeatedly been found to be a risk indicator for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several explanations for this finding have been put forward but no conclusion has been reached. In the current study, we explored the role of sociodemographic and biological factors in the association between season of birth and child IQ. In a prenatally recruited birth cohort (born in 2002-2006), we examined the association between season of birth and non-verbal IQ at age 6 years among 6034 children. We explored how adjusting for socioeconomic status and maternal IQ, childbirth outcomes, pregnancy vitamin D status, nutritional intake, exposure to infections, and child age relative to peers in class changed the relation between season of birth and child IQ. We found that spring birth was associated with lower non-verbal IQ (estimate: more than 1 point; β-1.24 (95% CI -2.31 to -0.17), p=0.02; seasonal trend β-0.40 (95% CI -0.74 to -0.07), p=0.02) than birth in summer. Adjustment for different covariates led to a substantial reduction (-65.0% change, in a seasonal trend analysis) of this association. In particular, sociodemographic factors and maternal IQ (-10.0% and -22.5% change, respectively) contributed. Season of birth is an indicator of many underlying factors related to child IQ. The observed effects on IQ were small and therefore not of clinical significance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Izoton de Sadovsky

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: In a final model, economic inequities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies.

  7. Decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori according to birth cohorts in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinjuan; Yang, Xuan; Yang, Tingting; Dong, Quanjiang; Wang, Lili; Feng, Lei

    2017-03-01

    The Helicobacter pylori prevalence has been decreasing in many parts of the world. This study aimed to investigate the current epidemiological status of H. pylori infection in urban China. The study included 51,299 subjects aged ≥18 years who underwent health checkups between April 2013 and June 2016 in a city of China. H. pylori infection was determined by detecting H. pylori urease-IgG antibodies. Statistical analyses included chi-square tests for trends and curve fitting. The overall H. pylori prevalence was found to be 31.9%, with the highest prevalence in the 1950-1959 birth cohort. It was lower in the subsequent birth cohorts (trends, purban China. The birth cohort effect and economic growth are the most likely causes of this phenomenon.

  8. Pregnancy outcomes among female hairdressers who participated in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) was used to examine pregnancy outcomes among female hairdressers and neurodevelopment in their offspring. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted of 550 hairdressers and 3216 shop assistants (reference group) by using data from th...... impairment or delayed psychomotor development....... the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1997 and 2003. Information on job characteristics was reported by the women in the first interview (around 17 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linkage to the national registers. Developmental milestones were reported by the mother at the fourth...... interview, when the child was approximately 19 months old. Cox regression was applied to analyze fetal loss and congenital malformation. Logistic regression was used to analyze other pregnancy outcomes and developmental milestones. RESULTS: We found no significant differences in fetal loss, multiple births...

  9. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adj OR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  10. Oral health in a life-course: birth-cohorts from 1929 to 2006 in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. The material comprised data from random samples of three birth-cohorts living in the counties of Sør- and Nord-Trøndelag in 1983. The birth-cohorts were 1929-1938, 1939-1948 and 1959-1960. In 2006 two samples were drawn from the 1929-1938 and 1959-1960 birth-cohort. The data collection comprised standard clinical measurements and self-administered questionnaires. The early oral health environment and social status and gender were related to oral health in 1983 by multiple regressions. The impact of social status was studied in combined datafiles from 1983 and 2006. The oral health environment in childhood was important for adults' oral health. The attention from parents and the local environment lead to a better oral health outcome in adulthood. Social status affected choices leading to better oral health. Regular dental visits were important especially for the eldest birth-cohort. Good oral health behaviours early and during adulthood were also important for oral health. Judged by number of tooth surfaces the difference between social status groups had not increased by 2006. A life-course perspective provides an opportunity to understand oral health over time. The present study supports the assumption that oral health is continuously exposed to environmental and behavioural risks that lead to accumulated diseases in the dental tissues.

  11. [Age, period and birth-cohort effects on marriage rates in Japanese women between 1985 and 2005, and comparison of trends of effects between marriage and birth rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Odagiri, Youichi; Ohtake, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Jun

    2008-07-01

    An age-period-cohort (APC) analysis was performed to provide information about age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage trends in Japanese women. In addition, the relationships of the trends of age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects between marriage and birth were analyzed. We obtained data regarding marriages of Japanese women aged between 19 and 38 years for the period of 1985 to 2005 from the National Vital Statistics. Population data used were for an estimated population, obtained from the Population Estimates Annual Reports. Standard cohort tables comprising marriage and population data were analyzed using a Bayesian APC model to identify age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage rate trends. Previously obtained data for a similar APC-analysis of birth trends were used to compare the trends in the effects of age, period, and cohort on marriage and birth patterns. For this purpose, the estimated values for each effect were normalized. With regard to the marriage trends in Japanese women, the effect of age was the greatest, peaking at the age of 25 years. The period effect increased after 1997; however, its effect was relatively limited as compared to the other effects. The cohort effect, which was greater than the period effect and less than the age effect, on marriage trends showed a decreasing slope for birth cohorts born after 1966 and subsequent increase after 1982. Comparison of age, period and cohort effects between the trends in marriage and birth rates showed that the age effect distinctly peaked at 25 and 28 years for marriage and births, respectively. The period effect on marriage and birth showed a decreasing trend until 1991 and subsequent increased in 1992 and 1997 for births and marriage, respectively. With regard to the cohort effect on birth rates, a decreasing trend was observed for the birth cohorts after 1961, with increase after 1977. However, with regard to the cohort effect on marriage rates, the decreasing

  12. [European birth cohorts: Early life exposure to microorganisms and health impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, S; Reboux, G

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, many birth cohorts have been initiated in Europe, to assess the early life microbiological exposure of children in the indoor environment and better understanding the different effects (adverse/protectors) on health. The results of 12 European cohorts, with different methodologies for exposure and allergic risk assessment are summarized in this review. Four meta-analyzes of cohort are presented too. Microbiological researches in indoor environment seem to turn to a metrology of microbiological exposure, but few studies provide real quantitative data. Thus, the establishment of dose-effect relationship is not possible and can only be done by having a global view of the situation, provided by an identical metrological approach in the different studies, in a large-scale, in the context of large birth cohorts with children followed with strict criteria to establish the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaire...... consumption of lean fish, on the other hand, is clearly falling in Norway, whereas total consumption of processed fish is rising, suggesting clear areas for marketing action....

  14. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; á Rogvi, Sofie; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Design Cohort study. Setting 1996–2002, Denmark. Participants All first time participants, a total of 89 829 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were included in the present study. Overall, 4062 pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortion. Information on education, income and labour market attachment in the year before pregnancy was dra...

  15. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael

    2007-01-01

    prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...

  16. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. RESULTS: Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty......BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated...... regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log-transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: -87 g (95% CI: -137, -340 per 1.70 ng/mL), -43 g (95% CI: -108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and -135 g (95% CI: -192, -78 per 1...

  17. Mode of delivery at birth and the metabolic syndrome in midlife: the role of the birth environment in a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhanick, Béatrice; Ehlinger, Virginie; Delpierre, Cyrille; Chamontin, Bernard; Lang, Thierry; Kelly-Irving, Michelle

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the hypothesis that mode of delivery at birth may be associated with metabolic disorders in adult midlife. Population cohort study The National Child Development Study consists of individuals born during 1 week in 1958 in Great Britain. Respondents with biomedical data on the metabolic syndrome at age 45 were included. The metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III classification. 7156 were born naturally; among the caesarean births, 106 were non-elective and 85 were elective caesareans. The metabolic syndrome is present in 37.7% of those born by non-elective caesareans, 25.9% of those born by elective caesarean and 27.5% of those born by vaginal delivery. In a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for antenatal factors, birth history, mother's characteristics and the socioeconomic environment at birth, only birth by non-elective caesarean remained associated with the metabolic syndrome in adulthood compared with vaginal delivery (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.30). Mother's obesity (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.34) and low maternal education level (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.67) were also independently associated with midlife metabolic syndrome. Birth by non-elective caesarean in 1958 may be associated with metabolic syndrome in adulthood after adjusting for prior confounding factors. We suggest that the birth context of emergency caesareans in 1958 is suggestive of a 'fetal stress' mechanism affecting health across the lifecourse. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Missed epidemics and missing links: international birth cohort trends in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdacic-Gross, V; Tschopp, A; Schmid, M; Bopp, M; Gutzwiller, F

    2013-03-01

    Many hypotheses on the etiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) focus on risk factors occurring early in life. This study examined the variability of birth cohort trends in international MS data by means of age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. The data from 25 countries were taken from the WHO mortality database. Data were encoded according to the International Classification of Diseases and covered slightly varying periods between 1951 and 2009. The APC analyses were based on logit models applied to cohort tables with 5-year age- and period intervals. In most countries, the birth cohort estimates peaked in those born in the first half of the 20th century. In countries from Central and Western Europe, the peak concerned those born before and around 1920. A second group of countries (Denmark, Sweden, Italy, Ireland, Scotland) shared a later peak amongst cohorts born in the 1920s and 1930s. Group 3 included Commonwealth countries, the USA and Norway, with a double or extended peak starting in the 1910s or 1920s, and ending by the 1950s. The fourth group, consisting of Mediterranean countries and Finland, was characterized by a steady increase in the birth cohort estimates until the 1950s. The fifth group with countries from Eastern Europe and Japan showed no particular pattern. Birth cohort trends have influenced the change in MS risk across the 20th century in many Western countries. This silent epidemic points to a most important but unknown latent risk factor in MS. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  19. Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

  20. Educational inequalities in initiation, cessation, and prevalence of smoking among 3 Italian birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Federico; G. Costa (Giuseppe); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in initiation and cessation rates of smoking and the resultant inequality in smoking prevalence among 3 consecutive Italian birth cohorts. Methods. We used data from the 1999-2000 Italian National Health Interview Survey, which included

  1. The course of skull deformation from birth to 5 years of age: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Engelbert, R.H.; Pelsma, M.; Groenewoud, H.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2017-01-01

    In a continuation of a prospective longitudinal cohort study in a healthy population on the course of skull shape from birth to 24 months, at 5 years of age, 248 children participated in a follow-up assessment using plagiocephalometry (ODDI-oblique diameter difference index, CPI-cranio proportional

  2. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development : Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Kluemper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kraemer, Ursula; Larroque, Beatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Remy; Sorensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardon, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Goeran; Sunyer, Jordi

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands),

  3. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Klümper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krämer, Ursula; Larroque, Béatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardón, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands),

  4. Cell phone exposures and hearing loss in children in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002.

  5. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...

  6. Birth Cohort Changes in Chinese College Students' Loneliness and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sufei; Xin, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic recent changes in Chinese society, Chinese college students' average levels of loneliness and social support might also have changed across their birth cohorts. The present cross-temporal meta-analysis of 56 studies (N = 21,541) found that Chinese college students' scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) increased…

  7. Educational inequalities in initiation, cessation, and prevalence of smoking among 3 Italian birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federico, Bruno; Costa, Giuseppe; Kunst, Anton E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined socioeconomic inequalities in initiation and cessation rates of smoking and the resultant inequality in smoking prevalence among 3 consecutive Italian birth cohorts. METHODS: We used data from the 1999-2000 Italian National Health Interview Survey, which included 28958 men

  8. Is fetal macrosomia related to blood pressure among adolescents? A birth cohort study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Wu, J.; Yu, J.; Gao, E.; Meads, C.; Afnan, M.; Ren, J.; Rong, F.; Mignini, L.; von Dadelszen, P.; Magee, L.; Sawchuck, D.; Mol, B. W.; Oude Rengerink, K.; Zamora, J.; Fox, C.; Daniels, J.; Khan, K. S.; Thangaratinam, S.

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) has effects on blood pressure (BP). In order to explore the effects of macrosomia on BP in childhood and in adolescence, a longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Wuxi, China. Subjects with BW ≥4000 g, born in 1993-1995, were the exposed group; the unexposed comparisons were

  9. Propensity to psychiatric and somatic ill-health : evidence from a birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Sytema, S; Wadsworth, M

    Background. Somatic and psychiatric morbidity may cluster because of reciprocal effects between them but also as a result of common underlying factors. Methods. The data come from the 1946 MRC birth cohort (N = 5362). Clustering of 20 chronic medical conditions at the participants' 43rd year was

  10. Presence and process of fear of birth during pregnancy-Findings from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Haines, Helen; Karlström, Annika; Nystedt, Astrid

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of fear of birth has been estimated between 8-30%, but there is considerable heterogeneity in research design, definitions, measurement tools used and populations. There are some inconclusive findings about the stability of childbirth fear. to assess the prevalence and characteristics of women presenting with scores ≥60 on FOBS-The Fear of Birth Scale, in mid and late pregnancy, and to study change in fear of birth and associated factors. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of a one-year cohort of 1212 pregnant women from a northern part of Sweden, recruited in mid pregnancy and followed up in late pregnancy. Fear of birth was assessed using FOBS-The fear of birth scale, with the cut off at ≥60. The prevalence of fear of birth was 22% in mid pregnancy and 19% in late pregnancy, a statistically significant decrease. Different patterns were found where some women presented with increased fear and some with decreased fear. The women who experienced more fear or less fear later in pregnancy could not be differentiated by background factors. More research is needed to explore factors important to reduce fear of childbirth and the optimal time to measure it. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

  12. The Pelotas birth cohort study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed.

  13. Mammographic density in birth cohorts of Danish women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Lynge, Elsebeth; Schwartz, Walter; Vejborg, Ilse; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2013-09-05

    Breast cancer is the leading malignant disease among western women with incidence increasing over time. High mammographic density is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer. We explored trends in mammographic density across birth cohorts to gain further insight into possible time trends in women's mammographic density that might explain the historical increase in breast cancer incidence. Data derived from two mammography screening programs in Denmark from 1991 to 2001, including on average 41,091 women from Copenhagen and 52,938 women from Funen aged 50-69. Mammographic density was assessed qualitatively (fatty or mixed/dense) by senior screening radiologists. The proportion of women with mixed/dense mammographic density was calculated by age at screening, screening period, and birth cohort. The Generalized Estimating Equations were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. All statistical tests were two-sided. The proportion of women with mixed/dense mammographic density increased from 45% among women born in the 1920s to 75-80% among women born in the 1940s. In Copenhagen, the age-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of mixed/dense mammographic density in women born in 1941-42 was 2.48 (2.22-2.76) compared with women born in 1921-22. In Funen, the age-adjusted odds ratio of mixed/dense mammographic density in women born in 1946-47 was 5.89 (5.32-6.51) compared with women born in 1924-25. Hormone use had a greater impact on mammographic density in birth cohorts of the 1920s compared with those of the 1940s. We found suggestive evidence of a birth cohort pattern in mammographic density and an attenuated impact of hormone use in younger compared with older birth cohorts suggesting that postmenopausal mammographic density could be linked to changing exposures accumulated over time in women's lives.

  14. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National Birth Cohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J L; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work. METHODS: Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference). The laboratory technicians were...... of preterm birth doubled for women working with these tasks every day or several times a week. When an exposure matrix was applied, an increased risk of "major" malformations for exposure to organic solvents was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The results did not indicate any high risk of reproductive failures...... asked about laboratory work tasks during pregnancy in an interview (at around 16 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linking the cohort to the national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) of late fetal loss and diagnosing of congenital malformations were calculated by using Cox...

  15. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National BirthCohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, L; Andersen, AM

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work. METHODS: Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference). The laboratory technicians were...... of preterm birth doubled for women working with these tasks every day or several times a week. When an exposure matrix was applied, an increased risk of "major" malformations for exposure to organic solvents was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The results did not indicate any high risk of reproductive failures...... asked about laboratory work tasks during pregnancy in an interview (at around 16 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linking the cohort to the national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) of late fetal loss and diagnosing of congenital malformations were calculated by using Cox...

  16. Infant Feeding and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Two Large Scandinavian Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A.; Sander, Stine Dydensborg; Størdal, Ketil

    2017-01-01

    breastfeeding (HR per month 0.99 [95% CI 0.97–1.01]) and any breastfeeding (0.97 [0.92–1.03]). CONCLUSIONS: Suggestive evidence supports the contention that breastfeeding reduces the risk of type 1 diabetes. Among those who were breastfed, however, no evidence indicated that prolonging full or any breastfeeding......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the relation between the duration of full and any breastfeeding and risk of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included two population-based cohorts of children followed from birth (1996–2009) to 2014 (Denmark) or 2015 (Norway). We analyzed data from...... a total of 155,392 children participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Parents reported infant dietary practices when their child was 6 and 18 months old. The outcome was clinical type 1 diabetes, ascertained from nationwide childhood...

  17. Infertility and preterm delivery, birthweight, and Caesarean section: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    , longitudinal studies enrolling couples irrespective of infertility treatment. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort: 55 906 singleton live births from women who reported their waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and other covariates in an interview during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy....... RESULTS: A TTP >1 year was associated with an increased risk of all outcomes studied, including preterm birth [odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) among primiparas and 1.9 (1.5, 2.4) among multiparas]. Odds ratios for preterm remained elevated after adjustment for covariates....... Among couples with a TTP >1 year, infertility treatment was associated with added risk only among multiparas. CONCLUSION: Infertile women are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes even if they conceive without treatment. With >10% of babies born to infertile couples, it is important to consider...

  18. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  19. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  20. Social inequalities in teenage fertility outcomes: childbearing and abortion trends of three birth cohorts in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Heini; Murphy, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Teenagers of low socioeconomic status are more likely to get pregnant, and less likely to choose abortion, than more privileged teenagers. Few studies have used longitudinal data to examine whether these differences persist as overall teenage pregnancy rates decline. Nationally representative register data from 259,242 Finnish women in three birth cohorts (1955-1959, 1965-1969 and 1975-1979) were analyzed using Cox regression to assess socioeconomic differences in teenagers' risks of pregnancy and abortion. Binary logistic regression was used to assess socioeconomic differences in the odds of pregnant teenagers' choosing abortion. Socioeconomic differences in abortion risk did not change substantially across cohorts; however, differences in the risk of childbirth rose between the first two cohorts and then returned to their earlier level. In all cohorts, teenagers from upper-level employee backgrounds, the most privileged group, had the lowest risks of abortion and childbirth (44-53% and 53-69% lower, respectively, than those for manual workers' children). Teenagers whose parents were lower-level employees or farmers also had reduced risks of both outcomes in all cohorts; results for other socioeconomic groups were less consistent. Pregnant teenagers from upper-level employee backgrounds had 2-3 times the odds of abortion of manual workers' children; the largest difference was found in the 1950s cohort. Despite the declining overall teenage pregnancy rate, poorer background continues to be associated with a higher risk of conceiving and of giving birth. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Aaltonen, Sari; Heikkilä, Kauko; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth Jf; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spector, Timothy D; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos Cem; Willemsen, Gonneke; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Goldberg, Jack H; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Rasmussen, Finn; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-12-14

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve.

  2. Smaller kidney size at birth in South Asians: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Paul J; Jeffrey, Robin F; Yuen, Ho M; Godfrey, Keith M; West, Jane; Wright, John

    2016-03-01

    Rates of advanced chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy are higher in South Asian than in white British populations. Low birth weight is also more frequent in South Asian populations and has been associated with increased risks of kidney disease, perhaps due to a reduced nephron endowment. Using ultrasound scans at 34 weeks of gestation, we measured fetal kidney dimensions (transverse and anteroposterior diameters, length and circumference) and derived volume in a random sample of 872 white British and 715 South Asian participants in the Born in Bradford cohort study. Kidney measurements were compared between ethnic groups. Birth weight for gestational age at 40 weeks was 200 g less in South Asian babies compared with white British babies. The mean kidney volume for gestational age was 16% lower in South Asian than in white British babies [8.79 versus 10.45 cm(3), difference 1.66 cm(3) (95% confidence interval 1.40-1.93, P < 0.001)]. The difference was robust after adjustment for maternal age, socio-economic factors, marital status, body mass index, smoking and alcohol use in pregnancy, parity, baby's gender and birth weight for gestational age [adjusted difference 1.38 cm(3) (0.97-1.84), P < 0.001]. There were smaller reductions in other fetal measures. South Asian babies have smaller kidneys compared with white British babies, even after adjusting for potential confounders including birth weight. This finding may contribute to increased risks of adult kidney disease in South Asian populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  4. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors.Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks. In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8 in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9. Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4, and there was no significant relationship with deprivation.Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  5. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Agarwal, Umber; Diggle, Peter J; Platt, Mary Jane; Yoxall, Bill; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2011-01-01

    Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors. Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks). In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8) in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9). Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4), and there was no significant relationship with deprivation. Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  6. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants by domestic water hardness and season of birth: Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane A; Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Melbye, Mads; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) appears to be more common in regions with hard domestic water and in children with a fall/winter birth. However, it is unknown whether a synergistic effect exists. We sought to evaluate the association between domestic water hardness and season of birth, respectively, with onset of AD within the first 18 months of life in a large Danish birth cohort. Of children from the Danish National Birth Cohort, 52,950 were included. History of physician-diagnosed AD and population characteristics were obtained from interviews. Birth data were obtained from the Civil Registration System, and domestic water hardness data were obtained from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. The relative prevalence (RP) of AD was calculated by using log-linear binomial regression. The prevalence of AD was 15.0% (7,942/52,950). The RP of AD was 5% (RP trend , 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.07) higher for each 5° increase in domestic water hardness (range, 6.60-35.90 German degrees of hardness [118-641 mg/L]). Although the RP of AD was higher in children with a fall (RP, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.31) or winter (RP, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25) birth, no significant interaction was observed with domestic water hardness. The population attributable risk of hard domestic water on AD was 2%. We observed that early exposure to hard domestic water and a fall/winter birth was associated with an increase in the relative prevalence of AD within the first 18 months of life. Although the 2 exposures did not interact synergistically, a dose-response relationship was observed between domestic water hardness and AD. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Albert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity to traffic is a proxy for traffic-related exposures that takes into account within-city contrasts. Methods We investigated the association between residential proximity to traffic and various birth and pregnancy outcomes in 7,339 pregnant women and their children participating in a population-based cohort study. Residential proximity to traffic was defined as 1 distance-weighted traffic density in a 150 meter radius, and 2 proximity to a major road. We estimated associations of these exposures with birth weight, and with the risks of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth. Additionally, we examined associations with pregnancy-induced hypertension, (preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Results There was considerable variation in distance-weighted traffic density. Almost fifteen percent of the participants lived within 50 m of a major road. Residential proximity to traffic was not associated with birth and pregnancy outcomes in the main analysis and in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Mothers exposed to residential traffic had no higher risk of adverse birth outcomes or pregnancy complications in this study. Future studies may be refined by taking both temporal and spatial variation in air pollution exposure into account.

  8. Predictors of birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms: secondary analysis of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms during the early postnatal period. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of 1824 women who gave birth in one large hospital in England. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were developed for analyses. Results showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms were more frequently observed in black women and in women who had a higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared to those with a lower BMI. Women who have a history of mental illness as well as those who gave birth before arriving at the hospital, underwent an emergency caesarean section or experienced severe maternal morbidity or neonatal complications also showed symptoms. Women's perceived control during labour and birth significantly reduced the effects of some risk factors. A higher level of perceived social support during the postnatal period also reduced the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the perspective of clinical practice, improving women's sense of control during labour and birth appears to be important, as does providing social support following the birth.

  9. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet......'s socioeconomic status The analyses included data from 50,117 mother-infant pairs. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SD) consumption of milk was 3.1 +/- 2.0 glasses/d. Milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of small-for gestational age (SGA) birth and directly with both large-for-gestational age (LGA) birth...... and mean birth weight (P for trend drinking >or=6 glasses/d with those drinking 0 glasses/d, the odds ratio for SGA was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.65) and for LGA was 1.59 (1.16, 2.16); the increment in mean birth weight was 108 g (74, 143 g). We also found graded relations (P...

  10. Dietary assessment in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study: comparing energy intake with energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Hallal, Pedro C; Souza, Rosângela Velleda de; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Vieira, Maria de Fátima Alves; Assunção, Maria Cecilia Formoso; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Menezes, Ana M B

    2010-11-01

    The study aims to describe and compare two methods of energy intake assessment and one measure of energy expenditure applied in adolescents from a birth cohort. In a sub-sample of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort, followed up in 2006-7, information on intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and three 24-hour-recalls (24hR), while energy expenditure was assessed using an accelerometer. Bland & Altman plots were used in the analyses in order to compare the methods. The mean difference between FFQ and 24hR was 592 ± 929cal/day. Compared to energy expenditure, intake was overestimated when measured by FFQ (357 ± 968cal/day) and underestimated by 24hR (-278 ± 714cal/day). In spite of the great differences between energy intake obtained using the two methods, lower differences were observed when these methods were compared to expenditure.

  11. Size at birth and blood pressure in young adults: findings from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cunha Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de presión arterial limítrofe (PAL e hipertensión (HT entre adultos jóvenes y evaluar la asociación entre tamaño al nacer y PAL/HT. MÉTODOS: : Los datos fueron colectados en el primer estudio de cohorte de nacimientos brasileño en Ribeirao Preto (sureste de Brasil, iniciado en 1978/79. De 6.827 recién nacidos de parto único hospitalario, 2.060 fueron evaluados a los 23/25 años. Se realizaron colecta de sangre, evaluación antropométrica y obtenidas informaciones sobre ocupación, escolaridad, hábitos de vida y enfermedades crónicas. Presión arterial (PA fue clasificada en: 1 PAL: PA sistólica (PAS ≥ 130 y < 140 mm Hg y/o PA diastólica (PAD ≥ 85 y < 90 mm Hg; 2 HT: PAS ≥ 140 y/o PAD ≥ 90 mm Hg. Se aplicó modelo de regresión logística politómica. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de PAL fue de 13,5% (hombres 23,2% y la de HT, 9,5% (hombres 17,7%. PAL fue independientemente asociada con sexo masculino (Riesgo Relativo - RR 8,84; 95%IC: 6,09;12,82, estatura al nacer ≥ 50 cm (RR 1,97; 1,04; 3,73, índice de masa corporal (IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,23; 2,02; 5,15 y circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 1,61; 1,13;2,29, mientras el HT se asoció con sexo masculino (RR 15,18; 8,92;25,81, IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,68; 2,23;6,06, circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 2,68; 1,77;4,05 y glicemia elevada (RR 2,55; 1,27;5,10, pero no con estatura al nacer. CONCLUSIONES: Las prevalencias de PAL y HT entre los adultos jóvenes de la cohorte fueron mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Mayor estatura al nacer fue asociado con PAL, pero no con HT, mientras que el peso al nacer no estuvo asociado con PAL o HT. Factores de riesgo de adulto explicaron la mayoría de los aumentos de PAL o HT.

  12. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy and reduced birth size: a prospective birth cohort study in Valencia, Spain

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    Llop Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal exposure to air pollution has been related to fetal growth in a number of recent scientific studies. The objective of this study was to assess the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in a cohort in Valencia, Spain. Methods Seven hundred and eighty-five pregnant women and their singleton newborns participated in the study. Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 was estimated by means of land use regression. NO2 spatial estimations were adjusted to correspond to relevant pregnancy periods (whole pregnancy and trimesters for each woman. Outcome variables were birth weight, length, and head circumference (HC, along with being small for gestational age (SGA. The association between exposure to residential outdoor NO2 and outcomes was assessed controlling for potential confounders and examining the shape of the relationship using generalized additive models (GAM. Results For continuous anthropometric measures, GAM indicated a change in slope at NO2 concentrations of around 40 μg/m3. NO2 exposure >40 μg/m3 during the first trimester was associated with a change in birth length of -0.27 cm (95% CI: -0.51 to -0.03 and with a change in birth weight of -40.3 grams (-96.3 to 15.6; the same exposure throughout the whole pregnancy was associated with a change in birth HC of -0.17 cm (-0.34 to -0.003. The shape of the relation was seen to be roughly linear for the risk of being SGA. A 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 during the second trimester was associated with being SGA-weight, odds ratio (OR: 1.37 (1.01-1.85. For SGA-length the estimate for the same comparison was OR: 1.42 (0.89-2.25. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may reduce fetal growth. Findings from this study provide further evidence of the need for developing strategies to reduce air pollution in order to prevent risks to fetal health and development.

  13. Fertility treatment, twin births, and unplanned pregnancies in women with eating disorders: findings from a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N; dos-Santos-Silva, I; De Stavola, B; Steenweg-de Graaff, J; Steenweg-de Graaf, J; Jaddoe, V; Hofman, A; Verhulst, F C; Steegers, Eap; Tiemeier, H

    2014-03-01

    To investigate fertility treatment, twin births, and unplanned pregnancies in pregnant women with eating disorders in a population-based sample. A longitudinal population-based birth cohort (Generation R). Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Women from the Generation R study who reported a history of (recent or past) anorexia nervosa (n = 160), bulimia nervosa (n = 265), or both (n = 130), and a history of psychiatric disorders other than eating disorders (n = 1396) were compared with women without psychiatric disorders (n = 4367). Women were compared on the studied outcomes using logistic regression. We performed crude and adjusted analyses (adjusting for relevant confounding factors). Fertility treatment, twin births, unplanned pregnancies, and women's feelings towards unplanned pregnancies. Relative to women without psychiatric disorders, women with bulimia nervosa had increased odds (odds ratio, OR, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.1-5.2) of having undergone fertility treatment. Women with all eating disorders had increased odds of twin births (anorexia nervosa, OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0-7.7; bulimia nervosa, OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.6; anorexia and bulimia nervosa, OR 3.795% CI 1.3-10.7). Anorexia nervosa was associated with increased odds of unplanned pregnancies (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) and mixed feelings about these pregnancies (adjusted OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.7-14.4). Pre-pregnancy body mass index did not explain the observed associations. Eating disorders are associated with increased odds of receiving fertility treatment and twin births. Women with anorexia nervosa were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy and have mixed feelings about the unplanned pregnancy. Fertility treatment specialists should be aware that both active and past eating disorders (both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) might underlie fertility problems. ©2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Mothers, places and small for gestational age births: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Li, Xinjun; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2011-04-01

    This study examines whether neighbourhood deprivation increases the risk of giving birth to a small for gestational age (SGA) infant, after accounting for individual-level maternal socioeconomic characteristics. An open cohort of women, aged 20-44 years, was followed from 1 January 1992 through 31 December 2004 for first singleton births. The women's residential addresses during the two consecutive years preceding the birth of their infants were geocoded and classified into three levels of neighbourhood deprivation. Gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound examinations. Multilevel logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Sweden. During the study period, women gave birth to 720 357 infants, of whom 20 487 (2.8%) were SGA. Age-adjusted incidence rates of SGA births increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. In the total population, 2.5% of births in the least deprived neighbourhoods and 3.5% of births in the most deprived neighbourhoods were SGA. A similar pattern of higher incidence with increasing level of neighbourhood-level deprivation was observed across all individual-level sociodemographic categories, including maternal age, marital status, family income, educational attainment, employment, mobility and urban/rural status. High neighbourhood-level deprivation remained significantly associated with SGA risk after adjusting for maternal sociodemographic characteristics (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.34). This study is the largest to date of the influence of neighbourhood on SGA birth, with SGA confirmed by ultrasound examination. Results suggest that the characteristics of a mother's neighbourhood affect the risk of delivering an SGA infant independently of maternal sociodemographic characteristics.

  15. Subfecundity as a correlate of preeclampsia: A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    A long interpregnancy interval is associated with preeclampsia. If some women experiencing a long interval between births had difficulty conceiving, subfecundity and preeclampsia may share a common etiology. Therefore, the authors examined the association between subfecundity and preeclampsia....... By using interview data collected during the second trimester of pregnancy (1998–2001) from women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, they identified 20,034 and 24,698 singleton livebirths to primiparous and multiparous women, respectively, for whom preeclampsia information was available...... from hospital birth records. Among women with no known hypertension, the authors estimated a higher risk of preeclampsia in those with longer times to pregnancy (TTPs), after adjustment for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index, and smoking. Compared with primiparas who became pregnant right away...

  16. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Peres,Karen Glazer; Barros,Aluísio J D; Peres,Marco Aurélio; Victora,César Gomes

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding bre...

  17. Respiratory Viruses in Neonates: A Prospective, Community-based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Mohinder; Alsaleh, Asma; Lambert, Stephen B; Ware, Robert S; Mhango, Lebogang P; Mackay, Ian M; Whiley, David M; Sloots, Theo P; Grimwood, Keith

    2016-12-01

    A community-based birth cohort study collected weekly nasal swabs and recorded daily symptoms from 157 full-term infants. An average of 0.25 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.34) respiratory virus infections per neonatal period were detected. Human rhinoviruses of diverse subtypes dominated; almost 50% were asymptomatic and continued rhinovirus detections may signify new genotypes. Respiratory viruses are common and often unrecognized in healthy neonates.

  18. Electronic data collection in epidemiological research. The use of REDCap in the Pelotas birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Cauane; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes the use of Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) to conduct one of the follow-up waves of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort. The aim is to point out the advantages and limitations of using this electronic data capture environment to collect data and control every step of a longitudinal epidemiological research, specially in terms of time savings and data quality. We used REDCap as the main tool to support the conduction of a birth cohort follow-up. By exploiting several REDCap features, we managed to schedule assessments, collect data, and control the study workflow. To enhance data quality, we developed specific reports and field validations to depict inconsistencies in real time. Using REDCap it was possible to investigate more variables without significant increases on the data collection time, when comparing to a previous birth cohort follow-up. In addition, better data quality was achieved since negligible out of range errors and no validation or missing inconsistencies were identified after applying over 7,000 interviews. Adopting electronic data capture solutions, such as REDCap, in epidemiological research can bring several advantages over traditional paper-based data collection methods. In favor of improving their features, more research groups should migrate from paper to electronic-based epidemiological research.

  19. GWAS on prolonged gestation (post-term birth): analysis of successive Finnish birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierding, William; Antony, Jisha; Karhunen, Ville; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Franks, Steve; Elliott, Paul; Kajantie, Eero; Sebert, Sylvain; Blakemore, Alex; Horsfield, Julia A; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Sullivan, Justin M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2018-01-01

    Gestation is a crucial timepoint in human development. Deviation from a term gestational age correlates with both acute and long-term adverse health effects for the child. Both being born preterm and post-term, that is, having short and long gestational ages, are heritable and influenced by the prenatal and perinatal environment. Despite the obvious heritable component, specific genetic influences underlying differences in gestational age are poorly understood. We investigated the genetic architecture of gestational age in 9141 individuals, including 1167 born post-term, across two Northern Finland cohorts born in 1966 or 1986. Here we identify one globally significant intronic genetic variant within the ADAMTS13 gene that is associated with prolonged gestation (p=4.85×10 -8 ). Additional variants that reached suggestive levels of significance were identified within introns at the ARGHAP42 and TKT genes, and in the upstream (5') intergenic regions of the B3GALT5 and SSBP2 genes. The variants near the ADAMTS13 , B3GALT5 , SSBP2 and TKT loci are linked to alterations in gene expression levels (cis-eQTLs). Luciferase assays confirmed the allele specific enhancer activity for the BGALT5 and TKT loci. Our findings provide the first evidence of a specific genetic influence associated with prolonged gestation. This study forms a foundation for a better understanding of the genetic and long-term health risks faced by induced and post-term individuals. The long-term risks for induced individuals who have a previously overlooked post-term potential may be a major issue for current health providers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Effect of Birth Cohort on Risk of Hip Fracture: Age-Specific Incidence Rates in the Framingham Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yuqing; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian T.; Felson, David T.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of birth cohort on incidence rates of hip fracture among women and men in the Framingham Study. Methods. Age-specific incidence rates of first hip fracture were presented according to tertile of year of birth for 5209 participants of the Framingham Study, a population-based cohort followed since 1948. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios were calculated by Cox regression to assess the relation between birth cohort and hip fracture incidence. Results. An increasing trend in hip fracture incidence rates was observed with year of birth for women (trend, P = .05) and men (trend, P = .03). Relative to those born from 1887 to 1900 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.0), age-specific incidence rates were greatest in the most recent birth cohort, born from 1911 to 1921 (IRR = 1.4 for women, IRR = 2.0 for men), and intermediate in those born from 1901 to 1910 (IRR = 1.2 for women, IRR = 1.5 for men). Conclusions. Results suggest risk of hip fracture is increasing for successive birth cohorts. Projections that fail to account for the increase in rates associated with birth cohort underestimate the future public health impact of hip fracture in the United States. PMID:11988460

  1. Changing relationships between smoking and psychiatric disorders across twentieth century birth cohorts: clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, A; Keyes, K M; Hasin, D S

    2016-04-01

    As the risks of tobacco use become recognized and smoking becomes stigmatized, new smokers may be increasingly driven to smoke by biological or genetic vulnerabilities rather than social desirability. Given that genetic risk for deviant proneness is shared across other psychiatric and addictive disorders, we predicted that as rates of smoking decreased through the latter half of the twentieth century, associations between smoking and psychopathology would increase. Participants (N=25 412) from a large US study-the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, NESARC-were interviewed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV) and classified into one of five birth cohort decades (1940s to 1980s) and three smoking history (nonsmokers, never-dependent smokers and ever-dependent smokers) groups. We found that the prevalence of smoking decreased across the five birth cohorts, but associations of smoking with drug and AUDs, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder, each increased monotonically in more recently born cohorts, even after adjusting for concurrent demographic and socioeconomic changes. For drug and AUDs, increases were observed among smokers both with and without a history of nicotine dependence; for other outcomes, increases were entirely driven by nicotine-dependent smokers. Findings suggest that smokers in more recent cohorts have disproportionately high psychiatric vulnerability, and may benefit from greater mental health screenings. Differentiating between casual and dependent smokers may further help prioritize those at greatest risk. Researchers should also be aware of potential variation in psychiatric comorbidity based on cohort of birth when defining groups of smokers, to minimize confounding.

  2. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all pchildhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all pchildhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  3. Assessment of Fetal Kidney Growth and Birth Weight in an Indigenous Australian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Diehm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous Australians experience higher rates of renal disease and hypertension than non-Indigenous Australians. Low birth weight is recognized as a contributing factor in chronic disease and has been shown to increase the risk of renal failure in adulthood. A smaller kidney volume with fewer nephrons places an individual at risk of hypertension and renal failure. Indigenous Australians have fewer nephrons than non-Indigenous Australians. In this study, intrauterine fetal and kidney growth were evaluated in 174 Indigenous Australian babies throughout gestation in order to record and evaluate fetal growth and kidney size, within a population that is at high risk for chronic illness.Methods: Pregnant women that identified as Indigenous, or non-Indigenous women that were pregnant with a partner who identified as an Indigenous Australian were eligible to participate. Maternal history, smoking status, blood and urine samples and fetal ultrasounds were collected throughout pregnancy. Fetal kidney measurements were collected using ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed using the Stata 14.1 software package.Results: 15.2% of babies were born prematurely. 44% of the mothers reported smoking in pregnancy. The median birth weight of this cohort was 3,240 g. Male fetuses had higher kidney to body weight ratios than female fetuses (P = 0.02. The birth weights of term neonates whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were lower (327 g, P < 0.001 than the birth weights of term babies from non-smoking mothers. The kidney volumes of babies whose mothers smoked were also smaller (P = 0.02, but were in proportion to body weight.Conclusion: In this cohort of Indigenous women smoking was associated with both increased number of preterm births and with a reduction in birth weights, even of term infants. Since kidney volume is a surrogate measure of nephron number and nephrogenesis is complete at birth, babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy

  4. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Belinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

  5. Acute respiratory symptoms and general illness during the first year of life: a population-based birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina

    2008-01-01

    . In this population-based birth cohort study, 228 healthy infants from Copenhagen, Denmark were followed from birth to 1 year of age during 2004-2006. Symptoms were registered using daily diaries and monthly home visits. Interviews were performed at inclusion and every second month. Risk factor analysis was carried...

  6. Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at 7 weeks of age: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at birth and at 7 weeks of age. Data

  7. Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at seven weeks of age - A prospective cohort study-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; van der Graaf, Jolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J.M.; Engelbert, Raoul H.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at birth

  8. Timing of Prenatal Smoking Cessation or Reduction and Infant Birth Weight: Evidence from the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yan; Peter A. Groothuis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Smoking during pregnancy is a key preventable risk contributor to poor infant health. Our study presents a full dynamic relationship between the timing of prenatal smoking cessation or reduction and infant birth weight. Methods: Using a large representative dataset of birth cohort in the United Kingdom, we apply multiple linear regressions to examine how smoking cessation or reduction at different stages especially different months of pregnancy affects infant birth weight. For rob...

  9. Paths to literacy and numeracy problems: evidence from two British birth cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M; Power, C; Sacker, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test a life course model linking circumstances of origin to self-reported literacy and numeracy problems in midlife, and to investigate the effects in this model of changing social circumstances in two post-war cohorts. Methods Based on data from men and women in the British 1946 and 1958 birth cohorts, we used the relative index of inequality and logistical regression to test associations between father’s occupation, childhood cognition, educational attainment, own occupation in the 3rd decade, and a binary variable representing self-reported literacy and numeracy problems in the 4th decade. Results There was a lower frequency of literacy and numeracy problems in the 1958 cohort compared to the 1946 cohort. In both cohorts there were associations between father’s occupation and childhood cognition, educational attainment and own occupation, a pattern that was mirrored by the associations between childhood cognition, educational attainment and own occupation to adult literacy and numeracy problems. Positive associations between childhood cognition and educational attainment, and between educational attainment and own occupation, were stronger in the 1946 cohort than in the 1958 cohort. However, inverse associations between educational attainment and literacy and numeracy problems were stronger in the 1958 cohort, possibly reflecting the expansion of secondary education in the intervening years. Conclusions Literacy and numeracy problems have a robust structure of life course associations, although the changing pattern of these associations may reflect important social structural changes from the early post war years to the early 1960s in the UK. PMID:18718979

  10. Association of family income with BMI from childhood to adult life: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Matijasevich, Alícia; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association of family income at birth with BMI among young adults who have been followed since birth. A birth cohort study. In 1982, all children born in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were included in a perinatal survey and visited at ages 1, 2, 4, 15, 18-19 and 23 years. Cohort members (n 4297) were traced and interviewed in 2004-2005. In all follow-ups, participants were weighed and measured, and BMI and prevalence of obesity were calculated for each age. Family income was obtained in minimum wages in 1982 and as a continuous variable, in reais, in later follow-ups. Skin colour was self-reported in 2004-2005. Mean BMI and prevalence of obesity differed between males and females. In males, a direct relationship was found throughout life and among females this relationship was modified by age. During childhood, BMI was higher among girls from higher income groups and this association was inversed at age 23 years. At this same age, mean BMI among black women was 1·3 kg/m2 higher than among white women, even after adjustment for current family income. The findings show in men that the relationship between income and BMI is similar to that seen in less developed areas, whereas among adult women the relationship is similar to that observed in developed countries. In addition to the effect of socio-economic status, skin colour also has an influence on the BMI of adult women.

  11. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Raikkonen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4 at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5 years at the second cognitive testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. RESULTS: Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72 and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19. Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79 and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99. Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  12. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D; Porter, Flint T; Nyberg, David A; Comstock, Christine H; Hankins, Gary D V; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Carr, Stephen R; Wolfe, Honor M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2009-05-05

    Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. The association between shorter duration

  13. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth.In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004 and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010. Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively. Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. The association between

  14. Perinatal nutrition in maternal mental health and child development: Birth of a pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, G K; Prynne, C J; Almoosawi, S; Kuh, D; Stephen, A M

    2015-07-01

    As populations are ageing, more emphasis is placed on healthy ageing. Over the past decades, food consumption patterns and food availability have also changed drastically, and therefore this study aimed to describe these changes in an ageing population. Food consumption of participants from the Medical Research Council National Survey on Health and Development, a British birth cohort study, was assessed using a 5-day estimated food records at 60-64 years (2006-11), 53 years (1999), 43 years (1989) and 36 years (1982). Only those who recorded ⩾3 days at all four time points were included in the analyses, n=989 (n=438 men and n=551 women); trends were tested using the Friedman test. Consumption of white bread, whole milk, fats and oils, meat and meat products, alcoholic drinks, coffee, sugar, preserves and confectionery decreased (Pcoffee. This could partly be because of ageing of the cohort or compliance with dietary recommendations, facilitated by greater availability of healthier foods, such as semi-skimmed milk and wholegrain bread, in the UK. The changes in food consumption in this British birth cohort over the past three decades are encouraging and reflect a healthier diet in the later years.

  16. Survival of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants: A Multicenter, Prospective, Cohort Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghorbani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The survival rate of preterm and low-birth-weight (LBW infants depends on various factors such as birth weight, gestational age, and quality of care. The present study aimed at evaluating the survival rate of preterm and LBW infants, predictive factors, and the risk of mortality in three training hospitals of Mashhad and Tabriz cities.Methods: This prospective, cohort study was conducted during six months from 2013 to 2014. Infants with birth weight ≤1500 g or gestational age ≤32 weeks were enrolled. Their information was gathered by using data collection forms and clinical risk index for infants (CRIB II was calculated for each participant. Infants were followed up until discharge from the hospital and their outcomes were determined. Kaplan-Meier and Log rock tests were used for survival analysis. Cox regression was also applied in order to find out the factors associated with infants’ survival.Results: Among the 338 followed up infants, 97 (28.7% died and 241 (71.3% remained alive. The median of preterm and LBW infants’ overall survival rate was 76 days (CI: 60.4-91.5. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that three factors of birth weight, base excess, and fifth minute Apgar score had a significant relationship with the survival rate of infants (P

  17. Shorter sleep duration in early pregnancy is associated with birth length: a prospective cohort study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiye; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Li; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Li, Xiating; Xiao, Mei; Hao, Liping; Yang, Xuefeng; Yang, Nianhong; Wei, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between sleep duration in early pregnancy and fetal growth in a prospective cohort study of 3567 Chinese women. Pregnant women at 8-16 weeks of gestation were interviewed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire to assess sleep duration. Birth weight and birth length were measured by a midwife in the delivery room at birth; low birth weight (LBW) was defined as birth weight sleep duration was 8.39 ± 1.13 h/day. A total of 1290 women sleeping ≥9 h/day, 1563 sleeping 8 to sleeping 7 to sleeping sleeping 8 to sleeping sleeping sleeping habit or with a history of abortion (all p for interaction sleep duration in early pregnancy was associated with birth length. Our findings indicate that midday napping may be a protective factor for birth length among pregnant women with shorter sleep duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychological stress : a summary of results from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study is a large population based study of late middle aged, overall healthy men and women whose health has been followed from 50 to 65years of age. In a sample of 725 cohort members, an extensive psychological stress protocol was performed during which cardiovascular

  19. Blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychological stress: a summary of results from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study is a large population based study of late middle aged, overall healthy men and women whose health has been followed from 50 to 65years of age. In a sample of 725 cohort members, an extensive psychological stress protocol was performed during which cardiovascular

  20. School-age outcomes in children who were extremely low birth weight from four international population-based cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saigal, S.; Ouden, L. den; Wolke, D.; Hoult, L.; Paneth, N.; Streiner, D.L.; Whitaker, A.; Pinto-Martin, J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine whether leaming and school problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and reference children differ between cohorts in different countries. Methods. Participants were 4 international population-based cohorts of ELBW survivors who were 500 to 1000

  1. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Schou Andersen, C; Schmidt Morgen, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may...... be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 27,821 children born to mothers...... participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex...

  2. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  3. No association between mean telomere length and life stress observed in a 30 year birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jodczyk

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to young adulthood. Participants were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS, a New Zealand longitudinal birth cohort which has followed participants from birth until age 30. Telomere length was obtained on DNA from peripheral blood samples collected from consenting participants (n = 677 at age 28-30, using a quantitative PCR assay. These data were assessed for associations with 26 measures of life course adversity or stress which occurred prior to 25 years of age. No associations were found between telomere length measured at age 28-30 years and life course adversity or stress for specific measures and for the summary risk scores for each developmental domain. The correlations were very small ranging from -0.06 to 0.06 with a median of 0.01, and none were statistically significant. Our results in this well-studied birth cohort do not support prior reports of such associations, and underscore the need for more extensive replication of proposed links between stress and telomere biology in larger cohorts with appropriate phenotypic data.

  4. Social selection in cohort studies and later representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses: The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. METHODS: The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 1998......-2002 ( N=344,160). Linking the DNBC ( N=91,442) and the general population to the Danish national health registries, all children were followed until they received an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis, had a prescription of psychotropic medication or to the end of follow-up in 2013. The prevalence ratios (PRs...... population, while use of psychotropic medication had similar representation. Girls were generally more underrepresented than boys. Depression was on average diagnosed 0.4 years earlier in the DNBC than in the general population ( p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the social selection may...

  5. Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, M.; Madsen, M.; Andersen, A. M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88 200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression....... About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate...

  6. The Danish National Birth Cohort--its background, structure and aim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that the time from conception to early childhood has importance for health conditions that reach into later stages of life. Recent research supports this view, and diseases such as cardiovascular morbidity, cancer, mental illnesses, asthma, and allergy may all have...... component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...

  7. Body Mass Index and Risk of Infections Among Women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Nielsen, Nete M; Friis-Møller, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the possible association between body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and hospitalization or treatment for acute infection in a prospective cohort study. We linked 75,001 women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1996 to 2002, who had information on BMI...... was observed among overweight (BMI 25-obese (HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.24) women. Among Danish women, underweight and obesity were associated with increased risk of community-acquired infectious diseases, especially infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin....... (underweight (BMI obesity (BMI ≥30): HR = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.62, 8.18), erysipelas (obesity: HR = 5.19, 95% CI: 3.38, 7.95), and fungal infections (underweight: HR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.53, 6.66). Slightly greater use of antimicrobials...

  8. Fear of childbirth: predictors and temporal changes among nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M.; Hedegaard, M.; Johansen, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between fear of childbirth and social, demographic and psychological factors in a cohort of 30 480 healthy nulliparous women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth Cohort....... POPULATION: Healthy nulliparous women (n= 30 480) with singleton pregnancies. METHODS: Data from computer-assisted telephone interviews twice in pregnancy linked with national health registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characteristics of women with fear of childbirth in early (mean, 16 weeks) and late...... pregnancy (mean, 32 weeks) and changes in fear of childbirth between 1997 and 2003. RESULTS: Low educational level, lack of a social network, young age and unemployment were associated with fear of childbirth, as were being a smoker and having low self-rated health. The odds ratio for fear of childbirth...

  9. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Timpson, Nicholas J; Andersen, Camilla S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self......-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI) for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate...... the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which...

  10. Criminal victimization in childhood and adolescence according to official records: the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Murray, Joseph; Silva, Luciana Anselmi Duarte da; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando

    2016-08-29

    This article describes different types of officially recorded victimization among 5,249 children in the 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Official data were obtained from the Secretariat for Public Security and the Special Court for Children and Youth. Victimization was registered for in 1,150 cohort members, with 1,396 incidents recorded as of December 31, 2012. The total incidence of victimization was 15.7 ocorrences per 1,000 person-years, with the majority involving violent victimization (12.7 per 1,000 person-years). Victimization increased gradually in childhood and rapidly throughout adolescence. The highest incidence rates were among females (p crimes against personal freedom; non-violent victimization mainly involved theft. Studies like this help identify lifetime risk and protective factors for victimization, highlighting the importance of surveillance and control measures against violence.

  11. Incidence of Otitis Media in a Contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todbjerg, Tanja; Koch, Anders; Andersson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In recent years welfare in Denmark has increased which might be expected to reduce otitis media (OM) incidence. We examined the age-specific incidence of OM in a nation-wide cohort of children aged 0-7 years born in 1996-2003 (Danish National Birth Cohort, DNBC). Only selection...... answered the different interviews, the calculations are done with different denominators. The information in DNBC was validated against two population based registries containing information of VT insertions. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of OM at 7 years was 60.6% (31,982/52,755). For children with OM, 16...... recordings in the Danish National Patient Registry to be gold standard, maternal self-reportings in DNBC of insertion of VT showed high sensitivity (96.4%), specificity (98.2%), and positive (94.8%) and negative predictive values (98.8%). CONCLUSION: OM affects nearly 2/3 of preschool children in Denmark...

  12. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic.We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children.In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use.This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  13. Optimizing Implementation of Hepatitis C Birth-Cohort Screening and Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankun Li MS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic hepatitis C (HCV is a significant public health problem affecting more than three million Americans. The US health care systems are ramping up costly HCV screening and treatment efforts with limited budget. We determine the optimal implementation of HCV birth-cohort screening and treatment strategies under budget constraints and health care payer’s perspective. Methods: Markov model and scenario-based simulation optimization. The target population is birth cohort born between 1945 and 1975. The interventions are allocating annual budget to screen a proportion of the target population and treat a proportion of the identified chronic HCV-positive patients over 10 years. Outcomes measure is to maximize lifetime discounted quality-adjusted life-years. Results: Allocate a percentage of the annual budget to screening, then treat patients with the remaining budget and prioritize the sickest patients. When the budget is $1 billion/year, the best strategy is to allocate the entire budget to treatment. When the budget is $5 billion/year, it is optimal to allocate 60% of the budget to screening in the first 2 years and 0% thereafter for age cohort 40 to 49; and allocate 20% of the budget to screening starting in year 3 for age cohorts 50 to 59 and 60 to 69. Health benefits are sensitive to budget in the first 2 years. Results are not sensitive to distribution of fibrosis stages by awareness of HCV. Conclusion: When budget is limited, all efforts should be focused on early treatment. With higher budget, better population health outcomes are achieved by reserving some budget for HCV screening while implementing a priority-based treatment strategy. This work has broad applicability to diverse health care systems and helps determine how much effort should be devoted to screening versus treatment under resource limitations.

  14. Repeat cesarean section in subsequent gestation of women from a birth cohort in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, Keila Cristina; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Zandonade, Eliana; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas

    2017-08-25

    The current literature indicates increasing concern regarding the number of safe cesarean sections which a woman can undergo, mainly in face of the high cesarean section rates, which are growing in Brazil and worldwide. Aimed to describe the prevalence and associated factors of repeat cesarean section in a cohort of Brazilian women who had a cesarean section in the first birth. This is a prospective cohort study using data from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The sample included 480 women who had their first delivery in 2004, regardless of the form of delivery, and who had a second delivery identified in the cohort's follow-ups (in 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2010). Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses using Poisson regression with robust error variance were carried out. Among the women who underwent a cesarean section in their first delivery (49.47%), 87.44% had a second surgical delivery. The risk factors for repeat cesarean section included ages 21-34 (PR 1.67, CI 95% 1.07-2.60), not being seen by SUS (Public Healthcare System) in 2004 (PR 2.27, CI 95% 1.44-3.60), and the number of prenatal medical visits, i.e., women with ten or more visits were at 2.33 times higher risk (CI 95% 1.10-4.96) compared to those who had five or fewer visits. The proportion of cesarean sections both in the first and in the subsequent delivery is quite high. This high rate may compromise the reproductive future of the women who undergo consecutive cesarean sections with possible consequent complications and changes in care policies for pregnant women should be implemented.

  15. Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence - Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Miettola, Satu; Pouta, Anneli; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2017-04-20

    Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ). Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother's and father's body mass index (BMI), maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother's or father's overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring's physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent's own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother's but not the father's overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal GDM and longer length of gestation are associated with lower cardiorespiratory

  16. Maternal systemic or cord blood inflammation is associated with birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A L; Pedersen, S H; Urassa, M; Michael, D; Andreasen, A; Todd, J; Kinung'hi, S M; Changalucha, J; McDermid, J M

    2017-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for foetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n = 44) and HIV-negative (n = 70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed. Linear regression modelled associations between maternal or cord blood cytokines and birth anthropometry. Health indicators (haemoglobin, mid-upper-arm circumference, body mass index) in HIV-positive mothers without considerable immunosuppression did not differ from HIV-negative women. Despite this, HIV-exposed infants had lower birthweight and length. Subgroup analyses indicated that HIV management using HAART was associated with lower plasma TNF-α, as were longer durations of any antiretroviral therapy (≥2 months). Greater maternal plasma TNF-α was associated with earlier delivery (-1.7 weeks, P = 0.039) and lower birthweights (-287 g; P = 0.020), while greater umbilical cord TNF-α (-1.43 cm; P = 0.036) and IL-12p70 (-2.4 cm; P = 0.008) were associated with shorter birth length. Birthweight was inversely associated with cord IL-12p70 (-723 g; P = 0.001) and IFN-γ (-482 g, P = 0.007). Maternal cytokines during pregnancy did not correlate with umbilical cord cytokines at delivery. Systemic inflammation identified in maternal plasma or umbilical cord blood was associated with poorer birth anthropometrics in HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants. Controlling maternal and/or foetal systemic inflammation may improve birth anthropometry. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Car Licensing Trends of the Babyboomer Cohort (b. 1946-1965) Compared to Earlier Birth Cohorts: Effects on the Driving Population in the State of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to explore trends in licensing among babyboomer older drivers in the state of Victoria, Australia. The study aims were to (1) compare the car licensing trends of the babyboomer cohort to that of previous birth cohorts and (2) predict the number of babyboomers licensed to drive a car in 2021 when the babyboomer cohort reaches an average age of 65 years. The residential population of Victoria, Australia, for 2001-2013 was obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics; car licensing statistics were obtained from VicRoads. Birth cohorts from 1916 to 1975 were defined in 10-year birth-year intervals. Population size was modeled using logistic regression. License prevalence was modeled using a logit model. The babyboomer cohort (1946-1965) in Victoria is 1.7 times larger than the cohort before them. At age 60 years, license prevalence among babyboomers was higher than in previous cohorts: 88% in the 1936-1945 cohort vs. 96% in the 1946-1955 cohort. When the babyboomers reach 65 years (average) in 2021, we estimate there to be over twice as many license holders among them than in the preceding cohort (n = 1,300,094 vs. 630,830, respectively). Aging of the babyboomer cohort will have a greater impact on the driving population than on the general population, due to the multiplicative effect of cohort size and license prevalence. The impact of road user aging on burden of injury can be minimized by focusing prevention at crashes typical to older drivers, such as intersection crashes, and promoting car safety features among older drivers.

  18. An investigation of social class inequalities in general cognitive ability in two British birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Roxanne; Gayle, Vernon

    2017-12-19

    The 'Flynn effect' describes the substantial and long-standing increase in average cognitive ability test scores, which has been observed in numerous psychological studies. Flynn makes an appeal for researchers to move beyond psychology's standard disciplinary boundaries and to consider sociological contexts, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive inequalities. In this article we respond to this appeal and investigate social class inequalities in general cognitive ability test scores over time. We analyse data from the National Child Development Study (1958) and the British Cohort Study (1970). These two British birth cohorts are suitable nationally representative large-scale data resources for studying inequalities in general cognitive ability. We observe a large parental social class effect, net of parental education and gender in both cohorts. The overall finding is that large social class divisions in cognitive ability can be observed when children are still at primary school, and similar patterns are observed in each cohort. Notably, pupils with fathers at the lower end of the class structure are at a distinct disadvantage. This is a disturbing finding and it is especially important because cognitive ability is known to influence individuals later in the lifecourse. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  19. Genetic causes of intellectual disability in a birth cohort: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M; Riegel, Mariluce; Segal, Sandra L; Félix, Têmis M; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 1-3% of the population and can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Although many studies have investigated the etiology of intellectual disability in different populations, few studies have been performed in middle-income countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of genetic causes related to intellectual disability in a cohort of children from a city in south Brazil who were followed from birth. Children who showed poor performance in development and intelligence tests at the ages of 2 and 4 were included. Out of 4,231 liveborns enrolled in the cohort, 214 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis was established in approximately 90% of the children evaluated. Genetic causes were determined in 31 of the children and 19 cases remained unexplained even after extensive investigation. The overall prevalence of intellectual disability in this cohort due to genetic causes was 0.82%. Because this study was nested in a cohort, there were a large number of variables related to early childhood and the likelihood of information bias was minimized by collecting information with a short recall time. This study was not influenced by selection bias, allowing identification of intellectual disability and estimation of the prevalence of genetic causes in this population, thereby increasing the possibility of providing appropriate management and/or genetic counseling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Birth Weight and Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet; Ballester, Ferran; Bloemen, Karolien; de Boer, Michiel; Chevrier, Cécile; Eggesbø, Merete; Guxens, Mònica; Krämer, Ursula; Legler, Juliette; Martínez, David; Palkovicova, Lubica; Patelarou, Evridiki; Ranft, Ulrich; Rautio, Arja; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Slama, Rémy; Stigum, Hein; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomas; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Weihe, Pál; Kuperus, Nynke Weisglas; Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight. Methods: We used maternal and cord blood and breast milk samples of 7,990 women enrolled in 15 study populations from 12 European birth cohorts from 1990 through 2008. Using identical variable definitions, we performed for each cohort linear regression of birth weight on estimates of cord serum concentration of PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE adjusted for gestational age and a priori selected covariates. We obtained summary estimates by meta-analysis and performed analyses of interactions. Results: The median concentration of cord serum PCB-153 was 140 ng/L (range of cohort medians 20–484 ng/L) and that of p,p´-DDE was 528 ng/L (range of cohort medians 50–1,208 ng/L). Birth weight decreased with increasing cord serum concentration of PCB-153 after adjustment for potential confounders in 12 of 15 study populations. The meta-analysis including all cohorts indicated a birth weight decline of 150 g [95% confidence interval (CI): –250, –50 g] per 1-µg/L increase in PCB-153, an exposure contrast that is close to the range of exposures across the cohorts. A 1-µg/L increase in p,p´-DDE was associated with a 7-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: –18, 4 g). Conclusions: The findings suggest that low-level exposure to PCB (or correlated exposures) impairs fetal growth, but that exposure to p,p´-DDE does not. The study

  1. Focus and coverage of Bolsa Família Program in the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort

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    Kelen H Schmidt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the focalization and coverage of Bolsa Família Program among the families of children who are part of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (2004 cohort. METHODS The data used derives from the integration of information from the 2004 cohort and the Cadastro Único para Programas Sociais do Governo Federal (CadÚnico – Register for Social Programs of the Federal Government, in the 2004-2010 period. We estimated the program coverage (percentage of eligible people who receive the benefit and its focus (proportion of eligible people among the beneficiaries. We used two criteria to define eligibility: the per capita household income reported in the cohort follow-ups and belonging to the 20% poorest families according to the National Economic Indicator (IEN, an asset index. RESULTS Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of families in the cohort that received the benefit increased from 11% to 34%. We observed an increase in all wealth quintiles. In 2010, by income and wealth quintiles (IEN, 62%-72% of the families were beneficiaries among the 20% poorest people, 2%-5% among the 20% richest people, and about 30% of families of the intermediate quintile. According to household income (minus the benefit 29% of families were eligible in 2004 and 16% in 2010. By the same criteria, the coverage of the program increased from 43% in 2004 to 71% in 2010. In the same period, by the wealth criterion (IEN, coverage increased from 29% to 63%. The focalization of the program decreased from 78% in 2004 to 32% in 2010 according to income, and remained constant (37% according to the IEN. CONCLUSIONS Among the families of the 2004 cohort, there was a significant increase in the program coverage, from its inception until 2010, when it was near 70%. The focus of the program was below 40% in 2010, indicating that more than half of the beneficiaries did not belong to the target population.

  2. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

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    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  3. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

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    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  4. Risk factors for neonatal mortality due to birth asphyxia in southern Nepal: a prospective, community-based cohort study.

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    Lee, Anne C C; Mullany, Luke C; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Shrestha, Shardaram R; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2008-05-01

    Our goal was to identify antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in a rural, low-resource, population-based cohort in southern Nepal. Data were collected prospectively during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial evaluating the impact of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity in Sarlahi, Nepal. A total of 23662 newborn infants were enrolled between September 2002 and January 2006. Multivariable regression modeling was performed to determine adjusted relative risk estimates of birth asphyxia mortality for antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors. Birth asphyxia deaths (9.7/1000.0 live births) accounted for 30% of neonatal mortality. Antepartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality included low paternal education, Madeshi ethnicity, and primiparity. Facility delivery; maternal fever; maternal swelling of the face, hands, or feet; and multiple births were significant intrapartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality. Premature infants (asphyxia mortality compared to term infants of afebrile mothers. Maternal infections, prematurity, and multiple births are important risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in the low-resource, community-based setting. Low socioeconomic status is highly associated with birth asphyxia, and the mechanisms leading to mortality need to be elucidated. The interaction between maternal infections and prematurity may be an important target for future community-based interventions to reduce the global impact of birth asphyxia on neonatal mortality.

  5. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START: a Canada-India collaborative study

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    Anand Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  6. Direct medical costs of constipation in children over 15 years: a population-based birth cohort

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    Choung, Rok Seon; Shah, Nilay D.; Chitkara, Denesh; Branda, Megan E.; Van Tilburg, Miranda A.; Whitehead, William E.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Locke, G. Richard; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although direct medical costs for constipation-related medical visits are thought to be high, to date there have been no studies examining if longitudinal resource utilization is persistently elevated in children with constipation. Our aim was to estimate the incremental direct medical costs and types of health care utilization associated with constipation from childhood to early adulthood. Methods A nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the incremental costs associated with constipation. The original sample consisted of 5,718 children in a population-based birth cohort who were born during 1976–1982 in Rochester, MN. The cases included individuals who presented to medical facilities with constipation. The controls were matched and randomly selected among all non-cases in the sample. Direct medical costs for cases and controls were collected from the time subjects were between 5–18 years of age or until the subject emigrated from the community. Results We identified 250 cases with a diagnosis of constipation in the birth cohort. While the mean inpatient costs for cases were $9994 (95% CI=2538, 37201) compared to $2391 (95% CI=923, 7452) for controls (p=0.22) over the time period, the mean outpatient costs for cases were $13927 (95% CI=11325, 16525) compared to $3448 (95% CI=3771, 4621) for controls (pconstipation have higher medical care utilization. Outpatient costs and ER utilization were significantly greater for individuals with constipation from childhood to early adulthood. PMID:20890220

  7. [Pregnancy-related anxiety and subthreshold autism trait in preschool children based a birth cohort study].

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    Sun, Yanli; Shao, Ting; Yao, Yuyou; Tao, Huihui; Ni, Lingling; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the associations between pregnancy-related anxiety and the prevalence of subthreshold autism trait (SAT) in preschool children. Baseline data came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study, a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS). All the participants were enrolled among pregnant women who received prenatal health care in 4 municipal medical centers during Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2010. A total of 5 084 pregnant women were recruited at the beginning and 4 669 singleton live births were included until childbirth. The situation about pregnancy-specific anxiety during trimester and third trimester of women were evaluated by Pregnancy-specific Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ). Between April 2014 and April 2015, the cohort was followed up again, and the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABRS) filled out by parents was used for telling the SAT children from the healthy children among 3 663 preschool children. Univariate and binary regression model was used to estimate associations between the pregnancy-related anxiety during trimester and third trimester and the subthreshold autism trait in children. During the pregnancy, the detected rates of women with pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester and the third trimester were 25.5%(935/3 663), 13.9%(501/3 592) respectively, and the detected rate of maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in both periods was 7.7%(278/3 592). There were 290 positive children with SAT and the detection rate was 7.9%. After controlling possible confounding factors including children's genders, place of residence, supplement folic acid during pregnancy, preterm birth, exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy, the father (mother) cultural levels, the father (mother) nature of work and family income, the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester was the risk factor for SAT in preschool children (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.04), and there was no association between maternal

  8. Harmonization of Food-Frequency Questionnaires and Dietary Pattern Analysis in 4 Ethnically Diverse Birth Cohorts.

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    de Souza, Russell J; Zulyniak, Michael A; Desai, Dipika; Shaikh, Mateen R; Campbell, Natalie C; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Teo, Koon K; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2016-11-01

    Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins. CHILD used a multiethnic FFQ based on a previously validated instrument designed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, whereas FAMILY, START, and ABC used questionnaires specifically designed for use in white European, South Asian, and Aboriginal people, respectively. The serving sizes and consumption frequencies of individual food items within the 4 FFQs were harmonized and aggregated into 36 common food groups. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns that were internally validated against self-reported vegetarian status and externally validated against a modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). Three maternal dietary patterns were identified-"plant-based," "Western," and "health-conscious"-which collectively explained 29% of the total variability in eating habits observed in the NutriGen Alliance. These patterns were strongly associated with self-reported vegetarian status (OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 3.47, 4.29; r 2 = 0.30, P < 0.001; for a plant-based diet), and average adherence to the plant-based diet was higher in participants in the fourth quartile of the mAHEI than in the first quartile (mean difference: 46.1%; r 2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Dietary data collected by using FFQs from ethnically diverse pregnant women can be

  9. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study.

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    Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression.

  10. Increased traffic exposure and negative birth outcomes: a prospective cohort in Australia

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    Wilson Lee-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women exposed to traffic pollution have an increased risk of negative birth outcomes. We aimed to investigate the size of this risk using a prospective cohort of 970 mothers and newborns in Logan, Queensland. Methods We examined two measures of traffic: distance to nearest road and number of roads around the home. To examine the effect of distance we used the number of roads around the home in radii from 50 to 500 metres. We examined three road types: freeways, highways and main roads. Results There were no associations with distance to road. A greater number of freeways and main roads around the home were associated with a shorter gestation time. There were no negative impacts on birth weight, birth length or head circumference after adjusting for gestation. The negative effects on gestation were largely due to main roads within 400 metres of the home. For every 10 extra main roads within 400 metres of the home, gestation time was reduced by 1.1% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.5; p-value = 0.001. Conclusions Our results add weight to the association between exposure to traffic and reduced gestation time. This effect may be due to the chemical toxins in traffic pollutants, or because of disturbed sleep due to traffic noise.

  11. Cesarean section and risk of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood: evidence from 3 Brazilian birth cohorts.

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    Barros, Fernando C; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro C; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Aluísio J; Menezes, Ana B; Santos, Iná S; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G

    2012-02-01

    The number of cesarean sections (CSs) is increasing in many countries, and there are concerns about their short- and long-term effects. A recent Brazilian study showed a 58% higher prevalence of obesity in young adults born by CS than in young adults born vaginally. Because CS-born individuals do not make contact at birth with maternal vaginal and intestinal bacteria, the authors proposed that this could lead to long-term changes in the gut microbiota that could contribute to obesity. We assessed whether CS births lead to increased obesity during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood in 3 birth cohorts. We analyzed data from 3 birth-cohort studies started in 1982, 1993, and 2004 in Southern Brazil. Subjects were assessed at different ages until 23 y of age. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios with adjustment for ≤15 socioeconomic, demographic, maternal, anthropometric, and behavioral covariates. In the crude analyses, subjects born by CS had ∼50% higher prevalence of obesity at 4, 11, and 15 y of age but not at 23 y of age. After adjustment for covariates, prevalence ratios were markedly reduced and no longer significant for men or women. The only exception was an association for 4-y-old boys in the 1993 cohort, which was not observed in the other 2 cohorts or for girls. In these 3 birth cohorts, CSs do not seem to lead to an important increased risk of obesity during childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood.

  12. Is fetal macrosomia related to blood pressure among adolescents? A birth cohort study in China.

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    Li, Y; Wu, J; Yu, J; Gao, E; Meads, C; Afnan, M; Ren, J; Rong, F

    2013-11-01

    Birth weight (BW) has effects on blood pressure (BP). In order to explore the effects of macrosomia on BP in childhood and in adolescence, a longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Wuxi, China. Subjects with BW ≥4000 g, born in 1993-1995, were the exposed group; the unexposed comparisons were matched by year of birth and sex of infant, with BW of 2500-4000 g. Follow-ups in 2005-6 and 2011-12 were conducted, and height, weight and BP were measured by trained doctors. Multi-mixed models in SAS were used to control for repeated measures to explore the effects of fetal macrosomia on BP. At the inception of the cohort, 1595 pairs of participants were recruited. At the end, 1112 in the exposed group and 1126 in the unexposed group finished both follow-ups. Among adolescents, mean (s.d.) of systolic BP (SBP) was 110.83 (9.43)  mm  Hg, which was statistically significantly higher than that in the unexposed group (mean ± s.d.: 109.33 ± 9.26)  mm  Hg (P=0.0002). After adjusting the repeated measures and birth year, sex, mother's occupation and delivery age, adding weight during pregnancy, hypertension during delivery, gestational age and parity, being a picky eater in childhood, the macrosomia group had higher SBP than the normal BW group; the parameter estimate value was 1.03 (s.e.=0.30). When BMI in childhood and BMI in adolescence were added in the multi-model, the estimated β was 0.71 (s.e.=0.29). No statistically significant effect of macrosomia was found on diastolic BP among adolescents in the multianalysis.

  13. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and macrosomia in a Canadian birth cohort.

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    Vinturache, Angela E; Chaput, Kathleen H; Tough, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    To compare demographic characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of term macrosomic infants of obese and non-obese mothers. A sample of 1996 singleton, term deliveries was drawn from the All Our Babies Cohort, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort. Maternal self-reported socio-demographic and anthropometric information was linked to the clinical data on pregnancy and birth events abstracted from electronic health records. Demographic, obstetrical characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of macrosomic infants in obese, overweight, and normal weight women were compared. Multinomial regression analysis assessed the risk factors of macrosomia in primiparous and multiparous women stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, controlling for confounding variables. Macrosomia affected 10% of pregnancies in the study. Mothers whose infants were macrosomic were more likely to be Caucasian, obese, have had previous deliveries, undergo induction of labour and delivery by emergency C-section, particularly for labour abnormalities. Macrosomic infants were more likely to be delivered postdates, have meconium stained liquor and require resuscitation at birth. There were no significant differences in birth and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies between obese, overweight and normal weight women. Pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational age at delivery were risk factors for macrosomia in all women. Ethnicity and history of delivery of a macrosomic infant were additional independent risk factors in multiparas. Obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of delivery of a macrosomic infant in both primiparous and multiparous women. The maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies are similar in obese and normal weight women.

  14. Adverse birth outcomes among native-born and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan: A population-based birth cohort study

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    Shiao Laura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of children born to foreign-born mothers in Taiwan has significantly increased since the 1990s. These foreign-born mothers are mainly from China and Southeast Asia. Children born to foreign-born mothers, according to media reports, are subject to inferior health. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in birth outcomes exist between native and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan. Methods Analysis data were obtained from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study of 20,090 nationally representative 6-month-old babies, born in 2005. The data on the babies were divided into two groups, those of foreign-born mothers and those of Taiwanese mothers. The health outcome variables that were examined included two adverse birth outcomes: low birth weight and preterm birth. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between income and foreign-born status, as well as birth outcomes among both groups. Results Children of native Taiwanese mothers had a higher prevalence of low birth weight (6.9% than did children of China-born (4.7% and Southeast Asia-born mothers (5.2%. The prevalence of preterm birth was also higher among children of native Taiwanese mothers (8.4% than among children of Southeast Asia-born (7.2% and China-born mothers (6.3%. Foreign-born status was associated with lower odds of low birth weight among families with a monthly family income p p p p p Conclusion Foreign-born mothers from China and Southeast Asia did not experience worse birth outcomes than native Taiwanese mothers did, regardless of the disadvantaged socioeconomic position of their families.

  15. DISC1 conditioned GWAS for psychosis proneness in a large Finnish birth cohort.

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    Liisa Tomppo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic evidence implicates the DISC1 gene in the etiology of a number of mental illnesses. Previously, we have reported association between DISC1 and measures of psychosis proneness, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS and Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS, in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC66. As part of the studies of this Finnish birth cohort genome-wide association analysis has recently been performed. METHODOLOGY: In the present study, we re-analyzed the genome-wide association data with regard to these two measures of psychosis proneness, conditioning on our previous DISC1 observation. From the original NFBC66 sample (N = 12 058, 4 561 individuals provided phenotype and genotype data. No markers were significant at the genome-wide level. However, several genes with biological relevance to mental illnesses were highlighted through loci displaying suggestive evidence for association (≥3 SNP with P<10E-4. These included the protein coding genes, CXCL3, KIAA1128, LCT, MED13L, TMCO7, TTN, and the micro RNA MIR620. CONCLUSIONS: By conditioning a previous genome-wide association study on DISC1, we have been able to identify eight genes as associating to psychosis proneness. Further, these molecules predominantly link to the DISC1 pathway, strengthening the evidence for the role of this gene network in the etiology of mental illness. The use of quantitative measures of psychosis proneness in a large population cohort will make these findings, once verified; more generalized to a broad selection of disorders related to psychoses and psychosis proneness.

  16. DISC1 conditioned GWAS for psychosis proneness in a large Finnish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomppo, Liisa; Ekelund, Jesper; Lichtermann, Dirk; Veijola, Juha; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hennah, William

    2012-01-01

    Genetic evidence implicates the DISC1 gene in the etiology of a number of mental illnesses. Previously, we have reported association between DISC1 and measures of psychosis proneness, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS) and Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS), in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC66). As part of the studies of this Finnish birth cohort genome-wide association analysis has recently been performed. In the present study, we re-analyzed the genome-wide association data with regard to these two measures of psychosis proneness, conditioning on our previous DISC1 observation. From the original NFBC66 sample (N = 12 058), 4 561 individuals provided phenotype and genotype data. No markers were significant at the genome-wide level. However, several genes with biological relevance to mental illnesses were highlighted through loci displaying suggestive evidence for association (≥3 SNP with P<10E-4). These included the protein coding genes, CXCL3, KIAA1128, LCT, MED13L, TMCO7, TTN, and the micro RNA MIR620. By conditioning a previous genome-wide association study on DISC1, we have been able to identify eight genes as associating to psychosis proneness. Further, these molecules predominantly link to the DISC1 pathway, strengthening the evidence for the role of this gene network in the etiology of mental illness. The use of quantitative measures of psychosis proneness in a large population cohort will make these findings, once verified; more generalized to a broad selection of disorders related to psychoses and psychosis proneness.

  17. Early environment and child-to-adult growth trajectories in the 1958 British birth cohort.

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    Li, Leah; Manor, Orly; Power, Chris

    2004-07-01

    Genetics and environmental conditions early in life are known to influence height. However, evidence is restricted to studies conducted at a specific age, and thus the effect on the entire growth trajectory has been neglected. The objective was to determine when parental height and factors early in offspring life start to affect offspring height, when these variables have the strongest effect, and whether these variables persist to adulthood. Longitudinal data from the 1958 British birth cohort (all of whom were born during 1 wk in March 1958), including height measurements at 7, 11, 16, and 33 y of age, were analyzed by using multivariate multilevel response models. Parental height, birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, parental divorce, and socioeconomic factors were all significantly associated with childhood height, but their effects differed thereafter. Parental height and birth weight were most strongly associated with offspring height, and their effects persisted (adjusted increase in adult height: 2 cm for 1 SD of maternal or paternal height, or 1 kg of birth weight). Socioeconomic disadvantage (manual social class, large family size, and overcrowded households) was associated with substantial deficits of 2-3 cm (adjusted estimates) in height at 7 y. Catch-up growth was apparent but was insufficient to overcome the initial insult on growth; the adjusted deficit was as high as 1 cm in adulthood. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds have a delayed pattern of growth before the pubertal spurt, which is followed by catch-up growth. The health consequences of this pattern of growth need to be examined in future studies.

  18. Age at Onset of Puberty and Adolescent Depression: "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

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    Wang, Hui; Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-06-01

    Timing of onset of puberty has fallen, with profound and detrimental consequences for health. We examined the associations of earlier onset of puberty with the presence of depression in early to middle adolescence. The study examined prospective adjusted associations of age at onset of puberty, based on clinically assessed Tanner stage for breast/genitalia and pubic hair development, and self-reported presence of depression, assessed from the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire on average at 13.6 years (n = 5795 [73%]). These factors were examined by using multivariable logistic regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort (ie, the "Children of 1997"). We also assessed whether associations varied according to gender. Association of age at onset of breast/genitalia development with the presence of depression varied according to gender. Earlier onset of breast development was associated with higher risk of the presence of depression (odds ratio, 0.83 per 1 year increase in age of onset [95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98]) adjusted for age, socioeconomic position, mother's place of birth, birth order, secondhand smoke exposure, parental age, survey mode, gender-specific birth weight z score, BMI z score at 7 years, and parental marital status. In boys, similarly adjusted, age at onset of genitalia development was unrelated to the presence of depression. Earlier age at onset of pubic hair development was unrelated to the presence of depression in girls and boys. Early onset of breast development was associated with high risk of the presence of depression. Whether these findings are indicators of the effects of hormones or transient effects of social pressures remain to be determined. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Predictors of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood in a birth cohort.

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    Rooney, Brenda L; Mathiason, Michelle A; Schauberger, Charles W

    2011-11-01

    To determine how characteristics of pregnancy, birth, and early infancy are related to offspring obesity at three critical developmental periods. Mothers were followed through pregnancy and 10-15 years after. Offspring data were obtained through medical record review. Maternal and offspring characteristics were examined to predict obesity in childhood (ages 4-5 years), adolescence (ages 9-14 years), and early adulthood (ages 19-20 years). The original cohort included 802 children born to 795 women. Children who were twins, who had died, or whose mothers had died were excluded (n=25). Medical records of 68.5% of the remaining 777 children documented a height and weight at childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. Relative risks (RRs) to predict obesity at early adulthood were 12.3 for childhood and 45.1 at adolescence. RRs were also significant to predict obesity at early adulthood between the mother's obesity at prepregnancy (RR=6.4), 4-5 years postpregnancy (RR=6.3), and 10-15 years postpregnancy (RR=6.2). Excluding these variables from the multivariate models and adjusting by gender, birth insurance, and mother's marital status at delivery, the best model to predict obesity at childhood included birth weight, weight gain in infancy, and delivery type. At adolescence, it included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy, and in early adulthood, included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and birth weight. Maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy have long-term effects on offspring. Maternal obesity is the strongest predictor of obesity at all times studied.

  20. Maternal and newborn outcomes after a prior cesarean birth by planned mode of delivery and history of prior vaginal birth in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Janssen, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    As rates for cesarean births continue to rise, more women are faced with the choice to plan a vaginal or a repeat cesarean birth after a previous cesarean. The objective of this population-based retrospective cohort study was to compare the safety of planned vaginal birth with cesarean birth after 1-2 previous cesarean sections. We identified singleton term births in British Columbia from 2000 to 2008 using data from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. Women carrying a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation at term (37-41 weeks of gestation completed) with 1-2 prior cesarean births were included. Those with gestational hypertension, pre-existing diabetes and cardiac disease were excluded. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were classified as either life-threatening or non-life threatening. We compared outcomes among women with none versus at least 1 previous vaginal birth, by planned method of delivery. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for composite outcomes using Poisson regression. Of the 33 812 women in the sample, 5406 had a history of vaginal delivery and 28 406 did not. The composite risk for life-threatening maternal outcomes was elevated among women planning vaginal compared with cesarean birth both with and without a prior vaginal birth (RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.52) and (2.52, 95% CI 2.04-3.11). Absolute differences (attributable risk [AR]) were 1.01% and 1.31% respectively. Non-life threatening maternal outcomes were decreased among women planning a vaginal birth if they had had at least 1 prior vaginal delivery (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33-0.77; AR 1.17%). The composite risk of intrapartum stillbirth, neonatal death or life-threatening neonatal outcomes did not differ among women planning vaginal or cesarean birth with a prior vaginal delivery and non-life threatening neonatal outcomes were decreased, (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52-0.86); AR 1.92%). After 1 or 2 previous cesarean births, risks for adverse outcomes between planned

  1. Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti

    2017-01-01

    , we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95......% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.......11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic...

  2. Confirmation of microevolutionary increase in spina bifida occulta among Swiss birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Chao; Solomon, Lucian Bogdan; Rühli, Frank Jakobus; Schiess, Regula; Öhrström, Lena; Sullivan, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Henneberg, Maciej

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies on the prevalence of spina bifida occulta have indicated a microevolutionary increase in its frequency and possible population differences in the prevalence of the condition. We studied the frequencies of closed and open sacral canals at each sacral level among two birth cohorts in Switzerland. Transverse CT scans and multiplanar reconstruction images of sacra of 95 males and 96 females born in 1940-1950 and 99 males and 94 females born in 1970-1980 in Switzerland were reviewed. We found that individuals born later have significantly more open sacral arches at all sacral levels compared to those born 30-40 years earlier. When results were related to previously published data on Australian cohorts, the trend was the same, but Swiss in both cohorts were less likely to have an open section than Australians at all locations apart from S2. This study confirmed a microevolutionary trend in the opening of sacral canal among two different generations in Switzerland and demonstrated a population difference in the prevalence of spina bifida occulta.

  3. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L.; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. We investigated the association between birth weight and adult PLC...... separately in men and women, using a large cohort of 217,227 children (51% boys), born from 1936 to 1980, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, and followed them until 2010 in national registers. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PLC (30 years or older) were estimated by Cox...... regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p-value for interaction=0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25-3.75 kg...

  4. Using text messaging to obtain weekly data on infant feeding in a Danish birth cohort resulted in high participation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    .1% exclusively. Complementary food was introduced at an average age of 20 weeks. Breastfeeding cessation was associated with maternal smoking, lower maternal age and supplementation with infant formula in the first days after birth (all pbreastfeeding, but only 1......AIM: Our aim was to use text message questions to obtain prospective, real-time data on exclusive and partial breastfeeding and introduction to complementary foods in a Danish birth cohort. We also wanted to identify factors influencing breastfeeding initiation and cessation. METHODS: This study...... formed part of the Odense Child Cohort and focused on mothers who gave birth to full-term singletons between April and October 2012. They received the same three to five questions, about breastfeeding, infant formula and introduction to complementary foods, three days after birth and then at weekly...

  5. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979-2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.M.; Niu, X.; Pawlish, K.S.; Henry, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologists and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques

  6. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Roche

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES in New Jersey (NJ, a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques.

  7. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B Pierce

    Full Text Available The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood.The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used.Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the individual's ability to adapt to and self manage

  8. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  9. Respiratory symptoms in the first 7 years of life and birth weight at term - The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hoekstra, Maarten; Gerritsen, Jorrit; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The relation between birth weight and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children remains unclear. Previous studies focused on a relation at separate ages. A longitudinal analysis may lead to a better understanding. Objectives: To estimate the effect of birth weight on the development and

  10. The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort: Exploring parentally reported respiratory outcomes through the lens of the exposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michelle L; Brook, Jeffrey R; Lee, Elizabeth Y; Omana, Vanessa; Daniel, Nadia M; Steacy, Lisa M; Evans, Greg J; Diamond, Miriam L; Ellis, Anne K

    2017-04-01

    The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort (KABC) is a prenatally recruited cohort initiated to study the developmental origins of allergic disease. Kingston General Hospital was chosen for recruitment because it serves a population with notable diversity in environmental exposures relevant to the emerging concept of the exposome. To establish a profile of the KABC using the exposome framework and examine parentally reported respiratory symptoms to 2 years of age. Data on phase 1 of the cohort (n = 560 deliveries) were compiled, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine associations with respiratory symptoms. The KABC exhibits diversity within the 3 exposome domains of general external (socioeconomic status, rural or urban residence), specific external (cigarette smoke, breastfeeding, mold or dampness), and internal (respiratory health, gestational age), as well as significant associations between exposures from different domains. Significant associations emerged between parental reports of wheeze or cough without a cold and prenatal cigarette smoke exposure, mold or dampness in the home, and the use of air fresheners in the early-life home environment. Breastfeeding, older siblings, and increased gestational age were associated with decreased respiratory symptoms. The KABC is a unique cohort with diversity that can be leveraged for exposomics-based studies. This study found that all 3 domains of the exposome had effects on the respiratory health of KABC children. Ongoing studies using phase 1 of the KABC continue to explore the internal exposome through allergy skin testing and epigenetic analyses and the specific external domain through in-home environmental analyses, air pollution modeling, and ultimately potential convergences within and among domains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult mental wellbeing: Evidence from four British birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Natasha; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Gale, Catharine; Goodman, Alissa; Crawford, Claire; Stafford, Mai

    2017-01-01

    There is much evidence showing that childhood socioeconomic position is associated with physical health in adulthood; however existing evidence on how early life disadvantage is associated with adult mental wellbeing is inconsistent. This paper investigated whether childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with adult mental wellbeing and to what extent any association is explained by adult SEP using harmonised data from four British birth cohort studies. The sample comprised 20,717 participants with mental wellbeing data in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS), the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), the National Child Development Study (NCDS), and the British Cohort Study (BCS70). Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) scores at age 73 (HCS), 60-64 (NSHD), 50 (NCDS), or 42 (BCS70) were used. Harmonised socioeconomic position (Registrar General's Social Classification) was ascertained in childhood (age 10/11) and adulthood (age 42/43). Associations between childhood SEP, adult SEP, and wellbeing were tested using linear regression and multi-group structural equation models. More advantaged father's social class was associated with better adult mental wellbeing in the BCS70 and the NCDS. This association was independent of adult SEP in the BCS70 but fully mediated by adult SEP in the NCDS. There was no evidence of an association between father's social class and adult mental wellbeing in the HCS or the NSHD. Socioeconomic conditions in childhood are directly and indirectly, through adult socioeconomic pathways, associated with adult mental wellbeing, but findings from these harmonised data suggest this association may depend on cohort or age.

  12. Black-White Differences in Maternal Age, Maternal Birth Cohort, and Period Effects on Infant Mortality in the U.S. (1983-2002)1

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate three interrelated sources of change in infant mortality rates over a 20 year period using the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) linked birth and infant death cohort files. The effects of maternal age, maternal birth cohort, and time period of childbirth on infant mortality are estimated using a modified age/period/cohort (APC) model that identifies age, period, cohort effects. We document black-white differences in the patterning of these effects and find that mater...

  13. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight...... effects on fetal growth measures related to exercise apart from a modest decreased risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age infants. These findings do not speak against advising pregnant women to be physically active during pregnancy......., length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...

  14. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...... in 1997-2003. Altogether 6250 female teachers formed the reference group. A discrete-time survival analysis with a complementary log-log link was applied to estimate the fecundability ratio between the exposed and unexposed women, with adjustment for maternal age, gravidity, smoking, prepregnancy body......) 0.86-1.02] for all pregnancies and 0.98 (95% CI 0.86-1.13) for first pregnancies. A healthy worker effect was found for the laboratory technicians working with the work processes under study. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not suggest that laboratory work in Denmark at present impairs female fecundity....

  15. The association between early sensitization patterns and subsequent allergic disease. The DARC birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2009-01-01

    allergic disease at 6 yr of age. In an ongoing population-based birth cohort study of 562 children, follow-up visits were performed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36, and 72 months. Visits included an interview, physical examination, SPTs, and S-IgE measurements for 12 food and inhalant allergens. The frequency...... from 3 and 12 months, respectively. Early food sensitization (S-IgE) between 3 and 18 months was found to be significantly (p Children with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or rhinoconjunctivitis......, and sensitization at 6 yr, were sensitized to food allergens to a large extent (53%, 42%, and 47%, respectively) already at 6 months. Early inhalant sensitization (S-IgE) did not increase the risk of later allergic disease. Early atopic dermatitis (0-18 months) was also highly associated with subsequent allergic...

  16. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...... in 1997-2003. Altogether 6250 female teachers formed the reference group. A discrete-time survival analysis with a complementary log-log link was applied to estimate the fecundability ratio between the exposed and unexposed women, with adjustment for maternal age, gravidity, smoking, prepregnancy body...... mass index, and paternal job. RESULTS: No difference in time to pregnancy was found between the laboratory technicians and teachers or between the laboratory technicians with different exposures. The adjusted fecundability ratio for the laboratory technicians was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI...

  17. Self-esteem, risky sexual behavior, and pregnancy in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later risky sexual behavior and pregnancy in late adolescence and early adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of engaging in unprotected sex (sexual intercourse with either an opposite- or same-sex partner without using a condom), a greater number of sexual partners, and a greater risk of pregnancy at ages 15-25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors, including family socioeconomic background, family functioning, child abuse, and individual characteristics and behavior, reduced the strength of these associations to statistically non-significant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later risky sexual behavior and pregnancy were weak and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops.

  18. The case for launch of an international DNA based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally.

  19. Fetal Growth, Obesity, and Atopic Disorders in Adolescence: a Retrospective Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hung; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Caffrey, James L; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Wang, I-Jen; Ho, Wen-Chao; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Lin, Ruey-Shiung

    2015-09-01

    Developmental status at birth and subsequent obesity have been implicated in the development of childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR). The current study analysed the cohort data of 74 688 junior high school students from a national retrospective birth cohort study in Taiwan. A random 10% sample was selected from singleton livebirths with complete data on the analytical variables of interest. Atopic disorders, including AD and AR, were assessed by questionnaires (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood). Logistic regression analyses were applied with adjustments for related risk factors. Among subjects mainly 13-15 years of age, the estimated prevalence was 7.6% for AD and 22.4% for AR. While the role of fetal growth in allergic disorders was less evident, the risk of developing AD and AR were both influenced by a combination of fetal growth status and adolescent body mass index (BMI). Compared with those with normal fetal growth and school-aged BMI, the risk of developing AD increased 64% among adolescents with both restricted fetal growth and high BMI (odds ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.37, 1.97). The risk for this combination was higher than that for either restricted fetal growth or high BMI alone. Nevertheless, the overall interaction between BMI and fetal growth status on atopic disorders did not reach statistical significance. Excessive weight gain could be an important risk factor related to developing atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis during adolescence, especially among infants born small for gestational age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Benefits of educational attainment on adult fluid cognition: international evidence from three birth cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouston, Sean AP; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Background Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. Methods We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. Results We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. Conclusions In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence. PMID:23108707

  1. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in the ninth decade of life: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J

    2012-09-01

    Investment traits--the tendency to seek out and engage in cognitive activity--might affect intellectual growth across the life span, specifically the development from fluid to crystallized intelligence. Here we explore how childhood IQ at age 11 years, IQ at age 79, and the investment trait Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) at age 81 affect the mean level and change in verbal fluency scores, used as an indicator of crystallized intelligence, across the ages 79, 83, and 87 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (maximum N = 569; Deary, Whiteman, Starr, Whalley, & Fox, 2004). A first latent growth model showed significant variance in the mean level of verbal fluency and significant decline in verbal fluency from age 79 to age 87. The rate of change was invariant across study participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. A second model found that IQ at age 11 significantly predicted IQ at age 79 (β = .66; p IQ at age 11 and 79 and TIE accounted for 25.5% of the variance in verbal fluency. A final model identified the TIE subfactor of intellectual curiosity as a significant mediator of the effect of IQ on verbal fluency; the TIE subfactors abstract thinking, reading, and problem solving showed no significant associations. In summary, TIE--in particular, intellectual curiosity--significantly mediated the effects of IQ on crystallized intelligence in old age. Because there was no significant between-subjects variance in verbal fluency trajectories in the current study, neither TIE nor IQ were associated with individual differences in cognitive decline.

  2. Timing of First Respiratory Virus Detections in Infants: A Community-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Mohinder; Ware, Robert S; Lambert, Stephen B; Sloots, Theo P; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith

    2018-01-17

    Determining timing of first virus detection episodes (fVDEs) for different respiratory viruses in infants identifies risk periods and informs preventive interventions, including vaccination. We describe the ages and nature of fVDEs in an infant birth cohort and explore factors associated with increased odds of symptomatic fVDEs. The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is a community-based birth cohort describing acute respiratory infections in infants until their second birthday. Parents recorded daily symptoms and collected nose swabs weekly, which were batch-tested using polymerase chain reaction assays for 17 respiratory viruses. One hundred fifty-eight infants participated in ORChID. The median age for fVDEs was 2.9 months for human rhinovirus (HRV) but was ≥13.9 months for other respiratory viruses. Overall, 52% of HRV fVDEs were symptomatic, compared with 57%-83% of other fVDEs. Respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus fVDEs were more severe than HRV fVDEs. Older age and the winter season were associated with symptomatic episodes. Infants do not always experience respiratory symptoms with their fVDE. Predominance of early HRV detections highlights the need for timing any intervention early in life. fVDEs from other respiratory viruses most commonly occur when maternal vaccines may no longer provide protection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Benefits of educational attainment on adult fluid cognition: international evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouston, Sean A P; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-12-01

    Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence.

  4. Childhood conduct disorder trajectories, prior risk factors and cannabis use at age 16: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Jon; Barker, Edward D; Joinson, Carol; Lewis, Glyn; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus; Macleod, John

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of cannabis use and problem use in boys and girls at age 16 years, and to investigate the role of adversity in early life and of conduct disorder between the ages of 4 and 13 years as risk factors for these outcomes. Birth cohort study. England. A total of 4159 (2393 girls) participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort providing information on cannabis use at age 16. Cannabis use and problem cannabis use at age 16 were assessed by postal questionnaire. Material adversity, maternal substance use, maternal mental health and child conduct disorder were all assessed by maternal report. Cannabis use was more common among girls than boys (21.4% versus 18.3%, P = 0.005). Problem cannabis use was more common in boys than girls (3.6% versus 2.8%, P = 0.007). Early-onset persistent conduct problems were associated strongly with problem cannabis use [odds ratio (OR) = 6.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.06-10.28]. Residence in subsidized housing (OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.95, 4.92); maternal cannabis use (OR 8.84, 95% CI 5.64-13.9) and any maternal smoking in the postnatal period (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.90-3.81) all predicted problem cannabis use. Attributable risks for adolescent problem cannabis use associated with the above factors were 25, 13, 17 and 24%, respectively. Maternal smoking and cannabis use, early material disadvantage and early-onset persistent conduct problems are important risk factors for adolescent problem cannabis use. This may have implications for prevention. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Does the impact of a plant-based diet during pregnancy on birth weight differ by ethnicity? A dietary pattern analysis from a prospective Canadian birth cohort alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulyniak, Michael A; de Souza, Russell J; Shaikh, Mateen; Desai, Dipika; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piush; Turvey, Stuart E; Beyene, Joseph; Atkinson, Stephanie; Morrison, Katherine M; McDonald, Sarah; Teo, Koon K; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2017-11-14

    Birth weight is an indicator of newborn health and a strong predictor of health outcomes in later life. Significant variation in diet during pregnancy between ethnic groups in high-income countries provides an ideal opportunity to investigate the influence of maternal diet on birth weight. Four multiethnic birth cohorts based in Canada (the NutriGen Alliance). 3997 full-term mother-infant pairs of diverse ethnic groups who had principal component analysis-derived diet pattern scores-plant-based, Western and health-conscious-and birth weight data. No associations were identified between the Western and health-conscious diet patterns and birth weight; however, the plant-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with birth weight (β=-67.6 g per 1-unit increase; P<0.001), and an interaction with non-white ethnicity and birth weight was observed. Ethnically stratified analyses demonstrated that among white Europeans, maternal consumption of a plant-based diet associated with lower birth weight (β=-65.9 g per 1-unit increase; P<0.001), increased risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA; OR=1.46; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.54;P=0.005) and reduced risk of large-for-gestational age (LGA; OR=0.71; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.95;P=0.02). Among South Asians, maternal consumption of a plant-based diet associated with a higher birth weight (β=+40.5 g per 1-unit increase; P=0.01), partially explained by cooked vegetable consumption. Maternal consumption of a plant-based diet during pregnancy is associated with birth weight. Among white Europeans, a plant-based diet is associated with lower birth weight, reduced odds of an infant born LGA and increased odds of SGA, whereas among South Asians living in Canada, a plant-based diet is associated with increased birth weight. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Impact of barbecued meat consumed in pregnancy on birth outcomes accounting for personal prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Birth cohort study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P; Tang, Deliang; Stigter, Laura; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Spengler, John; Budzyn-Mrozek, Dorota; Kaim, Irena; Jacek, Ryszard

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported an association between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and lower birth weight, birth length, and head circumference. The main goal of the present analysis was to assess the possible impact of coexposure to PAH-containing barbecued meat consumed during pregnancy on birth outcomes. The birth cohort consisted of 432 pregnant women who gave birth at term (>36 wk of gestation). Only non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies, 18-35 y of age, and who were free from chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, were included in the study. Detailed information on diet over pregnancy was collected through interviews and the measurement of exposure to airborne PAHs was carried out by personal air monitoring during the second trimester of pregnancy. The effect of barbecued meat consumption on birth outcomes (birth weight, length, and head circumference at birth) was adjusted in multiple linear regression models for potential confounding factors such as prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs, child's sex, gestational age, parity, size of mother (maternal prepregnancy weight, weight gain in pregnancy), and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke. The multivariable regression model showed a significant deficit in birth weight associated with barbecued meat consumption in pregnancy (coeff = -106.0 g; 95%CI: -293.3, -35.8). The effect of exposure to airborne PAHs was about the same magnitude order (coeff. = -164.6 g; 95%CI: -172.3, -34.7). Combined effect of both sources of exposure amounted to birth weight deficit of 214.3 g (95%CI: -419.0, -9.6). Regression models performed for birth length and head circumference showed similar trends but the estimated effects were of borderline significance level. As the intake of barbecued meat did not affect the duration of pregnancy, the reduced birth weight could not have been mediated by a shortened gestation period. In conclusion, the study results provided epidemiologic

  7. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones.

  8. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Barros, Aluísio J D; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Victora, César Gomes

    2007-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits was collected at birth, in the first, third, sixth and 12th months of life, and at six years of age. Control variables included maternal schooling and child's birthweight, cephalic perimeter, and sex. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression. Prevalence of anterior open bite was 46.2%, and that of posterior cross bite was 18.2%. Non-nutritive sucking habits between 12 months and four years of age and digital sucking at age six years were the main risk factors for anterior open bite. Breastfeeding for less than nine months and regular use of pacifier between age 12 months and four years were risk factors for posterior cross bite. Interaction between duration of breastfeeding and the use of pacifier was identified for posterior cross bite. Given that breastfeeding is a protective factor for other diseases of infancy, our findings indicate that the common risks approach is the most appropriate for the prevention of posterior cross bite in primary or initial mixed dentition.

  9. Occlusal characteristics in 3-year-old children--results of a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-08-07

    Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) were measured at the age of 3 years by one calibrated clinician using a vernier caliper (accuracy 0.1 mm; Münchner Modell 042-751-00, Germany). A regular parent survey was conducted to assess risk factors for development of malocclusion. Three hundred seventy seven children (mean age 3.31 ± 0.70 years; 52.5% male) were examined. Children had a mean overjet of 2.4 ± 0.8 mm and the mean overbite was 0.8 ± 1.2 mm; 58.8 % of the children had a normal overjet ≤ 3 mm and 88.8% a normal overbite with 0.05). Non-nutritive sucking habits were important risk factors for development of a malocclusion in the primary dentition.

  10. Association between maternal comorbidity and preterm birth by severity and clinical subtype: retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTB is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality, but the relationship between comorbidity and PTB by clinical subtype and severity of gestational age remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations between maternal comorbidities and PTB by clinical subtype and gestational age. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1,329,737 singleton births delivered in hospitals in the province of Québec, Canada, 1989-2006. PTB was classified by clinical subtype (medically indicated, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, spontaneous preterm labour and gestational age ( Results PTB rates were higher among mothers with comorbidity (10.9% compared to those without comorbidity (4.7%. Several comorbidities were associated with greater odds of medically indicated PTB compared with no comorbidity, but only comorbidities localized to the reproductive system were associated with spontaneous PTB. Drug dependence and mental disorders were strongly associated with PPROM and spontaneous PTBs across all gestational ages (OR > 2.0. At the population level, several major comorbidities (placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, oliogohydramnios, structural abnormality, cervical incompetence were key contributors to all clinical subtypes of PTB, especially at Conclusions The relationship between comorbidity and clinical subtypes of PTB depends on gestational age. Prevention of PPROM and spontaneous PTB may benefit from greater attention to preeclampsia, anemia and comorbidities localized to the reproductive system.

  11. Risk Factors of Early Otitis Media in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Niclasen, Janni

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM) in six-months-old children. METHOD: The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more......" maternal reported episodes of OM at age six months. In total 37 factors were assessed, covering prenatal, maternal, perinatal and postnatal factors. RESULTS: At age six months 5.3% (95% CI 5.1-5.5) of the children had experienced one or more episodes of OM. From the regression analysis, 11 variables were...... for boys versus girls was 1.30 (95% CI 1.18-1.44). The OR having one sibling versus no siblings was 3.0 (95% CI 2.64-3.41). If the woman had been taking penicillin during pregnancy, the OR was 1.35 (95% CI 1.15-1.58). Children born before 38th gestational week had an increased OR for early OM of 1.49 (95...

  12. Early life growth, socioeconomic status, and mammographic breast density in an urban US birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Tehranifar, Parisa; Flom, Julie D; Liao, Yuyan; Wei, Ying; Terry, Mary Beth

    2016-08-01

    Rapid infant and childhood growth has been associated with chronic disease later in life, including breast cancer. Early life socioeconomic status (SES) influences childhood growth, but few studies have prospective measures from birth to consider the effects of early life growth and SES on breast cancer risk. We used prospectively measured early life SES and growth (percentile weight change in height and weight between each pair of consecutive time points at birth, 4 months, 1 and 7 years). We performed linear regression models to obtain standardized estimates of the association between 1 standard deviation increase in early life SES and growth and adult mammographic density (MD), a strong risk factor for breast cancer, in a diverse birth cohort (n = 151; 37% white, 38% black, 25% Puerto Rican; average age at mammogram = 42.4). In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, prenatal factors, birthweight, infant and childhood growth, and adult body mass index, percentile weight change from 1 year to 7 years was inversely associated with percent MD (standardized coefficient (Stdβ) = -0.28, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.01), and higher early life SES was positively associated with percent MD (Stdβ = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.04-0.43). Similar associations were observed for dense area, but those estimates were not statistically significant. These results suggest opposite and independent effects of early life SES and growth on MD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Postnatal Risk of Acquiring Kawasaki Disease: A Nationwide Birth Cohort Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lin, Min-Tai; Chen, Hui-Chi; Kao, Feng-Yu; Huang, San-Kuei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the postnatal risk of Kawasaki disease and coronary complications from a nationwide birth cohort in Taiwan, a country with the third-highest incidence of Kawasaki disease worldwide. We enrolled children born between 2000 and 2009 with complete postnatal medical care records for 2000-2014 in the Taiwan national database. Out of a total of 2 150 590 live births, we identified 6690 (62.6% boys) patients with Kawasaki disease. The onset was mostly (93.9%) within the first 5 years of life (median, 16 months; 38% during infancy), but was rare within the first 3 months of life. The overall cumulative incidence of Kawasaki disease by age 5 years was 2.78‰ (3.33‰ for boys and 2.17‰ for girls; P Kawasaki disease recurred more often in younger patients (cumulative incidence, 2.3% in infants vs 1.7% in children aged 1-4 years). Coronary complications occurred in 16.2% of the patients, including 4 cases of acute myocardial infarction (3 occuring during the acute stage and 1 occurring 5 years later). The probability of a major cardiac event (infarction, undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting, or death) by adolescence was 1.9%. The postnatal risk of Kawasaki disease was 3‰-4‰ and increased with every birth year. Patients with Kawasaki disease are at substantial risk for a major cardiac events during childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep H. Ha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No at age 6–9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars. Household income quartiles, mother’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6–9 months. Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2–3.1 and 1.8 (1.2–2.6 against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2–2.3. The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5–0.8. Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.

  15. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars-A Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Spencer, Andrew John; Thomson, William Murray; Golley, Rebecca K; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Levy, Steven M; Scott, Jane A

    2017-10-23

    Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No) at age 6-9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars). Household income quartiles, mother's sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6-9 months). Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI) for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2-3.1) and 1.8 (1.2-2.6) against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2-2.3). The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5-0.8). Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.

  16. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  17. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandel Megan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.

  18. [Relations between hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and subsequent risk of early-term birth: a birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F Y; Yan, S Q; Huang, K; Mao, L J; Pan, W J; Ge, X; Han, Y; Hao, J H; Tao, F B

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To evaluate the relations between hypertensive disorders (HDP) in pregnancy and early-term birth. Methods: A total of 3 474 pregnant women were consecutively recruited. Demographic information was collected in early pregnancy. HDP was diagnosed in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. On the basis of precise evaluation on gestation age, early-term birth was defined as gestational age of 37-38 weeks+6 days. Logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations between HDP and early-term birth. Results: The current study included 3 260 pregnant women, with the rates of HDP, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and pre-eclampsia as 6.0% ( n =194), 4.2% ( n =137) and 1.8% ( n =57), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, no significant differences between pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and earlyterm birth ( OR =1.49, 95% CI : 0.94-2.36) were found. Pre-eclampsia appeared to have increased the risk of early-term birth ( OR =4.46, 95% CI : 2.09-9.54). Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia could significantly increase the risk of early-term birth. This finding suggested that early detection and intervention programs were helpful in reducing the risk of early-term birth.

  19. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Angquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    body mass index (BMI) with child anthropometric measurements from birth through infancy and at 7 y of age exceed those of paternal associations. Design: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, information on parental and child anthropometric measures is available for 30,655 trio families from maternal......ABSTRACT Background: Maternal prepregnancy adiposity may influence child adiposity beyond the transmitted genetic effects, which, if true, may accelerate the obesity epidemic, but the evidence for this mechanism is inconsistent. Objective: The aim was to assess whether the associations of maternal...... interviews during pregnancy and the postpartum period and from a 7-y follow-up. By using multiple linear and logistic regression models of child SD (z) scores of weight and BMI at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 7 y of age, and of child overweight at age 7 y, we compared associations with maternal prepregnancy...

  1. The joint influence of marital status, interpregnancy interval, and neighborhood on small for gestational age birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuquan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpregnancy interval (IPI, marital status, and neighborhood are independently associated with birth outcomes. The joint contribution of these exposures has not been evaluated. We tested for effect modification between IPI and marriage, controlling for neighborhood. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 98,330 live births in Montréal, Canada from 1997–2001 to assess IPI and marital status in relation to small for gestational age (SGA birth. Births were categorized as subsequent-born with short (intermediate (12–35 months, or long (36+ months IPI, or as firstborn. The data had a 2-level hierarchical structure, with births nested in 49 neighborhoods. We used multilevel logistic regression to obtain adjusted effect estimates. Results Marital status modified the association between IPI and SGA birth. Being unmarried relative to married was associated with SGA birth for all IPI categories, particularly for subsequent births with short (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–1.95 and intermediate (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.26–1.74 IPIs. Subsequent births had a lower likelihood of SGA birth than firstborns. Intermediate IPIs were more protective for married (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.47–0.54 than unmarried mothers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56–0.76. Conclusion Being unmarried increases the likelihood of SGA birth as the IPI shortens, and the protective effect of intermediate IPIs is reduced in unmarried mothers. Marital status should be considered in recommending particular IPIs as an intervention to improve birth outcomes.

  2. Linkage of Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics data to birth registration and notification records for births in England 2005-2014: methods. A population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattani, Nirupa; Macfarlane, Alison

    2018-02-15

    Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data for 2005-2014 were linked to birth registration and birth notification data (previously known as NHS Numbers for Babies or NN4B) to bring together some key demographic and clinical data items not otherwise available at a national level. The linkage algorithm that was previously used to link 2005-2007 data was revised to improve the linkage rate and reduce the number of duplicate HES records. Birth registration and notification linked records from the Office for National Statistics ('ONS birth records') were further linked to Maternity HES delivery and birth records using the NHS Number and other direct identifiers if the NHS Number was missing. For the period 2005-2014, over 94% of birth registration and notification records were correctly linked to HES delivery records. Two per cent of the ONS birth records were incorrectly linked to the HES delivery record and 5% of ONS birth records were linked to more than one HES delivery record. Therefore, a considerable amount of time was spent in quality assuring these files. The linkage rate for birth registration and notification records to HES delivery records steadily improved from 2005 to 2014 due to improvement in the quality and completeness of patient identifiers in both HES and birth notification data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Lifestyle in pregnancy and cryptorchidism in sons: a study within two large Danish birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersgaard C

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Camilla Kjersgaard,1 Linn Håkonsen Arendt,1,2 Andreas Ernst,1 Morten Søndergaard Lindhard,2 Jørn Olsen,1,3 Tine Brink Henriksen,2 Katrine Strandberg-Larsen,4 Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen1 1Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 2Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Public Health, Section of Social Medicine, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Cryptorchidism is the most frequent congenital malformation in boys and is associated with low sperm count, infertility and testicular cancer. Unhealthy maternal lifestyle during pregnancy such as smoking, high prepregnancy body mass index (BMI as well as alcohol and caffeine intake may constitute possible risk factors for cryptorchidism, but results from the few previous studies are conflicting. We aimed to explore the association between maternal lifestyle factors and occurrence of cryptorchidism in sons.Patients and methods: The Danish National Birth Cohort and the Aarhus Birth Cohort provided information on maternal lifestyle from early pregnancy. Data were linked to several Danish health registers, multiple imputation was used to handle missing data and Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for potential confounders.Results: In total, 85,923 boys were included, and of them, 2.2% were diagnosed with cryptorchidism. We observed the strongest associations between maternal tobacco smoking and prepregnancy BMI and cryptorchidism. Sons of women who smoked 10–14 cigarettes/day had the highest hazard ratio (HR for cryptorchidism (1.37; 95% CI: 1.06–1.76, and for maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m2, the HR was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.06–1.65. Binge drinking was associated with an HR <1, if the women had one or two episodes in pregnancy (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67–0.98. Average maternal alcohol intake

  4. Suicide rate in schizophrenia in the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaräisänen, Antti; Miettunen, Jouko; Räsänen, Pirkko; Fenton, Wayne; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli-Tuulie Jeannette; Isohanni, Matti

    2009-12-01

    Suicide rate among schizophrenia patients may vary for several reasons, one of the most important being the time point of the suicide during the illness process. However, prospective studies on suicide risk in population-based cohort of individuals with new-onset schizophrenia have been lacking. The data were collected for 10,934 individuals alive in Finland at the age of 16 from the genetically homogenous, population-based Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort ascertained already during mid-pregnancy. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used until the end of 1997 (age 31) to identify cases with mental disorder. Case records were scrutinized and diagnoses were re-checked for DSM-III-R criteria. One hundred subjects met the DSM-III-R criteria for schizophrenia. Deaths by the end of year 2005 (age 39) were ascertained from death certificates. Suicides (n = 7) accounted for 50% of all the deaths at age from 16 to 39. Seven (7.0%) subjects with schizophrenia had committed suicide; suicide rate being 2.9% (1/35) for women and 9.2% (6/65) for men. Furthermore, 71% of suicides in schizophrenia occurred during the first 3 years after onset of illness. The suicide rate for patients with new-onset schizophrenia followed until the age of 39 was high and accounted for half of the deaths. Great majority of the suicides took place during the first years of the illness.

  5. Smoking among mothers of a Pacific Island birth cohort in New Zealand: associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sarnia; Williams, Maynard; Paterson, Janis; Tukuitonga, Colin

    2004-11-26

    The present study investigated (among mothers of a Pacific Island birth cohort) the rates of smoking before, during, and after pregnancy as well as factors predictive of smoking during pregnancy. Data were gathered as part of the Pacific Islands Families (PIF) Study. In this study, mothers of a cohort of 1398 Pacific infants born in Middlemore Hospital, Auckland during 2000 were interviewed when their infants were 6 weeks old. Mothers were questioned about their maternal health, and lifestyle behaviours such as cigarette smoking. Additional data were obtained from hospital records. Analyses focused on 1365 biological mothers. Overall, 339 (approximately one-quarter) of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy. 331 (76.1%) of the 435 smokers (before pregnancy) continued to smoke during pregnancy, and eight mothers commenced smoking once pregnant. Smoking rates for each trimester were 23.7% in the first, 21.0% in the second, and 20.4% in the third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that smoking was significantly associated with several factors, including indicators of disadvantage and degree of westernisation. Greater efforts are needed to reduce smoking during pregnancy among Pacific women. Findings can be used to inform public health policy and smoking cessation programmes for Pacific families.

  6. Early development in Rett syndrome – the benefits and difficulties of a birth cohort approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B.; Lemcke, Sanne; Einspieler, Christa; Zhang, Dajie; Bölte, Sven; Townend, Gillian S.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purposes: Typically, early (pre-diagnostic) development in individuals later diagnosed with Rett syndrome (RTT) has been investigated retrospectively using parent reports, medical records and analysis of home videos. In recent years, prospective research designs have been increasingly applied to the investigation of early development in individuals with late phenotypical onset disorders, for example, autism spectrum disorder. Methods: In this study, data collected by the Danish National Birth Cohort lent itself to prospective exploration of the early development of RTT, in particular early motor-, speech-language, and socio-communicative behaviors, mood, and sleep. Results and Conclusions: Despite limitations, this quasi prospective methodology proved promising. In order to add substantially to the body of knowledge, however, specific questions relating to peculiarites in early development could usefully be added to future cohort studies. As this involves considerable work, it may be more realistic to consider a set of indicators which point to a number of developmental disorders rather than to one. PMID:28534656

  7. Tobacco smoking and cannabis use in a longitudinal birth cohort: evidence of reciprocal causal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Aldo; Boden, Joseph M; De Pirro, Silvana; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Harold, Gordon T

    2015-05-01

    There is evidence of associations between tobacco and cannabis use that are consistent with both a classical stepping-stone scenario that posits the transition from tobacco use to cannabis use ('gateway' effect of tobacco) and with the reverse process leading from cannabis use to tobacco abuse ('reverse gateway' effect of cannabis). The evidence of direct causal relationships between the two disorders is still missing. We analysed data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) longitudinal birth cohort using advanced statistical modelling to control for fixed sources of confounding and to explore causal pathways. The data were analysed using both: (a) conditional fixed effects logistic regression modelling; and (b) a systematic structural equation modelling approach previously developed to investigate psychiatric co-morbidities in the same cohort. We found significant (pcannabis use and tobacco smoking and vice versa, after controlling for non-observed fixed confounding factors and for a number of time-dynamic covariate factors (major depression, alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorder, stressful life events, deviant peer affiliations). Furthermore, increasing levels of tobacco smoking were associated with increasing cannabis use (p=0.02) and vice versa (pcannabis use arises from a reciprocal feedback loop involving simultaneous causation between tobacco use disorder and cannabis use disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical documentation variations and NLP system portability: a case study in asthma birth cohorts across institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Wang, Yanshan; Wi, Chung-Il; Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Ryu, Euijung; Ali, Mir H; Juhn, Young J; Liu, Hongfang

    2017-11-30

    To assess clinical documentation variations across health care institutions using different electronic medical record systems and investigate how they affect natural language processing (NLP) system portability. Birth cohorts from Mayo Clinic and Sanford Children's Hospital (SCH) were used in this study (n = 298 for each). Documentation variations regarding asthma between the 2 cohorts were examined in various aspects: (1) overall corpus at the word level (ie, lexical variation), (2) topics and asthma-related concepts (ie, semantic variation), and (3) clinical note types (ie, process variation). We compared those statistics and explored NLP system portability for asthma ascertainment in 2 stages: prototype and refinement. There exist notable lexical variations (word-level similarity = 0.669) and process variations (differences in major note types containing asthma-related concepts). However, semantic-level corpora were relatively homogeneous (topic similarity = 0.944, asthma-related concept similarity = 0.971). The NLP system for asthma ascertainment had an F-score of 0.937 at Mayo, and produced 0.813 (prototype) and 0.908 (refinement) when applied at SCH. The criteria for asthma ascertainment are largely dependent on asthma-related concepts. Therefore, we believe that semantic similarity is important to estimate NLP system portability. As the Mayo Clinic and SCH corpora were relatively homogeneous at a semantic level, the NLP system, developed at Mayo Clinic, was imported to SCH successfully with proper adjustments to deal with the intrinsic corpus heterogeneity.

  9. Meta-analysis of air pollution exposure association with allergic sensitization in European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzieva, Olena; Gehring, Ulrike; Aalberse, Rob; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Behrendt, Heidrun; Bellander, Tom; Birk, Matthias; de Jongste, Johan C; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoek, Gerard; Klümper, Claudia; Koppelman, Gerard; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Lindley, Sarah; Mölter, Anna; Simpson, Angela; Standl, Marie; van Hage, Marianne; von Berg, Andrea; Wijga, Alet; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran

    2014-03-01

    Evidence on the long-term effects of air pollution exposure on childhood allergy is limited. We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and allergic sensitization to common allergens in children followed prospectively during the first 10 years of life. Five European birth cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project were included: BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and GINIplus (Germany), MAAS (Great Britain), and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Land-use regression models were applied to assess the individual residential outdoor levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), the mass concentration of particles between 2.5 and 10 μm in size, and levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), as well as measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters and nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxide levels. Blood samples drawn at 4 to 6 years of age, 8 to 10 years of age, or both from more than 6500 children were analyzed for allergen-specific serum IgE against common allergens. Associations were assessed by using multiple logistic regression and subsequent meta-analysis. The prevalence of sensitization to any common allergen within the 5 cohorts ranged between 24.1% and 40.4% at the age of 4 to 6 years and between 34.8% and 47.9% at the age of 8 to 10 years. Overall, air pollution exposure was not associated with sensitization to any common allergen, with odds ratios ranging from 0.94 (95% CI, 0.63-1.40) for a 1 × 10(-5) ∙ m(-1) increase in measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters to 1.26 (95% CI, 0.90-1.77) for a 5 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 exposure at birth address. Further analyses did not provide consistent evidence for a modification of the air pollution effects by sex, family history of atopy, or moving status. No clear associations between air pollution exposure and development of allergic sensitization in children up to 10 years of age

  10. The impact of adolescent stuttering on educational and employment outcomes: evidence from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2012-06-01

    In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. A secondary analysis of a British birth cohort dataset was used in the study. At age 16, there were 217 cohort members who were reported by their parents to stutter, and 15,694 cohort members with no known history of stuttering or other speech problems. Data were analysed concerning factors associated with report of stuttering at 16, school leaving age, highest qualification, unemployment early in working life, pay at age 23 and 50, and social class of job at age 23 and 50. Those who stuttered at 16 were statistically more likely than those who did not stutter to be male, to have poorer cognitive test scores, and to have been bullied. There were no significant effects of stuttering on educational outcomes. For employment outcomes, the only significant association with stuttering concerned socioeconomic status of occupation at 50, with those who had been reported to stutter having lower-status jobs. These findings fail to support the belief that stuttering has a negative impact on education and employment. The higher likelihood of those who stutter working in lower-status positions may reflect their preference for avoiding occupations perceived to require good spoken communication abilities. Therapeutic implications are discussed. The reader will be able to describe (a) prior work on the impact of stuttering on education and employment, (b) some characteristics of the National Child Development Study (NCDS), (c) the effect of stuttering on school leaving age and highest educational qualification in NCDS, (d) the effect of stuttering on employment outcomes in NCDS: unemployment by age 23, pay at 23 and 50, and socioeconomic status of occupation at 23 and 50. Copyright © 2012

  11. Newborns health in the Danube Region: Environment, biomonitoring, interventions and economic benefits in a large prospective birth cohort study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersen, Z.J.; Šrám, Radim; Ščasný, M.; Gurzau, E.S.; Fucic, A.; Gribaldo, L.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Kohlová, M.B.; Máca, V.; Zvěřinová, I.; Gajdošová, D.; Moshammer, H.; Rudnai, P.; Knudsen, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, mar. (2016), s. 112-122 ISSN 0160-4120 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : birth cohort * environment * biomonitoring * air pollution * danube region * childhood health Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.088, year: 2016

  12. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... for NIC. For babies order...

  13. The Association between Cognitive Ability across the Lifespan and Health Literacy in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Catherine; Johnson, Wendy; Wolf, Michael S.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and four participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study took a validated IQ-type test at age 11 years and a battery of cognitive tests at age 70 years. Three tests of health literacy were completed at age 72 years; the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults…

  14. Family Structure Transitions and Early Childhood Development in Taiwan: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan has over the past three decades been experiencing demographic changes that may pose important concerns for children's quality of life. This study examines the relationships and potential pathways between family structure transitions and early childhood development. Our analysis is based on 19,499 children from the 2005 birth cohort who…

  15. Perinatal mortality and morbidity in a nationwide cohort of 529,688 low-risk planned home and hospital births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de jonge, A.; van der Goes, B. Y.; Ravelli, A. C. J.; Amelink-Verburg, M. P.; Mol, B. W.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Buitendijk, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal mortality and severe perinatal morbidity between planned home and planned hospital births, among low-risk women who started their labour in primary care. DESIGN: A nationwide cohort study. SETTING: The entire Netherlands. POPULATION: A total of 529,688 low-risk women

  16. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Gehring, Ulrike

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n=3963), parents reported on

  17. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H.; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n = 3963), parents reported on

  18. Hyperemesis gravidarum and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, M. H.; Grooten, I. J.; Sebert, S.; Koiranen, M.; Järvelin, M. R.; Kajantie, E.; Painter, R. C.; Roseboom, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to maternal hyperemesis gravidarum upon offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. Design This study is part of the prospective follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Setting Between 1 July 1985 and 30 June 1986 all

  19. The role of birth cohorts in long-term trends in liver cirrhosis mortality across eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trias-Llimós, Sergi; Bijlsma, Maarten J; Janssen, Fanny

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Understanding why inequalities in alcohol-related mortality trends by sex and country exist, is essential for developing health policies. Birth cohort effects, indicative of differences by generation in drinking, have rarely been studied. This study estimated the relative

  20. The role of birth cohorts in long-term trends in liver cirrhosis mortality across eight European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trias Llimós, S.; Bijlsma, M.; Janssen, F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Understanding why inequalities in alcohol-related mortality trends by sex and country exist, is essential for developing health policies. Birth cohort effects, indicative of differences by generation in drinking, have rarely been studied. This study estimated the relative

  1. Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts - a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Holmboe, Stine; Jacobsen, R

    2012-01-01

    . The proportion of childless men at age 45 increased from 14.8% to 21.9% in the same birth cohorts. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) seemed to compensate partly for the lower fertility and to reduce the proportion of childless men. In contrast, recent reports on corresponding birth cohorts of Danish women...

  2. Risk of maternal and neonatal complications in subsequent pregnancy after planned caesarean section in a first birth, compared with emergency caesarean section: a nationwide comparative cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, N.; Ruiter, L.; Hof, M.; Ravelli, A.; Mol, B. W.; Pajkrt, E.; Kazemier, B.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the difference in risks of neonatal and maternal complications, including uterine rupture, in a second birth following a planned caesarean section versus emergency caesarean section in the first birth. Prospective cohort study. Population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Linked data set

  3. Social selection in cohort studies and later representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses: The Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 1998-2002 ( N=344,160). Linking the DNBC ( N=91,442) and the general population to the Danish national health registries, all children were followed until they received an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis, had a prescription of psychotropic medication or to the end of follow-up in 2013. The prevalence ratios (PRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each psychiatric diagnosis and by sex. Age at first diagnosis presented as means were compared using the one-sample t-test. In the DNBC, the selected childhood psychiatric diagnoses were underrepresented by 3% (PR=0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), ranging from a 20% underrepresentation for schizophrenia (PR=0.80, 95% CI 0.59-1.09) to a 6% over-representation for anxiety disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder (PR=1.06, 95% CI 0.97-1.17). The majority of the specific diagnoses were modestly underrepresented in the DNBC compared to the general population, while use of psychotropic medication had similar representation. Girls were generally more underrepresented than boys. Depression was on average diagnosed 0.4 years earlier in the DNBC than in the general population ( p=0.023). These findings suggest that the social selection may influence the prevalence of diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders in the DNBC.

  4. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327). Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  5. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ki Kwok

    Full Text Available Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally.We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327.Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.23, -0.14, lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04, greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14 and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14, but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11, adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996, but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15, but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11, at 13 years, but similar blood pressure.Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  6. [Birth cohort effect on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in coronary artery disease. Experience in a Latin-american country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiel, Marisol; Cepeda, Magda; Ochoa, Julián; Loaiza, John H; Velásquez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of major risk factors associated to coronary artery disease has changed over time. Today, the frequency of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus has increased, while smoking has decreased. The birth cohort effect for coronary artery disease in subjects as an approximation of the true prevalence over time has not been studied in Latin-America. To determine the trends in the prevalence of major risk factors for coronary artery disease by birth cohort effect in a high risk population. We estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia from a prospective institutional registry (DREST registry) of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary event. Birth cohort effect was defined as a statistical, epidemiological and sociological methodology to identify the influence of the environment in the lifetime from birth by each decade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed adjusted by gender. Out of 3,056 subjects who were enrolled, 72% were male, with a median age of 61 years (interquartile range=53-69). Hypertension prevalence was 62.3%, for diabetes mellitus it was 48.8%, for smoking it was 18.8% and for dyslipidemia it was 48.8%. We observed an increase in prevalence for diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in each cohort according to birth decade, while there was a reduction in prevalence for hypertension in the same decades. The prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors has changed in time and the presence of time at birth effect is evident, possibly influenced by the environment's social conditions in each decade of life. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Attitudes to participating in a birth cohort study, views from a multiethnic population: a qualitative study using focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neeru; Round, Thomas P; Daker-White, Gavin; Bower, Peter; Griffiths, Chris J

    2017-02-01

    Recruitment to birth cohort studies is a challenge. Few studies have addressed the attitudes of women about taking part in birth cohort studies particularly those from ethnic minority groups. To seek the views of people from diverse ethnic backgrounds about participation in a proposed birth cohort examining the impact of infections. Eight focus groups of pregnant women and mothers of young children took place in GP surgeries and community centres in an ethnically diverse area of east London. Purposeful sampling and language support ensured representation of people from ethnic minority groups. Audio recordings were taken and transcripts were analysed using the Framework approach. The views of participants about taking part in the proposed birth cohort study, in particular concerning incentives to taking part, disincentives and attitudes to consenting children. There was more convergence of opinion than divergence across groups. Altruism, perceived health gains of participating and financial rewards were motivating factors for most women. Worries about causing harm to their child, inconvenience, time pressure and blood sample taking as well as a perceived lack of health gains were disincentives to most. Mistrust of researchers did not appear to be a significant barrier. The study indicates that ethnicity and other demographic factors influence attitudes to participation. To recruit better, birth cohort studies should incorporate financial and health gains as rewards for participation, promote the altruistic goals of research, give assurances regarding the safety of the participating children and sensitive data, avoid discomfort and maximize convenience. Ethnicity influences attitudes to participation in many ways, and researchers should explore these factors in their target population. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Relative effect of genetic and environmental factors on body height: differences across birth cohorts among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, K; Kaprio, J; Lahelma, E; Koskenvuo, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the change in heritability of adult body height across birth cohorts in Finland. METHODS: In 1981, cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 10,968 twin pairs born before 1958. The effect of genetic factors was estimated via genetic modeling. RESULTS: Heritability increased from the cohort born before 1929 (0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 0.88 in men; 0.66, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.77 in women) to that born in 1947 through 1957 (0.81, 95% CI = 0.73, 0.87 in men; 0.82, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.89 in women). CONCLUSIONS: Heritability of height increased across Finnish birth cohorts born in the first half of this century and leveled off after World War II. Environmental factors, compared with genetic factors, appear to be more important among women than men. PMID:10754982

  9. Increasing incidence of early onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a study of Danish male birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A; Andersen, P K; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total...... of 1705 diabetic subjects were identified of whom 23 were not representative of idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. The cumulative rate of Type 1 diabetes development during the first 20 years of life increased from 2.37 to 2.90 per 1000 for the first eight and last eight birth cohorts, respectively. A log...

  10. Effects of the phthalate exposure during three gestation periods on birth weight and their gender differences: A birth cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hui; Mao, Lei-Jing; Tao, Xing-Yong; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Wang, Qu-Nan; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Zhong-Xiu; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Ye-Qing; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Tao, Xu-Guang; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2018-02-01

    Phthalate has been widely used as a type of plasticiser in various consuming products in daily life. Recent studies have suggested that prenatal phthalate exposure may have adverse effects on fetal development. We aimed to identify the effects of in utero phthalate exposure on birth weight (BW). We evaluated a birth cohort comprising 3474 pregnant women and their single infants; 3103, 2975 and 2838 urine samples were collected in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Phthalate metabolites included monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxylhexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), which were analysed in the urine by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed linear model was used in the statistical analysis. Generally, MMP and MEP exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased birth weight of infants (MMP, β=-12.192, p=0.009; MEP, β=-11.876, p=0.014). Hierarchical analysis found that MMP and MEOHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight only in low birth weight groups (MMP, β=-42.538, p=0.005; MEOHP, β=-63.224, p=0.008); MEHP and MEHHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight in both low birth weight group (MEHP, β=-42.348, p=0.035; MEHHP, β=-50.485, p=0.006) and high birth weight group (MEHP, β=-16.580, p=0.034; MEHHP, β=-18.009, p=0.040), MBP and MEHP exposure were associated with increased infants' birth weight in male NBW group (MBP, β=10.438, p=0.039; MEHP, β=13.223, p=0.017). Moreover, the effect has sex difference. The reduction of birth weight associated with MEHP and MEOHP exposure was stronger in male infants, while MMP and MEP exposure was more significant in female infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Television viewing and obesity: a prospective study in the 1958 British birth cohort.

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    Parsons, T J; Manor, O; Power, C

    2008-12-01

    To assess whether frequency of television viewing in adolescence (11 and 16 years) or early adulthood (23 years) affected subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI) through to mid-adulthood life, and waist-hip ratio in mid-adulthood. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all births in 1 week in March 1958 in England, Scotland and Wales. The main analyses included at least 11 301 participants. Outcome measures included BMI at 16, 23, 33 and 45 years and waist-hip ratio at 45 years. Watching television 'often' at 16 years (but not 11 years) was associated with a faster gain in BMI between 16 and 45 years in males (0.011 kg m(-2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.003, 0.019) and females (0.013 kg m(-2) per year, 95%CI 0.003, 0.023). More frequent television viewing at 11, 16 and 23 years was associated with a faster gain in BMI between 23 and 45 years in females, but not in males. Television viewing at 23 years was associated with waist-hip ratio at 45 years: participants watching > or = 5 times per week had a waist-hip ratio 0.01 higher than those watching less often. At 45 years, those watching television for > or = 4 h day(-1) had a waist-hip ratio 0.03-0.04 higher than those watching for television viewing in adolescence and early adulthood is associated with greater BMI gains through to mid-adulthood and with central adiposity in mid-life. Television viewing may be a useful behaviour to target in strategies to prevent obesity.

  12. Viruses causing lower respiratory symptoms in young children: findings from the ORChID birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Mohinder; Lambert, Stephen B; Sloots, Theo P; Whiley, David M; Alsaleh, Asma; Mhango, Lebogang; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Wang, David; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith; Ware, Robert S

    2017-12-15

    Viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause substantial child morbidity. Sensitive molecular-based assays aid virus detection, but the clinical significance of positive tests remains uncertain as some viruses may be found in both acutely ill and healthy children. We describe disease-pathogen associations of respiratory viruses and quantify virus-specific attributable risk of ARIs in healthy children during the first 2 years of life. One hundred fifty-eight term newborn babies in Brisbane, Australia, were recruited progressively into a longitudinal, community-based, birth cohort study conducted between September 2010 and October 2014. A daily tick-box diary captured predefined respiratory symptoms from birth until their second birthday. Weekly parent-collected nasal swabs were batch-tested for 17 respiratory viruses by PCR assays, allowing calculation of virus-specific attributable fractions in the exposed (AFE) to determine the proportion of virus-positive children whose ARI symptoms could be attributed to that particular virus. Of 8100 nasal swabs analysed, 2646 (32.7%) were virus-positive (275 virus codetections, 3.4%), with human rhinoviruses accounting for 2058/2646 (77.8%) positive swabs. Viruses were detected in 1154/1530 (75.4%) ARI episodes and in 984/4308 (22.8%) swabs from asymptomatic periods. Respiratory syncytial virus (AFE: 68% (95% CI 45% to 82%)) and human metapneumovirus (AFE: 69% (95% CI 43% to 83%)) were strongly associated with higher risk of lower respiratory symptoms. The strong association of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus with ARIs and lower respiratory symptoms in young children managed within the community indicates successful development of vaccines against these two viruses should provide substantial health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Alcoholism and timing of separation in parents: findings in a midwestern birth cohort.

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    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/ other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA nevertogether couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins' birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth-5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender.

  14. Breastfeeding and the development of asthma and atopy during childhood: a birth cohort study

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    Aida Semic-Jusufagic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Within the context of a population based-birth cohort, we investigated the association between breastfeeding and development of asthma and atopy in childhood. Methods. Children (n=1072 were followed from birth and reviewed at age one, three, five and eight years. Based on the onset and resolution of symptoms, we assigned children into the wheeze phenotypes (never, transient, intermittent, lateonset and persistent. Atopy was determined by skin testing and specific IgE measurement. According to the duration of breastfeeding, participants were assigned as not breastfed, breastfed ≤ four months and breastfed > four months. Results. In a multinomial regression model adjusted for gender, we found that breastfeeding > four months was protective of transient early wheeze (aOR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.90, p=0.01, with no significant association between breastfeeding and other wheeze phenotypes. In a multivariate model, we found a significant protective effect of breastfeeding >four months on doctor-diagnosed asthma by age eight (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.88, p=0.01. However, we observed a strong trend which failed to reach statistical significance for breastfeeding >four months to increase the risk of atopy at age one year (aOR 2.41, 95% CI 0.94-6.14, p=0.07. There was no significant association between breastfeeding and atopy at any other time point. Conclusion. Breastfeeding may prevent viral-infection induced wheezing illnesses in early childhood (transient early wheezing.

  15. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

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    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Schou Andersen, C; Schmidt Morgen, C; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Oken, E; Gillman, M W; Sørensen, T I A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. We studied 27,821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ⩾ 85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. A total of 17,721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.05; P=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.10; P=0.047). Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy.

  16. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  17. Impact of Prolonged Breastfeeding on Dental Caries: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco Aurelio; Mittinty, Murthy N; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Santos, Ina Silva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the effect of breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and sugar consumption on children's dental caries. We investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding is a risk factor for dental caries in the primary dentition, independently of sugar consumption. An oral health study ( n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. The average number of decayed, missing, and filled primary tooth surfaces (dmfs) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC: dmfs ≥6) were investigated at age 5 years. Breastfeeding was the main exposure collected at birth and at 3, 12, and 24 months of age. Data on sugar consumption were collected at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Marginal structural modeling was used to estimate the controlled direct effect of breastfeeding (0-12, 13-23, and ≥24 months) on dmfs and on S-ECC. The prevalence of S-ECC was 23.9%. The mean number of dmfs was 4.05. Children who were breastfed for ≥24 months had a higher number of dmfs (mean ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.4) and a 2.4 times higher risk of having S-ECC (risk ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7-3.3) than those who were breastfed up to 12 months of age. Breastfeeding between 13 and 23 months had no effect on dental caries. Prolonged breastfeeding increases the risk of having dental caries. Preventive interventions for dental caries should be established as early as possible because breastfeeding is beneficial for children's health. Mechanisms underlying this process should be investigated more deeply. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Naturally Acquired Immunity Against Rotavirus Infection and Gastroenteritis in Children: Paired Reanalyses of Birth Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A; Lopman, Benjamin A; Parashar, Umesh D; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Samuel, Prasanna; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Kang, Gagandeep; Pitzer, Virginia E

    2017-08-01

    Observational studies in socioeconomically distinct populations have yielded conflicting conclusions about the strength of naturally acquired immunity against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), mirroring vaccine underperformance in low-income countries. We revisited birth cohort studies to understand naturally acquired protection against rotavirus infection and RVGE. We reanalyzed data from 200 Mexican and 373 Indian children followed from birth to 2 and 3 years of age, respectively. We reassessed protection against RVGE, decomposing the incidence rate into the rate of rotavirus infection and the risk of RVGE given infection, and tested for serum antibody correlates of protection using regression models. Risk for primary, secondary, and subsequent infections to cause RVGE decreased per log-month of age by 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12%-41%), 69% (95% CI, 30%-86%), and 64% (95% CI, -186% to 95%), respectively, in Mexico City, and by 10% (95% CI, -1% to 19%), 51% (95% CI, 41%-59%) and 67% (95% CI, 57%-75%), respectively, in Vellore. Elevated serum immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G titers were associated with partial protection against rotavirus infection. Associations between older age and reduced risk for RVGE or moderate-to-severe RVGE given infection persisted after controlling for antibody levels. Dissimilar estimates of protection against RVGE may be due in part to age-related, antibody-independent risk for rotavirus infections to cause RVGE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Food Insecurity and Children’s Mental Health: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Falissard, Bruno; Galéra, Cédric; Tremblay, Richard E.; Côté, Sylvana M.; Boivin, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity (which can be defined as inadequate access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets individuals’ dietary needs) is concurrently associated with children’s psychological difficulties. However, the predictive role of food insecurity with regard to specific types of children’s mental health symptoms has not previously been studied. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, LSCDQ, a representative birth cohort study of children born in the Québec region, in Canada, in 1997–1998 (n = 2120). Family food insecurity was ascertained when children were 1½ and 4½ years old. Children’s mental health symptoms were assessed longitudinally using validated measures of behaviour at ages 4½, 5, 6 and 8 years. Symptom trajectory groups were estimated to identify children with persistently high levels of depression/anxiety (21.0%), aggression (26.2%), and hyperactivity/inattention (6.0%). The prevalence of food insecurity in the study was 5.9%. In sex-adjusted analyses, children from food-insecure families were disproportionately likely to experience persistent symptoms of depression/anxiety (OR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79) and hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 3.06, 95% CI 1.68–5.55). After controlling for immigrant status, family structure, maternal age at child’s birth, family income, maternal and paternal education, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting, only persistent hyperactivity/inattention remained associated with food insecurity (fully adjusted OR: 2.65, 95% CI 1.16–6.06). Family food insecurity predicts high levels of children’s mental health symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/inattention. Addressing food insecurity and associated problems in families could help reduce the burden of mental health problems in children and reduce social inequalities in development. PMID:23300723

  20. Food insecurity and children's mental health: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Falissard, Bruno; Galéra, Cédric; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M; Boivin, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity (which can be defined as inadequate access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets individuals' dietary needs) is concurrently associated with children's psychological difficulties. However, the predictive role of food insecurity with regard to specific types of children's mental health symptoms has not previously been studied. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, LSCDQ, a representative birth cohort study of children born in the Québec region, in Canada, in 1997-1998 (n = 2120). Family food insecurity was ascertained when children were 1½ and 4½ years old. Children's mental health symptoms were assessed longitudinally using validated measures of behaviour at ages 4½, 5, 6 and 8 years. Symptom trajectory groups were estimated to identify children with persistently high levels of depression/anxiety (21.0%), aggression (26.2%), and hyperactivity/inattention (6.0%). The prevalence of food insecurity in the study was 5.9%. In sex-adjusted analyses, children from food-insecure families were disproportionately likely to experience persistent symptoms of depression/anxiety (OR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15-2.79) and hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 3.06, 95% CI 1.68-5.55). After controlling for immigrant status, family structure, maternal age at child's birth, family income, maternal and paternal education, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting, only persistent hyperactivity/inattention remained associated with food insecurity (fully adjusted OR: 2.65, 95% CI 1.16-6.06). Family food insecurity predicts high levels of children's mental health symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/inattention. Addressing food insecurity and associated problems in families could help reduce the burden of mental health problems in children and reduce social inequalities in development.

  1. Risk Factors at Birth Predictive of Subsequent Injury Among Japanese Preschool Children: A Nationwide 5-Year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Jike, Maki; Nakagome, Sachi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Ohida, Takashi

    2018-03-19

    To identify risk factors at birth that are predictive of subsequent injury among preschool children. Retrospective analysis of population-based birth cohort data from the "Longitudinal Survey of Babies Born in the 21st Century" was performed from 2001 through 2007 in Japan (n = 47,015). The cumulative incidence and the total number of hospitalizations or examinations conducted at medical facilities for injury among children from birth up to the age of 5 years were calculated. To identify risk factors at birth that are predictive of injury, multivariate analysis of data for hospitalization or admission because of injury during a 5-year period (age, 0-5 years) was performed using the total number of hospital examinations as the dependent variable. The cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval) of hospital examinations for injury over the 5-year period was 34.8% (34.2%-35.4%) for boys and 27.6% (27.0%-28.2%) for girls. The predictive risk factors at birth we identified for injury among preschool children were sex (boys), heavy birth weight, late birth order, no cohabitation with the grandfather or grandmother, father's long working hours, mother's high education level, and strong intensity of parenting anxiety. Based on the results of this study, we identified a number of predictive factors for injury in children. To reduce the risk of injury in the juvenile population as a whole, it is important to pursue a high-risk or population approach by focusing on the predictive factors we have identified.

  2. Prediction of Adult Criminal Careers from Early Delinquency Offense Characteristics in the 1958 Philadelphia Birth Cohort

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    Danielle M. Carkin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to investigate the impact of delinquency conduct on adult criminal career by the example of delinquent boys in the 1958 Philadelphia Birth Cohort. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors predetermined the following research methods formallogical comparativelegal and sociological. nbsp Results by the example of delinquent boys in the 1958 Philadelphia Birth Cohort the authors investigate the nature of delinquency conduct offensebyoffense and its relationship to adult crime status. Although it is convenient to think of an offender39s delinquency career as a whole such a career actually consists of one or more specific offenses and offense conduct can be worth studying in its own right. Thus it is necessary to determine whether the timing type severity court disposition and so on of these juvenile offenses can be used to predict adult career pathways. An extensive review of the literature revealed that investigations of early offense conduct and its connection to adult crime are exceedingly scarce. Scientific novelty for the first time the research proves that the facility disposition appears to have a criminogenic effect. The juvenile court dispositions are significantly predictive of the adult pathsmdashthe less severe the disposition the less adult crime. At the time of the second offense age is found significant in that the younger the individual is at the time of the second offense the greater the chances are that the individual will receive a higher score in the adult path variable. The younger the individual is at the time of the third offense the more likely he is to score higher in the adult paths. Thus to decrease the adult crime rates it is necessary to work with delinquent criminals before they commit their third crime. Besides it is substantiated that the strongest

  3. Estimating direct effects of parental occupation on Spaniards’ health by birth cohort

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    Jaime Pinilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social health inequalities in adult population are partly due to socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. A better understanding of how those circumstances affect health during adulthood may improve the opportunities for reducing health disparities. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parental socioeconomic status, which is proxied by occupation, on adult Spaniards’ health by birth cohort. The analysis will allow checking not only the direct impact of parental occupation on their offspring’s health, but also whether inherited inequality has been reduced over time. Methods We use data from the Bank of Spain’s Survey of Household Finances on Spanish households from 2002 to 2008. Sequential models were used to estimate the influence of the father’s and mother’s occupation on their offspring’s health, trying to disentangle direct from indirect effects. With a sample of 26,832 persons we consider effects for four different cohorts by birth periods ranging from 1916 to 1981. Results The results show that parental occupation has a significant direct impact on individuals’ health (p < 0.01. The effect of father’s occupation exceeds that of mother’s. For those born before 1936, the probability of reporting a good health status ranges from 0.31 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.14–0.48, when fathers were classified as unskilled elementary workers, to 0.98 (95% CI 0.98–0.99 when they were managers or mid-level professionals. For those born during the period 1959–1975, those probabilities are 0.49 (95% CI 0.39–0.59 and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96–0.98, respectively. Therefore, health inequalities linked to parental socioeconomic status have been noticeably reduced, although discrimination against unskilled workers persists over time. Conclusions Great progress has been made in the health area during the twentieth century, so that the impact of parental socioeconomic status on individuals

  4. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J; Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D; Pell, Jill P; Mackay, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n =1881 individuals). An ordinary least squares linear regression model was used, with normal childhood IQ (range 90-109) as the referent group. We adjusted analyses for confounding factors, including gender, ethnicity, handedness, maternal social class at recruitment, maternal age, maternal history of depression and maternal education. There was a positive association between IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features at age 22-23 years (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.159 (95% CI 0.120-0.198), P >0.001). Individuals in the lowest decile of manic features had a mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) which was almost 10 points lower than those in the highest decile of manic features: mean FSIQ 100.71 (95% CI 98.74-102.6) v . 110.14 (95% CI 107.79-112.50), P >0.001. The association between IQ and manic features was present for FSIQ, VIQ and for PIQ but was strongest for VIQ. A higher childhood IQ score, and high VIQ in particular, may represent a marker of risk for the later development of bipolar disorder. This finding has implications for understanding of how liability to bipolar disorder may have been selected through generations. It will also inform future genetic studies at the interface of intelligence, creativity and bipolar disorder and is relevant to the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. It may also improve approaches to earlier detection and treatment of bipolar disorder in adolescents

  5. The effects of parent-child relationships on later life mental health status in two national birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Z; Brugha, T; Fryers, T; Stewart-Brown, S

    2012-11-01

    Abusive and neglectful parenting is an established determinant of adult mental illness, but longitudinal studies of the impact of less severe problems with parenting have yielded inconsistent findings. In the face of growing interest in mental health promotion, it is important to establish the impact of this potentially remediable risk factor. 8,405 participants in the 1958 UK birth cohort study, and 5,058 in the 1970 birth cohort study questionnaires relating to the quality of relationships with parents completed at age 16 years. 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Malaise Inventory collected at age 42 years (1958 cohort) and 30 years (1970 cohort). Statistical methodology: logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex, social class and teenage mental health problems. 1958 cohort: relationships with both mother and father predicted mental health problems in adulthood; increasingly poor relationships were associated with increasing mental health problems at age 42 years. 1970 cohort: positive items derived from the Parental Bonding Instrument predicted reduced risk of mental health problems; negative aspects predicted increased risk at age 30 years. Odds of mental health problems were increased between 20 and 80% in fully adjusted models. Results support the hypothesis that problems with parent-child relationships that fall short of abuse and neglect play a part in determining adult mental health and suggest that interventions to support parenting now being implemented in many parts of the Western world may reduce the prevalence of mental illness in adulthood.

  6. Dietary factors and biomarkers of systemic inflammation in older people: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Janie; Kyle, Janet A M; Starr, John M; McNeill, Geraldine; Deary, Ian J

    2015-10-14

    Epidemiological studies have reported inverse associations between various single healthy diet indices and lower levels of systemic inflammation, but rarely are they examined in the same sample. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential relationships between biomarkers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen) and overall foods (dietary patterns), single foods (fruits and vegetables), and specific nutritive (antioxidants) and non-nutritive (flavonoids) food components in the same narrow-age cohort of older adults. The dietary intake of 792 participants aged 70 years from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 was assessed using a 168-item FFQ. Models were adjusted for age, sex, childhood cognitive ability, lifestyle factors and history of disease. Using logistic regression analyses, CRP (normal v. elevated) was favourably associated (at Pfruit intake (unstandardised β = (0·100, OR 0·91, 95 % CI 0·82, 0·99), including flavonoid-rich apples (unstandardised β = (0·456, OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·439, 0·946). Using linear regression analyses, fibrinogen (continuous) was inversely associated (at Pfruit intake (standardised β = (0·083), and combined fruit and vegetable intake (standardised β = (0·084). We observed no association between food components (antioxidant nutrients or specific flavonoid subclasses) and inflammatory markers. In the present cross-sectional study, nutrient-dense dietary patterns were associated with lower levels of systemic inflammation in older people. The results are consistent with dietary guidelines that promote a balanced diet based on a variety of plant-based foods.

  7. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Cohort study. 1996-2002, Denmark. All first time participants, a total of 89 829 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were included in the present study. Overall, 4062 pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortion. Information on education, income and labour market attachment in the year before pregnancy was drawn from national registers. Spontaneous abortion, that is, fetal death within the first 22 weeks of pregnancy, was the outcome of interest. The authors estimated HRs of spontaneous abortion using Cox regression analysis with gestational age as the underlying time scale. Women with abortion when compared with women with >12 years of education (HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.34)). The HR estimates for the four lowest income quintiles were all increased (HRs between 1.09 and 1.15) as compared with the upper quintile but did not differ considerably from each other. In general, no statistically significant association was found between labour market attachment and the risk of spontaneous abortion; however, the group of women on disability pension had an increased HR of spontaneous abortion when compared with women who were employed (HR 1.32 (95% CI 0.82 to 2.13)). Educational level and income were inversely associated with the risk of spontaneous abortion. As these factors most likely are non-causally related to spontaneous abortion, the findings indicate that factors related to social position, probably of the environmental and behavioural type, may affect spontaneous abortion risk. The study highlights the need for studies addressing such exposures in order to prevent spontaneous abortions.

  8. Fever during pregnancy and motor development in children: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Melbye, Mads

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how fever during pregnancy is associated with motor development in the child. This cohort study was based on data from females and their children, from the Danish National Birth Cohort, who took part in an 18-month and/or 7-year follow-up study. Information regarding fever (number of episodes, temperature, duration, and pregnancy week) was obtained around gestation week 12 and at the end of pregnancy. Assessments of motor development in early childhood were based on the ages at which the motor milestones 'sitting unsupported' (n=44,256) and 'walking unassisted' (n=53,959) were attained. The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07) was used to identify children with indication of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at age 7 years (n=29,401). Any associations between the exposure to fever during pregnancy and motor development were estimated using Cox regression and logistic regression analyses. Fever during pregnancy was reported by 15,234 (28.0%) participants in the 18-month follow-up and by 7965 (26.9%) participants in the 7-year follow-up. Adjusted analyses showed no association between prenatal exposure to fever and either 'sitting unsupported' or 'walking unassisted'. The proportion of children with indication of DCD was 3.1%. The odds ratio of indication of DCD if children were exposed to fever in utero was 1.29 (95% CI 1.12-1.49). However, no dose-response association was found. We found a significant association between maternal fever during pregnancy and DCD in children at age 7 years. The lack of a dose-response association might suggest that this association is explained by the underlying causes of the fever. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  9. [Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-12-01

    To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson's regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions.

  10. Air pollution during pregnancy and childhood cognitive and psychomotor development: six European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Klümper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krämer, Ursula; Larroque, Béatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardón, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M T; Verhulst, Frank C; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATION R (The Netherlands), DUISBURG (Germany), EDEN (France), GASPII (Italy), RHEA (Greece), and INMA (Spain)-that recruited mother-infant pairs from 1997 to 2008. Air pollution levels-nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) in all regions and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of psychomotor development was assessed between 1 and 6 years of age. Adjusted region-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. A total of 9482 children were included. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2, was associated with reduced psychomotor development (global psychomotor development score decreased by 0.68 points [95% confidence interval = -1.25 to -0.11] per increase of 10 μg/m in NO2). Similar trends were observed in most regions. No associations were found between any air pollutant and cognitive development. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2 (for which motorized traffic is a major source), was associated with delayed psychomotor development during childhood. Due to the widespread nature of air pollution exposure, the public health impact of the small changes observed at an individual level could be considerable.

  11. Rotavirus Infection and Disease in a Multisite Birth Cohort: Results From the MAL-ED Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Karthikeyan, Ramanujam; Babji, Sudhir; McGrath, Monica; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Shrestha, Jasmin; Mdumah, Estomih; Amour, Caroline; Samie, Amidou; Nyathi, Emanuel; Haque, Rashidul; Qureshi, Shahida; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Lima, Aldo A M; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Svensen, Erling; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Seidman, Jessica C; Zaidi, Anita K M; Kosek, Margaret N; Guerrant, Richard L; Gratz, Jean; Platts-Mills, James A; Lang, Dennis R; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-08-01

    In a multicountry birth cohort study, we describe rotavirus infection in the first 2 years of life in sites with and without rotavirus vaccination programs. Children were recruited by 17 days of age and followed to 24 months with collection of monthly surveillance and diarrheal stools. Data on sociodemographics, feeding, and illness were collected at defined intervals. Stools were tested for rotavirus and sera for antirotavirus immunoglobulins by enzyme immunoassays. A total of 1737 children contributed 22646 surveillance and 7440 diarrheal specimens. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 5.5% (408/7440) of diarrheal stools, and 344 (19.8%) children ever had rotavirus gastroenteritis. Household overcrowding and a high pathogen load were consistent risk factors for infection and disease. Three prior infections conferred 74% (P < .001) protection against subsequent infection in sites not using vaccine. In Peru, incidence of rotavirus disease was relatively higher during the second year of life despite high vaccination coverage. Rotavirus infection and disease were common, but with significant heterogeneity by site. Protection by vaccination may not be sustained in the second year of life in settings with high burdens of transmission and poor response to oral vaccines. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  13. Cell phone exposures and hearing loss in children in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-05-01

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. Detailed interviews were conducted during gestation, and when the children were 6 months, 18 months and 7 years of age. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, marginal structural models (MSM) with inverse-probability weighting, and doubly robust estimation (DRE) to relate hearing loss at age 18 months to cell phone use at age 7 years, and to investigate cell phone use reported at age 7 in relation to hearing loss at age 7. Our analyses included data from 52 680 children. We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age 7, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM and DRE models being 1.21 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99, 1.46], 1.23 [95% CI 1.01, 1.49] and 1.22 [95% CI 1.00, 1.49], respectively. Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. [Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2008-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth's age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health.

  15. Prediction of BMI at age 11 in a longitudinal sample of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Christiansen

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in the world with childhood prevalence rates between 20-26% and numerous associated health risks. The aim of the current study was to analyze the 11-year follow-up data of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS, to identify whether abnormal eating behavior patterns, especially restrained eating, predict body mass index (BMI at 11 years of age and to explore other factors known to be longitudinally associated with it. Of the original UBCS, n = 422 children (~ 40% of the original sample and their parents participated in the 11-year follow-up. BMI at age 8 and 11 as well as information on restrained eating, psychological problems, depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and IQ at age 8 were assessed. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM was used to predict children's BMI scores at age 11. PLS-SEM explained 68% of the variance of BMI at age 11, with BMI at age 8 being the most important predictor. Restrained eating, via BMI at age 8 as well as parental BMI, had further weak associations with BMI at age 11; no other predictor was statistically significant. Since established overweight at age 8 already predicts BMI scores at age 11 longitudinally, obesity interventions should be implemented in early childhood.

  16. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  17. Childhood behaviour problems predict crime and violence in late adolescence: Brazilian and British birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Menezes, Ana M B; Hickman, Matthew; Maughan, Barbara; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gonçalves, Helen; Anselmi, Luciana; Assunção, Maria Cecília F; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-04-01

    Most children live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), many of which have high levels of violence. Research in high-income countries (HICs) shows that childhood behaviour problems are important precursors of crime and violence. Evidence is lacking on whether this is also true in LMICs. This study examines prevalence rates and associations between conduct problems and hyperactivity and crime and violence in Brazil and Britain. A comparison was made of birth cohorts in Brazil and Britain, including measures of behaviour problems based on parental report at age 11, and self-reports of crime at age 18 (N = 3,618 Brazil; N = 4,103 Britain). Confounders were measured in the perinatal period and at age 11 in questionnaires completed by the mother and, in Brazil, searches of police records regarding parental crime. Conduct problems, hyperactivity and violent crime were more prevalent in Brazil than in Britain, but nonviolent crime was more prevalent in Britain. Sex differences in prevalence rates were larger where behaviours were less common: larger for conduct problems, hyperactivity, and violent crime in Britain, and larger for nonviolent crime in Brazil. Conduct problems and hyperactivity predicted nonviolent and violent crime similarly in both countries; the effects were partly explained by perinatal health factors and childhood family environments. Conduct problems and hyperactivity are similar precursors of crime and violence across different social settings. Early crime and violence prevention programmes could target these behavioural difficulties and associated risks in LMICs as well as in HICs.

  18. Predicting Depression with Psychopathology and Temperament Traits: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Miettunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the concurrent, predictive, and discriminate validity of psychopathology scales (e.g., schizotypal and depressive and temperament traits for hospitalisations due to major depression. Temperament, perceptual aberration, physical and social anhedonia, Depression Subscale of Symptom Checklist (SCL-D, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Schizoidia Scale, and Bipolar II Scale were completed as part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=4941; 2214 males. Several of the scales were related to depression. Concurrent depression was especially related to higher perceptual aberration (effect size when compared to controls, d=1.29, subsequent depression to high scores in SCL-D (d=0.48. Physical anhedonia was lower in subjects with subsequent depression than those with other psychiatric disorders (d=−0.33, nonsignificant. Participants with concurrent (d=0.70 and subsequent (d=0.54 depression had high harm avoidance compared to controls, while differences compared to other psychiatric patients were small. Subjects with depression differed from healthy controls in most of the scales. Many of the scales were useful predictors for future hospital treatments, but were not diagnosis-specific. High harm avoidance is a potential indicator for subsequent depression.

  19. Association between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, Robert J; Milne, Barry J; Poulton, Richie

    Watching television in childhood and adolescence has been linked to adverse health indicators including obesity, poor fitness, smoking, and raised cholesterol. However, there have been no longitudinal studies of childhood viewing and adult health. We explored these associations in a birth cohort followed up to age 26 years. We assessed approximately 1000 unselected individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-73 at regular intervals up to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between earlier television viewing and body-mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness (maximum aerobic power assessed by a submaximal cycling test), serum cholesterol, smoking status, and blood pressure at age 26 years. Average weeknight viewing between ages 5 and 15 years was associated with higher body-mass indices (p=0.0013), lower cardiorespiratory fitness (p=0.0003), increased cigarette smoking (pwatching television for more than 2 h a day during childhood and adolescence. Television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with overweight, poor fitness, smoking, and raised cholesterol in adulthood. Excessive viewing might have long-lasting adverse effects on health.

  20. Head Start and Urban Children’s School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social competence and reduced attention problems but not reduced internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. These findings were robust to model specifications (including models with city-fixed effects and propensity-scoring matching). Furthermore, the effects of Head Start varied by the reference group. Head Start was associated with improved cognitive development when compared with parental care or other nonparental care, as well as improved social competence (compared with parental care) and reduced attention problems (compared with other nonparental care). In contrast, compared with attendance at pre-kindergarten or other center-based care, Head Start attendance was not associated with cognitive gains but with improved social competence and reduced attention and externalizing behavior problems (compared with attendance at other center-based care). These associations were not moderated by child gender or race/ethnicity. PMID:21244155

  1. From Lead Exposure in Early Childhood to Adolescent Health: A Chicago Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Alix S; Sampson, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    To assess the relationships between childhood lead exposure and 3 domains of later adolescent health: mental, physical, and behavioral. We followed a random sample of birth cohort members from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, recruited in 1995 to 1997, to age 17 years and matched to childhood blood test results from the Department of Public Health. We used ordinary least squares regression, coarsened exact matching, and instrumental variables to assess the relationship between average blood lead levels in childhood and impulsivity, anxiety or depression, and body mass index in adolescence. All models adjusted for relevant individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics. After adjustment, a 1 microgram per deciliter increase in average childhood blood lead level significantly predicts 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01, 0.12) and 0.09 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.16) SD increases and a 0.37 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.64) point increase in adolescent impulsivity, anxiety or depression, and body mass index, respectively, following ordinary least squares regression. Results following matching and instrumental variable strategies are very similar. Childhood lead exposure undermines adolescent well-being, with implications for the persistence of racial and class inequalities, considering structural patterns of initial exposure.

  2. Neurocognition as a predictor of outcome in schizophrenia in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Juola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study neurocognitive performance as a predictor of outcomes in midlife schizophrenia. There is a lack of studies with unselected samples and a long follow-up. The study is based on the prospective, unselected population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. The study includes 43 individuals with schizophrenia and 73 controls, whose neurocognitive performance was assessed twice, at 34 and 43 years. At both time points we used identical neurocognitive tests to assess verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Our main aim was to analyse neurocognitive performance at 34 years as a predictor of clinical, vocational and global outcomes at 43 years. Additionally, the analysis addressed cross-sectional associations between cognitive performance and clinical, vocational and global measures at 43 years. The assessment of outcomes was performed in the schizophrenia group only. In the longitudinal analysis poorer visual memory predicted poorer vocational outcome and poorer long-term verbal memory predicted poorer global outcome. In the cross-sectional analysis poorer visual memory and lower composite score of neurocognition were associated with poorer global outcome. No individual neurocognitive test or the composite score of these predicted remission. These data indicate that neurocognition, especially memory function, is an important determinant of long-term functional outcome in midlife schizophrenia.

  3. Age of sexual initiation and depression in adolescents: Data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; Gonçalves Soares, Ana L; Bierhals, Isabel O; Machado, Adriana K F; Fernandes, Mayra P; Hirschmann, Roberta; da Silva, Thais M; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana M B

    2017-10-15

    Studies have shown that sexual initiation at earlier ages increases the risk of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, little is known about its association with major depressive episode (MDE). The association between age of sexual initiation and MDE at 18 years was assessed in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort using multiple logistic regression. Sexual initiation characteristics (age and type of partner) were assessed at the 15- and 18-years follow-up. The age of sexual initiation was evaluated in categories (11-14, 15-16, 17+ years). The type of partner was categorized into: boyfriend/ girlfriend, casual partner and other. MDE was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). From the 4027 adolescents assessed, the prevalence of MDE was higher in females (10.1%) than in males (3.4%), and 66.7% of the males and 58.6% of the females reported sexual initiation up to 16 years (p sexual initiation sexual intercourse was not associated to depression. Possibility of recall bias on the age of sexual initiation, and low statistical power for some analyses. A positive association between age of sexual initiation and MDE was observed only in females. More investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms through which age of sexual initiation can affect the risk of depression and whether the association persists in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood sleep disturbance and risk of psychotic experiences at 18: UK birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A; Lereya, S T; Lewis, G; Zammit, S; Fisher, H L; Wolke, D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in the psychosis prodrome, but rarely explored in relation to psychotic experiences. To investigate the relationship between specific parasomnias (nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking) in childhood and later adolescent psychotic experiences. The sample comprised 4720 individuals from a UK birth cohort. Mothers reported on children's experience of regular nightmares at several time points between 2 and 9 years. Experience of nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking was assessed using a semi-structured interview at age 12. Psychotic experiences were assessed at ages 12 and 18 using a semi-structured clinical interview. There was a significant association between the presence of nightmares at 12 and psychotic experiences at 18 when adjusted for possible confounders and psychotic experiences at 12 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.19-2.20). The odds ratios were larger for those who reported persistent psychotic experiences. The presence of nightmares might be an early risk indicator for psychosis. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Labor induction and cesarean delivery: A prospective cohort study of first births in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerulff, Kristen H; Attanasio, Laura B; Edmonds, Joyce K; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Repke, John T

    2017-09-01

    Mode of delivery at first childbirth largely determines mode of delivery at subsequent births, so it is particularly important to understand risk factors for cesarean delivery at first childbirth. In this study, we investigated risk factors for cesarean delivery among nulliparous women, with focus on the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery. A prospective cohort study of 2851 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who attempted vaginal delivery at hospitals in Pennsylvania, 2009-2011, was conducted. We used nested logistic regression models and multiple mediational analyses to investigate the role of three groups of variables in explaining the association between labor induction and unplanned cesarean delivery-the confounders of maternal characteristics and indications for induction, and the mediating (intrapartum) factors-including cervical dilatation, labor augmentation, epidural analgesia, dysfunctional labor, dystocia, fetal intolerance of labor, and maternal request of cesarean during labor. More than a third of the women were induced (34.3%) and 24.8% underwent cesarean delivery. Induced women were more likely to deliver by cesarean (35.9%) than women in spontaneous labor (18.9%), unadjusted OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.97-2.79). The intrapartum factors significantly mediated the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery (explaining 76.7% of this association), particularly cervical dilatation cesarean delivery after labor induction among nulliparous women is attributable mainly to lower cervical dilatation at hospital admission and higher rates of labor complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cell Phone Exposures and Hearing Loss in Children in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Background Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. Methods The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. Detailed interviews were conducted during gestation, and when the children were 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of age. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, marginal structural models (MSM) with inverse-probability weighting, and doubly-robust estimation (DRE) to relate hearing loss at age 18 months to cell phone use at age seven years, and to investigate cell phone use reported at age seven in relation to hearing loss at age seven. Results Our analyses included data from 52,680 children. We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age seven, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM, and DRE models being 1.21 [0.99–1.46], 1.23 [1.01–1.49], and 1.22 [1.00–1.49], respectively. Conclusions Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed. PMID:23574412

  7. Timing of solid food introduction and obesity: Hong Kong's "children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-05-01

    Some observational studies in Western settings show that early introduction of solid food is associated with subsequent obesity. However, introduction of solid food and obesity share social patterning. We examined the association of the timing of the introduction of solid food with BMI and overweight (including obesity) into adolescence in a developed non-Western setting, in which childhood obesity is less clearly socially patterned. We used generalized estimating equation models to estimate the adjusted associations of the timing of the introduction of solid food (8 months) with BMI z score and overweight (including obesity) at different growth phases (infancy, childhood, and puberty) in 7809 children (88% follow-up) from a Chinese birth cohort, "Children of 1997." We assessed if the associations varied with gender or breastfeeding. We used multiple imputation for missing exposure and confounders. The introduction of solid food at obesity) in infancy [mean difference in BMI z score: 0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.14 to 0.17], childhood (0.14; 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.40), or at puberty (0.22; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.52), adjusted for SEP and infant and maternal characteristics. In a non-Western developed setting, there was no clear association of the early introduction of solid food with childhood obesity. Together with the inconsistent evidence from studies in Western settings, this finding suggests that any observed associations might simply be residual confounding by SEP.

  8. The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Moschonis, George; Betoko, Aisha; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Manios, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline

    2013-09-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether early feeding practices influence later fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. The study used data from 4 European cohorts: the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant study, the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort, and the Greek EuroPrevall study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed in each cohort by food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between early feeding practices, such as breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding, and fruit and/or vegetable intake in 2-4-y-old children were tested by using logistic regressions, separately in each cohort, after adjustment for infant's age and sex and maternal age, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. Large differences in early feeding practices were highlighted across the 4 European cohorts with longer breastfeeding duration in the Generation XXI Birth Cohort and earlier introduction to complementary foods in ALSPAC. Longer breastfeeding duration was consistently related to higher fruit and vegetable intake in young children, whereas the associations with age of introduction to fruit and vegetable intake were weaker and less consistent across the cohorts. Mothers' fruit and vegetable intake (available in 3 of the cohorts) did not substantially attenuate the relation with breastfeeding duration. The concordant positive association between breastfeeding duration and fruit and vegetable intake in different cultural contexts favors an independent specific effect.

  9. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  10. Seasonal variations of neuromotor development by 14 months of age: Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for mothers and children (HBC Study.

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    Kenji J Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.

  11. Growth monitoring in children with low and normal birth weight up to two years: A retrospective cohort study

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    Mina Danaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted aimed to compare the growth indices in 2 years old children with a history of low birth weight with normal birth weight children.Methods: Current retrospective cohort study on all two-year children with low birth weight and three times the normal weight children covered by health centers of Kahnooj, was conducted in 2015. Cares at birth, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months of age were studied and, child growth indices (weight, height, head circumference, along with some demographic variables were studied. Information were entered SPSS version 20 and the analysis was performed.Results: There were significant differences in children's growth of both groups in all periods of care. Despite the same slope, growth pattern in children showed a significant difference. Young mother, girl sex of baby and preterm birth are predictor factors of low birth weight.Conclusion: Trends and growth patterns of weight, height and head circumference in underweight children have significant difference with normal children and, despite the same slope, these children can not compensate for the backwardness of its growth to the age of two. So you need to plot separate growth curves for these children and, possible preventive measures should be taken to prevent bearing underweight baby.

  12. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional

  13. Association of cesarean delivery with anemia in infants and children in 2 large longitudinal Chinese birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-tian; Trasande, Leonardo; Zhu, Li-ping; Ye, Rong-wei; Zhou, Yu-bo; Liu, Jian-meng

    2015-03-01

    Cesarean delivery may reduce placental-fetal transfusion and thus increase the risk of early childhood anemia compared with vaginal delivery, but this notion has not been carefully studied in longitudinal cohorts. The aim was to assess the association of cesarean delivery with anemia in infants and children in 2 longitudinal Chinese birth cohorts from different socioeconomic settings. Cohort 1 was recruited from 5 counties in northeastern China and cohort 2 from 21 counties or cities in southeastern China. Cohort 1 involved 17,423 infants born during 2006-2009 to mothers with early pregnancy baseline hemoglobin concentrations ranging from 100 to 177 g/L, whereas cohort 2 involved 122,777 children born during 1993-1996 to mothers with baseline hemoglobin concentrations ranging from 60 to 190 g/L. The main outcomes were anemia at 6 and 12 mo in cohort 1 and at 58 mo in cohort 2. Multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate adjusted ORs of anemia for cesarean compared with vaginal delivery. Stratified analyses were performed by pre- and postlabor cesarean delivery and according to maternal baseline hemoglobin concentration (≤109, 110-119, 120-129, and ≥130 g/L). Cesarean delivery was not associated with anemia at 6 mo in cohort 1 (adjusted OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.19); however, cesarean delivery was associated with increased anemia at 12 mo in cohort 1 (adjusted OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.37) and at 58 mo in cohort 2 (adjusted OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.15). The positive associations for anemia at 12 and 58 mo were consistent across maternal hemoglobin subgroups and persisted for cesarean delivery subtypes. Cesarean delivery is likely associated with anemia in children, which suggests a possible need for exploring changes in obstetric care that might prevent anemia in cesarean-delivered children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Birth weight effects on children's mental, motor, and physical development: evidence from twins data.

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    Datar, Ashlesha; Jacknowitz, Alison

    2009-11-01

    To determine the effect of very low birth weight (VLBW; motor development and physical growth during the first 2 years of life and whether VLBW and MLBW babies catch up to normal birth weight (NBW; > or =2500 g) children by age 2. We use data on dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twins and singleton births from the first two waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative dataset of children born in the US in 2001. We estimate the effects of VLBW and MLBW on children's mental and motor development scores, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height, and length-for-age z-scores at 9 months and 2 years. We examine whether differences in outcomes within twin pairs are related to differences in their birth weights. The within-twins analysis is conducted on samples of DZ and MZ twins. For comparison, we also estimate birth weight effects on child outcomes from multivariate linear regression models using the full singleton and twins' sample. We also estimate the effect of being small-for-gestational age (SGA; birth weight development, motor development, and growth at 9 months and 2 years of age. However, results from within-twin models with DZ twins that control for shared maternal and environmental factors showed much less effect of birth weight on mental or motor development, but continued large effects on growth for the VLBW group. Within-twin models with MZ twins that control for shared maternal, environmental, and genetic factors showed statistically insignificant effects of birth weight on mental and motor development, but continued effects on growth. Similar patterns were found when examining the effects of SGA. After controlling for the influence of maternal, environmental, and genetic factors, low birth weight has at most a small negative effect on children's mental and motor development in their first 2 years of life. However, low birth weight is a major risk factor for children's physical growth in

  15. Factors Influencing Enrolment: A Case Study from Birth to Twenty, the 1990 Birth Cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M.; Panday, Saadhna; Norris, Shane A.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal studies offer significant advantages in rendering data commensurate with the complexity of human development. However, incomplete enrolment and attrition over time can introduce bias. Furthermore, there is a scarcity of evaluative information on cohorts in developing countries. This paper documents various strategies adopted to…

  16. Relative validity of fruit and vegetable intake estimated by the food frequency questionnaire used in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Tina B.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Rasmussen, Salka E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To validate the fruit and vegetable intake estimated from the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) used in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Subjects and setting: The DNBC is a cohort of 101,042 pregnant women in Denmark, who received a FFQ by mail in gestation week 25. A validation...... study with 88 participants was made. A seven-day weighed food diary (FD) and three different biomarkers were employed as comparison methods. Results: Significant correlations between FFQ and FD-based estimates were found for fruit (r=0.66); vegetables (r=0.32); juice (r=0.52); fruit and vegetables (F...

  17. Cohort changes in cognitive function among Danish centenarians. A comparative study of 2 birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The objective was to examine cohort changes in cognitive function in 2 cohorts of centenarians born 10 years apart. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Danish Centenarians comprises all Danes reaching the age of 100 in the period April 1, 1995 through May 31, 1996. A total of 207 out...... cohort and worse cognitive performance for the centenarians in the 1905 group living in nursing homes compared to the nursing home dwellers in the 1895 cohort. CONCLUSION: The increasing number of centenarians may not entail larger proportions of cognitively impaired individuals in this extreme age group....

  18. Windows of opportunity for tolerance induction for allergy by studying the evolution of allergic sensitization in birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Marit; Asarnoj, Anna; Hamsten, Carl; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for developing IgE-mediated allergic diseases, which are a major cause of chronic illness world-wide. The introduction of allergen molecules to the field of allergy diagnostics has allowed dissecting the IgE response on a molecular level to pinpoint the specific disease-causing allergens. Studying birth cohorts is an essential tool for understanding the development and life course of allergy, enabling the possibility to design preventive strategies. Here we review the evolution of sensitization using data from some of the large European birth cohort studies. Differences and similarities between sensitization to food and various sources of inhalant allergens are discussed and allergen molecules of importance in early childhood predicting disease in adolescence are highlighted. Finally, we discuss windows of opportunity where intervention could be considered and address possible preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study

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    Shaikh Kiran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. Methods In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. Results 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5 experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8% experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2. The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18. There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Conclusions Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery

  20. Risk Factors of Early Otitis Media in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

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    Asbjørn Kørvel-Hanquist

    Full Text Available To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM in six-months-old children.The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more" maternal reported episodes of OM at age six months. In total 37 factors were assessed, covering prenatal, maternal, perinatal and postnatal factors.At age six months 5.3% (95% CI 5.1-5.5 of the children had experienced one or more episodes of OM. From the regression analysis, 11 variables were associated with a risk of OM. When a Bonferroni correction was introduced, gender, prematurity, parity, maternal age, maternal self-estimated health, taking penicillin during pregnancy, and terminating breastfeeding before age six months, was associated with a risk of early OM. The adjusted ORs of OM for boys versus girls was 1.30 (95% CI 1.18-1.44. The OR having one sibling versus no siblings was 3.0 (95% CI 2.64-3.41. If the woman had been taking penicillin during pregnancy, the OR was 1.35 (95% CI 1.15-1.58. Children born before 38th gestational week had an increased OR for early OM of 1.49 (95% CI 1.21-1.82. Children of young women had an increased OR of early OM compared to children of older women. Additionally, children of women who rated their own health low compared to those rating their health as high, had an increased OR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.10-1.74. Finally, children being breastfeed less than 6 months, had an increased OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.28-1.58 compared to children being breastfeed beyond 6 months.These findings indicate that prenatal factors are of less importance regarding early OM before the age of six months. Postnatal risk factors seem to pose the main risk of early OM.

  1. Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiby, Alexander I; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon; Yip, Vikki L; Macleod, John

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use by age 15 and subsequent educational outcomes. Birth cohort study. England. The sample was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; a core sample of 1155 individuals had complete information on all the variables. The main exposures were cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 assessed in clinic by computer-assisted questionnaire and serum cotinine. The main outcomes were performance in standardized assessments at 16 [Key Stage 4, General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)] in English and mathematics (mean scores), completion of five or more assessments at grade C level or higher and leaving school having achieved no qualifications. Analyses were sequentially adjusted for multiple covariates using a hierarchical approach. Covariates considered were: maternal substance use (ever tobacco or cannabis use, alcohol use above recommended limits); life course socio-economic position (family occupational class, maternal education, family income); child sex; month and year of birth; child educational attainment prior to age 11 (Key Stage 2); child substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) prior to age 15 and child conduct disorder. In fully adjusted models both cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 were associated with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. In general, the dose-response effect seen was consistent across all educational outcomes assessed. Weekly cannabis use was associated negatively with English GCSE results [grade point difference (GPD), -5.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -8.34, -3.53] and with mathematics GCSE results (GPD, -6.91, 95% CI = -9.92, -3.89). Daily tobacco smoking was associated negatively with English GCSE (GPD, -11.90, 95% CI = -13.47, -10.33) and with mathematics GCSE (GPD, -16.72, 95% CI = -18.57, -14.86). The greatest attenuation of these effects was seen on adjustment for other substance use and conduct disorder. Following

  2. Changes in testosterone related to body composition in late midlife: Findings from the 1946 British birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bann, D.; Wu, F. C.; Keevil, B.; Lashen, H.; Adams, J.; Hardy, R.; Muniz, G.; Kuh, D.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Ong, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Randomized trials in men with testosterone deficiency have provided evidence of short?term effects of testosterone therapy on muscle and fat mass but it is unclear whether this persists over a longer period or how testosterone affects women. We examined whether the midlife decline in testosterone relates to fat and lean mass in both sexes. Methods Data were collected from 440 men and 560 women participating in the 1946 British birth cohort study with testosterone measured at 53 and/...

  3. Moderators of the longitudinal relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play in children: The KOALA birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Remmers, T.; Kann, D. van; Gubbels, J.; Schmidt, S.; Vries, S. de; Ettema, D.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting unstructured outside play is a promising vehicle to increase children’s physical activity (PA). This study investigates if factors of the social environment moderate the relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play. Study design: 1875 parents from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study reported on their child’s outside play around age five years, and 1516 parents around age seven years. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to evaluate (moderating)...

  4. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

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    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  5. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study,

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    Rejane de Souza Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The population-based cancer registries (PBCR and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC] have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL in Brazil. Methods: A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i characteristics of the child at birth and (ii characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression models. Results: EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10 and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00. Conclusions: The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide.

  6. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Silva, Neimar de Paula; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Camargo, Beatriz; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    The population-based cancer registries (PBCR) and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC]) have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL) in Brazil. A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i) characteristics of the child at birth and (ii) characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models. EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10) and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00). The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. A Prospective Birth Cohort Study on Maternal Cholesterol Levels and Offspring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insight on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuelong; Riley, Anne W; Lee, Li-Ching; Volk, Heather; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Angomas, Rayris; Stivers, Tom; Wahl, Anastacia; Ji, Hongkai; Bartell, Tami R; Burd, Irina; Paige, David; Fallin, Margaret D; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-12-23

    Growing evidence suggests that maternal cholesterol levels are important in the offspring's brain growth and development. Previous studies on cholesterols and brain functions were mostly in adults. We sought to examine the prospective association between maternal cholesterol levels and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. We analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, enrolled at birth and followed from birth up to age 15 years. The final analyses included 1479 mother-infant pairs: 303 children with ADHD, and 1176 neurotypical children without clinician-diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders. The median age of the first diagnosis of ADHD was seven years. The multiple logistic regression results showed that a low maternal high-density lipoprotein level (≤60 mg/dL) was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, compared to a higher maternal high-density lipoprotein level, after adjusting for pertinent covariables. A "J" shaped relationship was observed between triglycerides and ADHD risk. The associations with ADHD for maternal high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides were more pronounced among boys. The findings based on this predominantly urban low-income minority birth cohort raise a new mechanistic perspective for understanding the origins of ADHD and the gender differences and future targets in the prevention of ADHD.

  8. Dissemination of periodic mammography and patterns of use, by birth cohort, in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rue, Montserrat; Carles, Misericordia; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Martinez-Alonso, Montserrat; Espinas, Josep-Alfons; Pla, Roger; Brugulat, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Background In Catalonia (Spain) breast cancer mortality has declined since the beginning of the 1990s. The dissemination of early detection by mammography and the introduction of adjuvant treatments are among the possible causes of this decrease, and both were almost coincident in time. Thus, understanding how these procedures were incorporated into use in the general population and in women diagnosed with breast cancer is very important for assessing their contribution to the reduction in breast cancer mortality. In this work we have modeled the dissemination of periodic mammography and described repeat mammography behavior in Catalonia from 1975 to 2006. Methods Cross-sectional data from three Catalan Health Surveys for the calendar years 1994, 2002 and 2006 was used. The dissemination of mammography by birth cohort was modeled using a mixed effects model and repeat mammography behavior was described by age and survey year. Results For women born from 1938 to 1952, mammography clearly had a period effect, meaning that they started to have periodic mammograms at the same calendar years but at different ages. The age at which approximately 50% of the women were receiving periodic mammograms went from 57.8 years of age for women born in 1938–1942 to 37.3 years of age for women born in 1963–1967. Women in all age groups experienced an increase in periodic mammography use over time, although women in the 50–69 age group have experienced the highest increase. Currently, the target population of the Catalan Breast Cancer Screening Program, 50–69 years of age, is the group that self-reports the highest utilization of periodic mammograms, followed by the 40–49 age group. A higher proportion of women of all age groups have annual mammograms rather than biennial or irregular ones. Conclusion Mammography in Catalonia became more widely implemented during the 1990s. We estimated when cohorts initiated periodic mammograms and how frequently women are receiving them

  9. Planned vaginal birth or elective repeat caesarean: patient preference restricted cohort with nested randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A Crowther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about benefits and harms of a planned vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC compared with elective repeat caesarean (ERC. We conducted a prospective restricted cohort study consisting of a patient preference cohort study, and a small nested randomised trial to compare benefits and risks of a planned ERC with planned VBAC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 2,345 women with one prior caesarean, eligible for VBAC at term, were recruited from 14 Australian maternity hospitals. Women were assigned by patient preference (n = 2,323 or randomisation (n = 22 to planned VBAC (1,225 patient preference, 12 randomised or planned ERC (1,098 patient preference, ten randomised. The primary outcome was risk of fetal death or death of liveborn infant before discharge or serious infant outcome. Data were analysed for the 2,345 women (100% and infants enrolled. The risk of fetal death or liveborn infant death prior to discharge or serious infant outcome was significantly lower for infants born in the planned ERC group compared with infants in the planned VBAC group (0.9% versus 2.4%; relative risk [RR] 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.80; number needed to treat to benefit 66; 95% CI 40-200. Fewer women in the planned ERC group compared with women in the planned VBAC had a major haemorrhage (blood loss ≥ 1,500 ml and/or blood transfusion, (0.8% [9/1,108] versus 2.3% [29/1,237]; RR 0.37; 95% CI 0.17-0.80. CONCLUSIONS: Among women with one prior caesarean, planned ERC compared with planned VBAC was associated with a lower risk of fetal and infant death or serious infant outcome. The risk of major maternal haemorrhage was reduced with no increase in maternal or perinatal complications to time of hospital discharge. Women, clinicians, and policy makers can use this information to develop health advice and make decisions about care for women who have had a previous caesarean. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53974531

  10. Planned vaginal birth or elective repeat caesarean: patient preference restricted cohort with nested randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Caroline A; Dodd, Jodie M; Hiller, Janet E; Haslam, Ross R; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty exists about benefits and harms of a planned vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) compared with elective repeat caesarean (ERC). We conducted a prospective restricted cohort study consisting of a patient preference cohort study, and a small nested randomised trial to compare benefits and risks of a planned ERC with planned VBAC. 2,345 women with one prior caesarean, eligible for VBAC at term, were recruited from 14 Australian maternity hospitals. Women were assigned by patient preference (n = 2,323) or randomisation (n = 22) to planned VBAC (1,225 patient preference, 12 randomised) or planned ERC (1,098 patient preference, ten randomised). The primary outcome was risk of fetal death or death of liveborn infant before discharge or serious infant outcome. Data were analysed for the 2,345 women (100%) and infants enrolled. The risk of fetal death or liveborn infant death prior to discharge or serious infant outcome was significantly lower for infants born in the planned ERC group compared with infants in the planned VBAC group (0.9% versus 2.4%; relative risk [RR] 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.80; number needed to treat to benefit 66; 95% CI 40-200). Fewer women in the planned ERC group compared with women in the planned VBAC had a major haemorrhage (blood loss ≥ 1,500 ml and/or blood transfusion), (0.8% [9/1,108] versus 2.3% [29/1,237]; RR 0.37; 95% CI 0.17-0.80). Among women with one prior caesarean, planned ERC compared with planned VBAC was associated with a lower risk of fetal and infant death or serious infant outcome. The risk of major maternal haemorrhage was reduced with no increase in maternal or perinatal complications to time of hospital discharge. Women, clinicians, and policy makers can use this information to develop health advice and make decisions about care for women who have had a previous caesarean. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53974531

  11. The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC:a study of autism spectrum disorders in MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Surén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. In most cases, the cause of ASD is likely to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures occurring in fetal life or early infancy. Consequently, a prospective pregnancy cohort like MoBa represents an ideal platform for studies of ASDs in children.Methods: The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC Study has identified potential ASD cases in MoBa through questionnaire- based screening, parental and professional referrals, and linkages to the Norwegian Patient Register. ASD diagnoses have been ascertained through in-person clinical assessments and medical record reviews.Current results: By the end of 2012, the ABC Study had identified 518 ASD cases in MoBa. The ASD prevalence in school-age children is 0.7-0.8%, which is in line with nationwide estimates for Norway. The most important source of ASD case identification was registry linkages, while only a minority was detected through early screening. Published findings show that screening at 18 months misses the majority of ASD cases. Analyses of risk factors for ASDs have shown that maternal use of folic acid supplements in early pregnancy may lower the child’s risk of developing ASDs and that paternal obesity appears to increase the child’s risk of ASDs.Future plans: ASD case identification will continue through annual registry linkages and subsequent reviews of medical records. Analyses of plasma samples and RNA samples will be conducted to investigate prenatal and perinatal microbial exposures, innate immune and inflammatory responses, biomarkers of autism risk, and exposures to xenobiotics. Analyses of deciduous teeth will also investigate the effect of medications and environmental toxins. Exome sequencing of DNA from ASD cases and their parents is ongoing, and will elucidate the

  12. Traffic-related air pollution and childhood obesity in an Italian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Sara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Michelozzi, Paola; Forastiere, Francesco; Porta, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with several adverse health outcomes in children, such as respiratory illnesses and cognitive development impairment. There are suggestions of an effect of traffic-related air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity, but the results are not consistent. The aim of the study is to analyse whether air pollution and vehicular traffic exposure, during the first four years of life, influence obesity- related measures among 4 and 8-year-old children from a prospective birth cohort in Rome. A cohort of newborns, enrolled in 2003-2004 within the GASPII project, was followed at 4 and 8 years of age with parental interviews and clinical examinations. Air pollution was assessed at residential address using Land Use Regression models (for NO 2 , NOx, PM 10 , PM 2.5 , PMcoarse, PM2.5 absorbance and one traffic variable (Total traffic load of all roads in a 100m buffer)). The outcomes under study were body mass index (BMI Z-scores according to WHO recommendations, considered both categorical and continuous) measured at 4 and 8 years, and, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total and HDL cholesterol measured at 8 years. The associations were evaluated through both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches, using logistic regression models, Generalized Estimating Equation models (GEE) and linear regression models, as appropriate. Moreover, Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) methodology was used to account for selection bias at enrolment and at follow-up. A total of 719 infants were enrolled and 581 (80.8%) and 499 (69.4%) were followed at 4 and 8 years, respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.3% and 36.9% at 4 and 8 years. No evidence of an association was found between vehicular traffic and being overweight/obese. Similarly, there was no evidence of an association between exposure to air pollutants and all other ponderal excess parameters. The study shows no association between exposure to vehicular traffic and

  13. Perinatal mortality and morbidity up to 28 days after birth among 743 070 low-risk planned home and hospital births: a cohort study based on three merged national perinatal databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, A.; Geerts, C.C.; van der Goes, B.Y.; Mol, B.W.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Nijhuis, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of adverse perinatal outcomes between planned home births versus planned hospital births. Design A nationwide cohort study. Setting The Netherlands. Population Low-risk women in midwife-led care at the onset of labour. Methods Analysis of national registration data. Main

  14. The Influence of Family Income Trajectories From Birth to Adulthood on Adult Oral Health: Findings From the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen G.; Thomson, W. Murray; Broadbent, Jonathan M.; Gigante, Denise P.; Horta, Bernardo L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether 3 models of life course socioeconomic status (critical period, accumulation of risk, and social mobility) predicted unsound teeth in adulthood among a Brazilian cohort. Methods. Life course data were collected on the 5914 live-born infants in the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort study. Participants' oral health was assessed at 15 (n = 888) and 24 (n = 720) years of age. We assessed family income trajectories and number of episodes of poverty in the life course through Poisson regressions, yielding unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios for number of unsound teeth at age 24 years. Results. The adjusted prevalence ratio for participants born into poverty was 30% higher than for those who were not. Participants who were always poor had the highest prevalence of unsound teeth; those who were downwardly or upwardly mobile also had more unsound teeth than did other participants, after adjustment for confounders. More episodes of poverty were associated with greater prevalence of unsound teeth in adulthood. Conclusions. Poverty at birth and during the life course was correlated with the number of unsound teeth at 24 years of age. PMID:20558788

  15. Exploration of preterm birth rates associated with different models of antenatal midwifery care in Scotland: Unmatched retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Andrew; Winter, Clare; Cochrane, Lynda

    2015-06-01

    preterm birth represents a significant personal, clinical, organisational and financial burden. Strategies to reduce the preterm birth rate have had limited success. Limited evidence indicates that certain antenatal care models may offer some protection, although the causal mechanism is not understood. We sought to compare preterm birth rates for mixed-risk pregnant women accessing antenatal care organised at a freestanding midwifery unit (FMU) and mixed-risk pregnant women attending an obstetric unit (OU) with related community-based antenatal care. unmatched retrospective 4-year Scottish cohort analysis (2008-2011) of mixed-risk pregnant women accessing (i) FMU antenatal care (n=1107); (ii) combined community-based and OU antenatal care (n=7567). Data were accessed via the Information and Statistics Division of the NHS in Scotland. Aggregates analysis and binary logistic regression were used to compare the cohorts׳ rates of preterm birth; and of spontaneous labour onset, use of pharmacological analgesia, unassisted vertex birth, and low birth weight. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, parity, deprivation score and smoking status in pregnancy. after adjustment the 'mixed risk' FMU cohort had a statistically significantly reduced risk of preterm birth (5.1% [n=57] versus 7.7% [n=583]; AOR 0.73 [95% CI 0.55-0.98]; p=0.034). Differences in these secondary outcome measures were also statistically significant: spontaneous labour onset (FMU 83.9% versus OU 74.6%; AOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.46-2.08]; p<0.001); minimal intrapartum analgesia (FMU 53.7% versus OU 34.4%; AOR 2.17 [95% CI 1.90-2.49]; p<0.001); spontaneous vertex delivery (FMU 71.9% versus OU 63.5%; AOR 1.46 [95% CI 1.32-1.78]; p<0.001). Incidence of low birth weight was not statistically significant after adjustment for other variables. There was no significant difference in the rate of perinatal or neonatal death. given this study׳s methodological limitations, we can only claim associations between the care model

  16. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, I; Fernández, M F; Pérez-Lobato, R; Dávila-Arias, C; Ocón, O; Ramos, R; Ríos-Arrabal, S; Villalba-Moreno, J; Olea, N; Núñez, M I

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100kHz-6GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (ERMS) and power density (SRMS) values were, respectively, 195.79mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01µW/m(2) (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80mV/m and 285.94µW/m(2), respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvente, I.; Fernández, M.F.; Pérez-Lobato, R.; Dávila-Arias, C.; Ocón, O.; Ramos, R.; Ríos-Arrabal, S.; Villalba-Moreno, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100 kHz–6 GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (E RMS ) and power density (S RMS ) values were, respectively, 195.79 mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01 µW/m 2 (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80 mV/m and 285.94 µW/m 2 , respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01 V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. - Highlights: • Spot measurements were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. • Mean root mean-square electric field and power density values were calculated. • Most recorded values were far below international standard guideline limits. • Data demonstrate spatial variability in the distribution of exposure levels. • While adverse effects are proven, application of the precautionary principle may be appropriate

  18. Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mohsina; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Scott, James; William, Gail M.; Clavarino, Alexandra; Najman, Jake M.

    2017-01-01

    Teenage motherhood has been associated with a wide variety of negative offspring outcomes including poorer cognitive development. In the context of limitations of previous research, this paper assesses the contemporary relevance of this finding. In this study we investigate the long-term cognitive status (IQ) among 21 year adult offspring born to teenage parents using the Mater University Study of Pregnancy- a prospective birth cohort study, which recruited all pregnant mothers attending a large obstetrical hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 to 1983. The analyses were restricted to a sub-sample of 2643 mother-offspring pair. Offspring IQ was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 21 year. Parental age was reported at first clinic visit. Offspring born to teenage mothers (pregnancy, birthweight, breastfeeding and parenting style attenuates the association, though the effect remains statistically significant (-1.4 IQ points; 95% CI: -2.8,-0.1). Similarly the risk of offspring having low IQ remained marginally significantly higher in those born to teenage mothers (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.9). In contrast, teenage fatherhood is not associated with adult offspring IQ, when adjusted for maternal age. Although the reduction in IQ is quantitatively small, it is indicative of neurodevelopmental disadvantage experienced by the young adult offspring of teenage mothers. Our results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but also at supporting early life condition of children born to teenage mothers to minimize the risk for disadvantageous outcomes of the next generation. PMID:28278227

  19. Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844

  20. Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. RESULTS Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth’s age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. CONCLUSIONS There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health. PMID:19142344

  1. Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Murray, Joseph; László, Mitzi; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Hallal, Pedro C; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecilia F; Menezes, Carolina Baptista; Barros, Fernando C

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants). Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7), depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6), and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.

  2. Comorbidities of obesity in school children: a cross-sectional study in the PIAMA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Elisabeth A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is ample evidence that childhood overweight is associated with increased risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between childhood overweight and common childhood health problems. Methods Data were used from a general population sample of 3960 8-year-old children, participating in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. Weight and height, measured by the investigators, were used to define BMI status (thinness, normal weight, moderate overweight, obesity. BMI status was studied cross-sectionally in relation to the following parental reported outcomes: a general health index, GP visits, school absenteeism due to illness, health-related functional limitations, doctor diagnosed respiratory infections and use of antibiotics. Results Obesity was significantly associated with a lower general health score, more GP visits, more school absenteeism and more health-related limitations, (adjusted odds ratios around 2.0 for most outcomes. Obesity was also significantly associated with bronchitis (adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI: 5.29 (2.58;10.85 and with the use of antibiotics (aOR (95%CI: 1.79 (1.09;2.93. Associations with flu/serious cold, ear infection and throat infection were positive, but not statistically significant. Moderate overweight was not significantly associated with the health outcomes studied. Conclusion Childhood obesity is not merely a risk factor for disease in adulthood, but obese children may experience more illness and health related problems already in childhood. The high prevalence of the outcomes studied implies a high burden of disease in terms of absolute numbers of sick children.

  3. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hye-Youn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.

  4. Infant vitamin d supplementation and allergic conditions in adulthood: northern Finland birth cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyppönen, Elina; Sovio, Ulla; Wjst, Matthias; Patel, Swatee; Pekkanen, Juha; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Järvelinb, Marjo-Riitta

    2004-12-01

    Allergen-induced secretion of Th2-type cytokines and IgE production have recently been reported to be increased in mice treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D, the active form of vitamin D. Our objective was to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation in infancy is associated with the risk of atopy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort consists of all individuals in the two most northern provinces of Finland who were due to be born in 1966. Data on vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life was obtained in 1967. Current asthma and allergic rhinitis were reported at age 31 years (n = 7,648), and atopy determined by skin-prick test in a sub-sample still living in northern Finland or the Helsinki area (n = 5,007). The prevalence of atopy and allergic rhinitis at age 31 years was higher in participants who had received vitamin D supplementation regularly during the first year compared to others (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.4-2.0, and OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.1-1.6, respectively). A similar association was observed for asthma (OR 1.35, 95%CI 0.99-1.8). These associations persisted after adjustment for a wide range of behavioral and social factors (adjusted: OR 1.33 for all, P = 0.01 for atopy, P = 0.001 for allergic rhinitis, and P = 0.08 for asthma). We observed an association between vitamin D supplementation in infancy and an increased risk of atopy and allergic rhinitis later in life. Further study is required to determine whether these observations reflect long-term effects on immune regulation or differences in unmeasured determinants of vitamin D supplementation.

  5. Childhood maltreatment preceding depressive disorder at age 18 years: A prospective Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; De Mola, Christian Loret; Wehrmeister, Fernando; Gonçalves, Helen; Kieling, Christian; Murray, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment is linked with increased risk for mental illness in adolescence and adulthood. However, little evidence is available on whether different forms of maltreatment have specific effects, and no prospective studies in low- or middle-income countries have addressed this issue. Participants in a population-based, birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (N=3715) self-reported exposure to maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence) in confidential questionnaires at age 15 years, and were assessed for major depression in interviews at age 18 years, using the MINI. Confounding variables concerning family characteristics were measured in interviews with mothers in the perinatal period and at age 11 years. Females exposed to emotional abuse (OR=2.7; 95%CI=1.9, 3.8) and domestic violence (OR=1.9; 95%CI=1.2, 2.9) were at increased risk for depression after adjustment for confounders and other types of maltreatment. Females exposed to two or more forms of maltreatment were at particularly high risk for depression (OR=4.1; 95%Cl=2.8, 6.1) compared with females not exposed to maltreatment. In adjusted analyses, maltreatment was not associated with depression for males. Detailed information about maltreatment such as timing and frequency was not available, and 1534 individuals were not included in the analyses, who had poorer and less educated mothers. Emotional abuse and domestic violence are strong risk factors for major depression for females. Early intervention to prevent maltreatment and its consequences is critical, especially for girls exposed to poly-maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Household income and adolescent blood pressure in a Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Subramanian, S V; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2015-11-01

    The inconsistent relation of national income with population blood pressure raises questions as to whether social comparisons of relative income at individual or neighbourhood level may be more relevant than absolute income. We examined the associations of absolute household income (income per se), absolute neighbourhood median income (average income among geographically-proximate households), relative household income [deprivation using Yitzhaki index, or rank by position] (differences in income or rank compared with others) and relative neighbourhood income inequality [Gini coefficient] (income gap within a neighbourhood) with blood pressure z-score, prehypertension or hypertension at ∼13 years using a fixed effects multilevel linear or logistic model in a Chinese birth cohort (n = 5063, 61% of follow-up). Absolute household or neighbourhood income was not associated with adolescent blood pressure. Greater relative household income deprivation was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure (0.01 z-score per USD 128 difference in Yitzhaki index, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.005 to 0.02), so was lower relative household income rank (-0.10, 95% CI -0.15 to -0.04), but relative neighbourhood income inequality was not, when considering each income measure separately. Such associations remained when considering all income measures together. Income measures were not associated with prehypertension or hypertension. Relative household income (greater deprivation or lower rank) were positively associated with adolescent blood pressure independent of absolute household income while absolute or relative neighbourhood income had little contribution, suggesting social comparisons at a key developmental stage could be relevant. Clarifying specific effects of socioeconomic position across the life-course could inform interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple norovirus infections in a birth cohort in a Peruvian Periurban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mayuko; Goel-Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Velasquez, Daniel; Cabrera, Lilia; Loli, Sebastian; Crabtree, Jean E; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret; Checkley, William; Zimic, Mirko; Bern, Caryn; Cama, Vitaliano; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-02-01

    Human noroviruses are among the most common enteropathogens globally, and are a leading cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. However, data measuring the impact of norovirus at the community level are sparse. We followed a birth cohort of children to estimate norovirus infection and diarrhea incidence in a Peruvian community. Stool samples from diarrheal episodes and randomly selected nondiarrheal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for norovirus genogroup and genotype. Excretion duration and rotavirus coinfection were evaluated in a subset of episodes. Two hundred twenty and 189 children were followed to 1 and 2 years of age, respectively. By 1 year, 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75%-85%) experienced at least 1 norovirus infection and by 2 years, 71% (95% CI, 65%-77%) had at least 1 episode of norovirus-associated diarrhea. Genogroup II (GII) infections were 3 times more frequent than genogroup 1 (GI) infections. Eighteen genotypes were found; GII genotype 4 accounted for 41%. Median excretion duration was 34.5 days for GII vs 8.5 days for GI infection (P = .0006). Repeat infections by the same genogroup were common, but repeat infections by the same genotype were rare. Mean length-for-age z score at 12 months was lower among children with prior norovirus infection compared to uninfected children (coefficient: -0.33 [95% CI, -.65 to -.01]; P = .04); the effect persisted at 24 months. Norovirus infection occurs early in life and children experience serial infections with multiple genotypes, suggesting genotype-specific immunity. An effective vaccine would have a substantial impact on morbidity, but may need to target multiple genotypes.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in resilience and vulnerability among older adults: a population-based birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Cooper, R; Kuh, D; Stafford, M

    2017-11-08

    Aging is associated with declines in physical capability; however, some individuals demonstrate high well-being despite this decline, i.e. they are "resilient." We examined socioeconomic position (SEP) and resilience and the influence of potentially modifiable behavioral resources, i.e. social support and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), on these relationships. Data came from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally-representative birth cohort study. Resilience-vulnerability at age 60-64 years (n = 1,756) was operationalized as the difference between observed and expected levels of well-being, captured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), given the level of performance-based physical capability. SEP was assessed by father's and own social class, parental education, and intergenerational social mobility. PA and structural/functional social support were reported at ages 53 years and 60-64 years. Path analysis was used to examine mediation of SEP and resilience-vulnerability through LTPA and social support. Participants in the highest social class had scores on the resilience to vulnerability continuum that were an average of 2.3 units (β = 0.46, 95% CI 0.17, 0.75) higher than those in the lowest social class. Greater LTPA (β = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31, 0.85) and social support (β = 3.27, 95% CI 2.90, 3.63) were associated with greater resilience; LTPA partly mediated participant social class and resilience (23.4% of variance). Adult socioeconomic advantage was associated with greater resilience. Initiatives to increase LTPA may contribute to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in this form of resilience in later life.

  9. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (≥ 1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (β = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of daily television exposure among preschool and school-aged children.

  10. EARLY WHEEZING PHENOTYPES AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF 3-YEAR OLDS. COMMUNITY-RECRUITED BIRTH COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.; Jankowski, Jeffery; Maugeri, Umberto; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Skarupa, Anita; Edwards, Susan; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to answer the question whether young children without clinical diagnosis of asthma but experiencing early wheezing disorders and therefore being at high risk of developing asthma may have cognitive deficits. In the ongoing birth cohort study wheezing symptoms were recorded postpartum over two first years of age and subsequently cognitive status of children at the age of 3 years was assessed with the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI). In the statistical analysis a wide range of modifying and confounding factors (maternal education, gender of children, prenatal exposure to lead and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were considered to assess the independent effect of early wheezing phenotypes on cognitive development of children. The MDI score correlated inversely with the number of wheezing days recorded over 24 months (r = −0.13, p=0.007), lead cord blood concentration (r = − 0.12, p = − 0.02), number of siblings (r = − 0.17, p = 0.0006) and the number of cigarettes smoked daily by other household members at home over the pregnancy period (r = − 0.18, p = 0.0002). While the children who experienced wheezing over the first year of age showed deficit of 2 MDI scores (beta coeff. = −2.31, 95%CI: −4.63 to 0.02), those with persistent wheezing had the score deficit of 4 points (beta coeff. = − 4.41, 95%CI: −8.27 to −0.55). To our knowledge, it is the first report in the literature showing that early wheezing is associated the cognitive deficit in a community-recruited very young children. Observed cognitive deficit in early wheezers may be caused by RSV infections or can be related to lower lung function attributed to persistent wheezing, which reducing oxygen supply would affect rapidly developing brain. PMID:19548966

  11. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences.

  12. Personality, health, and brain integrity: the Lothian birth cohort study 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tom; Mõttus, Rene; Corley, Janie; Gow, Alan J; Henderson, Ross D; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Murray, Catherine; Royle, Natalie A; Sprooten, Emma; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Bastin, Mark E; Penke, Lars; Starr, John M; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-12-01

    To explore associations between the 5-factor model (FFM; neuroticism, extraversion, openness/intellect, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), personality traits, and measures of whole-brain integrity in a large sample of older people, and to test whether these associations are mediated by health-related behaviors. Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed the International Personality Item Pool measure, a 5-factor public-domain personality measure (http://ipip.ori.org), and underwent a structural magnetic resonance brain scan at the mean age of 73 years, yielding 3 measures of whole brain integrity: average white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), brain-tissue loss, and white matter hyperintensities (N = 529 to 565). Correlational and mediation analyses were used to test the potential mediating effects of health-related behaviors on the associations between personality and integrity. Lower conscientiousness was consistently associated with brain-tissue loss (β = -0.11, p < 0.01), lower FA (β = 0.16, p < 0.001) and white matter hyperintensities (β = -0.10, p < 0.05). Smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity, body mass index and a composite health-behavior variable displayed significant associations with measures of brain integrity (range of r = 0.10 to 0.25). The direct effects of conscientiousness on brain integrity were mediated to some degree by health behaviors, with the proportions of explained direct effects ranging from 0.1% to 13.7%. Conscientiousness was associated with all 3 measures of brain integrity, which we tentatively interpret as the effects of personality on brain aging. Small proportions of the direct effects were mediated by individual health behaviors. RESULTS provide initial indications that lifetime stable personality traits may influence brain health in later life through health-promoting behaviors.

  13. Blood pressure tracking in urban black South African children: birth to twenty cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagura, Juliana; Adair, Linda S; Musa, Mogi G; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-07-15

    Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in South Africa. Recent evidence from longitudinal studies has shown that hypertension in adulthood can be traced back to childhood. There is scarcity of longitudinal data on paediatric blood pressure (BP) particularly in African populations. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of hypertension and evaluate BP tracking between childhood and late adolescence among South African black Children. This study utilized data from the Birth to Twenty cohort, which is comprised of children born in Soweto, Johannesburg in 1990 (N = 3273, 78.5% black). Data on BP and anthropometry were collected at six follow-up periods between ages 5 and 18 years. Blood pressure status was classified using the Fourth report on National High Blood pressure program in children and adolescents. Pearson correlation coefficients and relative risk ratios (RR) were used to describe tracking of BP between childhood and late adolescence. The overall point prevalence ranged from 9.2 to 16.4% for prehypertension and 8.4 to 24.4% for hypertension. Tracking coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.57 for SBP and 0.17- 0.51 for DBP in both sexes over the 14 years of measurement. The proportion of children who maintained an elevated BP status between childhood, adolescence and age 18 years ranged from 36.1% at age 5 years to 56.3% at age 13 years. Risk of having elevated BP at 18 years ranged from; RR: 1.60 (95 % CI: 1.29-2.00) at 5 years to RR: 2.71 (95 % CI: 2.32-3.17) at 14 years of age. This study reports high prevalence of elevated BP which tracks from early childhood into late adolescence. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children at risk of developing elevated BP and related risk factors plus timely intervention to prevent hypertension in adulthood.

  14. Understanding preferences for disclosure of individual biomarker results among participants in a longitudinal birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen E; Baker, Erin R; Leonard, Anthony C; Eckman, Mark H; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2010-12-01

    To describe the preferences for disclosure of individual biomarker results among mothers participating in a longitudinal birth cohort. We surveyed 343 mothers that participated in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study about their biomarker disclosure preferences. Participants were told that the study was measuring pesticide metabolites in their biological specimens, and that the health effects of these low levels of exposure are unknown. Participants were asked whether they wanted to receive their results and their child's results. In addition, they were asked about their preferred method (letter vs in person) and format (more complex vs less complex) for disclosure of results. Almost all of the study participants wanted to receive their individual results (340/343) as well as their child's results (342/343). However, preferences for receiving results differed by education level. Mothers with less than a college degree preferred in-person disclosure of results more often than mothers with some college education or a college degree (34.3% vs 17.4% vs 7.9%, pcollege education preferred a less complex disclosure format than mothers with some college education or a college degree (59.7% vs 79.1% vs 86.3%, p<0.0001). While almost all study participants preferred to receive results of their individual biomarker tests, level of education was a key factor in predicting preferences for disclosure of biomarker results. To ensure effective communication of this information, disclosure of biomarker results should be tailored to the education level of the study participants.

  15. Substantiated childhood maltreatment and young adulthood cannabis use disorders: A pre-birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Najman, Jake Moses; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Clavarino, Alexandra; Kisely, Steve

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to prospectively-substantiated childhood maltreatment between 0 and 14 years of age and lifetime cannabis use, abuse and dependence reported at 21 years. Data were taken from 2526 (51.6% female) participants in the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a pre-birth, prospective, cohort study. Prospectively-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment, reported to the government child protection agencies between 0 and 14 years of age, were linked to CIDI DSM-IV self-report data from the 21-year follow-up. Exposure to any childhood maltreatment, and childhood neglect in particular, predicted subsequent cannabis abuse with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 1.79 and 2.62, respectively. Any childhood maltreatment, physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect predicted cannabis dependence with AORs of 2.47, 2.81, 2.44 and 2.68, respectively. The associations for an early age of onset of cannabis abuse and dependence were significant and consistent for maltreated children. In addition, frequency of maltreatment substantiations predicted cannabis abuse, dependence and an early age of onset of these disorders. The AORs for cannabis ever use without any DSM-IV cannabis disorder were 1.78 for any maltreatment and 2.15 for emotional abuse. Any childhood maltreatment and neglect predicted lifetime ever cannabis use, as well as cannabis use disorder. There was little evidence for any interaction between gender and different forms of childhood maltreatment and its association with cannabis use disorders. Physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect, as well as multiple episodes of maltreatment independently predicted cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Generalized anxiety disorder and depression: childhood risk factors in a birth cohort followed to age 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Milne, Barry J; Melchior, Maria; Goldberg, David; Poulton, Richie

    2007-03-01

    The close association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) prompts questions about how to characterize them in future diagnostic systems. We tested whether risk factors for MDD and GAD are similar or different. The representative 1972-73 Dunedin birth cohort of 1037 males and females was followed to age 32 with 96% retention. Adult GAD and MDD were diagnosed at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32 years, and juvenile anxiety/depression were also taken into account. Thirteen prospective risk measures indexed domains of family history, adverse family environment, childhood behavior, and adolescent self-esteem and personality traits. Co-morbid MDD+GAD was antedated by highly elevated risk factors broadly across all domains. MDD+GAD was further characterized by the earliest onset, most recurrence, and greatest use of mental health services and medication. Pure GAD had levels of risk factors similar to the elevated levels for co-morbid MDD+GAD; generally, pure MDD did not. Pure GAD had risks during childhood not shared by pure MDD, in domains of adverse family environment (low SES, somewhat more maltreatment) and childhood behavior (internalizing problems, conduct problems, somewhat more inhibited temperament). Pure MDD had risks not shared by pure GAD, in domains of family history (of depression) and personality (low positive emotionality). Specific antecedent risk factors for pure adult MDD versus GAD may suggest partly different etiological pathways. That GAD and co-morbid MDD+GAD share many risk markers suggests that the presence of GAD may signal a pathway toward relatively more severe internalizing disorder.

  17. Green space and cognitive ageing: A retrospective life course analysis in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, Mark P C; Shortt, Niamh K; Mitchell, Richard J; Taylor, Adele M; Redmond, Paul; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Pearce, Jamie R

    2018-01-01

    International evidence suggests that green space has beneficial effects on general and mental health but little is known about how lifetime exposure to green space influences cognitive ageing. Employing a novel longitudinal life course approach, we examined the association between lifetime availability of public parks and cognitive ageing. Lifetime residential information was gathered from the participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 using a "life-grid" questionnaire at age 78 years. Parks information from 1949, 1969 and 2009 was used to determine a percentage of parks within a 1500 m buffer zone surrounding residence for childhood, adulthood, and later adulthood periods. Linear regressions were undertaken to test for association with age-standardised, residualised change in cognitive function (Moray House Test score) from age 11 to 70 years, and from age 70 to 76 (n = 281). The most appropriate model was selected using the results of a partial F-test, and then stratified by demographic, genetic and socioeconomic factors. The local provision of park space in childhood and adulthood were both important in explaining the change in cognitive function in later life. The association between childhood and adulthood park availability and change in the Moray House Test Score from age 70 to 76 was strongest for women, those without an APOE e4 allele (a genetic risk factor), and those in the lowest socioeconomic groups. Greater neighbourhood provision of public parks from childhood through to adulthood may help to slow down the rate of cognitive decline in later life, recognising that such environmental associations are always sensitive to individual characteristics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive and kidney function: results from a British birth cohort reaching retirement age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Silverwood

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population.Cognitive function at age 60-64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment, prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity.Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306-1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure. Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association.These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required.

  19. Does model of maternity care make a difference to birth outcomes for young women? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jyai; Gibbons, Kristen; Beckmann, Michael; Tracy, Mark; Stapleton, Helen; Kildea, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes including preterm birth, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, low birth weight infants, and artificial feeding. To determine if caseload midwifery or young women's clinic are associated with improved perinatal outcomes when compared to standard care. A retrospective cohort study. A tertiary Australian hospital where routine maternity care is delivered alongside two community-based maternity care models specifically for young women aged 21 years or less: caseload midwifery (known midwife) and young women's clinic (rostered midwife). All pregnant women aged 21 years or less, with a singleton pregnancy, who attended a minimum of two antenatal visits, and who birthed a baby (without congenital abnormality) at the study hospital during May 2008 to December 2012. Caseload midwifery and young women's clinic were each compared to standard maternity care, but not with each other, for four primary outcomes: preterm birth (maternity care type and perinatal outcomes: intention-to-treat (model of care at booking) and treatment-received (model of care on admission for labour/birth). 1908 births were analysed by intention-to-treat and treatment-received analyses. Young women allocated to caseload care at booking, compared to standard care, were less likely to have a preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio 0.59 (0.38-0.90, p=0.014)) or a neonatal intensive care unit admission adjusted odds ratio 0.42 (0.22-0.82, p=0.010). Rates of low birth weight infants and breastfeeding initiation were similar between caseload and standard care participants. Participants allocated to young women's clinic at booking, compared to standard care, were less likely to have a low birth weight infant adjusted odds ratio 0.49 (0.24-1.00, p=0.049), however when analysed by treatment-received, this finding was not significant. There was no difference in the other primary outcomes. Young women who were allocated to caseload midwifery at booking

  20. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Geisler Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and Finnish individuals born 1924-1976. Linkage to national registers for hospitalization and causes of death identified 8,805 CHD events during up to 33 years of follow-up (median = 24 years after age 25 years. Analyses were conducted with Cox regression based on restricted cubic splines. Using median birth weight of 3.4 kg as reference, a non-linear relation between birth weight and CHD was found. It was not significantly different between cohorts, or between men and women, nor was the association altered by childhood BMI. For birth weights below 3.4 kg, the risk of CHD increased linearly and reached 1.28 (95% confidence limits: 1.13 to 1.44 at 2 kg. Above 3.4 kg the association weakened, and from about 4 kg there was virtually no association. BMI at age seven years was strongly positively associated with the risk of CHD and the relation was not altered by birth weight. The excess risk in individuals with a birth weight of 2.5 kg and a BMI of 17.7 kg/m(2 at age seven years was 44% (95% CI: 30% to 59% compared with individuals with median values of birth weight (3.4 kg and BMI (15.3 kg/m(2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years appeared independently associated with the risk of CHD in adulthood. From a public health perspective we suggest that particular attention should be paid to children with a birth weight below the average in combination with excess relative weight in childhood.

  1. Birth Cohort Differences in Sexual Identity Development Milestones among HIV-Negative Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-12

    The coming-out process for gay and bisexual men (GBM) involves crossing sexual identity development (SID) milestones: (1) self-awareness of sexual attraction to the same sex, (2) self-acceptance of an identity as gay or bisexual, (3) disclosure of this sexual identity to others, and (4) having sex with someone of the same sex. We examined trends in SID milestones by birth cohort in a 2015 U.S. national sample of GBM (n = 1,023). Birth cohort was independent of when men first felt sexually attracted to someone of the same sex (median age 11 to 12). However, with the exception of age of first same-sex attraction, older cohorts tended to pass other milestones at later ages than younger cohorts. Latent class analysis (LCA) of SID milestone patterns identified three subgroups. The majority (84%) began sexual identity development with same-sex attraction around the onset of puberty (i.e., around age 10) and progressed to self-identification, same-sex sexual activity, and coming out-in that order. The other two classes felt same-sex attraction during teen years (ages 12.5 to 18.0) but achieved the remaining SID milestones later in life. For 13% of men, this was during early adulthood; for 3% of men, this was in middle adulthood. Findings highlight the need to monitor ongoing generational differences in passing SID milestones.

  2. Alcohol consumption among first-time mothers and the risk of preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Maria T G; Bakketeig, Leiv S; Magnus, Per

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between alcohol consumption, before and during pregnancy, and the risk of preterm birth among 46,252 primiparous mothers. We obtained information on alcohol consumption from questionnaire responses at pregnancy week 15 from the prospective, observational Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Data on preterm birth, categorized as delivery before gestation week 37, were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Among the participants, 91% consumed alcohol before pregnancy and fewer than 20% reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for preterm birth associated with prepregnancy alcohol consumption was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.95). We did not find a risk reduction for overall drinking during pregnancy, aOR = 1.03 (95% CI, 0.90-1.19). However, dose-response analyses showed tendencies toward adverse effects when drinking 1-3 times per month during the first 15 weeks of pregnancy, aOR = 1.51 (95% CI, 1.14-2.00). We did not find any effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, whereas pre-pregnancy drinking was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth. Residual confounding may have influenced the risk estimates, especially before pregnancy, as nondrinkers have lower socioeconomic status and well-being than drinkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish national birth cohort at ages 7 and 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Olsen, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-11-01

    We prospectively examined trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Cell phone use was assessed at ages 7 and 11 years, and we examined use patterns by age, by year of birth, and in relation to specific individual characteristics. There was an increase in cell phone use from age 7 (37%) to 11 years (94%). There was a clear pattern of greater reported cell phone use among children at age 7 years with later birth year, but this trend disappeared at age 11. Girls and those who used phones at age 7 talked more often and for longer durations at age 11 years. Low socio-economic status and later year of birth were associated with voice calls at age 7 but not at age 11 years. At age 11 most used cell phones for texting and gaming more than for voice calls. Further, children who started using cell phones at age 7 years were more likely to be heavy cell phone voice users at age 11 years, making early use a marker for higher cumulative exposure regardless of year of birth. As cell phone technology continues to advance, new use patterns will continue to emerge, and exposure assessment research among children must reflect these trends.

  4. Perinatal factors and regional brain volume abnormalities at term in a cohort of extremely low birth weight infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A Parikh

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate diverse clinical antecedents of total and regional brain volume abnormalities and white matter hyperintensity volume on term MRI in extremely low birth weight (birth weight ≤1000 g survivors. A consecutive cohort of extremely low birth weight infants who survived to 38 weeks postmenstrual age (n = 122 and a control group of 16 healthy term newborns underwent brain MRI at term-equivalent age. Brain volumes were measured using semi-automated and manual segmentation methods. Using multivariable linear regression, clinical antecedents were correlated with volumes of total brain tissue, white matter hyperintensities, and regional tissues/structures, adjusted for age at MRI, total cranial volume, and total tissue volume. Regional brain volumes were markedly reduced in extremely low birth weight infants as compared to term newborns (relative difference range: -11.0%, -35.9%. Significant adverse clinical associations for total brain tissue volume included: small for gestational age, seizures, caffeine therapy/apnea of prematurity, duration of parenteral nutrition, pulmonary hemorrhage, and white matter injury (p<0.01 for each; relative difference range: -1.4% to -15.0%. Surgery for retinopathy of prematurity and surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation were significantly associated with increasing volume of white matter hyperintensities. Regional brain volumes are sensitive to multiple perinatal factors and neonatal morbidities or interventions. Brain growth measurements in extremely low birth weight infants can advance our understanding of perinatal brain injury and development.

  5. The Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Birth Outcomes in a Cohort of Pregnant Women in Lao PDR, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sonja J; Mirza, Sara A; Vonglokham, Phouvanh; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Chitry, Bounlap; Pholsena, Vathsana; Chitranonh, Visith; Omer, Saad B; Moen, Ann; Bresee, Joseph S; Corwin, Andrew; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh

    2016-08-15

    Some studies suggest that maternal influenza vaccination can improve birth outcomes. However, there are limited data from tropical settings, particularly Southeast Asia. We conducted an observational study in Laos to assess the effect of influenza vaccination in pregnant women on birth outcomes. We consented and enrolled a cohort of pregnant woman who delivered babies at 3 hospitals during April 2014-February 2015. We collected demographic and clinical information on mother and child. Influenza vaccination status was ascertained by vaccine card. Primary outcomes were the proportion of live births born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm and mean birth weight. Multivariate models controlled for differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women and influenza virus circulation. We enrolled 5103 women (2172 [43%] were vaccinated). Among the 4854 who had a live birth, vaccinated women were statistically significantly less likely than unvaccinated women to have an infant born preterm during the period of high influenza virus circulation (risk ratio [RR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], .45-.70), and the effect remained after adjusting for covariates (adjusted RR, 0.69; 95% CI, .55-.87). There was no effect of vaccine on SGA or mean birth weight. The population-prevented fraction was 18.0%. In this observational study, we found indirect evidence of influenza vaccine safety during pregnancy, and women who received vaccine had a reduced risk of delivering a preterm infant during times of high influenza virus circulation. Vaccination may prevent 1 in 5 preterm births that occur during periods of high influenza circulation. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Maternal region of birth and stillbirth in Victoria, Australia 2000-2011: A retrospective cohort study of Victorian perinatal data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda L Davies-Tuck

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence from high-income countries that maternal country of birth is a risk factor for stillbirth. We aimed to examine the association between maternal region of birth and stillbirth between 2000 and 2011 inclusive in Victoria, Australia.Retrospective population based cohort study of all singleton births at 24 or more weeks gestational age from 2000-2011 in Victoria, Australia. Stillbirths due to termination of pregnancy, babies with congenital anomalies and Indigenous mothers were excluded. Main Outcome Measure: Stillbirth.Over the 12-year period there were 685,869 singleton births and 2299 stillbirths, giving an overall stillbirth rate of 3·4 per 1000 births. After adjustment for risk factors, compared to women born in Australia/New Zealand, women born in South Asia (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.53, p = 0.01, were more likely to have a stillbirth whereas women born in South East and East Asia were (aOR 0.60, (95% CI 0.49-0.72, p<0.001 less likely to have a stillbirth. Additionally, the increasing rate of stillbirth as gestation length progressed began to rise earlier and more steeply in the South Asian compared to Australian/New Zealand born women. The following risk factors were also significantly associated with an increased odds of stillbirth in multivariate analyses: maternal age <20 and 35 years and more, nulliparity, low socio-economic status, previous stillbirth, no ultrasound reported in 1st trimester, pre-existing hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and failure to detect growth restriction antenatally.Maternal region of birth is an independent risk factor for stillbirth. Improvements in the rate of stillbirth, particularly late pregnancy stillbirth, are likely to be gained in high-income settings where clinical care is informed by maternal region of birth.

  7. Maternal region of birth and stillbirth in Victoria, Australia 2000-2011: A retrospective cohort study of Victorian perinatal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Tuck, Miranda L; Davey, Mary-Ann; Wallace, Euan M

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence from high-income countries that maternal country of birth is a risk factor for stillbirth. We aimed to examine the association between maternal region of birth and stillbirth between 2000 and 2011 inclusive in Victoria, Australia. Retrospective population based cohort study of all singleton births at 24 or more weeks gestational age from 2000-2011 in Victoria, Australia. Stillbirths due to termination of pregnancy, babies with congenital anomalies and Indigenous mothers were excluded. Main Outcome Measure: Stillbirth. Over the 12-year period there were 685,869 singleton births and 2299 stillbirths, giving an overall stillbirth rate of 3·4 per 1000 births. After adjustment for risk factors, compared to women born in Australia/New Zealand, women born in South Asia (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.53, p = 0.01), were more likely to have a stillbirth whereas women born in South East and East Asia were (aOR 0.60, (95% CI 0.49-0.72, pAsian compared to Australian/New Zealand born women. The following risk factors were also significantly associated with an increased odds of stillbirth in multivariate analyses: maternal age <20 and 35 years and more, nulliparity, low socio-economic status, previous stillbirth, no ultrasound reported in 1st trimester, pre-existing hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and failure to detect growth restriction antenatally. Maternal region of birth is an independent risk factor for stillbirth. Improvements in the rate of stillbirth, particularly late pregnancy stillbirth, are likely to be gained in high-income settings where clinical care is informed by maternal region of birth.

  8. The impact of maternal celiac disease on birthweight and preterm birth: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes have been associated with maternal celiac disease (CD). In this study, we investigate the effect of treated and untreated maternal CD on infant birthweight and preterm birth. METHODS: A population-based cohort study consisted of all singleton live births in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 was used. A total of 1,504,342 babies were born to 836,241 mothers during the study period. Of those, 1105 babies were born to women with diagnosed CD and 346 were born to women with undiagnosed CD. Women with diagnosed CD were considered as treated with a gluten free diet while women with undiagnosed CD were considered as untreated. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small for gestational age (SGA: birthweight <10th centile), very small for gestational age (VSGA: birthweight <5th centile) and preterm birth. We compared these measures in treated and untreated women with those of a reference group (no history of CD). RESULTS: Women with untreated CD delivered smaller babies [difference = -98 g (95% CI: -130, -67)], with a higher risk of SGA infants [OR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.63)], VSGA infants [OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.03)] and preterm birth [OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.72)] compared with women without CD. Women with treated CD had no increased risk of reduced mean birthweight, risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants or preterm birth compared with women without CD. CONCLUSION: Untreated maternal CD increases the risk of reduced birthweight, the risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants and preterm birth. Diagnosis and presumed treatment of maternal CD with a gluten-free diet appeared to result in a birthweight and preterm birth rate similar to those in women without CD.

  9. Relation of body mass index to risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease amongst women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendall, Michael; Harpsøe, Maria Christina; Kumar, Devinder

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) has traditionally been associated with weight loss and low BMI, yet paradoxically obesity has recently been suggested as a risk factor for CD, but not for ulcerative colitis (UC). We therefore hypothesized that the relation between BMI and CD is U shaped. AIM...... that both high BMI and low BMI are risk factors for CD. Underweight may be a pre-clinical manifestation of disease being present many years before onset with obesity being a true risk factor. This raises the question as to whether there may be two distinct forms of CD.......: To conduct a large population-based prospective cohort study of BMI and later risk of IBD, taking age at IBD diagnosis into account. METHODS: A cohort of 74,512 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort, with BMI measured pre-pregnancy and 18 months after delivery, was followed for 1,022,250 person...

  10. Forty-five-year mortality rate as a function of the number and type of psychiatric diagnoses found in a large Danish birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madarasz, Wendy; Manzardo, Ann; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common among psychiatric patients and typically associated with poorer clinical prognoses. Subjects of a large Danish birth cohort were used to study the relation between mortality and co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses.......Psychiatric comorbidities are common among psychiatric patients and typically associated with poorer clinical prognoses. Subjects of a large Danish birth cohort were used to study the relation between mortality and co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses....

  11. Incidence and severity of childhood pneumonia in the first year of life in a South African birth cohort: the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. David M le Roux, MBChB; Landon Myer, PhD; Mark P Nicol, PhD; Heather J Zar, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood pneumonia causes substantial mortality and morbidity. Accurate measurements of pneumonia incidence are scarce in low-income and middle-income countries, particularly after implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. We aimed to assess the incidence, severity, and risk factors for pneumonia in the first year of life in children enrolled in a South African birth cohort. Methods: This birth cohort study is being done at two sites in Paarl, a periurban area of South...

  12. Risk of selected postpartum infections after cesarean section compared with vaginal birth: A five-year cohort study of 32,468 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Rita Andersen; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the risk of postpartum infections within 30 days after vaginal birth, emergency, or elective cesarean section (CS). Design. Register-based cohort study in Denmark. Participants. A total of 32,468 women giving birth in hospitals in the County of Aarhus, Denmark, during...

  13. pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study investigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... and reliability of routinely collected growth data. In addition, a birth data collection form ... with the survival, health, well-being, growth and development of children living in an urban environment. ..... Mc1ntyre J, De Beet M. Birth to Ten: child health in South Africa in the. 199Os, rationale and methods of a ...

  14. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvente, I. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Fernández, M.F. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Pérez-Lobato, R.; Dávila-Arias, C.; Ocón, O.; Ramos, R. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Ríos-Arrabal, S. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Villalba-Moreno, J. [CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-04-15

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100 kHz–6 GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (E{sub RMS}) and power density (S{sub RMS}) values were, respectively, 195.79 mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01 µW/m{sup 2} (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80 mV/m and 285.94 µW/m{sup 2}, respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01 V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. - Highlights: • Spot measurements were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. • Mean root mean-square electric field and power density values were calculated. • Most recorded values were far below international standard guideline limits. • Data demonstrate spatial variability in the distribution of exposure levels. • While adverse effects are proven, application of the precautionary principle may

  15. Home environment and indoor air pollution exposure in an African birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanker, Aneesa; Barnett, Whitney; Nduru, Polite M; Gie, Robert P; Sly, Peter D; Zar, Heather J

    2015-12-01

    Household indoor air pollution (IAP) is a global health problem and a risk factor for childhood respiratory disease; the leading cause of mortality in African children. This study aimed to describe the home environment and measure IAP in the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), an African birth cohort. An antenatal home visit to assess the home environment and measure IAP (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) was done on pregnant women enrolled to the DCHS, in a low-socioeconomic, peri-urban South African community. Urine cotinine measured maternal tobacco smoking and exposure. Dwellings were categorised according to 6 household dimensions. Univariate and multivariate analysis explored associations between home environment, seasons and IAP levels measured. 633 home visits were completed, with IAP measured in 90% of homes. Almost a third of participants were of the lowest socio-economic status and the majority of homes (65%) lacked 2 or more of the dwelling category dimensions. Most households had electricity (92%), however, fossil fuels were still used for cooking (19%) and heating (15%) in homes. Antenatal maternal smoking prevalence was 31%; 44% had passive smoke exposure. Of IAP measured, benzene (VOC) was significantly above ambient standards with median 5.6 μg/m3 (IQR 2.6-17.1). There were significant associations between the use of fossil fuels for cooking and increased benzene [OR 3.4 (95% CI 2.1-5.4)], carbon monoxide [OR 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.0)] and nitrogen dioxide [OR 18.6 (95% CI 3.9-88.9)] levels. A significant seasonal association was found with higher IAP levels in winter. In this low-socioeconomic African community, multiple environmental factors and pollutants, with the potential to affect child health, were identified. Measurement of IAP in a resource-limited setting is feasible. Recognising and quantifying these risk factors is important in effecting public health policy

  16. Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsina Khatun

    Full Text Available Teenage motherhood has been associated with a wide variety of negative offspring outcomes including poorer cognitive development. In the context of limitations of previous research, this paper assesses the contemporary relevance of this finding. In this study we investigate the long-term cognitive status (IQ among 21 year adult offspring born to teenage parents using the Mater University Study of Pregnancy- a prospective birth cohort study, which recruited all pregnant mothers attending a large obstetrical hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 to 1983. The analyses were restricted to a sub-sample of 2643 mother-offspring pair. Offspring IQ was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 21 year. Parental age was reported at first clinic visit. Offspring born to teenage mothers (<20 years have -3.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: -4.3, -1.8 points lower IQ compared to children born to mothers ≥20 years and were more likely to have a low IQ (Odds Ratio (OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3. Adjustment for a range of confounding and mediating factors including parental socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, maternal smoking and binge drinking in pregnancy, birthweight, breastfeeding and parenting style attenuates the association, though the effect remains statistically significant (-1.4 IQ points; 95% CI: -2.8,-0.1. Similarly the risk of offspring having low IQ remained marginally significantly higher in those born to teenage mothers (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.9. In contrast, teenage fatherhood is not associated with adult offspring IQ, when adjusted for maternal age. Although the reduction in IQ is quantitatively small, it is indicative of neurodevelopmental disadvantage experienced by the young adult offspring of teenage mothers. Our results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but also at supporting early life condition of children born to teenage mothers to minimize the risk

  17. Childhood adiposity trajectories are associated with late adolescent blood pressure: birth to twenty cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Munthali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood pressure in childhood is a risk factor for adult hypertension which is a global health problem. Excess adiposity in childhood creates a predisposition to develop adult hypertension. Our aim was to explore distinct sex-specific adiposity trajectories from childhood to late adolescence and examined their association with blood pressure. Methods Latent Class Growth Mixture Modeling (LCGMM on longitudinal data was used to derive sex-specific and distinct body mass index (BMI: kg/m2 trajectories. We studied 1824 black children (boys = 877, girls = 947 from the Birth to Twenty (Bt20 cohort from Soweto, South Africa, and obtained BMI measures at ages 5 through 18 years. Participants with at least two age-point BMI measures, were included in the analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, chi-square test, multivariate linear and standard logistic regressions were used to test study characteristics and different associations. Results We identified three (3 and four (4 distinct BMI trajectories in boys and girls, respectively. The overall prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP was 34.9 % (39.4 % in boys and 30.38 % in girls. Boys and girls in the early onset obesity or overweight BMI trajectories were more likely to have higher BP values in late adolescence. Compared to those in the normal weight BMI trajectory, girls in early onset obesity trajectories had an increased risk of elevated BP with odds ratio (OR of 2.18 (95 % confidence interval 1.31 to 4.20 and 1.95 (1.01 to 3.77. We also observed the weak association for boys in early onset overweight trajectory, (p-value = 0.18 and odds ratio of 2.39 (0.67 to 8.57 Conclusions Distinct weight trajectories are observed in black South African children from as early as 5 years. Early onset adiposity trajectories are associated with elevated BP in both boys and girls. It is important to consider individual patterns of early-life BMI development, so that

  18. Childhood adiposity trajectories are associated with late adolescent blood pressure: birth to twenty cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Lombard, Zané; Norris, Shane A

    2016-07-29

    Elevated blood pressure in childhood is a risk factor for adult hypertension which is a global health problem. Excess adiposity in childhood creates a predisposition to develop adult hypertension. Our aim was to explore distinct sex-specific adiposity trajectories from childhood to late adolescence and examined their association with blood pressure. Latent Class Growth Mixture Modeling (LCGMM) on longitudinal data was used to derive sex-specific and distinct body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) trajectories. We studied 1824 black children (boys = 877, girls = 947) from the Birth to Twenty (Bt20) cohort from Soweto, South Africa, and obtained BMI measures at ages 5 through 18 years. Participants with at least two age-point BMI measures, were included in the analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square test, multivariate linear and standard logistic regressions were used to test study characteristics and different associations. We identified three (3) and four (4) distinct BMI trajectories in boys and girls, respectively. The overall prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP) was 34.9 % (39.4 % in boys and 30.38 % in girls). Boys and girls in the early onset obesity or overweight BMI trajectories were more likely to have higher BP values in late adolescence. Compared to those in the normal weight BMI trajectory, girls in early onset obesity trajectories had an increased risk of elevated BP with odds ratio (OR) of 2.18 (95 % confidence interval 1.31 to 4.20) and 1.95 (1.01 to 3.77). We also observed the weak association for boys in early onset overweight trajectory, (p-value = 0.18 and odds ratio of 2.39 (0.67 to 8.57)) CONCLUSIONS: Distinct weight trajectories are observed in black South African children from as early as 5 years. Early onset adiposity trajectories are associated with elevated BP in both boys and girls. It is important to consider individual patterns of early-life BMI development, so that intervention strategies can be targeted to at

  19. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Oliver-Williams

    the method of prior abortions were not linked to individuals in the cohort. However, we speculate that modernising abortion methods may be an effective long-term strategy to reduce global rates of preterm birth.

  20. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Mayhoub

    Full Text Available The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002 and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]. Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively. Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively. The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  1. Prenatal and childhood antecedents of suicide: 50-year follow-up of the 1958 British Birth Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, M-C; Gunnell, D; Power, C

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to elucidate early antecedents of suicide including possible mediation by early child development. Using the 1958 birth cohort, based on British births in March 1958, individuals were followed up to adulthood. We used data collected at birth and at age 7 years from various informants. Suicides occurring up to 31 May 2009 were identified from linked national death certificates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate risk factors. Altogether 12399 participants (n = 44 suicides) had complete data. The strongest prenatal risk factors for suicide were: birth order, with risk increasing in later-born children [p trend = 0.063, adjusted hazard ratio (HR)], e.g. for fourth- or later-born children [HR = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-5.75]; young maternal age (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 0.34-4.13 for ⩽19 years and HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.91 for >29 years, p trend = 0.034); and low (birth weight (HR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.03-5.95). The strongest risk factors at 7 years were externalizing problems in males (HR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.03-8.47, p trend = 0.050) and number of emotional adversities (i.e. parental death, neglected appearance, domestic tension, institutional care, contact with social services, parental divorce/separation and bullying) for which there was a graded association with risk of suicide (p trend = 0.033); the highest (HR = 3.12, 95% CI 1.01-9.62) was for persons with three or more adversities. Risk factors recorded at birth and at 7 years may influence an individual's long-term risk of suicide, suggesting that trajectories leading to suicide have roots in early life. Some factors are amenable to intervention, but for others a better understanding of causal mechanisms may provide new insights for intervention to reduce suicide risk.

  2. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhoub, Flora; Berton, Thierry; Bach, Véronique; Tack, Karine; Deguines, Caroline; Floch-Barneaud, Adeline; Desmots, Sophie; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother) on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]). Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002) and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]). Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively). Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively). The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  3. Understanding the relationship between cesarean birth and stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Lai, Jerry Cheng-Yen; Hwang, Shyh-Jou; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chien, Li-Yin

    2017-12-01

    Women who undergo cesarean birth might have an increased risk for poor mental health after childbirth, possibly because of maternal and neonatal physical problems, low parental confidence, and decreased levels of oxytocin. However, this relationship remains controversial and requires further examination. The study aimed to examine the effect of cesarean birth on postpartum stress, anxiety, and depression. This nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. A total of 12 619 women who underwent cesarean birth and 12 619 control women who underwent vaginal birth were matched by propensity score based on age, socioeconomic status, residential urbanicity, antepartum comorbidity, and index year of delivery. We compared the incidence of stress, anxiety, and depression during the first postpartum year between cesarean and comparison groups by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs). The cesarean group showed a significantly higher risk for stress symptoms (IRR 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.02-1.92]), but not anxiety (IRR 1.14 [95% CI 0.95-1.38]) or depression (IRR 1.32 [95% CI 0.94-1.87]), although the IRRs were also greater than one. The cesarean group had a significantly higher risk of any of the above-listed three disorders than the comparison group (incidence 27.6 vs 23.4 per 1000 person-years; IRR 1.18 [95% CI 1.01-1.38]). Cesarean birth was associated with an increased risk of postpartum stress symptoms. Health professionals should avoid unnecessary cesarean birth, pay attention to women who deliver by cesarean, and intervene appropriately in an attempt to improve mental health among postpartum women. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027

  5. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-12-18

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. The links between ethnicity, cultural identity and alcohol use, abuse and dependence in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the role of ethnicity and cultural identity in alcohol use and misuse in a birth cohort of over 1000 young people. Data on ethnicity, cultural identification, alcohol use, alcohol abuse/dependence (AAD), socio-economic factors and childhood adversity were gathered as part of a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort (the Christchurch Health and Development Study). Those reporting Māori ethnicity had rates of alcohol use and AAD that were 1.47-1.63 times higher than the rates found in the non-Māori people. However, there was little evidence to suggest that rates of alcohol use and AAD differed according to Māori cultural identity. Generalized estimating equation regression analyses adjusting for socio-economic disadvantage and childhood adversity slightly reduced the magnitude of these associations, but they remained statistically significant [AAD: odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.10; consumption: incidence rate ratio = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13-1.52]. (a) Māori ethnicity was found to be associated with modestly increased risks of alcohol use and AAD (b) the higher rates of alcohol use and AAD among the Māori members of the cohort could not be explained by a combination of socio-economic factors and greater exposure to environmental factors known to influence the risk of alcohol use and misuse.

  7. Developmental milestones in children born post-term in the Danish National Birth Cohort: a main research article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, A W; Olsen, J; Zhu, J L

    2015-09-01

    To examine the timing of reaching developmental milestones in children born post-term. Cohort study. The Danish National Birth Cohort: children born between 1997 and 2003. Data were obtained from a cohort of 92 892 pregnancies participating in the first pregnancy interview. All singletons born in gestational weeks 39-45 were identified. The study was then restricted to children who participated in an interview at the age of approximately 18 months and had information on at least one developmental milestone. We excluded children of mothers with chronic diseases from the final analysis. The remaining study population constituted of 43 915 singletons (27 503 born at term; 16 412 born post-term). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios of late achievement of these developmental milestones, adjusted for potential confounding factors. Achieving developmental milestones at the time of interview or at a certain age. More children born post-term achieved the assessed developmental milestones compared with children born at term (39-40 weeks). A test for trend for gestational ages 39, 40, and 41 weeks also showed a positive trend at achieving developmental milestones with gestational age at birth in nine out of 14 milestone items. Children born post-term appear to reach the main developmental milestones at an earlier age than children born at term. The association could also result from bias related to a longer time between conception and interviewing, misclassification of end points, or selection bias. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Prenatal vitamin A supplementation associated with adverse child behavior at 3 years in a prospective birth cohort in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yohei; Tanaka, Haruka; Akutsu, Taisuke; Koide, Kentaro; Sakuma, Mio; Okazaki, Minoru; Ida, Hiroyuki; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Many pregnant women take vitamin supplements during pregnancy. The aim of this paper was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation prior to and/or during pregnancy on child behavior. A prospective birth cohort study from pregnancy to 3 years of age involving 1271 pairs of Japanese pregnant women and their newborns, was carried out. The women completed a self-administered questionnaire during the third trimester of pregnancy. To evaluate deviations in child behavior as an endpoint, each mother completed the Japanese Child Behavior Checklist for ages 2-3 years after 3 years of birth. Participant characteristics were compared between supplement takers and non-takers. Among many kinds of supplements, intake of supplemental vitamin A/β-carotene prior to and/or during pregnancy was associated with hazardous effects on child behavior at 3 years of age (total t-score, P = 0.003; internal t-score, P = 0.027; external t-score, P = 0.013). This association held true even after adjusting for age, number of deliveries, infertility treatment, consumption of fast food, smoking status, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal income, gestational age at birth, anthropometry at birth (weight, height, head circumference and body circumference), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at 3 years of age by means of multiple imputation. Intake of supplemental vitamin A prior to and/or during pregnancy may worsen child behavior at 3 years of age. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life...... risk load and environmental stress given the social and cultural context....

  10. Birth weight in relation to leisure time physical activity in adolescence and adulthood: meta-analysis of results from 13 nordic cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.G.; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Gamborg, M.

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific......BACKGROUND: Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk...

  11. Evaluating the Relationship Between Birth Weight for Gestational Age and Adult Blood Pressure Using Participants From a Cohort of Same-Sex Siblings, Discordant on Birth Weight Percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Linda G; Buka, Stephen L; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gillman, Matthew W; Susser, Ezra; Lumey, L H

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have described an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure (BP). Debate continues, however, over the magnitude and validity of the association. This analysis draws on the Early Determinants of Adult Health study (2005-2008), a cohort of 393 US adults (mean age 43 years; 47% male), including 114 same-sex sibling pairs deliberately sampled to be discordant on sex-specific birth weight for gestational age (BW/GA) in order to minimize confounding in studies of fetal growth and midlife health outcomes. Every quintile increment in BW/GA percentile was associated with a 1.04-mm Hg decrement in adult systolic BP (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.14, 0.06) and a 0.63-mm Hg decrement in diastolic BP (95% CI: -1.35, 0.09), controlling for sex, age, site, smoking, and race/ethnicity. The relationship was strongest among those in the lowest decile of BW/GA. Adding adult body mass index to the models attenuated the estimates (e.g., to -0.90 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.94, 0.14) for systolic BP). In the sibling-pair subgroup, associations were slightly stronger but with wider confidence intervals (e.g., -1.22 mm Hg (95% CI: -5.20, 2.75) for systolic BP). In conclusion, we found a small inverse relationship between BW/GA and BP in cohort and sibling-pair analyses, but the clinical or public health significance is likely limited. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Impact of the age at menarche on body composition in adulthood: results from two birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bubach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that early menarche is positively associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, it is important to assess whether this association is due to early menarche or to the association of adiposity in late childhood with age at menarche. We evaluated the association between age at menarche and body composition in adolescence and adulthood, among subjects who have been prospectively followed in two Brazilian birth cohort studies. Methods In 1982 and 1993, the hospitals births in Pelotas were identified, and these subjects have been followed for several times. Information on age at menarche was obtained from the women (1982 cohort and their mothers (1993 cohort. At 30 and 18 years, the following body composition measures were evaluated: body mass index, waist circumference, fat-free mass index and fat mass index measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and thickness of the abdominal visceral fat layer measured by ultrasound. The analyses were adjusted for: birth weight, maternal pregestational weight, gestational age, family income, household score index, maternal schooling, weight-for-height z-score at 4 years (1982, and body mass index at 11 years (1993. Results At 30 and 18 years, 2045 and 2092 women were evaluated, respectively. The prevalence of early menarche (≤11 years of age was 24.7 % in the 1982 and 27.6 % in the 1993 cohort. In the 1982 cohort, early menarche was positively associated with all body composition variables compared to those with late menarche (≥14 years of age even after adjusting for confounders (fat mass index: 2.33 kg/m2, 95 % Confidence interval: 1.64; 3.02. However, in the 1993 cohort, after adjusting for body mass index at 11 years, the regression coefficient for the association with fat mass index decreased from 2.2 kg/m2 (95 % Confidence interval: 1.7; 2.6 to 0.26 (95 % Confidence interval: −0.08; 0.60. Conclusions The association between age at menarche

  13. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Shari [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E., E-mail: Tye.Arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fraser, William D. [Sainte Justine University Hospital Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne [Center for Perinatal, Pediatric & Environmental Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); King, Will [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  14. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Shari; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Fisher, Mandy; Fraser, William D.; Ettinger, Adrienne; King, Will

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  15. Declining trends in conception rates in recent birth cohorts of native Danish women: a possible role of deteriorating male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Sobotka, Thomás; Hansen, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    of relatively young couples in the later cohorts. Furthermore, the lower rates of induced abortion among the younger birth cohorts, often viewed as a success of health education programs, may not be fully explained by improved use of contraception. It seems more likely that decreased fecundity because...... widespread use of ART in Denmark may be a sign of such an emerging public health problem....

  16. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma : European Union-funded initiatives - a MeDALL, CHICOS, ENRIECO, and GA²LEN joint paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vrijheid, Martine; Keil, Thomas; Nawijn, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in

  17. Modelling regional variation of first-time births in Denmark 1980-1994 by an age-period-cohort model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth B. Knudsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the small size of Denmark, there have traditionally been rather consistent regional differences in fertility rates. We apply the statistical age-period-cohort model to include the effect of these three time-related factors thereby concisely illuminating the regional differences of first-time births in Denmark. From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtain data on number of births by nulliparous women by year (1980-1994, age (15-45 and county of residence. We show that the APC-model describes the fertility rates of nulliparous women satisfactorily. To catch the regional variation an interaction parameter between age and county is necessary, which provides a surprisingly good description suggesting that the county-specific age-distributions of first-time fertility rates differ. Our results are in general agreement with the 'moral geography' concepts of Tonboe (2001.

  18. Exposure to air pollution and noise from road traffic and risk of congenital anomalies in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Garne, Ester; Hansen-Nord, Nete

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution has been associated with certain congenital anomalies, but few studies rely on assessment of fine-scale variation in air quality and associations with noise from road traffic are unexplored. Methods: Among 84,218 liveborn singletons (1997–2002) from the Danish...... National Birth Cohort with complete covariate data and residential address history from conception until birth, we identified major congenital anomalies in 4018 children. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and noise from road traffic (Lden) burden during fetal life was modeled. Outcome and covariate data were derived...... from registries, hospital records and questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) for eleven major anomaly groups associated with road traffic pollution during first trimester were estimated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach. Results: Most of the associations tested...

  19. VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundArea-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

  20. Twin-singleton differences in intelligence: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine the difference in intelligence between singletons and twins in young adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. The study base consisted of data on the 445,463 males who were born alive in either single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20). Within this study base, there were data on 1,653 sibships of full brothers that included at least one man born in single birth and at least one man born in twin birth (4,307 persons, including 2,378 twins and 1,929 singletons). The intelligence scores of the singletons were 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-14%) of a standard deviation higher than those of the twins, after adjustment for birth year, birth order, parental ages at delivery, parental education levels, and other factors. The adjusted within-family difference was also 11% (95 % CI: 6-16%) of a standard deviation, indicating that unmeasured factors shared by siblings (e.g., maternal body height) have not influenced the estimate in important ways. When gestational age at birth was added to the model, the estimate for the difference in intelligence score was approximately the same. Including birth weight in the model strongly reduced the estimate. In conclusion, twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 had slightly lower intelligence in early adulthood compared with the singletons.

  1. Outcome of planned home and hospital births among low-risk women in Iceland in 2005-2009: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Sveinsdottir, Herdis

    2015-03-01

    At 2.2 percent in 2012, the home birth rate in Iceland is the highest in the Nordic countries and has been rising rapidly in the new millennium. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of planned home births and planned hospital births in comparable low-risk groups in Iceland. The study is a retrospective cohort study comparing the total population of 307 planned home births in Iceland in 2005-2009 to a matched 1:3 sample of 921 planned hospital births. Regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables, was performed for the primary outcome variables. The rate of oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, and postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower when labor started as a planned home birth. Differences in the rates of other primary outcome variables were not significant. The home birth group had lower rates of operative birth and obstetric anal sphincter injury. The rate of 5-minute Apgar score < 7 was the same in the home and hospital birth groups, but the home birth group had a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission. Intervention and adverse outcome rates in both study groups, including transfer rates, were higher among primiparas than multiparas. Oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, and postpartum hemorrhage rates were significantly interrelated. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that suggests that planned home birth for low-risk women is as safe as planned hospital birth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  3. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... of the infants from 24 to 27 weeks gestation survived to discharge home from NIC. However large variations were seen in the timing of the deaths by region. Among all fetuses alive at onset of labour of 24-27 weeks gestation, between 84.0% and 98.9% were born alive and between 64.6% and 97.8% were admitted...

  4. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... for NIC. For babies babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  5. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Clemmensen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years...... by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder...

  6. Binge drinking during pregnancy and risk of seizures in childhood: a study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Seizures are often found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome, but it is not known whether binge drinking during pregnancy by nonalcoholic women is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study of 80,526 liveborn......, and febrile seizures was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register. Results showed that exposure to binge drinking episodes during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children, except for those exposed at 11-16 gestational weeks. These children had a 3...... singletons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on maternal binge drinking (intake of > or = 5 drinks on a single occasion) was collected in 2 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy. Children were followed for up to 8 years. Information on neonatal seizures, epilepsy...

  7. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  8. Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence – Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaana Tikanmäki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Methods Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986, 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg−1·min−1. Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother’s and father’s body mass index (BMI, maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother’s or father’s overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring’s physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent’s own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother’s but not the father’s overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal

  9. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Moreira, Naiara Ferraz; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Nunes-Freitas, André Luis; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Sichieri, Rosely

    2014-04-10

    There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. We evaluated 2405 children in 1999-2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: -0.32, p maternal smoking not only during pregnancy, but also at early childhood, showed long-term negative effect on

  10. Mortality and management of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Melissa A; Fisher, Jeremy G; Gutierrez, Ivan M; Jones, Brian A; Kang, Kuang Horng; Kenny, Michael; Zurakowski, David; Modi, Biren P; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Jaksic, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of death in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. The overall mortality of NEC is well documented. However, those requiring surgery appear to have increased mortality compared with those managed medically. The objective of this study was to establish national birth-weight-based benchmarks for the mortality of surgical NEC and describe the use and mortality of laparotomy vs peritoneal drainage. There were 655 US centers that prospectively evaluated 188,703 VLBW neonates (401 to 1,500 g) between 2006 and 2010. Survival was defined as living in-hospital at 1-year or hospital discharge. There were 17,159 (9%) patients who had NEC, with mortality of 28%; 8,224 patients did not receive operations (medical NEC, mortality 21%) and 8,935 were operated on (mortality 35%). On multivariable regression, lower birth weight, laparotomy, and peritoneal drainage were independent predictors of mortality (p 750 g; medical NEC mortality fell consistently with increasing birth weight. For example, in neonates weighing 1,251 to 1,500 g, mortality was 27% in surgical vs 6% in medical NEC (odds ratio [OR] 6.10, 95% CI 4.58 to 8.12). Of those treated surgically, 6,131 (69%) underwent laparotomy only (mortality 31%), 1,283 received peritoneal drainage and a laparotomy (mortality 34%), and 1,521 had peritoneal drainage alone (mortality 50%). Fifty-two percent of VLBW neonates with NEC underwent surgery, which was accompanied by a substantial increase in mortality. Regardless of birth weight, surgical NEC showed a plateau in mortality at approximately 30%. Laparotomy was the more frequent method of treatment (69%) and of those managed by drainage, 46% also had a laparotomy. The laparotomy alone and drainage with laparotomy groups had similar mortalities, while the drainage alone treatment cohort was associated with the highest mortality. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of high birth weight on overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence. A cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingchao; Wu, Junqing; Ji, Ming; Rong, Fen; Li, Yuyan; Gao, Ersheng; Ji, Honglei

    2013-06-01

    To determine the association of high birth weight (HBW) with the risk of obesity in childhood and adolescence. We also aimed to explore the interactions of HBW with physical activity and dietary habits. In a birth cohort born in 1993, 1994, and 1995 in Wuxi, China, subjects with a birth weight (BW) of >/=4000 g were selected as the exposed group. For each exposed subject, one non-exposed subject with a BW of 2500-3999 g, matched by year of birth, gender, and type of institute at birth was chosen. Two follow-ups were performed from October 2005 to February 2007 and July 2010 to December 2011. A total of 1108 exposed and 1128 non-exposed subjects were included. Overweight/obesity rates were significantly higher in the exposed group (16.2% in childhood and 14.2% in adolescence) than those in the non-exposed group (12.1% in childhood and 8.2% in adolescence). There was no significant interaction between BW and the growth period (F=2.10, p=0.147). The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) of HBW with physical activity was -0.20 (95% CI=-2.85-2.45), and the RERI of HBW with dietary habits was 1.19 (95% CI=0.14-2.23). Infants with HBW are at increased risk of childhood and adolescent overweight/obesity, and this relationship is not influenced by the growth period. There is an additive interaction between HBW and dietary habits.

  12. Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Kandler, Christian; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Rebato, Esther; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Busjahn, Andreas; Saudino, Kimberly J; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rose, Richard J; Koskenvuo, Markku; Heikkilä, Kauko; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Goldberg, Jack H; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Maia, José A; Freitas, Duarte L; Turkheimer, Eric; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2017-10-01

    Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.

  13. Obesity and depression: results from the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, A; Laitinen, J; Miettunen, J; Veijola, J; Karvonen, J T; Läksy, K; Joukamaa, M

    2006-03-01

    To examine the association between body size and depression in a longitudinal setting and to explore the connection between obesity and depression in young adults at the age of 31 years. This study forms part of the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study (N = 12,058). The follow-up studies were performed at 14 and 31 years. Data were collected by postal inquiry at 14 years and by postal inquiry and clinical examination at 31 years. A total of 8,451 subjects (4,029 men and 4,422 women) who gave a written informed consent and information on depression by three depression indicators at 31 years. Body size at 14 (body mass index (BMI) and 31 (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) years and depression at 31 years by three different ways: depressive symptoms by the HSCL-25-depression questionnaire (HSCL-25), the use of antidepressants and self-reported physician-diagnosed depression. Obesity at 14 years associated with depressive symptoms at 31 years; among male subjects using the cutoff point 2.01 in the HSCL-25 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.06-3.68), among female subjects using the cutoff point 1.75 (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.32). Female subjects who were obese both at baseline and follow-up had depressive symptoms relatively commonly (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.85 at cutoff point 1.75); a similar association was not found among male subjects. The proportion of those who used antidepressants was 2.17-fold higher among female subjects who had gained weight compared to female subjects who had stayed normal-weighted (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.28-3.68). In the cross-sectional analyses male subjects with abdominal obesity (WHR >or=85th percentile) had a 1.76-fold risk of depressive symptoms using the cutoff 2.01 in the HSCL-25 (adjusted OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.08-2.88). Abdominally obese male subjects had a 2.07-fold risk for physician-diagnosed depression (adjusted OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.23-3.47) and the proportion of those who used antidepressants

  14. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Amy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.

  15. Month of birth and mortality in Sweden: a nation-wide population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Month of birth--an indicator for a variety of prenatal and early postnatal exposures--has been associated with life expectancy in adulthood. On the northern hemisphere, people born in the autumn live longer than those born during the spring. Only one study has followed a population longitudinally and no study has investigated the relation between month of birth and mortality risk below 50 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this nation-wide Swedish study, we included 6,194,745 subjects, using data from population-based health and administrative registries. The relation between month of birth (January-December and mortality risk was assessed by fitting Cox proportional hazard regression models using attained age as the underlying time scale. Analyses were made for ages >30, >30 to 50, >50 to 80 and >80 years. Month of birth was a significant predictor of mortality in the age-spans >30, >50 to 80, and >80 years. In models adjusted for gender and education for ages >30 and >50 to 80 years, the lowest mortality was seen for people born in November and the highest mortality in those born in the spring/summer, peaking in May for mortality >30 years (25‰ excess hazard ratio compared to November, [95% confidence interval = 16-34 ] and in April for mortality >50 to 80 years (42‰ excess hazard ratio compared to November, [95% confidence interval = 30-55]. In the ages >80 years the pattern was similar but the differences in mortality between birth months were smaller. For mortality within the age-span >30 to 50 years, results were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Month of birth is associated to risk of mortality in ages above 50 years in Sweden. Further studies should aim at clarifying the mechanisms behind this association.

  16. Effects of parenting role and parent-child interaction on infant motor development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Dai-Chan; Lee, Chun-Yang; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have rarely focused on healthy infants' motor development, and nationwide birth cohort studies in Taiwan are limited. It has been shown that parent-child interactions significantly influence infant motor development and the effect of mother-infant attachment on infant development is stronger than father-infant attachment. However, it is not well understood that whether the mother-infant or father-infant interaction has the confounding effect on infant motor development. To understand healthy infant motor development in Taiwan; and to investigate the effects of parenting roles and parent-child interactions on infant motor development. Data were derived from the 1st through the 2nd waves of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Pilot Database. Infants were classified into two categories (complete or incomplete development) according to their developmental milestones. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random effects models were used to clarify the possible long-term effects. The rate of infants who completed development in 6 months was 30.50%; however the rate was increased in 18 month-old children (80.01%). A mother's perceived infant care competence was the most important factor for infant motor development. "Whether or not the infant was the only baby in the family" and "parent-child interaction" had slightly significant effect on infant motor development. In conclusion, the mother's perceived competence must be strengthened and parent-infant interactions should be emphasized on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Progress in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in Ukraine: results from a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipenko Tatyana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ukraine was the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe, which has the most rapidly accelerating HIV epidemic world-wide today; national HIV prevalence is currently estimated at 1.6%. Our objective was to evaluate the uptake and effectiveness of interventions for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT over an eight year period within operational settings in Ukraine, within the context of an ongoing birth cohort study. Methods The European Collaborative Study (ECS is an ongoing birth cohort study in which HIV-infected pregnant women identified before or during pregnancy or at delivery were enrolled and their infants prospectively followed. Three centres in Ukraine started enrolling in 2000, with a further three joining in September 2006. Results Of the 3356 women enrolled, 21% (689 reported current or past injecting drug use (IDU. Most women were diagnosed antenatally and of those, the proportion diagnosed in the first/second trimester increased from 47% in 2000/01 (83/178 to 73% (776/1060 in 2006/07 (p Conclusion There have been substantial improvements in use of PMTCT interventions in Ukraine, including earlier diagnosis of HIV-infected pregnant women and increasing coverage with antiretroviral prophylaxis and the initial MTCT rate has more than halved. Future research should focus on hard-to-reach populations such as IDU and on missed opportunities for further reducing the MTCT rate.

  18. Low-technology assisted reproduction and the risk of preterm birth in a hospital-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerlian, Carmen; Platt, Robert W; Tan, Seang-Lin; Gagnon, Robert; Basso, Olga

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the risk of preterm birth in singleton infants conceived through low-technology assisted reproduction (intrauterine insemination and/or ovulation induction/stimulation). Hospital-based cohort study. University-affiliated hospital. Singleton babies born between 2001 and 2007 to 16,712 couples with no reported infertility (reference category), 378 babies conceived with low-technology treatment; 437 conceived with high-technology treatment; and 620 conceived naturally after a period of infertility. None. Treatment data were obtained from couples undergoing standard infertility investigation and care. Preterm birth, defined at three clinical endpoints: assisted reproduction appeared to be a moderately strong predictor of preterm birth, with similar associations observed in the high-technology treatment group. After adjusting for confounders, as well as the shared characteristics of infertile couples, associations were attenuated but remained significant, suggesting that part of the risk is likely attributable to the treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent testosterone, muscle mass and glucose metabolism: evidence from the 'Children of 1997' birth cohort in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W W; Tse, M A; Lam, T H; Leung, G M; Schooling, C M

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes rates are high in Asia despite relatively low rates of obesity, which might be related to lower muscle mass. Muscle mass plays an important role in glucose metabolism. Peak muscle mass is obtained in late adolescence. We tested the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is negatively associated with glucose metabolism mediated by muscle mass. Participants aged 15 years (278 boys and 223 girls) were recruited from the Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort in 2012. Multivariable linear regression with multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting was used to examine the adjusted associations of pubertal testosterone with skeletal muscle index, body fat percentage, fasting glucose, insulin and homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance. Total testosterone was negatively associated with fasting glucose (-0.008, 95% confidence interval -0.015 to -0.002), insulin (-0.43, 95% confidence interval -0.56 to -0.30) and insulin and homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (-0.09, 95% confidence interval -0.12 to -0.06) adjusted for sex, birth weight, highest parental education, mother's place of birth and physical activity. These associations were attenuated by additional adjustment for skeletal mass index or body fat percentage. Adolescent glucose metabolism may be influenced by testosterone, perhaps partially via skeletal muscle mass. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  20. A birth cohort study in South-West Ethiopia to identify factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information was collected on socio-economic, behavioral, biological, and environmental factors for infants, mothers, and family immediately after birth and in consecutive visits. Overall, infant mortality was 106.2/1000, with estimates of 97.0/1000 and 113.5/1000 for urban and rural areas, respectively. Based on the results of ...

  1. Psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders: findings from a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Grove, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Several psychiatric comorbidities are common among patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which may worsen the clinical outcome and add to the substantial costs of care. The aim of this report is to estimate the psychiatric comorbidity rates within ASD utilizing a Danish Historic Birth...

  2. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  3. Teenage Pregnancy and Female Educational Underachievement: A Prospective Study of a New Zealand Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2000-01-01

    Study examined the relationship between teenage pregnancy and educational underachievement in a sample of women studied from birth to 21 years. Findings suggest that rates of teenage pregnancy might be elevated among women who leave school early, rather than rates of early school leaving being elevated among women who become pregnant. (Author/JDM)

  4. Identifying women who are afraid of giving birth: A comparison of the fear of birth scale with the WDEQ-A in a large Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, H M; Pallant, J F; Fenwick, J; Gamble, J; Creedy, D K; Toohill, J; Hildingsson, I

    2015-12-01

    The WDEQ-A is the most widely used measure of childbirth fear in pregnant women; however there is increasing discussion in the literature that simpler, more culturally transferrable tools may offer a better solution to identifying fearful women in clinical practice. To compare the two item Fear of Birth Scale (FOBS) with the 33 item WDEQ-A in a large cohort of Australian pregnant women. Self-report questionnaires during second trimester including Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (WDEQ-A) and Fear of Birth Scale (FOBS). Correlation of FOBS and WDEQ-A was tested using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the sensitivity and specificity of possible cut-points on the FOBS against WDEQ-A cut-point of ≥85. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were determined. Fearful and non-fearful women as classified by both instruments were compared for differences in demographic, psycho-social and obstetric characteristics. 1410 women participated. The correlation between the instruments was strong (Spearman's Rho = 0.66, p index 0.68. Positive predictive value was 85% and negative predictive value 79%. Both instruments identified high fear as significantly associated with first time mothers, previous emergency caesarean and women with self-reported anxiety and/or depression. Additionally FOBS identified a significant association between fearful women and preference for caesarean. This study supports the use of the FOBS in clinical practice to identify childbirth fear in pregnant women. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Birth by caesarean section and prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in young adults: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    Full Text Available Conflicting findings on the risk of obesity among subjects born by caesarean section have been published. Caesarean section should also increase the risk of obesity related cardiovascular risk factors if type of delivery is associated with obesity later in life. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of type of delivery on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood.In 1982, maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city have been followed. In 2000, when male subjects undertook the Army entrance examination (n=2200, fat mass and fat free mass were estimated through bioimpedance. In 2004-2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort (n=4297, and the following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; random blood glucose, C-reactive protein, waist circumference and body mass index. The estimates were adjusted for the following confounders: family income at birth; maternal schooling; household assets index in childhood; maternal skin color; birth order; maternal age; maternal prepregnancy weight; maternal height; maternal smoking during pregnancy; birthweight and family income at early adulthood.In the crude analyses, blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure and body mass index were higher among subjects who were delivered through caesarean section. After controlling for confounders, systolic blood pressure was 1.15 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.05; 2.25 higher among subjects delivered by caesarean section, and BMI 0.40 kg/m(2 (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.71. After controlling for BMI the effect on systolic blood pressure dropped to 0.60 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.47; 1.67. Fat mass at 18 years of age was also higher among subjects born by caesarean section.Caesarean section was associated with a small increased in systolic blood pressure, body mass index and fat mass.

  6. Season of Birth in a Nationwide Cohort of Coeliac Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Green, Peter HR; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Genetic factors alone cannot explain the risk of developing coeliac disease (CD). Children born in summer months are likely to be weaned and introduced to gluten during winter when viral infections are more frequent. Earlier studies on birth season and CD are limited in sample size and results are contradictory. Method Case-control study. We used biopsy reports from all 28 Swedish pathology departments to identify individuals with CD, defined as small intestinal villous atrophy (n=29,096). The government agency Statistics Sweden then identified 144,522 controls matched for gender, age, calendar year and county. Through conditional logistic regression we examined the association between summer birth (March-August) and later CD diagnosis (outcome measure). Results Some 54.10% of individuals with CD vs. 52.75% of controls were born in the summer months. Summer birth was hence associated with a small increased risk of later CD (Odds ratio: 1.06; 95%CI=1.03–1.08; p<0.0001). Stratifying CD patients according to age at diagnosis, we found the highest OR in those diagnosed before age 2 years (OR=1.17; 95%CI=1.10–1.26), while summer birth was not associated with a CD diagnosis in later childhood (age 2–18 years: OR=1.02; 95%CI=0.97–1.08), but had a marginal effect on the risk of CD in adulthood (age ≥18years: OR=1.04; 95%CI=1.01–1.07). Conclusions In this study, summer birth was associated with an increased risk of later CD, but the excess risk was small, and general infectious disease exposure early in life is unlikely to be a major cause of CD. PMID:23172784

  7. Neonatal outcomes among multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestational age: Does mode of conception have an impact? A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Woojin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies comparing perinatal outcomes in multiples conceived following the use of artificial reproductive technologies (ART vs. spontaneous conception (SC have reported conflicting results in terms of mortality and morbidity. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare composite outcome of mortality and severe neonatal morbidities amongst preterm multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestation infant born following ART vs. SC. Methods We conducted a single center cohort study at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data on all preterm multiple births (≤ 32 weeks GA discharged between July 2005 and June 2008 were retrospectively collected from a prospective database at our centre. Details regarding mode of conception were collected retrospectively from maternal health records. Preterm multiple births were categorized into those born following ART vs. SC. Composite outcome was defined as combination of death or any of the three neonatal morbidities (grade 3/4 intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; retinopathy of prematurity > stage 2 or chronic lung disease. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were preformed after adjustment of confounders (maternal age, parity, triplets, gestational age, sex, and small for gestational age. Results One hundred and thirty seven neonates were born following use of ART and 233 following SC. The unadjusted composite outcome rate was significantly higher in preterm multiples born following ART vs. SC [43.1% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.001; OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.13, 3.45]; however, when adjusted for confounders the difference between groups was not statistically significant [OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.67, 2.89]. Conclusion In our population of preterm multiple births, the mode of conception had no detectable effect on the adjusted composite neonatal outcome of mortality and/or three neonatal morbidities.

  8. Pre-pregnancy dietary vitamin A intake may alleviate the adverse birth outcomes associated with prenatal pollutant exposure: epidemiologic cohort study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Masters, Elisabeth; Choi, Hyunok; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Pac, Agnieszka; Jacek, Ryszard; Kaim, Irena; Skolicki, Zbigniew; Spengler, John D; Perera, Frederica

    2007-01-01

    A cohort study assessed the relationship between dietary intake of vitamin A in 493 healthy mothers before and around conception and adverse birth outcomes associated with environmental toxicant exposures. The cohort, non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies, aged 18-35 years, gave birth at 34-43 weeks of gestation. The women were asked about their diets over one year preceding pregnancy. Measurements of PM2.5 were carried out during the second trimester. Birth outcomes were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including gestational age. Standardized beta regression coefficients confirmed an inverse association between PM2.5 and birth weight (beta = -172.4, p = 0.02), but the effect of vitamin A on birth weight was positive (beta = 176.05, p = 0.05), when the two were adjusted for each other. The negative effect of higher prenatal PM2.5 exposures (above third tertile) on birth weight was significant in women below the third tertile of vitamin A intakes (beta = -185.1, p = 0.00), but not in women with higher intakes (beta = 38.6, p = 0.61). The negative effect of higher PM2.5 exposure on length at birth was significant with lower vitamin A intakes (beta = -1.1, p = 0.00) but not with higher intakes (beta = -0.3, p = 0.56). Prepregnancy nutrition of mothers may modulate the harmful effects of prenatal exposures to pollutants on birth outcomes.

  9. Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth weight: retrospective population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Blangiardo, Marta; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Hansell, Anna L; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Toledano, Mireille B

    2017-12-05

    Objective  To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes. Design  Retrospective population based cohort study. Setting  Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km 2 ), UK, from 2006 to 2010. Participants  540 365 singleton term live births. Main outcome measures  Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight. Results  Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 μg/m 3 nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), 73 μg/m 3 nitrogen oxides (NO x ), 14 μg/m 3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter road traffic A-weighted noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and source specific PM 2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM 2.5 traffic exhaust ) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM 2.5 traffic non-exhaust ) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM 2.5 traffic exhaust and PM 2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM 2.5 >13.8 μg/m 3 during pregnancy. Conclusions  The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  10. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring: a birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... offspring born 1959-1961 and their parents from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Cohort members and their parents who had committed suicide were identified in the Danish Causes of Death Registry (follow-up until December 31, 2005), while information on psychiatric hospitalisation history was obtained from...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...

  11. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed...... to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. METHODS: Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) is a clinical birth cohort...... study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external...

  12. Vitamin D supplementation, cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and birth weight: Findings from the Odense Child Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Andersen, Louise Bjoerkholt; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen; Nielsen, Jan; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Joergensen, Jan Stener; Husby, Steffen; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2017-12-01

    Hypovitaminosis D, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) birth weight (BW) and placental weight (PW) as well as reduced placental development. We aimed to assess the prevalence and the risk factors of cord vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D birth to singletons and donated a blood sample for s-25(OH)D measurements were included (n = 2082). The prevalence of cord vitamin D deficiency was 16.7% and 41.0% for insufficiency. White skin, winter season at birth, maternal supplementation dose of supplementation dose (10 μg/day) was reported by 87% (primipara 91% vs. multipara 81%, p 60 nmol/L. Cord hypovitaminosis D was present in 57.7%. Multipara was identified as a novel risk factor of non-adherence to vitamin D supplementation recommendations; and a maternal supplementation dose <15 μg/day as a novel, independent risk factor of cord hypovitaminosis D. Higher BW, PW, and PW/BW ratio were associated to higher cord s-25(OH)D levels with a suggested cut-off at 60 nmol/L. More studies are encouraged to elucidate the impact of cord s-25(OH)D levels on offspring health and to establish optimal cut-offs for these outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal vegetarianism and neurodevelopment of children enrolled in The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Uldall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    an existing large-scale population-based cohort to examine the association between maternal vegetarianism and the risk of impaired neurodevelopment, including more subtle impairments, in children. We initiated the present study based on the clinical observations described in Text Box 1 in order to improve...

  14. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  15. Evolution of gut microbiota composition from birth to 24 weeks in the INFANTMET Cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, Cian J

    2017-01-17

    The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age.

  16. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  17. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Laura; Guxens, Mònica; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Alexander, Jan; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Gallastegi, Mara; Ha, Mina; Haugen, Margaretha; Huss, Anke; Kheifets, Leeka; Lim, Hyungryul; Olsen, Jørn; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Sudan, Madhuri; Vermeulen, Roel; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Cardis, Elisabeth; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal cell phone use and child behavioral problems, but findings have been inconsistent and based on retrospective assessment of cell phone use. This study aimed to assess this association in a multi-national analysis, using data from three cohorts with prospective data on prenatal cell phone use, together with previously published data from two cohorts with retrospectively collected cell phone use data. We used individual participant data from 83,884 mother-child pairs in the five cohorts from Denmark (1996-2002), Korea (2006-2011), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Norway (2004-2008), and Spain (2003-2008). We categorized cell phone use into none, low, medium, and high, based on frequency of calls during pregnancy reported by the mothers. Child behavioral problems (reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire or Child Behavior Checklist) were classified in the borderline/clinical and clinical ranges using validated cut-offs in children aged 5-7years. Cohort specific risk estimates were meta-analyzed. Overall, 38.8% of mothers, mostly from the Danish cohort, reported no cell phone use during pregnancy and these mothers were less likely to have a child with overall behavioral, hyperactivity/inattention or emotional problems. Evidence for a trend of increasing risk of child behavioral problems through the maternal cell phone use categories was observed for hyperactivity/inattention problems (OR for problems in the clinical range: 1.11, 95%CI 1.01, 1.22; 1.28, 95%CI 1.12, 1.48, among children of medium and high users, respectively). This association was fairly consistent across cohorts and between cohorts with retrospectively and prospectively collected cell phone use data. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk for behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention problems, in the offspring. The interpretation of these results is unclear

  18. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong?s ?Children of 1997? Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored re...

  19. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrandeur Jane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern

  20. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Nola M; LeGrandeur, Jane; Caulfield, Timothy

    2010-03-23

    Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years.This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In

  1. Born in Bradford’s Better Start: an experimental birth cohort study to evaluate the impact of early life interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Dickerson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early interventions are recognised as key to improving life chances for children and reducing inequalities in health and well-being, however there is a paucity of high quality research into the effectiveness of interventions to address childhood health and development outcomes. Planning and implementing standalone RCTs for multiple, individual interventions would be slow, cumbersome and expensive. This paper describes the protocol for an innovative experimental birth cohort: Born in Bradford’s Better Start (BiBBS that will simultaneously evaluate the impact of multiple early life interventions using efficient study designs. Better Start Bradford (BSB has been allocated £49 million from the Big Lottery Fund to implement 22 interventions to improve outcomes for children aged 0–3 in three key areas: social and emotional development; communication and language development; and nutrition and obesity. The interventions will be implemented in three deprived and ethnically diverse inner city areas of Bradford. Method The BiBBS study aims to recruit 5000 babies, their mothers and their mothers’ partners over 5 years from January 2016-December 2020. Demographic and socioeconomic information, physical and mental health, lifestyle factors and biological samples will be collected during pregnancy. Parents and children will be linked to their routine health and local authority (including education data throughout the children’s lives. Their participation in BSB interventions will also be tracked. BiBBS will test interventions using the Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs approach and other quasi-experimental designs where TwiCs are neither feasible nor ethical, to evaluate these early life interventions. The effects of single interventions, and the cumulative effects of stacked (multiple interventions on health and social outcomes during the critical early years will be measured. Discussion The focus of the BiBBS cohort is on

  2. Individual exposures to drinking water trihalomethanes, low birth weight and small for gestational age risk: a prospective Kaunas cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and impaired fetal growth is still inconsistent and inconclusive, in particular, for various exposure routes. We examined the relationship of individual exposures to THMs in drinking water on low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and birth weight (BW) in singleton births. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 4,161 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania), using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, to estimate an internal dose of THM. We used regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose and birth outcomes, adjusting for family status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, ethnic group, previous preterm, infant gender, and birth year. Results The estimated internal dose of THMs ranged from 0.0025 to 2.40 mg/d. We found dose-response relationships for the entire pregnancy and trimester-specific THM and chloroform internal dose and risk for LBW and a reduction in BW. The adjusted odds ratio for third tertile vs. first tertile chloroform internal dose of entire pregnancy was 2.17, 95% CI 1.19-3.98 for LBW; the OR per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose was 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19. Chloroform internal dose was associated with a slightly increased risk of SGA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87-1.63 and OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.68, respectively, for second and third tertile of third trimester); the risk increased by 4% per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09). Conclusions THM internal dose in pregnancy varies substantially across individuals, and depends on both water THM levels and water use habits. Increased internal dose may affect fetal growth. PMID:21501533

  3. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.08-1.49, poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60, more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83, more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73, and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41. The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio

  4. Burden of early-term birth on adverse infant outcomes: a population-based cohort study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2017-12-27

    To estimate the national rate of early-term live births in Brazil and to evaluate the effect of birth at 37 and 38 weeks' gestation, as compared with 39 and 40 weeks' gestation on infant outcomes according to precursors of birth and the existence of maternal/fetal medical conditions. National perinatal population-based cohort study. 266 maternity services located in the five Brazilian macroregions. 18 652 singleton live newborns from 37 0/7 to 40 6/7 weeks of gestation. Resuscitation in delivery room, oxygen therapy, transient tachypnoea, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), hypoglycaemia, use of antibiotics, phototherapy, phototherapy after hospital discharge, neonatal death and breastfeeding. Early terms accounted for 35% (95% CI 33.4% to 36.7%) of all live births. Among provider-initiated births in women without medical conditions, infants of 37 and 38 weeks' gestation had higher odds of oxygen therapy (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.93, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.98 and AOR 1.92 95% CI 1.18 to 3.13), along with admission to NICU (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.41 and AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.60), neonatal death (AOR 14.40, 95% CI 1.94 to 106.69 and AOR 13.76,95% CI 2.84 to 66.75), hypoglycaemia in the first 48 hours of life (AOR 7.86, 95% CI 1.95 to 31.71 and AOR 5.76, 95% CI 1.63 to 20.32), transient tachypnoea (AOR 2.98, 95% CI 1.57 to 5.65 and AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.48) and the need for phototherapy within the first 72 hours of life (AOR 3.59, 95% CI 1.95 to 6.60 and AOR 2.29, 95% CI 1.49 to 3.53), yet lower odds of breastfeeding up to 1 hour after birth (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.86 and AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) and exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.89 and AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99). Birth at 37 and 38 weeks' gestation increased the risk of most adverse infant outcomes analysed, especially among provider-initiated births and should be avoided before 39 weeks' gestation in healthy pregnancies. © Article

  5. Psychosocial and physical work environment, and risk of pelvic pain in pregnancy. A study within the Danish national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The sparse knowledge of the aetiology of pelvic pain in pregnancy makes evidence based prevention a limited option. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between pelvic pain in pregnancy and physical and psychosocial working conditions. METHODS: This study used self reported...... data on working conditions for 1219 cases and 1539 controls, sampled as a nested case-control study within the Danish national birth cohort. Cases and controls were selected on the basis of self reported pelvic pain intensity, pain localisation, and pain impact on daily living activities. Exposure data...... were collected prospectively; early in pregnancy and before the onset of pelvic pain. Main outcome measures were odds ratios for pelvic pain in pregnancy as a function of physical and psychosocial working conditions. RESULTS: Pregnant women with fixed evening work and with rotating shifts (without...

  6. Long-term consequences of maternal overweight in pregnancy on offspring later health: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan G; Sandboge, Samuel; Salonen, Minna K; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive

    2014-09-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Maternal obesity has consequences for the offspring's later health. Only few studies have focused upon the long-term consequences of maternal obesity on the offspring's later health. A total of 13,345 men and women born in Helsinki during 1934-44 belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were included in the study. Data on maternal weight and height in late pregnancy were available from hospital records. Using validated national registers we report on the following outcomes in relation to maternal BMI: death, cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes among the offspring. Maternal BMI was positively associated with each of the later health outcomes of the offspring. The associations were strongest for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The association with type 2 diabetes was stronger in women. Our findings stress the importance of early prevention of overweight and obesity in women of child-bearing age.

  7. Pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and risk of wheezing and asthma in children: A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol use has been associated with increased prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and one study reported an association between pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and asthma in early childhood. METHODS: To examine if pre-natal exposure to paracetamol is associated...... with the risk of asthma or wheezing in early childhood, we selected 66 445 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom we had information on paracetamol use during pregnancy and who participated in an interview when their children were 18-months-old and 12 733 women whose children had reached the age...... of 7 and estimated the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing at the ages of 18 months and 7 years. We also linked our population to the Danish National Hospital Registry to record all hospitalizations due to asthma up to age of 18 months. RESULTS: Paracetamol use during any time...

  8. A Validation Method to Determine Missing Years of Birth in a Cohort Study of Shipyard Workers Using Social Security Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabasag, Citadel J; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shehata, Merna; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the generalizability and feasibility of a prediction method developed by Block et al (1983) to estimate missing age of workers by using their Social Security Numbers (SSNs). Our study used a retrospective occupational cohort of about 15,000 workers from the Long Beach Naval Shipyard (1978 to 1985). Our results showed an 89.2% agreement (P < 0.0001) between the predicted and observed years of birth using Block's method. The correlation increased to 93.1% (P < 0.0001) after our modifications by removing workers with SSNs issued in U.S. territories. The method performed better in shipyard workers who obtained their SSNs after 1950. Although the method is useful in imputing missing age, the accuracy is dependent on the year, age, and location of SSN issuance.

  9. Restrained and external-emotional eating patterns in young overweight children-results of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hirsch

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in Western countries. Abnormal eating behavior is thought to be a developmental trajectory to obesity. The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C has not been used for children as young as eight years, and possible associations with body weight have not yet been established. Five hundred and twenty-one children of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS; age eight filled out the EPI-C and BMI was assessed. Adequacy of the scales was tested with confirmatory factor analysis and a MANOVA and cluster analysis established associations between eating patterns and BMI. The factor structure of the EPI-C was confirmed (GFI = .968 and abnormal eating behavior was associated with overweight (χ(2(8 =79.29, p<.001. The EPI-C is a valid assessment tool in this young age group. Overweight children consciously restrain their eating.

  10. Declining trends in conception rates in recent birth cohorts of native Danish women: a possible role of deteriorating male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.K.; Sobotka, T.; Hansen, Marc Allan

    2008-01-01

    of relatively young couples in the later cohorts. Furthermore, the lower rates of induced abortion among the younger birth cohorts, often viewed as a success of health education programs, may not be fully explained by improved use of contraception. It seems more likely that decreased fecundity because...... widespread use of ART in Denmark may be a sign of such an emerging public health problem Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  11. Association between lifestyle and overall health in high school children: Results from the Toyama birth cohort study, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixiu; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Fujimura, Yuko; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2018-03-07

    To investigate the relationship between lifestyle and overall health in high school children. Subjects were from the Toyama Birth Cohort Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of children who were born between 1989 and 1990, lived in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, at the time of the survey. This investigation used data from Phase 5 of the Birth Cohort Study, which was conducted in 2005, when the children were in high school. Participants included 4966 children (2449 boys and 2517 girls) aged 15-16 years old. A questionnaire was designed to measure lifestyle factors such as eating habits, physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and sleeping patterns. A question from a validated Japanese version of the Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperative Information Project (COOP) was used to evaluate overall health in children. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine if lifestyle factors are associated with overall health in high school children. Boys who skipped breakfast and had short nighttime sleep duration (≤6 h per night) were more likely to have poor health status. Girls who skipped breakfast, and had nighttime eating patterns, personal computer use >4 h per day, and short nighttime sleep duration (≤6 h per night) were more likely to have poor health status. Undesirable lifestyles were associated with poor health status in high school boys and girls. A further understanding of these relationships is needed to facilitate the development of interventions that will help children with poor health status. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R.; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M.; Coyne, Karen P.; German, Alexander J.; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood. PMID:21139856

  13. Physical activity and fitness in adolescents at risk for psychosis within the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, J; Tammelin, T; Kaakinen, M; Mäki, P; Moilanen, I; Taanila, A; Veijola, J

    2010-02-01

    Literature regarding physical activity and fitness among subjects at risk for psychosis especially in adolescents is scarce. This study evaluated the level of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among subjects at risk for psychosis in a relatively large birth cohort sample. The study population consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 including 6987 adolescents who self-reported their physical activity by responding to a postal inquiry in 2001-2002 at the age of 15-16 years. Their cardiorespiratory fitness was measured in a clinical examination by a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Vulnerability to psychosis was defined in three ways: having a parent with a history of psychosis, having prodromal symptoms of psychosis measured by PROD-screen questionnaire at the age of 15-16 years or having actually developed psychosis after the field study (in 2002-2005). The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to find out about parental and the individual's own psychosis. Those individuals who developed psychosis were more likely to be physically inactive (OR 3.3; CI 95% (1.4-7.9) adjusted for gender, parental socio-economic status, family structure and parents' physical activity) and to have poor cardiorespiratory fitness (OR 2.2; 95% CI 0.6-7.8 adjusted for parental socio-economic status, family structure and parents' physical activity) compared to those who did not develop psychosis. Adolescents who would actually develop psychosis had a relatively low level of physical activity compared to their age mates. General recommendations for physical activity would be important for subjects at risk for developing psychosis in order to avoid detrimental effect of physical inactivity on overall health. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Family pet ownership during childhood: findings from a UK birth cohort and implications for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Coyne, Karen P; German, Alexander J; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-10-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  15. Breast cancer in relation to childhood parental divorce and early adult psychiatric disorder in a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokugamage, A U; Hotopf, M; Hardy, R; Mishra, G; Butterworth, S; Wadsworth, M E J; Kuh, D

    2006-09-01

    Jacobs and Bovasso reported (Psychological Medicine 2000, 30, 669-678) that maternal death in childhood and chronic severe depression in adulthood were associated with subsequent breast cancer. We have examined the effects of parental loss in childhood and psychiatric disorder in adult life on breast cancer risk using a national birth cohort study. Eighty-three cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in a study of 2253 women followed from birth to age 59 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether breast cancer rates were higher in women who experienced parental death and divorce before age 16, psychiatric disorders between 15 and 32 years, symptoms of anxiety and depression at 36 years, or use of antidepressant medication at 31 or 36 years than in women who did not have these experiences. There was no overall association between parental death, parental divorce or psychiatric disorder and the incidence of breast cancer. There was some evidence that women with more severe psychiatric disorders between the ages of 15 and 32 years were more likely to develop breast cancer early. The interaction between parental divorce and severe psychiatric disorder was non-significant (p=0.1); however, the group who experienced both these events had an increased breast cancer risk compared with those who experienced neither [hazard ratio (HR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-6.19]. Our study does not provide strong support for the hypothesis that early loss or adult psychiatric disorders are associated with breast cancer. A meta-analysis is needed that uses data from all available cohort studies and investigates possible interactive effects on breast cancer risk.

  16. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Heron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  17. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  18. Low childhood IQ and early adult mortality: the role of explanatory factors in the 1958 British Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J; Gale, Catharine R; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-09-01

    To examine whether the association between childhood IQ and later mortality risk was explained by early developmental advantages or mediated by adult sociodemographic factors and health behaviors. Participants were 10 620 men and women from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study whose IQ was assessed at the age of 11 years and who were followed up to age 46. Childhood covariates included birth weight, childhood height at 11 years of age, problem behaviors, father's occupational class, parents' interest in child's education, family size, and family difficulties. Adult risk factors were assessed at ages 23, 33, and 42 years, and they included education, occupational class, marital status, smoking, BMI, alcohol use, and psychosomatic symptoms. Between ages 23 and 46 years, 192 participants died. Higher childhood IQ was related to lower mortality risk (standardized odds ratio [OR]: 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.93]) with no gender differences (OR: 0.81 [95% CI: 0.67-0.98] [men] and 0.79 [95% CI: 0.63-0.98] [women]). Adjusting for parents' interest in child's education attenuated the IQ-mortality association by 15% to 20%, and adult education and psychosomatic symptoms both attenuated the association by 25%. Other covariates were less influential. In a cohort of British men and women, the most important explanatory factors for the lower mortality rate among individuals with high IQ were parental interest in child's education, high adult educational level, and low prevalence of psychosomatic symptoms. However, common sociodemographic risk factors and health behaviors may not be sufficient to explain the association between IQ and early mortality completely.

  19. Growth References of Preschool Children Based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study and Compared to World Health Organization Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fan; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chiang, Tung-Liang

    2016-02-01

    To develop new growth references for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) for children aged 0-5 years in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) and to compare these references with both 1997 Taiwan references and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Data were obtained from the TBCS of a nationally representative sample of 24,200 children. A total of 18,466 children completed the baseline survey at 6 months of age and three follow-up surveys at 18 months, 3 years, and 5.5 years of age. The modified LMS method was used to construct percentile curves by sex, including length/height for age, weight for age, and BMI for age. TBCS children of both sexes were shorter and lighter at birth compared with 1997 Taiwan references and WHO standards. The growth patterns of TBCS children were close to those of the 1997 Taiwan references after 6 months of age. Compared with WHO standards, however, TBCS children were heavier after 6 months of age. This study has developed TBCS references to monitor the growth of children in Taiwan, whose weight growth patterns differed from those "prescribed" by WHO standards. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Dietary patterns of children at 3.5 and 7 years of age: a New Zealand birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Clare R; Thompson, John M D; Robinson, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2013-02-01

    To describe the dietary patterns of children at 3.5 and 7 years born small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and the association of dietary patterns with socio-demographic and obstetric factors. Children from a New Zealand birth cohort study were followed up at 3.5 (n = 550) and 7 (n = 591) years. Dietary information was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were defined in these children ('traditional', 'junk' and 'healthy'). Factors associated with dietary patterns were examined in multivariable analyses. At 3.5 years, 'junk' was associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy, no attendance at antenatal classes, maternal BMI and a younger maternal age. At 3.5 years, 'healthy' was associated with being married when pregnant. At 7 years, 'traditional' was associated with being born SGA, smoking in pregnancy, a younger maternal age and being male. Maternal socio-demographic, obstetric factors and birth size were associated with dietary patterns. The associations were not consistent with each dietary pattern across age groups. To examine the impact of diet in childhood on growth and health outcomes, factors influencing dietary patterns should be assessed at regular intervals throughout childhood. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.