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Sample records for birth certificates

  1. THE LAWFUL CONSEQUENCES OF BIRTH CERTIFICATE ON CHILDREN ABROGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasya Immanuela Sandjojo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research due to the law on the abrogation of birth certificates against children aims to know the effect of law affecting the child, as well as review of the determination and judgment in court that play a role in the birth certificate abrogation. This research describes the importance of birth certificate because of the low public awareness to perform birth registration. The study uses normative juridical research, which faces legal issues with the process of discovering legal rules, principles, and legal doctrines, with deductive methods, starting from the general thing and then generating specific and legitimate answers. Based on the results of the study, that the abrogation of birth certificate brings great lawful consequences for the child, especially the status and position of the child, as well as the right of alimentation,  which in this study included some examples of determination and court decision about the birth certificate abrogation.

  2. Validity of parental work information on the birth certificate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langlois Peter H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the most recent revision (2003 of the U.S. standard certificate of live births, the National Center for Health Statistics recommended that all states collect maternal and paternal usual occupation. Because such information might be useful in the surveillance of job-related risk areas, we assessed the quality of parental work information on the U.S. birth certificate. Methods Occupational histories obtained from maternal interviews with Texas (USA participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study were linked to and compared with parental work information on birth certificates. With occupational information from interviews serving as the gold standard, we assessed the quality of occupational information on the birth certificate with measures of sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa statistic. Results Of the 649 births available for study, parental occupation agreed between the birth certificate and interview for 77% of mothers and 63% of fathers with similar agreement by case-control status. Among occupations and industries with 10 or more workers by interview, sensitivity of the birth certificate information ranged from 35% to 100% for occupational groups and 55% to 100% for industrial sectors. Specificities of occupations/industries studied ranged from 93 to 100%. Kappa statistics for maternal occupations (0.76 to 0.90 and industries (0.59 to 0.94 were higher than those for paternal occupations (0.48 to 0.92 and industries (0.47 to 0.89. Mothers were frequently misclassified as homemakers or otherwise unemployed while the paternal information was often missing altogether on the birth certificate. Women who worked as health diagnosing and treating practitioners were the least likely (0% and women in food preparation or serving occupations were the most likely (65% to be misclassified as not employed on the birth certificate. Among fathers, the proportion of missing occupations was the lowest for occupations in

  3. Birth of Identity: Understanding the Value and Policy Considerations of Using Birth Certificates for Identity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jeffrey Dean

    2015-01-01

    Exchanging patient-specific information across heterogeneous information systems is a critical but increasingly complex and expensive challenge. Lacking a universal unique identifier for healthcare, patient records must be linked using combinations of identity attributes such as name, date of birth, and sex. A state's birth certificate registry…

  4. Validation of 1989 Tennessee birth certificates using maternal and newborn hospital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, J M; Mitchel, E F; Snowden, M; Hall, C; Adams, M; Taylor, P

    1993-04-01

    In 1989, the state of Tennessee adopted a new birth certificate which incorporates changes recommended by the National Center for Health Statistics in the revised US Standard Certificate of Live Birth. The data now being collected are intended to provide improved information for understanding maternal and infant health issues. To assess data quality, the authors compared information reported on the 1989 Tennessee birth certificates with the same data obtained from an ongoing case-control study in which the delivery hospital medical records of mothers and infants were reviewed by trained nurse abstractors using a structured data collection instrument. Cases (n = 1,016) were all infants born in Tennessee in 1989 with birth weights less than 1,500 g or other infants who died during the first 28 days of life. The infants were identified from linked birth-death certificate files. Control infants (n = 634) were randomly selected from the noncase population. The most reliable information obtained from birth certificates was descriptive demographic data and birth weight. The quality of information obtained from the new birth certificate checkboxes varied. Routine medical procedures were better reported on the birth certificates than relatively uncommon conditions and occurrences, even serious ones. Caution is needed in using birth certificate data for assessment of maternal medical risk factors, complications of labor and delivery, abnormal conditions of the newborn, and congenital anomalies, since sensitivity is low.

  5. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants

    OpenAIRE

    Gr?nebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B.; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L.; Levene, Malcolm I.; Chervenak, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. Purpose The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of...

  6. Midwife-attended births in the United States, 1990-2012: results from revised birth certificate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Data on attendance at birth by midwives in the United States have been available on the national level since 1989, allowing for the documentation of long-term trends. New items on payer source and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) from a 2003 revision of the birth certificate provide an opportunity to examine additional aspects of US midwifery practice. The data in this report are based on records on birth attendant gathered as part of the US National Standard Certificate of Live Birth from a public use Web site, Vital Stats (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/VitalStats.htm), which allows users to create and download specialized tables. Analysis of new items on prepregnancy BMI and birth payer source are limited to the 38 states (86% of US births) that adopted the revised birth certificate by 2012. Between 1989 and 2012, the proportion of all births attended by certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) increased from 3.3% to 7.9%. The proportion of vaginal births attended by CNMs reached an all-time high of 11.9%. Births attended by "other midwives" (typically certified professional midwives) rose to a peak of 28,343, or 0.7% of all US births. The distribution of payer source for CNM-attended births (44% Medicaid; 44% private insurance; 6% self-pay) is very similar to the national distribution, whereas the majority (53%) of births attended by other midwives are self-pay. Women whose births are attended by other midwives are less likely (13%) to have a prepregnancy BMI in the obese range than women attended by CNMs (19%) or overall (24%). The total number of births attended by CNMs and other midwives has remained steady or grown at a time when total US births have declined, resulting in the largest proportions of midwife-attended births in the quarter century that such data have been collected. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  7. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  8. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States. This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life) in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams) without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM), nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board. Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53) than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1) and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]). The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2). This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal mortality rates

  9. An Evaluation of New York City's 2015 Birth Certificate Gender Marker Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica J; Gurr, Danielle; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2017-10-01

    In 1971, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene amended Section 207.05 of the NYC Health Code to allow individuals who had undergone "convertive surgery" (interpreted by the code to mean genital surgery) to amend the gender on their birth certificates. This surgery requirement was removed in 2015. In a survey evaluating the regulation change, we sought to characterize the transgender population newly eligible to obtain a gender-congruent NYC birth certificate by comparing respondents with and without genital surgery. We mailed a 42-question survey with each newly issued birth certificate. We compared respondents across current gender identity, race, Hispanic ethnicity, age, insurance status, income, current general health status, other transition-related care obtained, and healthcare access, stigma, and discrimination. Of 642 applicants, 219 responded and were thus enrolled in our 5-year study (34.1%). Most (n = 158 out of 203 who answered, 77.8%) had not received genital surgery. Compared to respondents with genital surgery, respondents without surgery were significantly more likely to be transgender men (50.0% vs. 20.0%); younger (median age 32 vs. 56.5); on Medicaid (31.6% vs. 11.1%); identify as Hispanic (28.5% vs. 8.9%); and live in households making gender-congruent birth certificate. Jurisdictions with such requirements should consider similar regulation changes to address the inequities that this requirement likely imposes in accessing birth certificates.

  10. Accuracy of assisted reproductive technology information on birth certificates: Florida and Massachusetts, 2004-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce; Bernson, Dana; Sappenfield, William; Kirby, Russell S; Kissin, Dmitry; Zhang, Yujia; Copeland, Glenn; Zhang, Zi; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) includes fertility procedures where both egg and sperm are handled in the lab. ART use has increased considerably in recent years, accounting for 47,090 livebirths in the U.S. in 2010. ART increases the probability of multiple gestation births, which are at higher risks than singletons for adverse outcomes. Additionally, ART is associated with a greater risk of complications during pregnancy, labour, and delivery, and increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton births. We merged Florida and Massachusetts birth records from 2004-06 with the National ART Surveillance System (NASS) and using NASS as the gold standard, calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of ART reporting on the birth certificates by maternal, infant, and hospital characteristics. We fit random-effects logistic regression models to evaluate simultaneously the association of ART reporting with these predictors while accounting for correlation among births occurring in the same hospital. Sensitivity of ART reporting on the birth certificate was 28.9% in Florida and 41.4% in Massachusetts. Specificity was >99% in both states. PPV was 45.5% in Florida and 54.6% in Massachusetts. The odds of ART reporting varied by state and by several maternal and delivery characteristics including age, parity, history of fetal loss, plurality, race/Hispanic ethnicity, delivery payment source, pre-existing conditions, and complications during pregnancy or labour and delivery. There was significant under-reporting of ART procedures on the birth certificates. Using data on ART births identified only from birth certificates yields a biased sample of the population of ART births. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Birth Settings and the Validation of Neonatal Seizures Recorded in Birth Certificates Compared to Medicaid Claims and Hospital Discharge Abstracts Among Live Births in South Carolina, 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Jenkins, Dorothea D; Kinsman, Stephen L

    2017-05-01

    Objective Neonatal seizures in the first 28 days of life often reflect underlying brain injury or abnormalities, and measure the quality of perinatal care in out-of-hospital births. Using the 2003 revision of birth certificates only, three studies reported more neonatal seizures recorded among home births ​or planned out-of-hospital births compared to hospital births. However, the validity of recording neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction across birth settings in birth certificates has not been evaluated. We aimed to validate seizure recording in birth certificates across birth settings using multiple datasets. Methods We examined checkbox items "seizures" and "seizure or serious neurologic dysfunction" in the 1989 and 2003 revisions of birth certificates in South Carolina from 1996 to 2013. Gold standards were ICD-9-CM codes 779.0, 345.X, and 780.3 in either hospital discharge abstracts or Medicaid encounters jointly. Results Sensitivity, positive predictive value, false positive rate, and the kappa statistic of neonatal seizures recording were 7%, 66%, 34%, and 0.12 for the 2003 revision of birth certificates in 547,177 hospital births from 2004 to 2013 and 5%, 33%, 67%, and 0.09 for the 1998 revision in 396,776 hospital births from 1996 to 2003, and 0, 0, 100%, -0.002 among 660 intended home births from 2004 to 2013 and 920 home births from 1996 to 2003, respectively. Conclusions for Practice Despite slight improvement across revisions, South Carolina birth certificates under-reported or falsely reported seizures among hospital births and especially home births. Birth certificates alone should not be used to measure neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction.

  12. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  13. Who and where are the uncounted children? Inequalities in birth certificate coverage among children under five years in 94 countries using nationally representative household surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Amiya; Ferreira, Leonardo Zanini; Barros, Alu?sio J. D.; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Background Birth registration, and the possession of a birth certificate as proof of registration, has long been recognized as a fundamental human right. Data from a functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system allows governments to benefit from accurate and universal data on birth and death rates. However, access to birth certificates remains challenging and unequal in many low and middle-income countries. This paper examines wealth, urban/rural and gender inequalities i...

  14. Who and where are the uncounted children? Inequalities in birth certificate coverage among children under five years in 94 countries using nationally representative household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Amiya; Ferreira, Leonardo Zanini; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-08-18

    Birth registration, and the possession of a birth certificate as proof of registration, has long been recognized as a fundamental human right. Data from a functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system allows governments to benefit from accurate and universal data on birth and death rates. However, access to birth certificates remains challenging and unequal in many low and middle-income countries. This paper examines wealth, urban/rural and gender inequalities in birth certificate coverage. We analyzed nationally representative household surveys from 94 countries between 2000 and 2014 using Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Birth certificate coverage among children under five was examined at the national and regional level. Absolute measures of inequality were used to measure inequalities in birth certificate coverage by wealth quintile, urban/rural residence and sex of the child. Over four million children were included in the analysis. Birth certificate coverage was over 90% in 29 countries and below 50% in 36 countries, indicating that more than half the children under five surveyed in these countries did not have a birth certificate. Eastern & Southern Africa had the lowest average birth certificate coverage (26.9%) with important variability among countries. Significant wealth inequalities in birth certificate coverage were observed in 74 countries and in most UNICEF regions, and urban/rural inequalities were present in 60 countries. Differences in birth certificate coverage between girls and boys tended to be small. We show that wealth and urban/rural inequalities in birth certificate coverage persist in most low and middle income countries, including countries where national birth certificate coverage is between 60 and 80%. Weak CRVS systems, particularly in South Asia and Africa lead rural and poor children to be systematically excluded from the benefits tied to a birth certificate, and prevent these

  15. [Evaluation of data on live birth certificates from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC) in Campinas, São Paulo, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Guilherme Paiva; Chiquetto, Letícia; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo; Bazan, Ivan Gilberto M; Daolio, Luísa Dias; Lemos, Jéssica J Rocha; Carniel, Emília de Faria

    2014-09-01

    To assess the completeness and reliability of the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc) data. A cross-sectional analysis of the reliability and completeness of Sinasc's data was performed using a sample of Live Birth Certificate (LBC) from 2009, related to births from Campinas, Southeast Brazil. For data analysis, hospitals were grouped according to category of service (Unified National Health System, private or both), 600 LBCs were randomly selected and the data were collected in LBC-copies through mothers and newborns' hospital records and by telephone interviews. The completeness of LBCs was evaluated, calculating the percentage of blank fields, and the LBCs agreement comparing the originals with the copies was evaluated by Kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients. The percentage of completeness of LBCs ranged from 99.8%-100%. For the most items, the agreement was excellent. However, the agreement was acceptable for marital status, maternal education and newborn infants' race/color, low for prenatal visits and presence of birth defects, and very low for the number of deceased children. The results showed that the municipality Sinasc is reliable for most of the studied variables. Investments in training of the professionals are suggested in an attempt to improve system capacity to support planning and implementation of health activities for the benefit of maternal and child population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient linking of birth certificate and newborn screening databases for laboratory investigation of congenital cytomegalovirus infection and preterm birth: Florida, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, John M; Freeman, Karen; Amin, Minal M; Park, Sohyun; Rivers, Samantha; Hopkins, Richard; Cannon, Michael J; Dy, Bonifacio; Dollard, Sheila C

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to design an accurate method for linking newborn screening (NBS) and state birth certificate databases to create a de-identified study database; (2) To assess maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence by measuring CMV IgG in newborn dried blood spots; (3) To assess congenital CMV infection among newborns and possible association with preterm birth. NBS and birth databases were linked and patient records were de-identified. A stratified random sample of records based on gestational age was selected and used to retrieve blood spots from the state NBS laboratory. Serum containing maternal antibodies was eluted from blood spots and tested for the presence of CMV IgG. DNA was extracted from blood spots and tested for the presence of CMV DNA. Analyses were performed with bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Linkage rates and specimen collection exceeded 98% of the total possible yielding a final database with 3,101 newborn blood spots. CMV seroprevalence was 91% among Black mothers, 83% among Hispanic mothers, 59% among White mothers, and decreased with increasing amounts of education. The prevalence of CMV infection in newborns was 0.45% and did not vary significantly by gestational age. Successful methods for database linkage, newborn blood spots collection, and de-identification of records can serve as a model for future congenital exposure surveillance projects. Maternal CMV seroprevalence was strongly associated with race/ethnicity and educational level. Congenital CMV infection rates were lower than those reported by other studies and lacked statistical power to examine associations with preterm birth.

  17. Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, F

    1994-06-01

    The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as "an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives both unfavourable to him (or her)". This is situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. In this article a personal solution to the problem of 'certificates' is presented. Not every one will necessarily agree with the solutions presented and some may find them unacceptable, or have better solutions. The author warmly welcomes correspondence, either personal, or in the form of Letters to the Editor, as this is a subject in which consensus decisions are important.

  18. [Prevalence of Down syndrome using certificates of live births and fetal deaths in México 2008-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Romero, María Del Carmen; Navarrete Hernández, Eduardo; Canún Serrano, Sonia; Reyes Pablo, Aldelmo E; Valdés Hernández, Javier

    Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy 21 is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation with the clinical presentation of a series of well-defined characteristics. Advanced maternal age has been associated with DS. The databases of all the certificates of live births and fetal deaths in Mexico were combined. Codes based on the International Classification of Diseases 10 th Revision (ICD-10) in Chapter XVII "Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities" were selected. A database of 8,250,375 births during the period 2008-2011 was constructed: 99.2% were live births with 0.8% of fetal deaths and 3,076 cases diagnosed with DS. The importance of this report is to initiate an epidemiological surveillance of newborn cases of DS nationwide and by state using census information systems available in the country since 2008. An increased risk has been observed for having a child with DS since the mother is ≥ 35 years, as has been reported in other studies. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. No certificate, no chocolate

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Are you already ready to use “certificates” to log into CERN or to connect to the global “eduroam” wireless network? No, I am not talking about your birth certificate, medical certificates or academic certificates. I am referring to “certificates” used for authentication where you would usually use a password.   These digital certificates are a valid alternative to cumbersome passwords. Like the aforementioned personal certificates, a digital certificate is an official document that proves who you are or your qualifications. Your personal digital CERN certificate is tied to your digital identity at CERN. In that respect, a digital certificate is like a password. It is a credential that you must not share with anybody else! With your digital certificate, I can impersonate you and take over your mailbox, your web sessions and more… Digital certificates bind your digital identity to a public/private-key infrastructu...

  20. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  1. Declaração de nascido vivo: análise do seu preenchimento no Município de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil Certificates of live birth: analysis of completion in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristiane Mishima

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivos identificar o fluxo de preenchimento das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos (DNs e analisar a consistência das informações contidas nas mesmas. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se uma DN-Controle, preenchida com base nas informações contidas nos prontuários do recém-nascido e da mãe, as quais foram comparadas com os dados contidos na DN-Oficial, disponível no Departamento de Informática da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde de Ribeirão Preto. A amostragem constitui-se de 911 DNs dos nascimentos ocorridos no mês de julho de 1996. Da análise dos dados verificou-se que o fluxo de preenchimento da DN é heterogêneo entre os hospitais, envolvendo desde o pediatra até a escriturária, e às vezes, funcionários administrativos. Em relação à consistência das informações, identificou-se uma concordância elevada, acima de 90% em 13 das 18 variáveis comparadas nas DNs e em metade dos hospitais investigados; a discordância ocorreu, principalmente, naquelas informações referentes ao número de filhos tidos, número de consultas pré-natal, grau de instrução da mãe e nome do pai.The study aims to identify the frequency with which certificates of live birth are filled out and to analyze the data they provide. To gather the data, the authors used a model birth certificate filled out by research assistants based on information obtained from the reports on mothers and newborns. This information was then compared to data contained in the official birth certificates available in the Information Technology Division of the Municipal Health Department. The sample consisted of 911 certificates of live birth from July 1996 in the ten maternity wards of the city of Ribeirão Preto. Data analysis showed that frequency of completion of birth certificates differs by hospital, involving both physicians and administrative personnel. The authors identified a high level of agreement in the data, i.e., over 90% in 13 of 18

  2. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  3. FastStats: Births -- Method of Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1990–2013 [PDF – 423 KB] Primary Cesarean Delivery Rates, by State: Results From the Revised Birth Certificate, 2006–2012 [PDF – 274 KB] Related Links Vital Statistics downloadable public use data files American College of ...

  4. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  5. Trainer certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couser, S.; Moore, J.

    1988-01-01

    A DOE Technical Safety Appraisal in October 1986 found that training at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant was fragmented and lacked uniformity. Training was localized in departments and was more often handled by line supervisors, etc. - with no certification. The Trainer Certification Program has provided the means for applying standard guidelines to ensure that training is designed, applied, and evaluated in a consistent, effective, and efficient manner. The program is in a state of substantial change and a target date for compliance is set for 1989. Trainer certification will provide both current and future resources to ensure consistent and effective training. 22 figures

  6. Climate certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Reduced emissions of climate gases at the lowest cost require international cooperation in order to ensure that the most cost-efficient measures are taken. A market for emission rights is one way of achieving this. However, creating the right conditions for such a market to operate requires an unambiguous definition of the product to be traded. In this PM, the Swedish Power Association sketches out how such a product could be defined, and how a market for the resulting unambiguously defined product could be operated internationally, in parallel with other markets for energy products. Trade in climate certificates could become a joint EU approach to achieving common results within the field of climate policy. The main features of the proposal are as follows: Electricity producers would be allowed to issue climate certificates for electricity produced without climate-affecting emissions, e.g. in wind power plants. 1 kWh of electricity produced without emissions would entitle the utility to issue a climate certificate for 1 kWh. Electricity from power stations having low emissions, e.g. modern natural gas-fired plants, would entitle the utility to issue certificates in proportion to how much lower their emissions were in comparison with those from conventional coal-fired power stations. The number of certificates would be reduced by an individual coefficient, related directly to the quantity of climate-affecting emissions from the plant concerned. They would be traded and noted on markets in the various member countries. The certificates would not be nationally restricted, but could be traded across borders. Exchanges would be authorised by national authorities, in accordance with overall EU directives. These authorised exchanges would act as certification bodies, checking that certificates had been properly issued in accordance with a corresponding volume of electricity production. Electricity and certificates could be purchased from different suppliers. The

  7. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  8. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  9. 9 CFR 79.5 - Issuance of certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND... the consignee. Certificates must indicate the flock of birth for any breeding sheep born after January...

  10. 75 FR 70871 - Photo Requirements for Pilot Certificates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... upgrading a pilot certificate (such as going from a student to a sport, recreational, or private pilot... interaction with the FAA (for example, change of name, citizenship, date of birth, or gender) would be a... final rule. Finally, a private, recreational, or sport pilot certificate holder would have 5 years after...

  11. Births: Final Data for 1999. National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 49, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Stephanie J.; Martin, Joyce A.; Curtin, Sally C.; Menacker, Fay; Hamilton, Brady E.

    This report presents data on U.S. births using information from the birth certificates of the 3.96 million births in 1999. Data are presented for maternal demographics (age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment); maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco use, and alcohol…

  12. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  13. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even if you aren’t going for birth control. What doesn’t work to prevent pregnancy? top It’s ... and taking care of a baby’s many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...

  14. [Home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welffens, K; Kirkpatrick, C; Daelemans, C; Derisbourg, S

    In Belgium, very few women give birth outside the delivery room. In the United Kingdom and in the Netherlands, they are more numerous. Several studies evaluated obstetric and neonatal outcomes of home births compared with hospital births. We selected seven recent and large studies (with cohorts of more than 5.000 women) using PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Several questions were examined. Is there any difference in maternal and neonatal outcomes depending on the intended place of birth? Does parity affect outcomes ? What are the characteristics of women who choose to deliver at home ? We conclude that giving birth at home improves obstetric outcomes but is riskier for the baby, especially for the first one. The women delivering at home are mainly white Europeans, between 25 and 35 years old, in a relationship, multiparous and wealthier. In order to avoid this increased risk for the baby while preserving the obstetric advantages, alongside birth centers offer an intermediate solution. They combine the reassuring home-like atmosphere with the safety of the hospital. In Belgium, the first alongside birth center " Le Cocon " (a low technicity unit distinct from the delivery room) offers now this type of alternative place of birth for women in Hôpital Erasme in Brussels.

  15. Trends in characteristics of women choosing contraindicated home births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafman, Kelly B; Stone, Joanne L; Factor, Stephanie H

    2018-04-12

    To characterize the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) contraindicated home births and the women who are receiving these births in hopes of identifying venues for intervention. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) birth certificate records from 1990 to 2015 were used. "Planned home births" were defined as those births in which birthplace was coded as "residence" and birth attendant was coded as "certified nurse midwife (CNM)" or "other midwife". Contraindicated home births were defined as "planned home births" from 1990 to 2015 that had one or more of the ACOG risk factors for home births, which include vaginal birth after prior cesarean delivery (VBAC), breech presentation and multiple gestations. A review of trends in contraindicated home births from 1990 to 2015 suggests that they are increasing in number (481-1396) and as a percentage of total births (0.01%-0.04%, P95%), which is most frequently initiated in the first trimester. The majority of home births were paid out-of-pocket (65%-69%). The increasing number of contraindicated home births in the United States requires public health action. Home births are likely a matter of choice rather than a lack of resources. It is unclear if women choose home births while knowing the risk or due to a lack of information. Prenatal education about contraindicated home births is possible, as almost all women receive prenatal care.

  16. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Health Care Providers For Health Care Providers: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Pregnancy CDC Activities Resources ... births and improving neonatal outcomes. View the archived presentation and publication Related Links Is It Worth It? ...

  17. Births: final data for 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce A; Hamilton, Brady E; Sutton, Paul D; Ventura, Stephanie J; Menacker, Fay; Kirmeyer, Sharon

    2006-09-29

    This report presents 2004 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco use); medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care, obstetric procedures, characteristics of labor and/or delivery, attendant at birth, and method of delivery); and infant characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, Apgar score, congenital anomalies, and multiple births). Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence are shown, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 4.1 million births that occurred in 2004 are presented. Denominators for population-based rates are post-censal estimates derived from the U.S. 2000 census. In 2004, 4,112,052 births were registered in the United States, less than 1 percent more than the number in 2003. The crude birth rate declined slightly; the general fertility rate increased by less than 1 percent. Childbearing among teenagers and women aged 20-24 years declined to record lows. Rates for women aged 25-34 and 45-49 years were unchanged, whereas rates for women aged 35-44 years increased. All measures of unmarried childbearing rose in 2004. Smoking during pregnancy continued to decline. No improvement was seen in the timely initiation of prenatal care. The cesarean delivery rate jumped 6 percent to another all-time high, whereas the rate of vaginal birth after previous cesarean fell by 13 percent. Preterm and low birthweight rates continued their steady rise

  18. Defeitos congênitos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: uma avaliação através do SINASC (2000-2004 Birth defects in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an evaluation through birth certificates (2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Ramos Guerra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de defeitos congênitos em nascidos vivos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, com base no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2004. Através de um estudo seccional e descritivo, estudaram-se as variáveis relativas aos defeitos congênitos (presença e aparelho ou sistema acometido, aos serviços de saúde, às mães, às gestações, aos recém-natos e aos partos. Constatou-se uma prevalência de defeitos congênitos de 83/10 mil nascidos vivos. Os sistemas orgânicos mais afetados foram o osteomuscular, nervoso central, genital, as fendas lábio-palatinas e as anomalias cromossômicas. A maioria dos casos nasceu nas maternidades municipais e na rede privada, e maior prevalência de defeitos congênitos ocorreu no Instituto Fernandes Figueira da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Os defeitos congênitos foram mais prevalentes entre os filhos de mulheres mais velhas e menos instruídas. O percentual de casos ignorados foi alto, chegando a 21% em algumas maternidades. Uma maior divulgação das informações do SINASC sobre defeitos congênitos deveria ser estimulada. Estudos de confiabilidade são recomendados para melhor aproveitamento das informações.To evaluate the occurrence of birth defects in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Live Birth Information System (SINASC, we performed a cross-sectional study on all live newborns with birth defects from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004. The variables referred to birth defects (presence and system affected, type of health service, mothers, gestations, live births, and deliveries. Prevalence of birth defects was 83/10,000 live births. The most frequent birth defects involved the musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, cleft lip and palate, and chromosomal anomalies. The majority of cases were born in public (municipal and private maternity hospitals, with the highest prevalence

  19. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  20. Transit management certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    TTI worked closely with the Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning Department : (LAUP) of Texas A&M University (TAMU) to develop a transit management certificate : focus for the current Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning (CTP) housed ...

  1. Deconstructing Teacher Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lawrence A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author takes a close look at alternative certification programs and is convinced that, because they vary so extremely in their requirements, all of them cannot possibly be producing highly qualified teachers. Here, he talks about Non-University Certification Programs (NUCPs). These are alternative certification programs that…

  2. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.133 Certification for random source... of birth or, if unknown, then the approximate age; (iv) The color and any distinctive markings; and...

  3. Perinatal risks of planned home births in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Brent, Robert L; Arabin, Birgit; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the perinatal risks of midwife-attended planned home births in the United States from 2010 through 2012 and compared them with recommendations from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for planned home births. Data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data files from 2010 through 2012 were utilized to analyze the frequency of certain perinatal risk factors that were associated with planned midwife-attended home births in the United States and compare them with deliveries performed in the hospital by certified nurse midwives. Home birth deliveries attended by others were excluded; only planned home births attended by midwives were included. Hospital deliveries attended by certified nurse midwives served as the reference. Perinatal risk factors were those established by ACOG and AAP. Midwife-attended planned home births in the United States had the following risk factors: breech presentation, 0.74% (odds ratio [OR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87-3.56); prior cesarean delivery, 4.4% (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 2.0-2.17); twins, 0.64% (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.84-2.31); and gestational age 41 weeks or longer, 28.19% (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.68-1.74). All 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher among midwife-attended planned home births when compared with certified nurse midwives-attended hospital births, and 3 of 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher in planned home births attended by non-American Midwifery Certification Board (AMCB)-certified midwives (other midwives) when compared with home births attended by certified nurse midwives. Among midwife-attended planned home births, 65.7% of midwives did not meet the ACOG and AAP recommendations for certification by the American Midwifery Certification Board. At least 30% of midwife-attended planned home births are not low risk and not within

  4. Preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes; antenatal corticosteroids; antibiotic treatment; bed rest; beta mimetics; calcium-channel blockers; elective caesarean; enhanced antenatal care programmes; magnesium sulphate; oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban); progesterone

  5. Certificate Transparency with Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarian Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.

  6. Section 608 Technician Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certifications for technicians who maintain, service, repair, or dispose of equipment that could release ozone depleting refrigerants or, after January 1, 2018, substitute refrigerants into the atmosphere.

  7. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  8. Medical Certification System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides automated risk-based decision making capability in support of medical certification and clearances processing associated fees and supporting surveillance of...

  9. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  10. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  11. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  12. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  13. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  14. Maternal and newborn morbidity by birth facility among selected United States 2006 low-risk births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn

    2010-02-01

    We sought to evaluate perinatal morbidity by delivery location (hospital, freestanding birth center, and home). Selected 2006 US birth certificate data were accessed online from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Low-risk maternal and newborn outcomes were tabulated and compared by birth facility. A total of 745,690 deliveries were included, of which 733,143 (97.0%) occurred in hospital, 4661 (0.6%) at birth centers, and 7427 (0.9%) at home. Compared with hospital deliveries, home and birthing center deliveries were associated with more frequent prolonged and precipitous labors. Home births experienced more frequent 5-minute Apgar scores home and birthing center deliveries were associated with less frequent chorioamnionitis, fetal intolerance of labor, meconium staining, assisted ventilation, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and birthweight Home births are associated with a number of less frequent adverse perinatal outcomes at the expense of more frequent abnormal labors and low 5-minute Apgar scores. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. EAS Telecommunications Certification Bodies (TCB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). A Telecommunication Certification Body (TCB) is an accredited product certification body with the authority to issue Grants of...

  16. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  17. [Medical certificates in occupational accidents, in common law and social affairs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Banna, S; Van de Vyvere, A; Beauthier, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Physicians are asked to complete certificates within their profession. These certificates relate to various aspects of an individual's life, from birth to the end of life. The nature of requests is striking by its diversity. As a first step, the authors recall the outline of a certificate and its structure, as well as traps, hazards and risks to avoid. In a second step they describe three specific situations for the certificate: in the context of work accidents, common law accidents and social matters. All materials can not be treated in this space, so they refer the reader to the main bibliographic sources useful in this matter.

  18. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home

  19. Beating Birth Defects

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.

  20. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  1. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  2. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  3. Energetic certification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    At community level the problem of energy quality control in a building was introduced by EEC recommendation n. 93/76 in 1993. In this item are reported some notes on energetic certification in European countries [it

  4. Certification of support services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hroch, A.; Osusky, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the process of certification of support services in the Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. is described. The nuclear power plants are also included into support services. Provisions and economic aspects of support services are discussed

  5. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  6. Errors in registered birth weight and its implications for mortality statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, D; Pharoah, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Birth weight mortality statistics are important for examining trends and monitoring the outcomes of neonatal care.
AIM—To determine the effects of errors in the registered birth weight on birth weight specific mortality.
METHODS—All twins born in England and Wales during 1993-95 comprise the denominator population. For those twins that died, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) provided copies of the death certificates. From the information on the death cer...

  7. Ethnicity, maternal risk, and birth weight among Hispanics in Massachusetts, 1987-89.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, B B; Friedman, D J; Mahan, C M; Lederman, R; Munoz, D

    1993-01-01

    National data reveal that low birth weight and infant mortality rates among Hispanics are, in general, between the rates for whites and those for blacks. The question remains, do differences in low birth weight reflect distributions of known risk factors, or do ethnic differences persist after simultaneously adjusting for intervening variables? In this study, Massachusetts birth certificate data for 206,973 white non-Hispanic infants and 19,571 Hispanic infants are used to examine differences...

  8. United States home births increase 20 percent from 2004 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Mathews, T J

    2011-09-01

    After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of births occurring at home increased from 2004 to 2008 in the United States. The objective of this report was to examine the recent increase in home births and the factors associated with this increase from 2004 to 2008. United States birth certificate data on home births were analyzed by maternal demographic and medical characteristics. In 2008, there were 28,357 home births in the United States. From 2004 to 2008, the percentage of births occurring at home increased by 20 percent from 0.56 percent to 0.67 percent of United States births. This rise was largely driven by a 28 percent increase in the percentage of home births for non-Hispanic white women, for whom more than 1 percent of births occur at home. At the same time, the risk profile for home births has been lowered, with substantial drops in the percentage of home births of infants who are born preterm or at low birthweight, and declines in the percentage of home births that occur to teen and unmarried mothers. Twenty-seven states had statistically significant increases in the percentage of home births from 2004 to 2008; only four states had declines. The 20 percent increase in United States home births from 2004 to 2008 is a notable development that will be of interest to practitioners and policymakers. (BIRTH 38:3 September 2011). © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Miler-Virc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ISO 14001 prescribes the requirements for a system, not environmental performance itself. Similarly, certification is of the management system itself, not environmental performance. An audit is not conducted to ascertain whether your flue gas emissions are less than X part per million nitrous oxide or that your wastewater effluent contains less that Y milligrams of bacteria per litre. Consequently, the procces of auditing the system for compliance to the standard entails checking to see that all of the necessary components of a functioning system are present and working properly.           A company can have a complete and fully functional EMS as prescribed by ISO 14001 without being certified. As certification can add to the time and expense of EMS development, it is important for you to establish, in advance, whether certification is of net benefit to you. Although most companies that develop an EMS do in fact certify, there are cases where certification does not add immediate value. Certification is not always beneficial to small and medium sized companies. Certification is not always necessary for companies with one or two large clients with environmental demands who are satisfied that you have a functional EMS (second-party declaration. Whatever decision you make, it is important to remember that just as a driver′s licence does not automatically make you a good driver, ISO 14001 certification does not automatically make your company environmentally benign or ensure that you will continually improve environmental performance. The system is only as good as the people who operate it.

  10. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  11. Trends and racial differences in birth weight and related survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G R; Tompkins, M E; Allen, M C; Hulsey, T C

    1999-06-01

    In the past two decades, infant mortality rates in the United States declined in African-American and White populations. Despite this, racial disparities in infant mortality rates have increased and rates of low birth weight deliveries have shown little change. In this study, we examine temporal changes in birth weight distributions, birth weight specific neonatal mortality, and the birth weight threshold for an adverse risk of survival within both racial groups in order to explore the mechanisms for the disparities in infant mortality rates. Single live births born to South Carolina resident mothers between 1975 and 1994 and considered White or African-American based on the mother's report of maternal race on the birth certificate were selected for investigation. We define the birth weight threshold for adverse survival odds as the birth weight at which 50% or more of infants in the population died within the first month of life. Despite significant increases in very low birth weight percentages, neonatal mortality rates markedly declined. Birth weight specific neonatal mortality decreased for both races, although greater reductions accrued to White low birth weight infants. By the end of the study period, the birth weight at which over 50% of newborns died within the first month of life was 696 g for Whites and 673 g for African-Americans. The ongoing decline in neonatal mortality is mainly due to reductions in birth weight specific neonatal mortality, probably related to high-risk obstetric and neonatal care. Technological developments in these areas may have differentially benefited Whites, resulting in an increasing racial disparity in mortality rates. Moreover, the relatively greater and increasing mortality risk from postmaturity and macrosomia in infants of African-America mothers may further exacerbate the racial gap in infant mortality.

  12. Facilitating home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised.

  13. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  14. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's ...

  15. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's ...

  16. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's ...

  17. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Patch KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Patch What's ...

  18. Trends in birth weight-specific and -adjusted infant mortality rates in Taiwan between 2004 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Wen; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Li-Hua; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lue, Hung-Chi; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2018-06-01

    A yearly increase in the proportion of very low birth weight (VLBW) live births has resulted in the slowdown of decreasing trends in crude infant mortality rates (IMRs). In this study, we examined the trends in birth weight-specific as well as birth weight-adjusted IMRs in Taiwan. We linked three nationwide datasets, namely the National Birth Reporting Database, National Birth Certification Registry, and National Death Certification Registry databases, to calculate the IMRs according to the birth weight category. Trend tests and mortality rate ratios in the periods 2010-2011 and 2004-2005 were used to examine the extent of reduction in birth weight-specific and birth weight-adjusted IMRs. The proportion of VLBW (births increased from 0.78% in 2004-2005 to 0.89% in 2010-2011, thus exhibiting a 15% increase. The extents of the decreases in birth weight-specific IMRs in the 500-999, 1000-1499, 1500-1999, 2000-2499, and 2500-2999 g birth weight categories were 15%, 33%, 43%, 30%, and 28%, respectively, from 2004-2005 to 2010-2011. The reduction in IMR in each birth weight category was larger than the reduction in the crude IMR (13%). By contrast, the IMR in the birth weight category exhibited a 56% increase during the study period. The IMRs were calculated by excluding all live births with a birth weight of birth weight-adjusted IMRs, which were calculated using a standard birth weight distribution structure for adjustment, exhibited similar extent reductions. In countries with an increasing proportion of VLBW live births, birth weight-specific or -adjusted IMRs are more appropriate than other indices for accurately assessing the real extent of reduction in IMRs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Defects KidsHealth / For Parents / Birth Defects What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Anomalías congénitas What Are Birth Defects? While still in the womb, some babies ...

  20. DGNB Building Certification Companion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Renate Skovgaard; Rhodes, Michael K.; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2017-01-01

    for sustainable buildings. The literature describes several barriers of entry preventing actors in the industry from seeking sustainability certifications and prioritizing design methods, supporting sustainability in greater numbers. In the newly developed tool, “DGNB building certification companion: Sustainable......-language, easily digestible summaries of various topics regarding sustainability and the DGNB certification scheme. The identified barriers are described in the tool followed by a solution to overcome them. The tool, tested at multiple stages of development and moulded by many individuals both within and outside...... was that this is a desired product on the market. This new approach is expected to dramatically reduce misunderstandings, conflicts, and mistakes during a sustainable design process, helping the design team plan a project to possibly obtain the highest DGNB score if desired and properly documented....

  1. DGNB BUILDING CERTIFICATION COMPANION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Renate Skovgaard; Rhodes, Michael K.; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2018-01-01

    for sustainable buildings. The literature describes several barriers of entry preventing actors in the industry from seeking sustainability certifications and prioritizing design methods, supporting sustainability in greater numbers. In the newly developed tool, “DGNB building certification companion: Sustainable......-language, easily digestible summaries of various topics regarding sustainability and the DGNB certification scheme. The identified barriers are described in the tool followed by a solution to overcome them. The tool, tested at multiple stages of development and moulded by many individuals both within and outside...... was that this is a desired product on the market. This new approach is expected to dramatically reduce misunderstandings, conflicts, and mistakes during a sustainable design process, helping the design team plan a project to possibly obtain the highest DGNB score if desired and properly documented....

  2. Soy production and certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomei, Julia; Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena

    2010-01-01

    With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock production, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification...... the social and environmental impacts of soybean production can be mitigated by the RTRS. It concludes that at present certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address either the institutional challenges associated with their implementation or the detrimental impacts of the additional demand generated...... scheme that aims to promote responsible soy production through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive production of soy? Taking the example of soy biodiesel produced in Argentina, this paper asks whether...

  3. A software product certification model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, P.M.; Klabbers, M.D.; van Eekelen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Certification of software artifacts offers organizations more certainty and confidence about software. Certification of software helps software sales, acquisition, and can be used to certify legislative compliance or to achieve acceptable deliverables in outsourcing. In this article, we present a

  4. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  5. System certification: An alternative to package certification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Jefferson, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    One precept of the current radioactive material transportation regulations is that the package is the primary protection for the public. A packaging is chosen to provide containment, shielding, and criticality control suitable to the quantity and characteristics of the radionuclide being transported. Occasionally, radioactive materials requiring transport are not of a mass or size that would allow the materials to be shipped in an appropriate packaging. This is a particular problem for materials that should be shipped in a Type B package, but because such packages are designed and certified for specific contents, the package is usually fairly expensive, available in relatively small numbers, and often requires a fairly long period to achieve certification or amended certification for new contents. Where the shipment to be made is relatively infrequent, there may be economic and time penalties that may hamper shipment or force the shipper into uneconomic or high risk options. However, there is recognition of such situations in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations under the provisions for Special Arrangement

  6. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  7. Tradable Earthquake Certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Dulleman, Minne

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a market-based idea to compensate for earthquake damage caused by the extraction of natural gas and applies it to the case of Groningen in the Netherlands. Earthquake certificates give homeowners a right to yearly compensation for both property damage and degradation of living

  8. Status of Forest Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Michael Dockry

    2013-01-01

    Forest certification systems are voluntary, market-based initiatives to promote the sustainable use of forests. These standards assume that consumers prefer products made from materials grown in an environmentally sustainable fashion, and this in turn creates incentives for companies to adopt responsible environmental practices. One of the major reasons for the...

  9. The correspondence between interracial births and multiple-race reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer D; Madans, Jennifer H

    2002-12-01

    Race-specific health statistics are routinely reported in scientific publications; most describe health disparities across groups. Census 2000 showed that 2.4% of the US population identifies with more than 1 race group. We examined the hypothesis that multiple-race reporting is associated with interracial births by comparing parental race reported on birth certificates with reported race in a national health survey. US natality data from 1968 through 1998 and National Health Interview Survey data from 1990 through 1998 were compared, by year of birth. Overall multiple-race survey responses correspond to expectations from interracial births. However, there are discrepancies for specific multiple-race combinations. Projected estimates of the multiple-race population can be only partially informed by vital records.

  10. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... countries, maternity care is provided free to women, through public financing of health care; universal access to care is therefore secured. Nevertheless, different models of care exist, and debates about the appropriateness of providing maternity care in different settings take place in both countries...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  11. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  12. Certification/enforcement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

  13. 40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling technician certification. 745.90 Section 745.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... technician certification. (a) Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. (1) To become a certified renovator or certified dust sampling technician, an individual must successfully...

  14. 78 FR 64153 - Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...-0001] RIN 0584-AD60 Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children... interim rule entitled Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for...

  15. Reforming birth registration law in England and Wales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McCandless

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Law Commission of England and Wales is considering what its 13th Programme of Law Reform should address. During the consultation process, a project on birth registration law has been mooted. This is a very welcome proposal given that civil birth registration in England and Wales is a compulsory procedure that not only finds its roots in the early Victorian era, but also remains very similar, at least in terms of form and the information that is recorded. I first use two recent legal challenges to illustrate why the current system is coming under increasing pressure. I further use these examples to caution against a law reform agenda that is narrowly focused on the precise information recorded, without a preliminary and wider examination of what the role and purpose of birth registration is, and should be, in society. I argue that this needs to be addressed before the state can justify the parameters of the information recorded. I then use an outline of historical reforms relating to the registration of births outside of marriage to highlight the normative two-parent family model that underpins the birth registration system. I argue that legal reform must be cognizant of the tenacity of this normative family model, particularly in relation to reform proposals surrounding donor conception and the annotation of birth certificates. Finally, I draw attention to wider developments in family law that cast birth registration as a social policy tool for the facilitation of parent–child relationships, particularly unmarried fathers.

  16. Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risks of Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gary M; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Stevenson, David K; Carmichael, Suzan L; English, Paul B

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides exposures are aspects of the human exposome that have not been sufficiently studied for their contribution to risk for preterm birth. We investigated risks of spontaneous preterm birth from potential residential exposures to 543 individual chemicals and 69 physicochemical groupings that were applied in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the study period, 1998-2011. The study population was derived from birth certificate data linked with Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maternal and infant hospital discharge data. After exclusions, the analytic study base included 197,461 term control births and 27,913 preterm case births. Preterm cases were more narrowly defined as 20-23 weeks (n = 515), 24-27 weeks (n = 1,792), 28-31 weeks (n = 3,098), or 32-36 weeks (n = 22,508). The frequency of any (versus none) pesticide exposure was uniformly lower in each preterm case group relative to the frequency in term controls, irrespective of gestational month of exposure. All odds ratios were below 1.0 for these any versus no exposure comparisons. The majority of odds ratios were below 1.0, many of them statistically precise, for preterm birth and exposures to specific chemical groups or chemicals. This study showed a general lack of increased risk of preterm birth associated with a range of agriculture pesticide exposures near women's residences.

  17. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  18. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Danbury, CT 06810 203-748-6000 Accredited Since March 1998 Corvallis Birth & Women's Health Center Accredited 2314 NW Kings Blvd, Suite ... Washington, DC 20002 202-398-5520 Accredited Since March 2001 Flagstaff Birth and Women's Center Accredited 401 West Aspen Avenue Flagstaff, AZ ...

  19. Certification trails for data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

  20. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  1. Home birth after hospital birth: women's choices and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Casey; Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; English, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The number of US women choosing home birth is increasing. Little is known about women who choose home birth after having experienced hospital birth; therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore reasons why these women choose home birth and their perceptions regarding their birth experiences. Qualitative description was the research design, whereby focus groups were conducted with women who had hospital births and subsequently chose home birth. Five focus groups were conducted (N = 20), recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was undertaken allowing themes to emerge. Five themes emerged from the women's narratives: 1) choices and empowerment: with home birth, women felt they were given real choices rather than perceived choices, giving them feelings of empowerment; 2) interventions and interruptions: women believed things were done that were not helpful to the birth process, and there were interruptions associated with their hospital births; 3) disrespect and dismissal: participants believed that during hospital birth, providers were more focused on the laboring woman's uterus, with some experiencing dismissal from their hospital provider when choosing to birth at home; 4) birth space: giving birth in their own home, surrounded by people they chose, created a peaceful and calm environment; and 5) connection: women felt connected to their providers, families, newborns, and bodies during their home birth. For most participants, dissatisfaction with hospital birth influenced their subsequent decision to choose home birth. Despite experiencing challenges associated with this decision, women expressed satisfaction with their home birth. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing features ... estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  3. COSPAS-SARSAT Beacon Certification Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EPG's COSPAS-SARSAT Beacon Certification Facility is one of five certification facilities in the world. Formal certifications are available for all beacon types and...

  4. The Whys and Hows of Certification. Public Librarian Certification Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

    Under Wisconsin state law (Administrative Code P1-6.03) any librarian employed in a public library system or any municipal public library, except in a city of the first class, supported in whole or in part by public funds, must hold state certification. Qualifications are delineated for three grades of certification: grade 1, for public libraries…

  5. Recent Trends in Out-of-Hospital Births in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Mathews, T J

    2013-01-01

    Although out-of-hospital births are still relatively rare in the United States, it is important to monitor trends in these births, as they can affect patterns of facility usage, clinician training, and resource allocation, as well as health care costs. Trends and characteristics of home and birth center births are analyzed to more completely profile contemporary out-of-hospital births in the United States. National birth certificate data were used to examine a recent increase in out-of-hospital births. After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the number of out-of-hospital births increased from 35,578 in 2004 to 47,028 in 2010. In 2010, 1 in 85 US infants (1.18%) was born outside a hospital; about two-thirds of these were born at home, and most of the rest were born in birth centers. The proportion of home births increased by 41%, from 0.56% in 2004 to 0.79% in 2010, with 10% of that increase occurring in the last year. The proportion of birth center births increased by 43%, from 0.23% in 2004 to 0.33% in 2010, with 14% of the increase in the last year. About 90% of the total increase in out-of hospital births from 2004 to 2010 was a result of increases among non-Hispanic white women, and 1 in 57 births to non-Hispanic white women (1.75%) in 2010 was an out-of-hospital birth. Most home and birth center births were attended by midwives. Home and birth center births in the United States are increasing, and the rate of out-of-hospital births is now at the highest level since 1978. There has been a decline in the risk profile of out-of-hospital births, with a smaller proportion of out-of-hospital births in 2010 than in 2004 occurring to adolescents and unmarried women and fewer preterm, low-birth-weight, and multiple births. © 2013 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the United States.

  6. PLANNED HOME BIRTH: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Serdinšek; Iztok Takač

    2016-01-01

    Background: Home birth is as old as humanity, but still most middle- and high-income countries consider hospitals as the safest birth settings, as complications regarding birth are highly unpredictable. Despite this there are a few countries in which home birth in integrated into official healthcare system (the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Canada etc.). Home births can be divided into unplanned and planned, and the latter can be further categorized by the presence of the birth attendants. Thi...

  7. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  8. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (www.pulsecommunity.org, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  9. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, D A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social class. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality was 4.2/1000 and 2.3/1000 respectively for social class I and 6.8/1000 and 5.6/1000 respectively for social class V. Mortality was lower among births registered within marriage (postneonatal 3.5/1000; neonatal 5.2/1000) than among those jointly registered outside marriage (5.1/1000; 6.4/1000); mortality was highest in those solely registered outside marriage (7.2/1000; 7.0/1000). For neonatal mortality the effect of social class varied with birth weight. Social class had little effect on neonatal mortality in low birthweight babies and increasing effect in heavier babies. For postneonatal mortality the effect of social class was similar for all birth weights and was almost as steep as for all birth weights combined. CONCLUSION--Birth weight mediates little of the effect of social class on postneonatal mortality. PMID:1954421

  10. Emergency Teacher Certification. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Elizabeth A.

    Emergency certification involves the issuance of teaching licenses to individuals who have not completed a traditional college or university teacher education program. This two-page information review examines the problems arising from emergency certification and its relationship to student achievement. Some alternatives to emergency certification…

  11. Personnel training and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    In order to make the full benefits of neutron radiography available in the nondestructive test (NDT) field, it has been necessary to formalize its application. A group under the Penetrating Radiation Committee of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) was organized to prepare a recommended practice for neutron radiography. The recommended practices require the establishment of an appropriate certification program. The requirements on the employer to establish and maintain a qualification and certification program are outlined. To conduct a program of nondestructive testing using neutron radiography requires the usual three levels of qualified and certified personnel. The program is administered by a Level III person. Routine exposure, reviews, and reporting of test results are the responsibilities of Level I and Level II personnal. The amount of training and nature of the required practical examination are also specified. The recommended practices document assures users that NDT work in the field of neutron radiography is performed by qualified personnel. Although no training courses are available to provide experience in the depth required by the recommended practices document, SNT-TC-1A, short courses are provided at a number of locations to familarize user's representatives with the interpretation of neutron radiographs and capabilities and limitations of the technique

  12. Arsenic in drinking water and adverse birth outcomes in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Kirsten S; Turyk, Mary E; Jones, Rachael M; Rankin, Kristin; Freels, Sally; Graber, Judith M; Stayner, Leslie T

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in areas with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. Less is known about the reproductive effects of arsenic at lower levels. This research examined the association between low-level arsenic in drinking water and small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (term LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), preterm birth (PTB), and very preterm birth (VPTB) in the state of Ohio. Exposure was defined as the mean annual arsenic concentration in drinking water in each county in Ohio from 2006 to 2008 using Safe Drinking Water Information System data. Birth outcomes were ascertained from the birth certificate records of 428,804 births in Ohio from the same time period. Multivariable generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between arsenic and each birth outcome separately. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the roles of private well use and prenatal care utilization in these associations. Arsenic in drinking water was associated with increased odds of VLBW (AOR 1.14 per µg/L increase; 95% CI 1.04, 1.24) and PTB (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 1.06, 1.15) among singleton births in counties where water was positively associated with VLBW and PTB in a population where nearly all (>99%) of the population was exposed under the current maximum contaminant level of 10µg/L. Current regulatory standards may not be protective against reproductive effects of prenatal exposure to arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    The Relationship between Resettlement and Birth Rates: The Case of ... statistical software. SAS is used. RESULTS: In a univariate analysis of Gambella's ..... World Bank Conference on Land And. Poverty. Washington DC, World Bank, April.

  14. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cerebral palsy (also called CP) is a group of conditions ...

  15. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies) score, in a local ... these babies for expensive tertiary care. Subjects. ... patient numbers, the tendency is simply to increase the ... included birth weight, gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score ...

  16. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methods - English PDF How to Switch Birth Control Methods - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) ... Reproductive Health Access Project Non-Contraceptive Indications for Hormonal Contraceptive Products - English PDF Non- ...

  17. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  18. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  19. The birth order puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R B; Markus, H; Markus, G B

    1979-08-01

    Studies relating intellectual performance to birth order report conflicting results, some finding intellectual scores to increase, others to decrease with birth order. In contrast, the relationship between intellectual performance and family size is stable and consistently replicable. Why do these two highly related variables generate such divergent results? This birth order puzzle is resolved by means of the confluence model that quantifies the influences upon intellectual growth arising within the family context. At the time of a new birth, two opposing influences act upon intellectual growth of the elder sibling: (a) his or her intellectual environment is "diluted" and (b) he or she loses the "last-born's handicap" and begins serving as an intellectual resource to the younger sibling. Since these opposite effects are not equal in magnitude, the differences in intellectual performance among birth ranks are shown to be age dependent. While elder children may surpass their younger siblings in intellectual performance at some ages, they may be overtaken by them at others. Thus when age is taken into consideration, the birth order literature loses its chaotic character and an orderly pattern of results emerges.

  20. Trends and characteristics of home births in the United States by race and ethnicity, 1990-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Menacker, Fay

    2011-03-01

    After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of births occurring at home in the United States increased by 5 percent in 2005 and that increase was sustained in 2006. The purpose of the study was to analyze trends and characteristics in home births in United States by race and ethnicity from 1990 to 2006. U.S. birth certificate data on home births were analyzed and compared with hospital births for a variety of demographic and medical characteristics. From 1990 to 2006, both the number and percentage of home births increased for non-Hispanic white women, but declined for all other race and ethnic groups. In 2006, non-Hispanic white women were three to four times more likely to have a home birth than women of other race and ethnic groups. Home births were more likely than hospital births to occur to older, married women with singleton pregnancies and several previous children. For non-Hispanic white women, fewer home births than hospital births were born preterm, whereas for other race and ethnic groups a higher percentage of home births than hospital births were born preterm. For non-Hispanic white women, two-thirds of home births were delivered by midwives. In contrast, for other race and ethnic groups, most home births were delivered by either physicians or "other" attendants, suggesting that a higher proportion of these births may be unplanned home births because of emergency situations. Differences in the risk profile of home births by race and ethnicity are consistent with previous research, suggesting that, compared with non-Hispanic white women, a larger proportion of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic home births represent unplanned, emergency situations. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  2. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...

  3. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745... § 745.89 Firm certification. (a) Initial certification. (1) Firms that perform renovations for compensation must apply to EPA for certification to perform renovations or dust sampling. To apply, a firm must...

  4. 7 CFR 205.404 - Granting certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.404 Granting certification. (a) Within a reasonable... certified operation; (2) Effective date of certification; (3) Categories of organic operation, including... operation's organic certification continues in effect until surrendered by the organic operation or...

  5. Birth order and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  6. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  8. Apgar score of 0 at 5 minutes and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in relation to birth setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the occurrence of 5-minute Apgar scores of 0 and seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction for 4 groups by birth setting and birth attendant (hospital physician, hospital midwife, free-standing birth center midwife, and home midwife) in the United States from 2007-2010. Data from the United States Centers for Disease Control's National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data files were used to assess deliveries by physicians and midwives in and out of the hospital for the 4-year period from 2007-2010 for singleton term births (≥37 weeks' gestation) and ≥2500 g. Five-minute Apgar scores of 0 and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction were analyzed for 4 groups by birth setting and birth attendant (hospital physician, hospital midwife, freestanding birth center midwife, and home midwife). Home births (relative risk [RR], 10.55) and births in free-standing birth centers (RR, 3.56) attended by midwives had a significantly higher risk of a 5-minute Apgar score of 0 (P births attended by physicians or midwives. Home births (RR, 3.80) and births in freestanding birth centers attended by midwives (RR, 1.88) had a significantly higher risk of neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction (P births attended by physicians or midwives. The increased risk of 5-minute Apgar score of 0 and seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction of out-of-hospital births should be disclosed by obstetric practitioners to women who express an interest in out-of-hospital birth. Physicians should address patients' motivations for out-of-hospital delivery by continuously improving safe and compassionate care of pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients in the hospital setting. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adequacy of antenatal care and its relationship with low birth weight in Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Cátia Regina Branco da [UNESP; Louzada Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Carvalho, Lidia Raquel de [UNESP; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Birth weight reflects gestational conditions and development during the fetal period. Low birth weight (LBW) may be associated with antenatal care (ANC) adequacy and quality. the purpose of this study was to analyze ANC adequacy and its relationship with LBW in the Unified Health System in Brazil.Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, 2004 to 2008. Data were collected from secondary sources (the Live Birth Certificate), and primary sources (the...

  10. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  11. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  12. The Work of Inscription: Antenatal Care, Birth Documents, and Shan Migrant Women in Chiang Mai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bo Kyeong

    2017-12-01

    For transnational migrant populations, securing birth documents of newly born children has crucial importance in avoiding statelessness for new generations. Drawing on discussions of sovereignty and political subjectivization, I ask how the fact of birth is constituted in the context of transnational migration. Based on ethnographic data collected from an antenatal clinic in Thailand, this article describes how Shan migrant women from Myanmar (also known as Burma) utilize reproductive health services as a way of assuring a safe birth while acquiring identification documents. Paying close attention to technologies of inscription adopted for maternal care and birth registration, I argue that enacting bureaucratic documents offers a chance for migrant women to bridge the interstice between human and citizen. Birth certificates for migrant children, while embodying legal ambiguity and uncertainty, epitomize non-citizen subjects' assertion of their political relationship with the state. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  13. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form...... and implications for practice: as images on the Internet inform and persuade society about stereotypical behaviours, the trends of our time and sociocultural norms, it is important to recognise images of the technological birth room on the Internet may be influential in dictating women's attitudes, choices...

  14. The NTE and Teacher Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    Although in U.S. v. State of South Carolina the Court has established important guidelines legitimating the use of validated National Teacher Examination scores in the certification of teachers, some problems and questions remain. (Author/IRT)

  15. PLANNED HOME BIRTH: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Serdinšek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Home birth is as old as humanity, but still most middle- and high-income countries consider hospitals as the safest birth settings, as complications regarding birth are highly unpredictable. Despite this there are a few countries in which home birth in integrated into official healthcare system (the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Canada etc.. Home births can be divided into unplanned and planned, and the latter can be further categorized by the presence of the birth attendants. This review focuses on planned home births, which are differently represented throughout the world. In the United States 0.6-1.0% of all children are born at home, in the United Kingdom 2-3%, in Canada 1.6% and in the Netherlands 20-30%. For Slovenia, the number of planned home births is unknown; however, in 2010 0.1% of children were born outside medical facilities.Conclusions: The safety of home birth in still under the debate. While research confirms smaller number of obstetric interventions and some complications in mothers who give birth at home, the data regarding the neonatal and perinatal mortality and morbidity is still conflicting. This confirms the need for large multicentric trials in this field. Current home birth guidelines emphasize that women should be well informed regarding the possible advantages and disadvantages of home births. In addition, the emphasis is on definition of selection criteria for home birth, indications for intrapartal transfer to the hospital and appropriate education of birth attendants. 

  16. Developing an interdisciplinary certificate program in transportation planning, phase 2 : the eCertificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This proposal extends the delivery of the recently developed graduate Certificate in Transportation : Planning to a wider audience through the establishment of an Executive Certificate Program by distance : (eCertificate). While the need for an inter...

  17. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu Sex Ed Ask Us Anything Videos Games & Quizzes Connect Search About Find a Health Center X Sort by Advanced Search Show/Hide Content Types Article Game Poll Q&A Series Quiz Video Leave un-checked to search all types Search Sex Ed by Topic show topics hide topics Birth ...

  18. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  19. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  20. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  1. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Birth Control Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  2. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  3. 45 CFR 170.457 - Authorized testing and certification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT...

  4. The association of birth model with resilience variables and birth experience: Home versus hospital birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Zacks, Arni; Levy, Sigal

    2016-05-01

    to study home, natural hospital, and medical hospital births, and the association of these birth models to resilience and birth experience. cross-section retrospective design. participants were recruited via an online survey system. Invitations to participate were posted in five different Internet forums for women on maternity leave, from September 2014 to August 2015. the sample comprised 381 post partum healthy women above the age of 20, during their maternity leave. Of the participants: 22% gave birth at home, 32% gave birth naturally in a hospital, and 46% of the participants had a medical birth at the hospital. life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R), General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sense of Mastery Scale, Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). women having had natural births, whether at home or at the hospital, significantly differed from women having had medical births in all aspects of the birth experience, even when controlling for age and optimism. Birth types contributed to between 14% and 24% of the explained variance of the various birth experience aspects. home and natural hospital births were associated with a better childbirth experience. Optimism was identified as a resilience factor, associated both with preference as well as with childbirth experience. physically healthy and resilient women could be encouraged to explore the prospect of home or natural hospital births as a means to have a more positive birth experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The electricity certificate system, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The electricity certificate system is now in its sixth year. Since the start, both the system and the market have developed, and have undergone a number of changes. In January 2007, the Swedish Energy Agency published a report on the system, 'The electricity certificate system, 2006', to provide easily accessible information on the development of the system and to improve general understanding of it. With the passing of another year, it is now time for the third edition, 'The electricity certificate system, 2008', describing the market status of the electricity certificate system, with statistics from 2003 to 2007. This year's special theme chapter describes current support systems for renewable electricity production throughout the EU. The report also contains expanded information and statistics on biofuels, together with a new chapter that describes planned expansion of renewable electricity production up to 2012. The chapter on consumers' contribution to renewable electricity production has also been updated. A new feature this year is provided in the form of a number of tables at the end of the report, complementing the text. Through annual publication of the report, we hope to create a means of continuously developing the statistical material and analyses, in order to assist those involved in the market, and all other interested persons, to follow achievement of the objectives set out in the Government's Bill No. 205/06:154, 'Renewable electricity with green certificates'. We welcome views on the content and presentation of the report in order further to improve it. The target for the certificate system is to increase, by 2016, the annual production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh relative to its production in 2002. So far, the actual production of renewable electricity is less than the indicative stage target for 2007. Nevertheless, progress is regarded as good, as there are many planned projects

  6. Birth weight and order as risk factors for childhood central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jane; Partap, Sonia; Reynolds, Peggy; Von Behren, Julie; Fisher, Paul Graham

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether birth characteristics related to maternal-fetal health in utero are associated with the development of childhood central nervous system tumors. We identified, from the California Cancer Registry, 3733 children under age 15 diagnosed with childhood central nervous system tumors between 1988 and 2006 and linked these cases to their California birth certificates. Four controls per case, matched on birth date and sex, were randomly selected from the same birth files. We evaluated associations of multiple childhood CNS tumor subtypes with birth weight and birth order. Low birth weight was associated with a reduced risk of low-grade gliomas (OR=0.67; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.97) and high birth weight was associated with increased risk of high-grade gliomas (OR=1.57; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.12). High birth order (fourth or higher) was associated with decreased risk of low-grade gliomas (OR=0.75; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.99) and increased risk of high-grade gliomas (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.72 for second order). Factors that drive growth in utero may increase the risk of low-grade gliomas. There may be a similar relationship in high-grade gliomas, although other factors, such as early infection, may modify this association. Additional investigation is warranted to validate and further define these findings. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between birth registration and early child growth and development: evidence from 31 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joshua; Bhatia, Amiya; Fink, Günther

    2018-05-30

    Lack of legal identification documents can impose major challenges for children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between not having a birth certificate and young children's physical growth and developmental outcomes in LMICs. We combined nationally representative data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 31 LMICs. For our measure of birth registration, primary caregivers reported on whether the child had a birth certificate. Early child outcome measures focused on height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ), and standardized scores of the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) for a subsample of children aged 36-59 months. We used linear regression models with country fixed effects to estimate the relationship between birth registration and child outcomes. In fully adjusted models, we controlled for a variety of child, caregiver, household, and access to child services covariates, including cluster-level fixed effects. In the total sample, 34.7% of children aged 0-59 months did not possess a birth certificate. After controlling for covariates, not owning a birth certificate was associated with lower HAZ (β = - 0.18; 95% CI: -0.23, - 0.14), WAZ (β = - 0.10, 95% CI: -0.13, - 0.07), and ECDI z-scores (β = - 0.10; 95% CI: -0.13, - 0.07) among children aged 36-59 months. Our findings document links between birth registration and children's early growth and development outcomes. Efforts to increase birth registration may be promising for promoting early childhood development in LMICs.

  8. Preterm birth, an unresolved issue

    OpenAIRE

    Beliz?n, Jose M; Hofmeyr, Justus; Buekens, Pierre; Salaria, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Premature birth is the world?s leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global issue with research efforts focusing on uterine quiescence and activation, the ?omics? approaches and implementation science in order to reduce the incidence ...

  9. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiza Cesar Nhoncanse

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants, cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047. A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001 and cesarean delivery (p=0.004 was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs.

  10. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  11. Trends and Characteristics of United States Out-of-Hospital Births 2004-2014: New Information on Risk Status and Access to Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    Out-of-hospital births are increasing in the United States. Our purpose was to examine trends in out-of-hospital births from 2004 to 2014, and to analyze newly available data on risk status and access to care. Newly available data from the revised birth certificate for 47 states and Washington, DC, were used to examine out-of-hospital births by characteristics and to compare them with hospital births. Trends from 2004 to 2014 were also examined. Out-of-hospital births increased by 72 percent, from 0.87 percent of United States births in 2004 to 1.50 percent in 2014. Compared with mothers who had hospital births, those with out-of-hospital births had lower prepregnancy obesity (12.5% vs 25.0%) and smoking (2.8% vs 8.5%) rates, and higher college graduation (39.3% vs 30.0%) and breastfeeding initiation (94.3% vs 80.8%) rates. Among planned home births, 67.1 percent were self-paid, compared with 31.9 percent of birth center and 3.4 percent of hospital births. Vaginal births after cesarean (VBACs) comprised 4.6 percent of planned home births and 1.6 percent of hospital and birth center births. Sociodemographic and medical risk status of out-of-hospital births improved substantially from 2004 to 2014. Improvements in risk status of out-of-hospital births from 2004 to 2014 suggest that appropriate selection of low-risk women is improving. High rates of self-pay for the costs of out-of-hospital birth suggest serious gaps in insurance coverage, whereas higher-than-average rates of VBAC could reflect lack of access to hospital VBACs. Mandating private insurance and Medicaid coverage could substantially improve access to out-of-hospital births. Improving access to hospital VBACs might reduce the number of out-of-hospital VBACs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The electricity certificate system, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The electricity certificate system is a market based support system to assist the expansion of electricity production in Sweden from renewable energy sources and peat. Its objective is to increase the production of electricity from such sources by 17 TWh by 2016 relative to the production level in 2002. It is part of the country's overall objective of moving Sweden towards a more ecologically sustainable energy system. This report describes the market status of the electricity certificate system, and includes statistics from 2003 to 2006. It is our aim to create a forum for continuously developing the statistical material and analyses, in order to assist those involved in the market, and all other interested persons, to follow achievement of the objectives set out in the Government's Bill No. 2005/06:154, Renewable Electricity with Green Certificates. It is also our aim that, in future, each issue of the report should include a more in depth theme article on some particular subject. This year the report provides expanded information and statistics on wind power. Electricity certificates are issued to those who produce electricity from various renewable energy sources, and from peat, and who have had their production plants approved by the Swedish Energy Agency. To date, certificates have been issued to producers of electricity from biofuels and peat, wind power, hydro power and solar energy. Production from the renewable sources amounted to 11.6 TWh in 2006, which is 5.1 TWh more than corresponding production in 2002

  13. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  14. AutoCAD 2014 review for certification official certification preparation

    CERN Document Server

    ASCENT center for technical knowledge

    2014-01-01

    The AutoCAD® 2014 Review for Certification book is intended for users of AutoCAD® preparing to complete the AutoCAD 2014 Certified Professional exam. This book contains a collection of relevant instructional topics, practice exercises, and review questions from the Autodesk Official Training Guides (AOTG) from ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge pertaining specifically to the Certified Professional exam topics and objectives. This book is intended for experienced users of AutoCAD in preparation for certification. New users of AutoCAD should refer to the AOTG training guides from ASCENT, such as AutoCAD/AutoCAD LT 2014 Fundamentals, for more comprehensive instruction.

  15. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  16. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  17. Births: preliminary data for 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2006-12-28

    This report presents preliminary data for 2005 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight (LBW) are also presented. Data in this report are based on 99.2 percent of births for 2005. The records are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2005. Comparisons are made with 2004 data. The crude birth rate in 2005 was 14.0 births per 1,000 total population, unchanged from 2004. The general fertility rate, however, rose to 66.7 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years in 2005, the highest level since 1993. The birth rate for teenagers declined by 2 percent in 2005, falling to 40.4 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, the lowest ever recorded in the 65 years for which a consistent series of rates are available. The rate declined for teenagers 15-17 years to 21.4 births per 1,000, but was essentially stable for older teenagers 18-19 years. The birth rate for women aged 20-24 years rose in 2005, whereas the rate for women aged 25-29 years was essentially unchanged. The birth rates for women aged 30 years and over rose to levels not seen in almost 40 years. Childbearing by unmarried women increased to record levels for the Nation in 2005. The birth rate rose 3 percent to 47.6 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years; the proportion of all births to unmarried women increased to 36.8 percent. The cesarean delivery rate rose by 4 percent in 2005 to 30.2 percent of all births, another record high for the Nation. The preterm birth rate continued to rise (to 12.7 percent in 2005) as did the rate for LBW births (8.2 percent).

  18. Online Information Technologies Certificate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman YUKSELTURK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Online Information Technologies Certificate Program Res. Ass. Erman YUKSELTURK Middle East Technical University Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Faculty of Education, Ankara, TURKEY ABSTRACT In this study, Information Technologies Certificate Program which is based on synchronous and asynchronous communication methods over the Internet offered by cooperation of Middle East Technical University, Computer Engineering Department and Continuing Education Center were examined. This online certificate program started in May 1998 and it is still active. The program includes eight fundamental courses of Computer Engineering Department and comprised of four semesters lasting totally nine months. The main aim of this program is to train the participants in IT field to meet demand in the field of computer technologies in Turkey. As a conclusion, the properties of this program were discussed in a detailed way.

  19. Open source systems security certification

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, Ernesto; El Ioini, Nabil

    2009-01-01

    Open Source Advances in Computer Applications book series provides timely technological and business information for: Enabling Open Source Systems (OSS) to become an integral part of systems and devices produced by technology companies; Inserting OSS in the critical path of complex network development and embedded products, including methodologies and tools for domain-specific OSS testing (lab code available), plus certification of security, dependability and safety properties for complex systems; Ensuring integrated systems, including OSS, meet performance and security requirements as well as achieving the necessary certifications, according to the overall strategy of OSS usage on the part of the adopter

  20. 16 CFR 1207.9 - Product certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product certification. 1207.9 Section 1207.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR SWIMMING POOL SLIDES § 1207.9 Product certification. (a) Certification shall be in accordance...

  1. 40 CFR 82.161 - Technician certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall address the subject areas listed in appendix D. (c) Program Approval. Persons may seek approval of... the closed-book certification exam, within 30 days. Programs providing Type I certification using the... percent or higher on the certification exam, no later than 30 days after the program has received the exam...

  2. Modeling landowner behavior regarding forest certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Mercker; Donald G. Hodges

    2008-01-01

    Nonindustrial private forest owners in western Tennessee were surveyed to assess their awareness, acceptance, and perceived benefits of forest certification. More than 80 percent of the landowners indicated a willingness to consider certification for their lands. A model was created to explain landowner behavior regarding their willingness to consider certification....

  3. Certification and the Branding of HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Saul

    2012-01-01

    Although calls continue to establish certification, several certifications for human resource development (HRD) practitioners already exist, although none use the name HRD. This Forum explores what those certification programs are and what their availability means to the development of the HRD "brand" (the impressions of the service derived from…

  4. 48 CFR 33.207 - Contractor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor certification... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 33.207 Contractor certification. (a) Contractors shall provide the certification specified in paragraph (c) of this section when...

  5. Alternative Certification Pathways: Filling a Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Carlyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the proliferation of alternative certification pathways through an analysis of the role and history of teacher certification and supply followed by a synthesis of national, regional, and state research studies on alternative routes to certification programs and a review of studies conducted on well-known…

  6. 40 CFR 85.1406 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1406 Certification. (a) Certification... provide some level of particulate emission reduction, and will not cause the urban bus engine to fail to... urban bus engines. (c) Test equipment selection. Certification shall be based upon tests utilizing...

  7. Converse Theorems for Safety and Barrier Certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Ratschan, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    An important tool for proving safety of dynamical systems is the notion of a barrier certificate. In this paper we prove that every robustly safe ordinary differential equation has a barrier certificate. Moreover, we show a construction of such a barrier certificate based on a set of states that is reachable in finite time.

  8. 42 CFR 493.638 - Certificate fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for quality control, quality assurance, and proficiency testing purposes) and specialties tested, with... collected by HHS under the laboratory program must be sufficient to cover the general costs of administering... certificates and certificates of compliance, the costs include issuing the certificates, collecting the fees...

  9. Assimilation and Health: Evidence From Linked Birth Records of Second- and Third-Generation Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntella, Osea

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the effects of assimilation on the health of Hispanics in the United States, using ethnic intermarriage as a metric of acculturation. I exploit a unique data set of linked confidential use birth records in California and Florida from 1970-2009. The confidential data allow me to link mothers giving birth in 1989-2009 to their own birth certificate records in 1970-1985 and to identify second-generation siblings. Thus, I can analyze the relationship between the parental exogamy of second-generation Hispanic women and the birth outcomes of their offspring controlling for grandmother fixed effects as well as indicators for second generation's birth weight. Despite their higher socioeconomic status, third-generation children of second-generation intermarried Hispanic women are more likely to have poor health at birth, even after I account for second-generation health at birth and employ only within-family variations in the extent of assimilation. I find that a second-generation Hispanic woman married to a non-Hispanic man is 9 % more likely to have a child with low birth weight relative to a second-generation woman married to another Hispanic. These results largely reflect the higher incidence of risky behaviors (e.g., smoking during pregnancy) among intermarried Hispanic women.

  10. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    . The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...... with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry...

  11. Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Following Icsi- Pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Aygül Demirol; Süleyman Güven; Timur Gürgan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report preterm birth and low birth weight rate of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) related pregnancies and to compare our data with literature findings. STUDY DESIGN: Three-hundred and eighty-nine pregnancies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection were retrospectively evaluated. Patients’ characteristics including age, gestational age at delivery and birth weight were noted from special clinic files. Women with early pregnanc...

  12. Professional Certification in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretz, Bruce R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Certification procedures protect consumers, but when licensing institutions become monopolistic, alternative paths to credentialing need to be considered. A series of articles examine third party payments, a changing job market and consumer protection concerns, all of which have had an impact on credentialing problems. (JAC)

  13. How to price imperfect certification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mysliveček, Jan

    -, č. 364 (2008), s. 1-37 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 7743/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : certification * imperfect testing * competition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp364.pdf

  14. Relationship between birth order and birth weight of the pig

    OpenAIRE

    Charneca, Rui; Freitas, Amadeu; Nunes, José; Le Dividich, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether birth weight of the pig is related to its birth order. The study involved 292 sows from 2 genotypes (Large White x Landrace crossbred (LL), n= 247 and Alentejano (AL), n=45) of mixed parity and their piglets. Most sows farrowed naturally. Each piglet was identified, weighed (± 1g) (mummies excepted) and its birth order (BO) recorded within 2 min of birth. A total of 3418 LL and 375 AL piglets were born of which 43 and 7 were mummified, a...

  15. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Are residents of mountain-top mining counties more likely to have infants with birth defects? The West Virginia experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Steven H; Li, Ji; Robbins, Shayhan A; Dissen, Elisabeth; Chen, Rusan; Feinleib, Manning

    2015-02-01

    Pooled 1996 to 2003 birth certificate data for four central states in Appalachia indicated higher rates of infants with birth defects born to residents of counties with mountain-top mining (MTM) than born to residents of non-mining-counties (Ahern 2011). However, those analyses did not consider sources of uncertainty such as unbalanced distributions or quality of data. Quality issues have been a continuing problem with birth certificate analyses. We used 1990 to 2009 live birth certificate data for West Virginia to reassess this hypothesis. Forty-four hospitals contributed 98% of the MTM-county births and 95% of the non-mining-county births, of which six had more than 1000 births from both MTM and nonmining counties. Adjusted and stratified prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) were computed both by using Poisson regression and Mantel-Haenszel analysis. Unbalanced distribution of hospital births was observed by mining groups. The prevalence rate of infants with reported birth defects, higher in MTM-counties (0.021) than in non-mining-counties (0.015), yielded a significant crude PRR (cPRR = 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-1.52) but a nonsignificant hospital-adjusted PRR (adjPRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.97-1.20; p = 0.16) for the 44 hospitals. So did the six hospital data analysis ([cPRR = 2.39; 95% CI = 2.15-2.65] and [adjPRR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14; p = 0.87]). No increased risk of birth defects was observed for births from MTM-counties after adjustment for, or stratification by, hospital of birth. These results have consistently demonstrated that the reported association between birth defect rates and MTM coal mining was a consequence of data heterogeneity. The data do not demonstrate evidence of a "Mountain-top Mining" effect on the prevalence of infants with reported birth defects in WV. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Preterm birth, an unresolved issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizán, Jose M; Hofmeyr, Justus; Buekens, Pierre; Salaria, Natasha

    2013-11-15

    Premature birth is the world's leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global issue with research efforts focusing on uterine quiescence and activation, the 'omics' approaches and implementation science in order to reduce the incidence and increase survival rates of preterm babies. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement entitled Born Too Soon which addresses factors in the preconception and pregnancy period which may increase the risk of preterm birth and also outlines potential interventions which may reduce preterm birth rates and improve survival of preterm babies by as much as 84% annually. This is critical in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) for child survival by 2015 and beyond.

  18. Maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes in Washington State, 1992-2014: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Julianne; Vora, Manali V; Fuller, Mackenzie S; Phipps, Amanda I; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2018-05-01

    Women in veterinary occupations are routinely exposed to potential reproductive hazards, yet research into their birth outcomes is limited. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of the association between maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes. Using Washington State birth certificate, fetal death certificate and hospital discharge data from 1992 to 2014, we compared birth outcomes of mothers in veterinary professions (n=2662) with those in mothers in dental professions (n=10 653) and other employed mothers (n=8082). Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using log binomial regression. Outcomes studied were premature birth (veterinary support staff separately. While no statistically significant associations were found, we noted a trend for SGA births in all veterinary mothers compared with dental mothers (RR=1.16, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.36) and in veterinarians compared with other employed mothers (RR=1.37, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.96). Positive but non-significant association was found for malformations among children of veterinary support staff. These results support the need for further study of the association between veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  20. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  1. Preterm birth and dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate whether the risk for dyscalculia in preterm children increases the lower the gestational age (GA) and whether small-for-gestational age birth is associated with dyscalculia. A total of 922 children ranging from 23 to 41 weeks' GA were studied as part of a prospective geographically defined longitudinal investigation of neonatal at-risk children in South Germany. At 8 years of age, children's cognitive and mathematic abilities were measured with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and with a standardized mathematics test. Dyscalculia diagnoses were evaluated with discrepancy-based residuals of a linear regression predicting children's math scores by IQ and with fixed cut-off scores. We investigated each GA group's ORs for general cognitive impairment, general mathematic impairment, and dyscalculia by using binary logistic regressions. The risk for general cognitive and mathematic impairment increased with lower GA. In contrast, preterm children were not at increased risk of dyscalculia after statistically adjusting for child sex, family socioeconomic status, and small-for-gestational age birth. The risk of general cognitive and mathematic impairments increases with lower GA but preterm children are not at increased risk of dyscalculia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Critical evaluation of national vital statistics: the case of preterm birth trends in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sofia; Rodrigues, Teresa; Montenegro, Nuno; Barros, Henrique

    2015-11-01

    Using vital statistics, the Portuguese National Health Plan predicts that 14% of live births will be preterm in 2016. The prediction was based on a preterm birth rise from 5.9% in 2000 to 8.8% in 2009. However, the same source showed an actual decline from 2010 onwards. To assess the plausibility of national preterm birth trends, we aimed to compare the evolution of preterm birth and low birthweight rates between vital statistics and a hospital database. A time-trend analysis (2004-2011) of preterm birth (rates was conducted using data on singleton births from the national birth certificates (n = 801,783) and an electronic maternity unit database (n = 21,392). Annual prevalence estimates, ratios of preterm birth:low birthweight and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated to compare data sources. Although the national prevalence of preterm birth increased from 2004 (5.4%), particularly between 2006 and 2009 (highest rate was 7.5% in 2007), and decreased after 2009 (5.7% in 2011), the prevalence at the maternity unit remained constant. Between 2006 and 2009, preterm birth was almost 1.4 times higher in the national statistics (using the national or the catchment region samples) than in the maternity unit, but no differences were found for low birthweight. Portuguese preterm birth prevalence seems biased between 2006 and 2009, suggesting that early term babies were misclassified as preterm. As civil registration systems are important to support public health decisions, monitoring strategies should be taken to assure good quality data. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Planned home birth and the association with neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasden, Shane W; Chasen, Stephen T; Perlman, Jeffrey M; Illuzzi, Jessica L; Chervenak, Frank A; Grunebaum, Amos; Lipkind, Heather S

    2017-12-20

    To evaluate the association between planned home birth and neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). This is a case-control study in which a database of neonates who underwent head cooling for HIE at our institution from 2007 to 2011 was linked to New York City (NYC) vital records. Four normal controls per case were then randomly selected from the birth certificate data after matching for year of birth, geographic location, and gestational age. Demographic and obstetric information was obtained from the vital records for both the cases and controls. Location of birth was analyzed as hospital or out of hospital birth. Details from the out of hospital deliveries were reviewed to determine if the delivery was a planned home birth. Maternal and pregnancy characteristics were examined as covariates and potential confounders. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of HIE by intended location of delivery. Sixty-nine neonates who underwent head cooling for HIE had available vital record data on their births. The 69 cases were matched to 276 normal controls. After adjusting for pregnancy characteristics and mode of delivery, neonates with HIE had a 44.0-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-256.4] odds of having delivered out of hospital, whether unplanned or planned. Infants with HIE had a 21.0-fold (95% CI 1.7-256.4) increase in adjusted odds of having had a planned home birth compared to infants without HIE. Out of hospital birth, whether planned home birth or unplanned out of hospital birth, is associated with an increase in the odds of neonatal HIE.

  4. Birth Order, Schooling, and Earnings.

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R; Taubman, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Birth-order effects are posited by many to affect earnings and schooling. The authors show how such effects can be interpreted to shift either the earnings possibility frontier for siblings or parental preferences. The authors find empirical evidence for birth- order effects on (age-adjusted) schooling and on earnings for young U.S. adults, though the latter is not robust for all specifications. The examination of intrahousehold allocations suggests that these birth-order differences occur, d...

  5. Does Birth Spacing Affect Personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Golsteyn, Bart H.H.; Magnée, Cécile A. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the causal effect of birth spacing (i.e., the age difference between siblings) on personality traits. We use longitudinal data from a large British cohort which has been followed from birth until age 42. Following earlier studies, we employ miscarriages between the first and second child as an instrument for birth spacing. The results show that a larger age gap between siblings negatively affects personality traits of the youngest child in two-child households. This result ...

  6. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  7. Autodesk Revit Architecture 2014 review for certification official certification preparation

    CERN Document Server

    ASCENT center for technical knowledge

    2014-01-01

    The Autodesk® Revit® Architecture 2014 Review for Certification guide is intended for users of the Autodesk Revit Architecture software who are preparing to complete the Autodesk Revit Architecture 2014 Certified Professional exam. This guide contains a collection of relevant instructional topics, practices, and review questions from the Autodesk Official Training Guides (AOTG) training guides created by ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge® and pertaining specifically to the Certified Professional exam topics and objectives. This training guide is intended for experienced users of the Autodesk Revit Architecture software in preparation for certification. New users of the software should refer to the AOTG training guides from ASCENT, such as Autodesk Revit Architecture 2014 Fundamentals, for more comprehensive instruction.

  8. The electricity certificate system, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joehnemark, Maria; Oestberg, Roger; Johansson, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Over the years, the electricity certificate system has been maturing and consolidating, so that it is today an effective and functional policy measure that has won wide acceptance from all parties concerned. The long term approach and security of the system are attracting an increasing number of investors, which is described more fully in this report. This year's special theme chapter, Investing in Renewable Energy, presents the status of the system from an investment point of view. In addition to this chapter, the report includes, as always, an introduction to how the certificate system works, together with an updating with the latest statistics. A quick glance at external factors that can affect the system indicates that there are several that may do so in the future. Just the fact that the climate problem is still high on the political agenda, despite strong competition from economic crises, shows that there is a need for more renewable energy. The EU Renewable Energy Directive, which was adopted at the end of 2008, requires the Swedish energy system to deliver 49 % of its output from renewable sources by 2020. In addition, the Energy Bill adopted by the Swedish Parliament identifies the electricity certificate system as one of the most important means of achieving the country's objectives. Taken together, this indicates that there are many factors that will further strengthen the role of the certificate system in the next few years. If we look at the system itself, we can see that a number of important changes have been made since the previous report. With effect from 1st January 2009, the definition of electricity-intensive industries has changed, bringing it more closely in line with the definition used in energy taxation. Since 1st May, the rules have changed concerning entitlement to a new allocation period of certificates after a plant has been substantially modified. In addition, certificates can now be allocated for increases in output from

  9. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents' modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents' personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn.

  10. Birth order and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L; Williams, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in four subject groups. Subject groups were participants in (1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N = 4401), (2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N = 1959), (3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N = 1344), and (4) Israeli Defense Force Pre-recruitment Candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N = 888,277). The main outcome was odds ratios (OR) for myopia in first-born versus non-first-born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. Adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); and IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first-born versus fourth- or higher-born comparison than for the first-born versus second/third-born comparison (p 4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism.

  11. In Brief: Science teaching certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    More than 200 educators will receive fellowships over the next 5 years to participate in NASA's Endeavor Science Teaching Certificate Project, the agency announced on 14 November. Through workshops, online and on-site graduate courses, and NASA educational materials, the project will expose educators to NASA science and engineering and support them in translating the information for use in classrooms. ``Through the program, educators will learn to deliver cutting-edge science into the classroom, promoting science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education,'' according to Joyce Winterton, assistant administrator for education at NASA Headquarters, in Washington, D. C. Project fellows will earn a certificate from Teachers College Innovations at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and graduate credit from other institutional partners. For more information, visit http://education.nasa.gov/home/index.html.

  12. Outcomes of planned home births with certified professional midwives: large prospective study in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth C; Daviss, Betty-Anne

    2005-06-18

    To evaluate the safety of home births in North America involving direct entry midwives, in jurisdictions where the practice is not well integrated into the healthcare system. Prospective cohort study. All home births involving certified professional midwives across the United States (98% of cohort) and Canada, 2000. All 5418 women expecting to deliver in 2000 supported by midwives with a common certification and who planned to deliver at home when labour began. Intrapartum and neonatal mortality, perinatal transfer to hospital care, medical intervention during labour, breast feeding, and maternal satisfaction. 655 (12.1%) women who intended to deliver at home when labour began were transferred to hospital. Medical intervention rates included epidural (4.7%), episiotomy (2.1%), forceps (1.0%), vacuum extraction (0.6%), and caesarean section (3.7%); these rates were substantially lower than for low risk US women having hospital births. The intrapartum and neonatal mortality among women considered at low risk at start of labour, excluding deaths concerning life threatening congenital anomalies, was 1.7 deaths per 1000 planned home births, similar to risks in other studies of low risk home and hospital births in North America. No mothers died. No discrepancies were found for perinatal outcomes independently validated. Planned home birth for low risk women in North America using certified professional midwives was associated with lower rates of medical intervention but similar intrapartum and neonatal mortality to that of low risk hospital births in the United States.

  13. Fairtrade certification, conventions and labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential of Fairtrade in hired labour situations in terms of improving conditions for agricultural workers. The chapter will address various aspects including the contentious issue of Fairtrade and trade union organisation as well as on issues of worker empowerment....... At a local level, analysis focuses on the implications of Fairtrade certification for large enterprises and workers, drawing on a field-based studies of certified flower farms in Ecuador and Kenya....

  14. [Outcomes after planned home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Ellen; Øian, Pål; Kumle, Merethe

    2008-11-06

    About 150 planned home births take place in Norway annually. Professionals have different opinions on whether such births are safe or not. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic literature review on maternal and neonatal outcomes after planned home births. A review was performed of literature retrieved from searches in MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and The Cochrane Library and relevant references found in the articles. The searches were limited to studies published in 1985 and later. 10 studies with data from 30 204 women who had planned and were selected to home birth at the onset of labour were included. Three of the studies had control groups including women with planned hospital births. All included studies were assessed to be of medium quality. Between 9.9 and 23.1 % of women and infants were transferred to hospital during labour or after birth. There were few caesarean sections, other interventions or complications in the studies assessed; the total perinatal mortality rate was 2.9/1000 and the intrapartum mortality rate 0.8/1000. There is no sound basis for discouraging low-risk women from planning a home birth. Results from the included studies do not directly apply to Norwegian conditions. Outcomes and transfers after planned home births should be systematically registered.

  15. Births: Final Data for 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Stephanie J.; Martin, Joyce A.; Curtin, Sally C.; Matthews, T. J.; Park, Melissa M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents 1998 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics, including: (1) age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; (2) maternal lifestyle and health characteristics, such as medical risk factors, weight…

  16. Births: Final Data for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce A.; Hamilton, Brady E.; Ventura, Stephanie J.; Menacker, Fay; Park, Melissa M.; Sutton, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents 2001 data on U.S. births according to maternal demographics (age, live-birth order, marital status, race, Hispanic origin, and educational attainment); maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); pregnant women's medical care utilization (prenatal care, obstetric procedures,…

  17. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  18. Births: preliminary data for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J A; Hamilton, B E; Ventura, S J

    2001-07-24

    This report presents preliminary data for 2000 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on more than 96 percent of births for 2000. The records are weighted to independent control counts of births received in State vital statistics offices in 2000. Comparisons are made with 1999 final data. The number of births rose 3 percent between 1999 and 2000. The crude birth rate increased to 14.8 per 1,000 population in 2000, 2 percent higher than the 1999 rate. The fertility rate rose 3 percent to 67.6 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years between 1999 and 2000. The birth rate for teenagers, which has been falling since 1991, declined 2 percent in 2000 to 48.7 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years, another historic low. The rate for teenagers 15-17 years fell 4 percent, and the rate for 18-19 year olds was down 1 percent. Since 1991, rates have fallen 29 percent for teenagers 15-17 years and 16 percent for teenagers 18-19 years. Birth rates for all of the older age groups increased for 1999-2000: 1 percent among women aged 20-24 years, 3 percent for women aged 25-29 years, and 5 percent for women in their thirties. Rates for women aged 40-54 years were also up for 2000. The birth rate for unmarried women increased 2 percent to 45.2 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years in 2000, but was still lower than the peak reached in 1994. The number of births to unmarried women was up 3 percent, the highest number ever reported in the United States. However, the number of births to unmarried teenagers declined. The proportion of women who began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (83.2 percent) did not improve for 2000, nor did the rate of low birthweight (7.6 percent). The total cesarean rate rose for the fourth consecutive year to 22.9 percent, the result of both a

  19. The Medical Prenuptial Certificate in Antioquia (Colombia, 1933-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia María Gutiérrez Urquijo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the requirement of a medical certificate between 1933 and 1936, health authorities in the Colombian Antioquia department sought to regulate the physical and moral conditions of men and women who wanted to marry. The aim of this bureaucratic procedure was to prevent the birth of individuals who may become a burden to the State, and to promote the health and general welfare. Based on reports from physician and municipal health inspectors of the time, this article discusses the way in which this measure was unveiled to the population. It also highlights some of the challenges to enforce it due the disinterest of the Catholic Church, the low presence of physician in areas away from the municipalities, and the lack of infrastructure to carry out the required tests.

  20. Impact of police-reported intimate partner violence during pregnancy on birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Sherry; Holt, Victoria L; Easterling, Thomas R; Critchlow, Cathy W

    2003-09-01

    To examine the relationship of police-reported intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. We conducted a population-based, retrospective, cohort study in Seattle, Washington, using Seattle police data and Washington State birth certificate files from January 1995 through September 1999. Exposed subjects were women with an intimate partner violence incident reported to police during pregnancy and who subsequently had a singleton live birth or fetal death registered in the state of Washington. Unexposed subjects were randomly selected Seattle residents with a singleton live birth or fetal death in the same time period and who did not report an incident. The main outcome measures were low birth weight (LBW less than 2500 g), very LBW (VLBW less than 1500 g), preterm birth (20-36 weeks' gestation), very preterm birth (20-31 weeks), and neonatal death (before discharge). Women reporting any partner violence during pregnancy were significantly more likely to have a LBW infant (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20, 2.40), a VLBW infant (aOR 2.54; 95% CI 1.32, 4.91), a preterm birth (aOR 1.61; 95% CI 1.14, 2.28), a very preterm birth (aOR 3.71; 95% CI 1.80, 7.63), and a neonatal death (aOR 3.49; 95% CI 1.43, 8.50). Police-reported partner violence during pregnancy is significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. There is a critical need to identify pregnancy among women with reported incidents and to provide women health and social service information and referrals, particularly referrals to high-risk pregnancy programs.

  1. Formulating evidence-based guidelines for certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives attending home births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth; Avery, Melissa; Frisvold, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Implementing national home birth guidelines for certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) and certified midwives (CMs) in the United States may facilitate a common approach to safe home birth practices. Guidelines are evidence-based care recommendations for specified clinical situations that can be modified by individual providers to meet specific client needs. Following a review of home birth guidelines from multiple countries, a set of home birth practices guidelines for US CNMs/CMs was drafted. Fifteen American Midwifery Certification Board, Inc. (AMCB)-certified home birth midwives who participate in the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) home birth electronic mailing list considered the use of such a document in their practices and reviewed and commented on the guidelines. The proposed guidelines addressed client screening, informed consent, antepartum care, routine intrapartum care, obstetric complications and hospital transports, postpartum care, neonatal care, gynecologic care, primary care, peer reviews, recordkeeping, and physician collaboration. The reviewers had varying assessments as to whether the guidelines reflected international standards and current best evidence. The primary concern expressed was that an adoption of national guidelines could compromise provider autonomy. Incorporation of evidence-based guidelines is an ACNM standard and was recommended by the Home Birth Consensus Summit. Clinical practice guidelines are informed by current evidence and supported by experts in a given discipline. Implementation of guidelines ensures optimal patient care and is becoming increasingly central to reimbursement and to medicolegal support. A set of practice guidelines based on current best evidence and internationally accepted standards was developed and reviewed by an interested group of US CNMs/CMs. Further discussion with home birth midwives and other stakeholders about the development and implementation of home birth guidelines is needed, especially in

  2. 46 CFR 91.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea... period of not more than 60 months. (1) A Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (2) A Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. (3) A Safety Management Certificate. (4) A Cargo Ship Safety Radio...

  3. Certification Manual for Wisconsin Public Librarians. Bulletin No. 94111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Donald K.

    This manual contains the guidelines and procedures for public librarian certification and certification renewal in Wisconsin. Certification is not required for library personnel other than administrators, but nonadministrators may apply for certification at the level for which they are eligible. Requirements for voluntary library certification are…

  4. 46 CFR 107.211 - Original Certificate of Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original Certificate of Inspection. 107.211 Section 107... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.211 Original Certificate of Inspection. (a) The owner or builder of a unit applies for an inspection for an original Certificate of Inspection by...

  5. How Would Children Register Their Own Births? Insights from a Survey of Students Regarding Birth Registration Knowledge and Policy Suggestions in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Pelowski

    Full Text Available Birth registration and obtaining physical birth certificates impose major challenges in developing countries, with impact on child and community health, education, planning, and all levels of development. However despite initiatives, universal registration is elusive, leading to calls for new approaches to understanding the decisions of parents. In this paper, we report results of a survey of students in grades six to eight (age ~12-16 in an under-registered area of Kenya regarding their own understanding of registration issues and their suggestions for improvement. These students were selected because they themselves were also nearing the age for high school enrollment/entrance examinations, which specifically requires possession of a birth certificate. This assessment was also a companion to our previous representative survey of adults in the same Kenyan region, allowing for parent-child comparison. Results supported previous research, showing that only 43% had birth certificates. At the same time, despite these low totals, students were themselves quite aware of registration factors and purposes. The students also made quite prescient sources for understanding their households' motivations, with many of their suggestions-for focus on communication of pragmatic benefits, or automatic measures shifting responsibility from parents-mirroring our own previous suggestions, and showing a level of pragmatism not witnessed when surveying their parents. This paper therefore adds evidence to the discussion of registration policy planning. More generally, it also builds on an important trend regarding the treatment of children as stakeholders and important sources of information, and raising an intriguing new avenue for future research.

  6. Certification of Markets, Markets of Certificates: Tracing Sustainability in Global Agro-Food Value Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability

  7. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services KidsHealth / For Parents / Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services What's in this article? Giving Birth at ...

  8. What to include in your birth plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - birth plan ... Birth plans are guides that parents-to-be make to help their health care providers best support them during ... things to consider before you make a birth plan. This is a great time to learn about ...

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control after they have given birth. Although teen birth rates have been falling for the last two decades, ... effective forms of birth control. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, teens, ages 15–19, 2010 Larger image ...

  10. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...

  11. Sex selection and health at birth among Indian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Libertad

    2018-05-01

    I use birth-certificate data for Spain to document extremely son-biased sex ratios at birth among Indian immigrants (122 boys per 100 girls), especially at higher parities. I also show that the children of Indian immigrants display poor health outcomes during infancy. For instance, almost 10% of boys with Indian parents are born prematurely, compared with 6% of boys with native parents. However, there is no evidence of a gender gap in infant health among the children of Indian immigrants. I provide evidence suggesting that the poor outcomes of Indian children at birth may be attributed to the low endowments of Indian mothers, while the absence of a gender gap may be driven by the fact that the parents who would invest less in girls are less likely to carry the pregnancies of girls to term (more likely to practice sex-selective abortion), combined with the lower cost of prenatal investments in Spain (compared with India). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the green certificate market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storeboe, Inger Oeydis

    2001-04-01

    This report studies the advantages and disadvantages of a separate financial market for the environmental advantages in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. This market solution is evaluated against other financial systems used to promote the production of green electricity. By starting from a general equilibrium model for the green certificate market, the report discusses how the adaptation in the certificate market is influenced by changes in the market conditions. The certificate market is combined with a quota market for carbon dioxide, with and without international trade with electricity and certificate and market power in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources

  13. Investigating weaknesses in Android certificate security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych, Daniel E.; Lange-Maney, Stephen; McDaniel, Patrick; Glodek, William

    2015-05-01

    Android's application market relies on secure certificate generation to establish trust between applications and their users; yet, cryptography is often not a priority for application developers and many fail to take the necessary security precautions. Indeed, there is cause for concern: several recent high-profile studies have observed a pervasive lack of entropy on Web-systems leading to the factorization of private keys.1 Sufficient entropy, or randomness, is essential to generate secure key pairs and combat predictable key generation. In this paper, we analyze the security of Android certificates. We investigate the entropy present in 550,000 Android application certificates using the Quasilinear GCD finding algorithm.1 Our results show that while the lack of entropy does not appear to be as ubiquitous in the mobile markets as on Web-systems, there is substantial reuse of certificates only one third of the certificates in our dataset were unique. In other words, we find that organizations frequently reuse certificates for different applications. While such a practice is acceptable under Google's specifications for a single developer, we find that in some cases the same certificates are used for a myriad of developers, potentially compromising Android's intended trust relationships. Further, we observed duplicate certificates being used by both malicious and non-malicious applications. The top 3 repeated certificates present in our dataset accounted for a total of 11,438 separate APKs. Of these applications, 451, or roughly 4%, were identified as malicious by antivirus services.

  14. General practitioners' use of sickness certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roope, Richard; Parker, Gordon; Turner, Susan

    2009-12-01

    At present, sickness certification is largely undertaken by general practitioners (GPs). Guidance from the Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) is available to help with this task; however, there has been little formal evaluation of the DWP's guidance in relation to day-to-day general practice. To assess GPs' training, knowledge and application of the DWP's sickness certification guidelines. A structured questionnaire was sent to GPs within a (former) primary care trust (PCT). It probed demographics, training and knowledge of sickness certification guidelines. Case histories and structured questions were used to assess current practice. In this group of 113 GPs, there was a low awareness and use of the DWP's guidelines and Website relating to sickness certification. The majority of the GPs (63%) had received no training in sickness certification, and the mean length of time for those who had received training was 4.1 h. Most GPs also felt that patients and GPs have equal influence on the duration of sickness certification. This evidence of variable practice indicates that GPs should have more guidance and education in sickness certification. Closer sickness certification monitoring through existing GP computer systems may facilitate an improvement in practice that benefits patients and employers. The DWP, medical educators and PCTs may all have an additional role in further improving sickness certification practice.

  15. Radiation protection supervisors certification in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Costa, Eduardo; Arraes Monteiro, Iara

    2008-01-01

    In order to accomplish its legal assignments CNEN certifies the qualification of radiation protection supervisors. The current certification process is presented and discussed in this paper. This paper discusses the main points of the certification process including: knowledge tests, stake holder's communication, standards, supervisor responsibilities and profiles. The importance of safety certification of nuclear facilities and radiation protection of public individuals and workers are also discussed. Taking into account the characteristics of the Brazilian Nuclear program, the future improvements and goals in the certification process is also presented. (author)

  16. Accounting Changes on Green Certificates in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Raluca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of green certificates is to get more renewable electric energy into the energy market at the expense of traditional energy, which in most countries is based on fossil fuel. These renewable technologies are too expensive to enter the market on commercial terms. A key feature of the scheme is that producers of energy based on new renewable energy sources receive certificates from the authorities, proportional to their output. The users of electric energy are required to buy a certain amount of these certificates when they buy electricity. Green certificates may in principle contribute to a reduction of the production of traditional energy.

  17. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  18. Progesterone for preterm birth prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Lucovnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone is important in maintaining pregnancy. Progesterone supplementation may reduce risk of preterm birth in certain populations of pregnant women. The objective of this review was to develop evidence-based clinical recommendation for progesterone treatment in the prevention of preterm birth.Methods: A search in the Medline database was performed using keywords: progesterone, pregnancy, preterm birth, preterm labour, preterm delivery, randomized trial, and randomized controlled trial. We only included studies of vaginal progesterone treatments for the prevention of preterm birth and excluded studies on 17-α-hydroksiprogesterone caproate.Results: We report findings from twelve randomized trials conducted since 2003. These trials differ regarding inclusion criteria, progesterone dose, vehicle used, and duration of treatment. Inclusion criteria were: short uterine cervix (two trials, history of previous preterm birth (two trials, signs and symptoms of preterm labour (three trials, twin pregnancies (three trials, and multiple risk factors (among these history of previous preterm birth was the most common (two trials. Six of these twelve trials showed a significant reduction in preterm birth in the progesterone groups.Conclusions: Based on current evidence we recommend treatment with 200 mg of micronized progesterone daily, administered vaginally, in pregnant women found to have a short cervix (≤ 25 mm at 19-24 weeks. The treatment should be continued until 37 weeks.

  19. The influence of trade associations and group certification programs on the hardwood certification movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris B. Montague

    2013-01-01

    Forest certification has gained momentum around the world over the past two decades. Although there are advantages to being certified, many forest landowners and forest products manufacturers consider forest certification of U.S. forest and forest products unnecessary. Many believe that U.S. forests are already sustainably managed, the current certification systems are...

  20. 76 FR 22785 - Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... [FNS-2008-0001] RIN 0584-AD60 Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway... concerning the certification of certain children who are homeless, runaway, or migratory. This rule affects... children who are homeless, runaway, or migratory, as determined by the homeless coordinator for homeless or...

  1. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those born weighing less ... an association between retinopathy of prematurity and poor weight gain. .... LGA = large for gestational age; SGA = small for gestational age; NEC = necrotising enterocolitis;.

  2. Birth Satisfaction Scale/Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS/BSS-R): A large scale United States planned home birth and birth centre survey

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Susan E.; Donovan-Batson, Colleen.; Burduli, Ekaterina.; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina.; Hollins Martin, Caroline J.; Martin, Colin R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective:\\ud to explore the prevalence of birth satisfaction for childbearing women planning to birth in their home or birth centers in the United States. Examining differences in birth satisfaction of the home and birth centers; and those who birthed in a hospital using the 30-item Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and the 10-item Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R).\\ud Study design:\\ud a quantitative survey using the BSS and BSS-R were employed. Additional demographic data were collected...

  3. BIRTH ORDER, FAMILY SIZE, NEUROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD JALILI

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the relationship of birth rank and family size with the incidence of neurosis in an Iranian culture, case notes of 1029 schizophrenic patients as (497 males and 532 females referred to psychiatric clinic for insured workers were studied. The incidence of neurasis appeared to be significantly more frequent among the first-half position of birth  rders in The families of 5 children and over; this bei-ng more marked-in males than in females; and the first second births comprising the lighest incidence of the illness.

  4. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    OpenAIRE

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T

    2015-01-01

    Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A quest...

  5. 45 CFR 170.445 - Complete EHR testing and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 170.445 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.445...

  6. Environmental aspects of the forest management certification process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Certification has been responsible for a very large improvement in the standard of forest management in South Africa. The reasons for the positive role of certification are set out briefly below. Firstly, and most importantly, certification has...

  7. Certification of ICTs in Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Barrat, Jordi; Bolo, Eden

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technologies play a critical role in the administration and organization of modern elections. Any breakdown of an election technology, security breach or programming error can incur tremendous cost for the electoral management body (EMB)—and may undermine voters’ trust......, starting during the feasibility study, and especially if it is bound by law to provide such a certification. The evaluation reports and related documents can also be used to increase the transparency of the election, improve the dialogue between EMBs and voters, and increase the EMB’s credibility....

  8. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Fraser, Drora

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.

  9. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basis for Future Research on Medication Use During Pregnancy (Published: July 15, 2016) Key Findings: Antibiotic Use among Women with Urinary Tract Infections in the First Trimester of Pregnancy and Birth ...

  10. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  11. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  12. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  13. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.

  14. Birth Order and Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1973-01-01

    Investigated birth order differences and the vocational interests of 150 male college students, making use of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Sibling sex and interaction effects were also investigated. (DP)

  15. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W H

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done. PMID:6707558

  16. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W H

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  17. Improved Birth Weight for Black Infants: Outcomes of a Healthy Start Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; James, Arthur; Charoth, Remitha M.; del Carmen Sweezy, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether participation in Healthy Babies Healthy Start (HBHS), a maternal health program emphasizing racial equity and delivering services through case management home visitation, was associated with improved birth outcomes for Black women relative to White women. Methods. We used a matched-comparison posttest-only design in which we selected the comparison group using propensity score matching. Study data were generated through secondary analysis of Michigan state- and Kalamazoo County–level birth certificate records for 2008 to 2010. We completed statistical analyses, stratified by race, using a repeated-measures generalized linear model. Results. Despite their smoking rate being double that of their matched counterparts, Black HBHS participants delivered higher birth-weight infants than did Black nonparticipants (P = .05). White HBHS participants had significantly more prenatal care than did White nonparticipants, but they had similar birth outcomes (P = .7 for birth weight; P = .55 for gestation). Conclusions. HBHS participation is associated with increased birth weights among Black women but not among White women, suggesting differential program gains for Black women. PMID:24354844

  18. Gender inequality, economic growth, and the intergenerational transmission of adverse health consequences at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mengcen; Chou, Shin-Yi; Deily, Mary E; Liu, Jin-Tan

    2018-03-01

    We estimate a gender differential in the intergenerational transmission of adverse birth outcomes. We link Taiwan birth certificates from 1978 to 2006 to create a sample of children born in the period 1999-2006 that includes information about their parents and their maternal grandmothers. We use maternal-sibling fixed effects to control for unobserved family-linked factors that may be correlated with birth outcomes across generations, and define adverse birth outcomes as small for gestational age. We find that when a mother is in the 5th percentile of birth weight for her gestational age, then her female children are 49-53% more likely to experience the same adverse birth outcome compared to other female children, while her male children are 27-32% more likely to experience this relative to other male children. We then investigate whether long-run improvements in local socio-economic conditions experienced by the child's family, as measured by intergenerational changes in town-level maternal education, affect the gender differential. We find no evidence that intergenerational improvements in socioeconomic conditions reduce the gender differential. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Harmonisation of wind turbine certification in Europe JOULE project EWTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, C [Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg (Germany); Eriksson, C [Det Norske Veritas, Hellerup (Denmark); Hulle, F van [Frans van Hulle, Petten (Netherlands); Skamris, C [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Stam, W [CIWI Holland, Arnheim (Netherlands); Vionis, P [CRES, Attki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    Wind turbine certification requirements are currently fairly divers within Europe. Therefore the leading European certification bodies initiated a JOULE project to harmonise the certification procedure on the basis of the current set of IEC/EN 61400 series standards. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of wind turbine certification in European countries and an outline of the sturcture of the project. The main steps of the project are (a) the collection of differences in certification practices by round robin certification of three wind turbine types; (b) assessment of the different certification results and (c) the development of a harmonised certification procedure. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 19 refs.

  20. 21 CFR 900.22 - Standards for certification agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accreditation bodies for issues related to mammography image quality and clinical practice. The certification... interest. The certification agency shall establish and implement measures that FDA has approved in...

  1. 40 CFR 86.007-30 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of its franchise agreement with the manufacturer and the dealer certification requirements of § 85... contrary to the terms of its franchise agreement with the manufacturer and the dealer certification... part because a manufacturer has located its facility in a foreign jurisdiction where local law...

  2. 9 CFR 156.6 - Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products, if the inspector finds that the requirements as stated in the certification have been met. The... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificates. 156.6 Section 156.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 49 CFR 179.11 - Welding certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding certification. 179.11 Section 179.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Design Requirements § 179.11 Welding certification. (a) Welding procedures, welders and fabricators shall...

  4. 12 CFR 4.65 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification. 4.65 Section 4.65 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS, AVAILABILITY...; Contracting for Goods and Services § 4.65 Certification. (a) Objective. To preserve the integrity and foster...

  5. 40 CFR 92.208 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the construction of a locomotive or locomotive engine, where such step may reasonably be expected to... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Certification Provisions § 92.208 Certification. (a) This paragraph (a) applies to manufacturers of new locomotives and new locomotive engines. If, after a review of...

  6. 5 CFR 430.404 - Certification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.404 Certification criteria. (a) To be... system(s) must provide for the following: (1) Alignment, so that the performance expectations for... that the performance expectations for senior employees meet the requirements of 5 CFR part 430...

  7. 34 CFR 34.21 - Employer certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer certification. 34.21 Section 34.21 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.21 Employer... by the Secretary of the Treasury. (b) The employer must complete and return the certification to us...

  8. Is Halal Certification Process “Green”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizal Razalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available These days, the environmental perspective on operations is becoming more common. In fact, any effort in improving efficiency in the organization is closely related to sustainability of our environment. The Environmental Management System (EMS certification such as ISO 14001 has been accepted as the world standard. In addition to these ISO standards, there are other certifications such as Halal certification. There is no research that investigates the relationship between Halal Certification process and its effect on our environment. Hence, our main research question is that is Halal Certification process can be considered as environmental friendly? In this paper, we argue that Halal Certification also contributes towards green initiatives. We used EDC-UUM as our case study. EDC-UUM is actively seeking the Halal certification from Malaysian authority agency or JAKIM. In this study, we assessed the perception of the EDC-UUM staff on the issue of going green. The findings and implications are discussed in the paper. Keywords: halal certification, hotel operations, sustainability, green

  9. General certification procedure of formation organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the procedure dealing with the certification of formation organizations dispensing the formation and the risks prevention to the personnel of A or B category in nuclear facilities. This certification proves the organization ability to satisfy the ''F'' specification of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  10. 20 CFR 655.163 - Certification fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States Department of Labor. In the case of an agricultural association acting as a joint employer... determination by the CO to grant an Application for Temporary Employment Certification in whole or in part will include a bill for the required certification fees. Each employer of H-2A workers under the Application...

  11. 40 CFR 68.185 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification. 68.185 Section 68.185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL... certification that, to the best of the signer's knowledge, information, and belief formed after reasonable...

  12. 49 CFR 172.204 - Shipper's certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the certification the words “herein-named” may be substituted for the words “above-named”. (2) “I... respects in proper condition for transport according to applicable international and national governmental... national governmental regulations. Note to paragraph (c)(1): In the certification, the word “packed” may be...

  13. 40 CFR 86.094-30 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of its franchise agreement with the manufacturer and the dealer certification requirements of § 85... test vehicle(s) (or test engine(s)) meets the requirements of the Act and of this subpart, he will... requirements of the Act and this subpart have been met, he will issue one certificate of conformity per...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1502 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sufficient time to comply with the Commission's notification requirements. (b) Certifications must be... certification in its cable franchise area, a statement that the applicant is qualified to operate an open video... that the applicant will comply with the Commission's notice and enrollment requirements for...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1848-10 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be covered by the certificate(s). (ii) Failure to comply fully with the prohibition against selling... selling credits that are not generated or that are not available, as specified in § 86.1864-10, will be... paragraph (c)(9), effective July 6, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the added text is set forth as...

  16. 29 CFR 570.121 - Age certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate furnishes protection to the employer as provided by the act only if it shows the minor to be above the minimum age applicable thereunder to the occupation in which he is employed. Thus, a State.... Pursuant to the regulations of the Secretary, State employment or age certificates are accepted as proof of...

  17. 10 CFR 431.36 - Compliance Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... number”) for any brand name, trademark or other label name under which the manufacturer or private... Certification, the Department will determine whether the document contains all of the elements required by this... Certification is acceptable, it will provide a unique CC number for any brand name, trademark or other name when...

  18. 48 CFR 1609.471 - Contractor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor certification... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1609.471 Contractor certification. All FEHBP carriers and applicant carriers...

  19. School Library Media Certification Requirements: 1990 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perritt, Patsy H.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a compilation of school library media certification requirements taken from responses to a national survey. For each state, existing certificates or endorsements are listed, along with credit hours and/or experience required, whether it is an accredited or approved program, and required subject areas or competencies. A directory of…

  20. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  1. 19 CFR 191.76 - Landing certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... landing certificate shall be waived by the requiring Customs authority if the claimant demonstrates... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landing certificate. 191.76 Section 191.76 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  2. White certificates: 14 concerned countries in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Under the constraint of the European directive on energy efficiency, several countries have created or strengthened their white-certificate-type (or certificate of energy saving) obligation system. This article proposes brief overviews of the situation and implemented systems in Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, and United Kingdom

  3. 28 CFR 26.23 - Certification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification process. 26.23 Section 26.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Certification Process for... mechanism for providing legal representation to indigent prisoners in state postconviction proceedings in...

  4. 9 CFR 93.913 - Health certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... who issues the health certificate. (2) Cleaning and disinfection must be sufficient to neutralize any VHS virus to which shipping containers may have been exposed. (3) The cleaning and disinfection protocols used must be referenced in the health certificate or in a separate cleaning and disinfection...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.29 - Acceptable certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Acceptable certifications. (a) Pressure vessels. Current and valid certification by an insurance company or... by an insurance company or regulatory authority attesting to the safe installation, inspection, and... types of pressure vessels and similar equipment are contained in subparts F and O of this part. ...

  6. How the CEA sorts out its certifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembezat, C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to better manage its numerous certifications, the French CEA decided to implement an integrated management system. It aims at simplifying these certifications, at sharing best practices, and at obtaining a better efficiency. For this project, i.e. the management of quality, safety and environment, the CEA asked for the support of experts in integrated complex system management

  7. Certification Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Cofer, Darren; Musliner, David J.; Mueller, Joseph; Engstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Advanced capabilities planned for the next generation of aircraft, including those that will operate within the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), will necessarily include complex new algorithms and non-traditional software elements. These aircraft will likely incorporate adaptive control algorithms that will provide enhanced safety, autonomy, and robustness during adverse conditions. Unmanned aircraft will operate alongside manned aircraft in the National Airspace (NAS), with intelligent software performing the high-level decision-making functions normally performed by human pilots. Even human-piloted aircraft will necessarily include more autonomy. However, there are serious barriers to the deployment of new capabilities, especially for those based upon software including adaptive control (AC) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Current civil aviation certification processes are based on the idea that the correct behavior of a system must be completely specified and verified prior to operation. This report by Rockwell Collins and SIFT documents our comprehensive study of the state of the art in intelligent and adaptive algorithms for the civil aviation domain, categorizing the approaches used and identifying gaps and challenges associated with certification of each approach.

  8. First birth Caesarean section and subsequent fertility: a population-based study in the USA, 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerulff, K H; Zhu, J; Weisman, C S; Ananth, C V

    2013-12-01

    Is first birth Caesarean delivery associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent childbearing when compared with first birth vaginal delivery? In this study of US women whose first delivery was in 2000, those who had a Caesarean delivery were less likely to have a subsequent live birth than those who delivered vaginally. Some studies have reported lower birth rates subsequent to Caesarean delivery in comparison with vaginal delivery, while other studies have reported no difference. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 52 498 women who had a first singleton live birth in the State of Pennsylvania, USA in 2000 and were followed to the end of 2008 via Pennsylvania birth certificate records to identify subsequent live births during the 8- to 9-year follow-up period. Birth certificate records of first singleton births were linked to the hospital discharge data for each mother and newborn, and linked to all birth certificate records for each mother's subsequent deliveries which occurred in 2000 to the end of 2008. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between first birth factors and whether or not there was a subsequent live birth during the follow-up period. Over an average of 8.5 years of follow-up, 40.2% of women with a Caesarean first birth did not have a subsequent live birth, compared with 33.1% of women with a vaginal first birth (risk ratio (RR): 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-1.25). Adjustment for the demographic confounders of maternal age, race, education, marital status and health insurance coverage attenuated the RR to 1.16 (95% CI: 1.13-1.19). Specific pregnancy and childbirth-related complications associated with not having a subsequent live birth included diabetes-related disorders, abnormalities of organs and soft tissues of the pelvis, fetal abnormalities, premature or prolonged rupture of membranes, hypertensive disorders, amnionitis, fetal distress and other maternal health problems. However, adjustment

  9. Episiotomy for vaginal birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroli, Guillermo; Mignini, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Background Episiotomy is done to prevent severe perineal tears, but its routine use has been questioned. The relative effects of midline compared with midlateral episiotomy are unclear. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of restrictive use of episiotomy compared with routine episiotomy during vaginal birth. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (March 2008). Selection criteria Randomized trials comparing restrictive use of episiotomy with routine use of episiotomy; restrictive use of mediolateral episiotomy versus routine mediolateral episiotomy; restrictive use of midline episiotomy versus routine midline episiotomy; and use of midline episiotomy versus mediolateral episiotomy. Data collection and analysis The two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Main results We included eight studies (5541 women). In the routine episiotomy group, 75.15% (2035/2708) of women had episiotomies, while the rate in the restrictive episiotomy group was 28.40% (776/2733). Compared with routine use, restrictive episiotomy resulted in less severe perineal trauma (relative risk (RR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 0.91), less suturing (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.81) and fewer healing complications (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.85). Restrictive episiotomy was associated with more anterior perineal trauma (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.10). There was no difference in severe vaginal/perineal trauma (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.18); dyspareunia (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.16); urinary incontinence (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.20) or several pain measures. Results for restrictive versus routine mediolateral versus midline episiotomy were similar to the overall comparison. Authors’ conclusions Restrictive episiotomy policies appear to have a number of benefits compared to policies based on routine episiotomy. There is less posterior perineal trauma, less suturing and

  10. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  11. Commission for the Accreditation of Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learning Login: Commissioners Birth Centers CABC Learning Place Home Accredited Birth Centers Find CABC Accredited Birth Centers What does ... In the Pursuit of Excellence You are here: Home In the ... for the Accreditation of Birth Centers (CABC) provides support, education, and accreditation to ...

  12. Social causes of low birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, M D

    1995-01-01

    The manifest importance of reducing the incidence of low birth weight is most obvious for the first year of life: low birth weight is the single most important factor affecting infant morbidity and mortality. However, there is growing evidence that the adverse consequences of low birth weight continue throughout the life cycle. This review deals primarily with social causes of low birth weight.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Hitzert (Marit); M.A.A. Hermus (Marieke A.A.); Boesveld, I.I.C. (Inge I.C.); A. Franx (Arie); K.M. van der Pal-De Bruin (Karin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Van Den Akker-Van Marle, E.M.E. (Eiske M.E.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design

  14. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Franx, A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der; Steegers, E.E.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  15. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth : Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marit F.; Hermus, Marieke A. A.; Boesveld, Inge I.C.; Franx, Arie; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Van Den Akker-Van Marle, Eiske M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  16. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where medically...

  17. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-02-23

    Feb 23, 2011 ... methylmalonic aciduria, and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) had their diagnoses confirmed by enzyme assay. The diagnosis of all ... Personal information like date of birth, sex, area of residence, mother's age at birth, father's age, order of birth, birth weight, gestational age on birth, medical history and ...

  18. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  19. Birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K J; Carozza, S E; Chow, E J; Fox, E E; Horel, S; McLaughlin, C C; Mueller, B A; Puumala, S E; Reynolds, P; Von Behren, J; Spector, L G

    2011-10-25

    Carcinomas in children are rare and have not been well studied. We conducted a population-based case-control study and examined associations between birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas diagnosed from 28 days to 14 years during 1980-2004 using pooled data from five states (NY, WA, MN, TX, and CA) that linked their birth and cancer registries. The pooled data set contained 57,966 controls and 475 carcinoma cases, including 159 thyroid and 126 malignant melanoma cases. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). White compared with 'other' race was positively associated with melanoma (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.33-8.33). Older maternal age increased the risk for melanoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44), whereas paternal age increased the risk for any carcinoma (OR=1.10(per 5-year age increase), 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and thyroid carcinoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). Gestational age birth weight, and birth order were not significantly associated with childhood carcinomas. This exploratory study indicates that some birth characteristics including older parental age and low gestational age may be related to childhood carcinoma aetiology.

  20. Forced Marriage and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Charles M; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

    2017-08-01

    We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with children born to other mothers. The largest difference is between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the women involved but potentially also for their children.

  1. Qualification and certification in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan Kavarodi Maracair

    2003-01-01

    Ruane-TATI Sdn Bhd was the first accredited training centre in Asia approved by The British Institute of Non Destructive Testing (BINDT) as per EN 473, ISO 9712 and EN 45013 requirements. Meanwhile, Ruane-TATI is also accredited by National Vocational Training Center ( MLVK ).This mean that Ruane-TATI is the first training and examination center that accredited by both international and national bodies in providing quality , qualification and certification for comprehensive training and examination in Inspection and Non Destructive Testing (NDT). There are several NDT examinations scheme available in Malaysia due to differences requirement from the industrials. This has put the difficulties to services company in upgrading their NDT technician qualifications. The intention of this paper is to discuss the basic different among the NDT examinations scheme used in Malaysia ( mostly offered by Ruane-TATI ) and the development of certain schemes in covering their schemes to more sectors and NDT methods. (Author)

  2. Life after oral English certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka

    2017-01-01

    , this study discusses the consequences resulting from score and feedback interpretations and uses as part of the validation process of TOEPAS (Test of Oral English Proficiency for Academic Staff), which is a performance-based test used for oral English certification of lecturers at the University......Internationalization of higher education has resulted in rapid developments of English-medium instruction (EMI) courses in non-Anglophone countries in Europe and Asia. Due to the growing concerns about lecturers' ability to teach in English, several European universities have implemented policies...... for internal assessment of lecturers' English proficiency to ensure the quality of teaching in EMI programs. However, research on the measured construct and the reliability and the validity of these assessments remains scarce. Based on interviews with tested university lecturers and formative feedback analysis...

  3. Modeling of a green certificate market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers one of the economic mechanisms, stimulating the introduction of renewable energy sources (RES) - a green certificate market. A mathematical model was developed to describe a supply and demand balance in the electricity and green certificate markets simultaneously. The sellers of certificates are RES owners, who obtain certificates for each unit of electricity produced, and the buyers are consumers, who are obliged by law to buy a certain share of this electricity. Equilibrium structures of the power system including RES with stochastic operation conditions are calculated. The prices of electricity and certificates, as well as the total economic effect of the system are determined taking into account external costs (environmental damages). The paper shows that a mechanism of green certificates is not an ideal means for minimizing the impact of energy on the environment: the economic effect turns out to be smaller than the maximum possible one. However, this deviation is relatively small, therefore the green certificate market allows the external effects to be partially taken into account. Such a market creates incentives for investors, electricity producers and consumers to make power sources mix, modes of electricity production and consumption closer to the optimum ones in terms of the economy as a whole. (author)

  4. Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Larry E.; Ang, Kian; Erickson, Beth; Harris, Jay; Hoppe, Richard; Leibel, Steve; Davis, Larry; Hattery, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development

  5. Recent changes in the trends of teen birth rates, 1981-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Phyllis A; Smith, Ruben A; Tevendale, Heather D; Ferré, Cynthia

    2011-03-01

    To explore trends in teen birth rates by selected demographics. We used birth certificate data and joinpoint regression to examine trends in teen birth rates by age (10-14, 15-17, and 18-19 years) and race during 1981-2006 and by age and Hispanic origin during 1990-2006. Joinpoint analysis describes changing trends over successive segments of time and uses annual percentage change (APC) to express the amount of increase or decrease within each segment. For teens younger than 18 years, the decline in birth rates began in 1994 and ended in 2003 (APC: -8.03% per year for ages 10-14 years; APC: -5.63% per year for ages 15-17 years). The downward trend for 18- and 19-year-old teens began earlier (1991) and ended 1 year later (2004) (APC: -2.37% per year). For each study population, the trend was approximately level during the most recent time segment, except for continuing declines for 18- and 19-year-old white and Asian/Pacific Islander teens. The only increasing trend in the most recent time segment was for 18- and 19-year-old Hispanic teens. During these declines, the age distribution of teens who gave birth shifted to slightly older ages, and the percentage whose current birth was at least their second birth decreased. Teen birth rates were generally level during 2003/2004-2006 after the long-term declines. Rates increased among older Hispanic teens. These results indicate a need for renewed attention to effective teen pregnancy prevention programs in specific populations. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Implementation procedures for design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S. E.; Brinkman, C. B.; Crump, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    The desire for safer plants arose primarily as the result of the Three Mile Island accident and the realization that plant safety could be impacted by complex plant systems interactions that are not easily identified through the traditional 'system-by-system' design process. Hence, it became apparent that the ALWR designs would have to be addressed through plant-wide Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) that addressed both accident-prevention and accident-mitigation design features. Prior to Design Certification the 'two-step' licensing process in the United States was not efficient. Utilities had to commit large amounts of capital to plant construction without confidence that an operating license would be issued when construction permit was issued often required design changes that resulted in significant construction delays. The 55 utilities operating nuclear plants in the U. S. each had their own design and operating preferences, resulting in many customized plants with a minimum of economic benefit from standardization. This was addressed by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in a new regulation (Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 or '10 CFR 52') which provides certification of a design that can later be referenced by an applicant for a Combined Operating License (COL). Identifying an ALWR solution for previously unanalyzed severe accident scenarios appeared difficult, at best, since severe accident research had to be performed and since there was no regulatory precedent. This meant that complex technical issues and licensing review policies had to be developed without the benefit of licensing standards or experience. As a result, a system of iterative interactions between the regulator and the industry was established, wherein a design or safety requirement would be proposed, then discussed along with development of the corresponding design feature, and finally revised and documented via NRC 'guidance'

  7. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  8. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    , physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has......INTRODUCTION: In this review a selection of studies published during the period 2002-2010, based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort linked with other health registers, is described. Illustrative examples of studies addressing perinatal health outcomes (pregnancy complications and fetal...... that this investment in epidemiologic infrastructure was well spent. The existence of the Danish National Birth Cohort together with other cohorts and national registers has given Denmark a leading position in reproductive epidemiology....

  9. 78 FR 16779 - Type Certification Procedures for Changed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ...-8994; Amdt. No. 21-96] RIN 2120-AK19 Type Certification Procedures for Changed Products AGENCY: Federal... requirements for the certification of changes to type-certificated products. The revision required the... entitled, ``Type Certification Procedures for Changed Products'' (December 4, 2012, 77 FR 71691). The 2000...

  10. 77 FR 71691 - Type Certification Procedures for Changed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...-8994; Amdt. No. 21-96] RIN 2120-AK19 Type Certification Procedures for Changed Products AGENCY: Federal... regulations for the certification of changes to type-certificated products. That amendment was to enhance... (certification) of the entire changed product. Therefore, Sec. 21.101 is amended to replace ``changed product...

  11. 13 CFR 120.612 - Loans eligible to back Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans eligible to back Certificates. 120.612 Section 120.612 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.612 Loans eligible to back Certificates. (a) Pool Certificates...

  12. 7 CFR 205.405 - Denial of certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.405 Denial of certification. (a) When the certifying... organic program. (e) An applicant for certification who has received a written notification of... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial of certification. 205.405 Section 205.405...

  13. 7 CFR 205.400 - General requirements for certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.400 General requirements for certification. A person seeking to receive or maintain organic certification under the... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements for certification. 205.400...

  14. 7 CFR 205.401 - Application for certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.401 Application for certification. A person seeking... certification to a certifying agent. The application must include the following information: (a) An organic... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for certification. 205.401 Section 205.401...

  15. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37 Section 80.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification...

  16. 77 FR 12562 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 10-2A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (10-2A001) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review..., has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This...

  17. 78 FR 30273 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-24A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This notice summarizes the...

  18. 14 CFR 125.7 - Display of certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 125.7 Display of certificate. (a) The certificate holder must display a true copy of the certificate in each of its aircraft. (b... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of certificate. 125.7 Section 125.7...

  19. 14 CFR 147.39 - Display of certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of certificate. 147.39 Section 147...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.39 Display of certificate. Each holder of an aviation maintenance technician school certificate and ratings...

  20. 40 CFR 89.105 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 89.105... and Certification Provisions § 89.105 Certificate of conformity. Every manufacturer of a new nonroad compression-ignition engine must obtain a certificate of conformity covering the engine family, as described...

  1. 40 CFR 90.106 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 90.106... Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.106 Certificate of conformity. (a)(1) Except as provided in § 90... certificate of conformity covering such engines; however, engines manufactured during an annual production...

  2. 40 CFR 91.106 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 91.106... Provisions § 91.106 Certificate of conformity. (a) Every manufacturer of a new marine SI engine produced... obtain a certificate of conformity covering each engine family. The certificate of conformity must be...

  3. 78 FR 62585 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 89-5A018] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This notice...

  4. 78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 89-4A018] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This notice...

  5. 78 FR 72865 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 92-12A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review issued to..., has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This...

  6. 78 FR 36745 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 87-9A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to..., has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This...

  7. Certification of a weld produced by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaditch, Chris; Grant, Glenn J

    2013-10-01

    Methods, devices, and systems for providing certification of friction stir welds are disclosed. A sensor is used to collect information related to a friction stir weld. Data from the sensor is compared to threshold values provided by an extrinsic standard setting organizations using a certification engine. The certification engine subsequently produces a report on the certification status of the weld.

  8. ECOTOURISM CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS: STANDARDS AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Holub

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of researching the ecotourism certification processes in the world is very up-to-date nowadays. The relevance of the research is stipulated by current state of environ-mental pollutants, the development of sustainable politics implementation and the fact that now people aware of real danger of environmental catastrophe that threatens the survival of civilization. That’s why the purpose of the article is conducting a complex analysis of foreign ecotourism certi-fication programs. Moreover, it is necessary to study the evolution of ecotourism development to understand the key issues of this problem. The object of this article is the analysis of ecotourism certification worldwide. The subject of the article is the detection of theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of implementation of effective ecotourism certification programs in Ukraine. To clarify all aspects of studying this issue it is necessary to use such theoretical and methodological basis as: modern theories of the genesis and evolution of ecological tourism, logical and analogy analysis, historical method, hypothetical method, classification and graphical method. Using such methods it was found that the development of ecotourism formation has taking three evolutionary steps, which affected the creation of its definition. This fact reveals the classification of different types of sustainable tourism and provides an impetus of ecotourism certification studies. Moreover, it was identified that there is a logical regularity in ecotourism certification programs all over the world. As the result, it was found that practically all the ecotourism certification processes are functioning successfully nowadays. By the way, it can be observed the rapid increase in the amount of ecocertified companies. Moreover, the programs which were analyzed in this article were divided into several steps (depends on the ecotourism certification program following which a company can

  9. White certificate: how to launch the system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    White certificates are a supple and suitable economical system for the quest of diffuse energy saving. It relies on the energy distribution networks and is complementary to other existing system (fiscality, regulation, etc). It is an open system, based on a market logics in order to make energy savings where they are the less costly. This document gathers the synthesis of the conference about white certificates, held in Paris in October 2005, the presentations (transparencies) given by J. Percebois (Creden) about the French system of energy savings and by P. Guyonnet (ATEE) about the way to launch the system of white certificates. The debate with the audience is also reported. (J.S.)

  10. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  11. Continuous Certification Within Residency: An Educational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Susan; Schonberger, Alison; Nocera, Nicole; Acharya, Jay; Shah, Nidhi; Henkel, Jacqueline

    2015-10-01

    Given that maintaining compliance with Maintenance of Certification is necessary for maintaining licensure to practice as a radiologist and provide quality patient care, it is important for radiology residents to practice fulfilling each part of the program during their training not only to prepare for success after graduation but also to adequately learn best practices from the beginning of their professional careers. This article discusses ways to implement continuous certification (called Continuous Residency Certification) as an educational model within the residency training program. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Low Birth Weight, Very Low Birth Weight Rates and Gestational Age-Specific Birth Weight Distribution of Korean Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Son-Moon; Chang, Young-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Young-Ah; Son, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Hee; Choi, Young-Ryoon

    2005-01-01

    To obtain the low birth weight (LBW) rate, the very low birth weight (VLBW) rate, and gestational age (GA)-specific birth weight distribution based on a large population in Korea, we collected and analyzed the birth data of 108,486 live births with GA greater than 23 weeks for 1 yr from 1 January to 31 December 2001, from 75 hospitals and clinics located in Korea. These data included birth weight, GA, gender of the infants, delivery type, maternal age, and the presence of multiple pregnancy. ...

  13. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. BIRTH ORDER, FAMILY SIZE, NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD JALILI

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the relationship of birth rank and family size with the incidence of neurosis in an Iranian culture, case notes of 1029 schizophrenic patients as (497 males and 532 females) referred to psychiatric clinic for insured workers were studied. The incidence of neurasis appeared to be significantly more frequent among the first-half position of birth  rders in The families of 5 children and over; this bei-ng more marked-in males than in females; and the first s...

  15. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...

  16. The Danish Medical Birth Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used...... on all births in Denmark and comprises primarily of data from the Danish National Patient Registry supplemented with forms on home deliveries and stillbirths. It contains information on maternal age provided by the Civil Registration System. Information on pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking...

  17. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  18. Breastfeeding Trends Among Very Low Birth Weight, Low Birth Weight, and Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Angela G; Miranda, Patricia Y

    2018-05-18

    To examine the change in breastfeeding behaviors over time, among low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), and normal birth weight (NBW) infants using nationally representative US data. Univariate statistics and bivariate logistic models were examined using the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001) and National Study of Children's Health (2007 and 2011/2012). Breastfeeding behaviors improved for infants of all birth weights from 2007 to 2011/2012. In 2011/2012, a higher percentage of VLBW infants were ever breastfed compared with LBW and NBW infants. In 2011/2012, LBW infants had a 28% lower odds (95% CI, 0.57-0.92) of ever breastfeeding and a 52% lower odds (95% CI, 0.38-0.61) of breastfeeding for ≥6 months compared with NBW infants. Among black infants, a larger percentage of VLBW infants were breastfed for ≥6 months (26.2%) compared with LBW infants (14.9%). Breastfeeding rates for VLBW and NBW infants have improved over time. Both VLBW and NBW infants are close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 ever breastfeeding goal of 81.9%. LBW infants are farther from this goal than VLBW infants. The results suggest a need for policies that encourage breastfeeding specifically among LBW infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  20. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...

  1. Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

  2. Quality assessment of home births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrina; Colmorn, Lotte B.; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The safety of home births has been widely debated. Observational studies examining maternal and neonatal outcomes of home births have become more frequent, and the quality of these studies has improved. The aim of the present study was to describe neonatal outcomes of home births...... compared with hospital births and to discuss which data are needed to evaluate the safety of home births. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. Data on all births in Denmark (2003-2013) were collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (DMBR). The cohort included healthy women...... with uncomplicated pregnancies and no medical interventions during delivery. A total of 6,395 home births and 266,604 hospital births were eligible for analysis. Comparative analyses were performed separately in nulliparous and multiparous women. The outcome measures were neonatal mortality and morbidity. RESULTS...

  3. Quality assessment of home births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrina; Colmorn, Lotte B.; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    by nulliparous at home. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that home births in Denmark are characterized by a high level of safety owing to low rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Missing registration on intrapartum transfers and planned versus unplanned home births in the DMBR are, however, major......INTRODUCTION: The safety of home births has been widely debated. Observational studies examining maternal and neonatal outcomes of home births have become more frequent, and the quality of these studies has improved. The aim of the present study was to describe neonatal outcomes of home births...... compared with hospital births and to discuss which data are needed to evaluate the safety of home births. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. Data on all births in Denmark (2003-2013) were collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (DMBR). The cohort included healthy women...

  4. Mortality incidence estimation using federal death certificate and natality data with an application to Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Kabir; Carter, Randy L

    2015-09-01

    For confidentiality reasons, US federal death certificate data are incomplete with regards to the dates of birth and death for the decedents, making calculation of total lifetime of a decedent impossible and thus estimation of mortality incidence difficult. This paper proposes the use of natality data and an imputation-based method to estimate age-specific mortality incidence rates in the face of this missing information. By utilizing previously determined probabilities of birth, a birth date and death date are imputed for every decedent in the dataset. Thus, the birth cohort of each individual is imputed, and the total on-study time can be calculated. This idea is implemented in two approaches for estimation of mortality incidence rates. The first is an extension of a person-time approach, while the second is an extension of a life table approach. Monte Carlo simulations showed that both approaches perform well in comparison to the ideal complete data methods, but that the person-time method is preferred. An application to Tay-Sachs disease is demonstrated. It is concluded that the imputation methods proposed provide valid estimates of the incidence of death from death certificate data without the need for additional assumptions under which usual mortality rates provide valid estimates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Guidelines for developing certification programs for newly generated TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Ostenak, C.A.; Pillay, K.K.S.; Geoffrion, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    These guidelines were prepared with direction from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Management Program in support of the DOE effort to certify that newly generated TRU wastes meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. The guidelines provide instructions for generic Certification Program preparation for TRU-waste generators preparing site-specific Certification Programs in response to WIPP requirements. The guidelines address all major aspects of a Certification Program that are necessary to satisfy the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria and their associated Compliance Requirements and Certification Quality Assurance Requirements. The details of the major element of a Certification Program, namely, the Certification Plan, are described. The Certification Plan relies on supporting data and control documentation to provide a traceable, auditable account of certification activities. Examples of specific parts of the Certification Plan illustrate the recommended degree of detail. Also, a brief description of generic waste processes related to certification activities is included

  6. An evaluation of the impact of maternity care coordination on Medicaid birth outcomes in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, P A; Roth, M S; Williams, D; Goforth, C M

    1991-12-01

    Care coordination is an important component of the enhanced prenatal care services provided under the recent expansions of the Medicaid program. The effect of maternity care coordination services on birth outcomes in North Carolina was assessed by comparing women on Medicaid who did and did not receive these services. Health program data files, including Medicaid claims paid for maternity care coordination, were linked to 1988 and 1989 live birth certificates. Simple comparisons of percentages and rates were supplemented by a logistic regression analysis. Among women on Medicaid who did not receive maternity care coordination services, the low birth weight rate was 21% higher, the very low birth weight rate was 62% higher, and the infant mortality rate was 23% higher than among women on Medicaid who did receive such services. It was estimated that, for each $1.00 spent on maternity care coordination, Medicaid saved $2.02 in medical costs for newborns up to 60 days of age. Among the women who did receive maternity care coordination, those receiving it for 3 or more months had better outcomes than those receiving it for less than 3 months. These results suggest that maternity care coordination can be effective in reducing low birth weight, infant mortality, and newborn medical care costs among babies born to women in poverty.

  7. The relative proportion of preterm births complicated by premature rupture of membranes in multifetal gestations: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrashi, Tarita; Defranco, Emily A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the relative contribution of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) to preterm births in singleton compared with multifetal gestations. A population-based retrospective cohort study of 291,782 nonanomalous live births in the state of Ohio from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2007, identified through birth certificate data. Frequency of PROM was compared between singleton and multifetal gestations and then stratified by gestational age at birth. Multivariate regression analysis estimated the risk of PROM by plurality in each gestational age group, accounting for influential risk factors. The frequency of PROM increased with increasing plurality of gestation. The relative proportion of preterm birth < 37 weeks complicated by PROM increased with gestational plurality 13.2% singletons, 16.8% twins, 20.0% triplets, 19.6% quadruplets, and 100% for higher-order multiples (p < 0.001). The frequency of PROM increased with earlier gestational age at birth, regardless of plurality. The increased risk of PROM in multifetal gestation persisted even after adjustment for influential concomitant risk factors. The proportion of preterm birth attributable to PROM increases by plurality of gestation, with its most significant contribution in higher-order multiples and at earliest gestational ages when outcomes are the poorest. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP

  9. Pesticide Applicator Certification in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website provides information about the EPA Plan for the Federal Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides within Indian Country, including plan requirements, how to become certified, how to register for training, and who is certified.

  10. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  11. Environmental certification for more sustainable imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Lucile; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Demeulenaere, Laurence

    2017-12-01

    As France imports high quantities of products which have environmental impacts abroad due to extraction, transformations, and transports of used materials, and which are not visible for consumers, environmental certification could be a mean to reduce these impacts as it would allow consumers to identify the less polluting products, and incite producers to put such products on the market. After having discussed these issues, the author outlines key factors of success for such a certification, briefly identifies required adjustments at the technical level (requirement level, cost anticipation), and at the social and political level. She also evokes accompanying measures, and outlines that environmental certification is only a tool among others such as partnership agreements currently being negotiated between the European Union and other countries, or a combination of certification and cooperation with extracting countries (as practiced by Germany)

  12. FAA Certificated Maintenance Agencies Directory (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-06

    This advisory circular (AC) transmits a consolidated directory of all : certificated Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) repair stations and : manufacturer's maintenance facilities. The repair stations and manufacturer's : maintenance facilities we...

  13. 5 CFR 1330.404 - Certification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 1330... the performance expectations for individual senior employees derive from, and clearly link to, the... and budget priorities; (2) Consultation, so that the performance expectations for senior employees...

  14. Anthropomorphic Test Drive (ATD) Certification Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ATD Certification Laboratory consists of several test fixtures to ensure ATDs are functioning correctly and within specifications prior to use in any OP testing....

  15. Section 608 Technician Certification Test Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifies some of the topics covered on Section 608 Technician Certification tests such as ozone depletion, the Clean Air Act and Montreal Protocol, Substitute Refrigerants and oils, Refrigeration and Recovery Techniques.

  16. Linking Halal Food Certification and Business Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ab Talib, Mohamed Syazwan; Chin, Thoo Ai; Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    , operational performance mediates the relationship between HFC and financial performance. Altogether, this signifies that Halal food certificate implementation positively influences business performance. Practical implications By linking HFC and business performance, managers may be aware of the significant......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between Halal food certification (HFC) and business performance. This study argues that Halal food certificate implementation positively influences business performance. Design/methodology/approach A total of 210 Halal certified food...... role of HFC in influencing operational and financial performance. It would entice more food companies to become Halal certified that opens up an opportunity to a lucrative Halal food industry. It also empirically justifies that a religion-based food certification has the ability to influence business...

  17. Lesson 3: Attorney General (AG) Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The AG Certification is a letter confirming legal authority to implement the electronic reporting covered by the application and enforce the affected programs using the electronic documents received under those programs.

  18. Recommendations on European data protection certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, Irene; Burnik, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this report is to identify and analyse challenges and opportunities of data protection certification mechanisms, including seals and marks, as introduced by the GDPR, focusing also on existing initiatives and voluntary schemes.

  19. 2012 aerospace medical certification statistical handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The annual Aerospace Medical Certification Statistical Handbook reports descriptive : characteristics of all active U.S. civil aviation airmen and the aviation medical examiners (AMEs) that : perform the required medical examinations. The 2012 annual...

  20. 2011 aerospace medical certification statistical handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The annual Aerospace Medical Certification Statistical Handbook reports descriptive characteristics of all active U.S. civil aviation airmen and the aviation medical examiners (AMEs) that perform the required medical examinations. The 2011 annual han...

  1. Methodologies for certification of transuranic waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.N.; Kok, K.D.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this study was to postulate methodologies for certification that a waste package is acceptable for disposal in a licensed geologic repository. Within the context of this report, certification means the overall process which verifies that a waste package meets the criteria or specifications established for acceptance for disposal in a repository. The overall methodology for certification will include (1) certifying authorities, (2) tests and procedures, and (3) documentation and quality assurance programs. Each criterion will require a methodology that is specific to that criterion. In some cases, different waste forms will require a different methodology. The purpose of predicting certification methodologies is to provide additional information as to what changes, if any, are needed for the TRU waste in storage

  2. Suicide Method Runs in Families: A Birth Certificate Cohort Study of Adolescent Suicide in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal…

  3. WASTE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM PLAN - REVISION 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORGAN, LK

    2002-01-01

    The primary changes that have been made to this revision reflect the relocation of the Waste Certification Official (WCO) organizationally from the Quality Services Division (QSD) into the Laboratory Waste Services (LWS) Organization. Additionally, the responsibilities for program oversight have been differentiated between the QSD and LWS. The intent of this effort is to ensure that those oversight functions, which properly belonged to the WCO, moved with that function; but retain an independent oversight function outside of the LWS Organization ensuring the potential for introduction of organizational bias, regarding programmatic and technical issues, is minimized. The Waste Certification Program (WCP) itself has been modified to allow the waste certification function to be performed by any of the personnel within the LWS Waste Acceptance/Certification functional area. However, a single individual may not perform both the technical waste acceptance review and the final certification review on the same 2109 data package. Those reviews must be performed by separate individuals in a peer review process. There will continue to be a designated WCO who will have lead programmatic responsibility for the WCP and will exercise overall program operational oversite as well as determine the overall requirements of the certification program. The quality assurance organization will perform independent, outside oversight to ensure that any organizational bias does not degrade the integrity of the waste certification process. The core elements of the previous WCP have been retained, however, the terms and process structure have been modified.. There are now two ''control points,'' (1) the data package enters the waste certification process with the signature of the Generator Interface/Generator Interface Equivalent (GI/GIE), (2) the package is ''certified'', thus exiting the process. The WCP contains three steps, (1) the technical review for waste acceptance, (2) a review of the

  4. CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort. Crossing BMI centiles and early adiposity rebound associated with adult metabolic syndrome. BMI gain in infancy and early childhood – associated more with adult lean mass. BMI gain in later childhood / adolescence – associated more with adult fat mass and constituents of ...

  5. Birth Order and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert M.; Lynch, Janet

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between vocational preferences of adolescents and their birth order was examined. Firstborns were found to be overrepresented in the conventional and enterprising areas; later borns were found to be overrepresented in the social and investigative areas. (Author/GK)

  6. Eczema, birth order, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ann Maree; Crouch, Simon; Lightfoot, Tracy; Ansell, Pat; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve

    2008-05-15

    The association between infections occurring in the first 2 years of life and development of eczema was investigated in 1,782 control children from a national population-based case-control study in the United Kingdom conducted over the period 1991-1996. Dates of eczema and infectious diagnoses were ascertained from contemporaneously collected primary care records. Children diagnosed with eczema before the age of 2 years had more prior clinically diagnosed infections recorded than did children without eczema (rate ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). The difference in infection rates between children with and without eczema was apparent from birth and throughout the first 2 years of life. As expected, compared with children of second or higher birth order, those firstborn were at increased risk of eczema (p = 0.020); however, the relation between eczema and prior infection was evident only among children of second or higher birth order and not among firstborn children (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.59, and rate ratio = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.20, respectively). The authors' results are consistent with the notion that the association between birth order and eczema is unlikely to be attributable to variations in early infectious exposure.

  7. Birth control and family planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Birth Control Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  8. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G

    2008-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  9. 2012 Aerospace Medical Certification Statistical Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    2012 Aerospace Medical Certification Statistical Handbook Valerie J. Skaggs Ann I. Norris Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Federal Aviation...Certification Statistical Handbook December 2013 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No. Skaggs VJ, Norris AI 9...2.57 Hayfever 14,477 2.49 Asthma 12,558 2.16 Other general heart pathology (abnormal ECG, open heart surgery, etc.). Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

  10. [Certification assessment and quality and risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papin-Morardet, Maud

    2018-03-01

    Organised by the French National Health Authority (HAS), certification is an external assessment process which is obligatory for all public and private health facilities, whatever their size or activity. The aim is to independently evaluate the quality of the health care provision of hospitals and clinics in France. This article looks at the investigation methods and the procedure used during the certification assessment of Henri Mondor University Hospitals in 2016. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Tradable green certificates in Flanders (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides details on green certificate systems in Belgium. The Flemish region has established a system and the Walloon region is preparing a slightly different one. The lack of uniformity and consequently of transparency in one country emphasises the need for more EU leadership in the field. The main part of the article analyses the established Flemish system. Green certificates are complementary to other instruments that promote renewable electricity, e.g. direct subventions on the feed-in price of green electricity or direct subventions on capital investments. Certificates execute a forcing effect on the actual development of green power if the imposed shares of green power in total sales are significant and if the fine level is at the height to enforce the quota. If the fine is too low the incentive effect turns into a financing tax effect. When the green certificate system does the job it is designed for, i.e. operating at the edge of the RES-E development and organise the transition from a non-sustainable to a sustainable power system, certificate prices will be high and reduce end-use consumption of electricity. A segmentation of the RES-E sector along the various RES-E technologies is a necessity to keep any certificate system affordable, effective and efficient. One can segment the tradable certificate market or one can assign a different number of certificates to a different RES-E technology project. Both solutions require an intensive follow-up of cost structures and of other policy measures (subventions), but given the infant state of understanding and experience segmenting markets may be best in the nearby years. (Author)

  12. NASA's EOSDIS, Trust and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been in operation since August 1994, managing most of NASA's Earth science data from satellites, airborne sensors, filed campaigns and other activities. Having been designated by the Federal Government as a project responsible for production, archiving and distribution of these data through its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), the Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is responsible for EOSDIS, and is legally bound by the Office of Management and Budgets circular A-130, the Federal Records Act. It must follow the regulations of the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) and National Archive and Records Administration (NARA). It must also follow the NASA Procedural Requirement 7120.5 (NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management). All these ensure that the data centers managed by ESDIS are trustworthy from the point of view of efficient and effective operations as well as preservation of valuable data from NASA's missions. Additional factors contributing to this trust are an extensive set of internal and external reviews throughout the history of EOSDIS starting in the early 1990s. Many of these reviews have involved external groups of scientific and technological experts. Also, independent annual surveys of user satisfaction that measure and publish the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), where EOSDIS has scored consistently high marks since 2004, provide an additional measure of trustworthiness. In addition, through an effort initiated in 2012 at the request of NASA HQ, the ESDIS Project and 10 of 12 DAACs have been certified by the International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data System (WDS) and are members of the ICSUWDS. This presentation addresses questions such as pros and cons of the certification process, key outcomes and next steps regarding certification. Recently, the ICSUWDS and Data Seal of Approval (DSA) organizations

  13. Certification of Canadian nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. As part of its mandate, the CNSC requires certification of those who work in positions with direct impact on the safety of Canadian nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors. Other positions, such as exposure device operators and radiation safety officers at other nuclear facilities, also require CNSC certification. In this paper, the certification process of Canadian NPP personnel will be examined. In keeping with the CNSC's regulatory philosophy and international practice, licensees bear the primary responsibility for the safe operation of their NPPs. They are therefore held entirely responsible for training and testing their workers, in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements, to ensure they are fully qualified to perform their duties. The CNSC obtains assurance that all persons it certifies are qualified to carry out their respective duties. It achieves this by overseeing a regime of licensee training programs and certification examinations, which are based on a combination of appropriate regulatory guidance and compliance activities. Reviews of the knowledge-based certification examination methodology and of lessons learned from Fukushima have generated initiatives to further strengthen the CNSC's certification programs for NPP workers. Two of those initiatives are discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. Architect’s Certification: A Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Kum Weng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the problems of some architects issuing fraudulent progress certificates for Malaysia’s housing projects result in many house buyers losing their life savings. Unfortunately, these house buyers still remain contractually responsible for all the associated, present and future financial obligations such as their bank loans. Fraudulent certification is the most frequent incident of complaints amongst the range of problems complained about to the Board of Architects, Malaysia or Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM. This paper highlights the underlying pertinent issues such as when an architect does not fully understand the ramifications, or exercise due care when performing the certifier’s role with its inherent responsibilities under the Housing Development Act (HDA and Housing Development Regulations (HDR. Also at what stage the architect is legally required to issue progressive work completion certificates, particularly the scope ranging from the inception stage through to the completion stage. This includes the relevant housing laws and regulations that enshrine the architects’ professional status and confers legal certification duties. This is designed to protect the public interest, yet many architects fail to perform this duty inde-pendently, or impartially and fairly to the new house buyers and the public at-large. Recognizing the systemic weakness, the elements that contribute to the fraudulent certification and illustrates how the fraudulent certification exploits the trust of house buyers. In the analysis, a quantitative framework was used to measure, quantify and discuss the best all round outcomes.

  15. Software Quality Certification: identifying the real obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Baker

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available A case study of software certification reveals the real difficulty of certifying quality beyond superficial assessment - readers are invited to form their own conclusions. AS 3563 Software Quality Management System is the Australian version of ISO 9001, developed specifically for the software industry. For many Australian software houses, gaining certification with AS 3563 is a priority since certification has become a prerequisite to doing business with government departments and major corporations. However, the process of achieving registration with this standard is a lengthy and resource intensive process, and may have little impact on actual software quality. This case study recounts the experience of the consulting arm of one of Australia's accounting firms in its quest for certification. By using a number of specific management strategies this company was able to successfully implement AS 3563 in less than half the time usually taken to achieve certification - a feat for which its management should be congratulated. However, because the focus of the project was on gaining certification, few internal benefits have been realised despite the successful implementation of the standard.

  16. 45 CFR 170.490 - Sunset of the temporary certification program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT...

  17. Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects: Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Zika and Microcephaly Microcephaly is a birth defect in ... pregnancy or has stopped growing after birth. Congenital Zika Syndrome Congenital Zika syndrome is a unique pattern ...

  18. VBAC (Vaginal Birth After C-Section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC) Overview If you've delivered a baby by C-section and ... between scheduling a repeat C-section or attempting vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC). For many women, ...

  19. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    level factors on birth spacing behaviour in Uganda and Zimbabwe, to ... environments as potential influences on birth spacing ..... health: multivariable cross-country analysis, MACRO ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  20. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  1. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  2. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  3. Home Birth: Know the Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including: A desire to give birth without medical intervention, such as pain medication, labor augmentation, labor induction or fetal heart rate monitoring A desire to give birth in a comfortable, familiar place surrounded by family Dissatisfaction with hospital care ...

  4. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.

    1989-08-01

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  5. No. 155-Guidelines for Vaginal Birth After Previous Caesarean Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marie-Jocelyne; MacKinnon, Catherine Jane

    2018-03-01

    To provide evidence-based guidelines for the provision of a trial of labour (TOL) after Caesarean section. Fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) and repeat Caesarean section. MEDLINE database was searched for articles published from January 1, 1995, to February 28, 2004, using the key words "vaginal birth after Caesarean (Cesarean) section." The quality of evidence is described using the Evaluation of Evidence criteria outlined in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. VALIDATION: These guidelines were approved by the Clinical Practice Obstetrics and Executive Committees of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...... birth remained broadly stable from 1981 to 2000 in all four countries. Consequently, the socio-economic inequalities in preterm birth were not strongly influenced by structural changes during the period....

  7. Birth Satisfaction Scale/Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS/BSS-R): A large scale United States planned home birth and birth centre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susan E; Donovan-Batson, Colleen; Burduli, Ekaterina; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Martin, Colin R

    2016-10-01

    to explore the prevalence of birth satisfaction for childbearing women planning to birth in their home or birth centers in the United States. Examining differences in birth satisfaction of the home and birth centers; and those who birthed in a hospital using the 30-item Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and the 10-item Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R). a quantitative survey using the BSS and BSS-R were employed. Additional demographic data were collected using electronic linkages (Qualtrics ™ ). a convenience sample of childbearing women (n=2229) who had planned to birth in their home or birth center from the US (United States) participated. Participants were recruited via professional and personal contacts, primarily their midwives. the total 30-item BSS score mean was 128.98 (SD 16.92) and the 10-item BSS-R mean score was 31.94 (SD 6.75). Sub-scale mean scores quantified the quality of care provision, women's personal attributes, and stress experienced during labour. Satisfaction was higher for women with vaginal births compared with caesareans deliveries. In addition, satisfaction was higher for women who had both planned to deliver in a home or a birth centre, and who had actually delivered in a home or a birth center. total and subscale birth satisfaction scores were positive and high for the overall sample IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the BSS and the BSS-R provide a robust tool to quantify women's experiences of childbirth between variables such as birth types, birth settings and providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health handbook in Burundi for increasing notification of birth at health facilities and postnatal care uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kayo; Niyonkuru, Jacques; Juma, Ndereye; Mbonabuca, Térence; Osaki, Keiko; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    In Burundi, birth certificate ownership (56.4%) and postnatal care (PNC) coverage (30%) remain low. Birth certificates prove birth registration and allow clients to receive free medical care including PNC. To obtain birth certificates, notification of birth by witnesses is indispensable. However, use of existing parallel home-based records for mother and child has prevented clients from successfully receiving notification of birth and related information. To assess the effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) handbook for increasing notification of birth at health facilities and PNC uptake. Pre- and post-introduction measurement were applied including: (i) structured interviews with two different sets of randomly selected mothers having infants aged less than six weeks at the pre- or post-studies; and (ii) secondary data from the national health management information system. 95.1% of mothers had an MCH handbook post-study. Significant improvement was observed in the proportion of mothers receiving notification of birth at health facilities, from 4.6% to 61.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55.9%-66.2%), and the proportion of mothers receiving guidance on PNC, from 35.9% to 64.2% (95% CI: 59.2%-69.3%). The annual PNC coverage (43.9% to 54.2%; p increased from 2013 to 2014. Among MCH handbook owners, mothers giving birth at hospitals/clinics had 2.62 higher odds (95% CI: 1.63-4.22) of obtaining notification of birth than mothers giving birth at health centers. Conversely, mothers delivering at hospitals/clinics had 0.51 lower odds (95% CI: 1.63-4.22) of receiving PNC guidance than mothers delivering at health centers. As previous studies showed, the MCH handbook appeared to help health personnel provide guidance on PNC, thereby it may have increased PNC. Furthermore, this study suggests the handbook contributed to every birth being counted. However, to increase the effectiveness of the handbook, health personnel should be encouraged toward its proper

  9. Enacting Third-Party Certification: A Case Study of Science and Politics in Organic Shrimp Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, Jason; Hatanaka, Maki

    2011-01-01

    As third-party certification has become a prominent governance mechanism, conflicting understandings of it have emerged. Proponents advance third-party certification as a technical and objective governance mechanism, while critics argue that politics and relations of power characterize it. We reject this dichotomization both in terms of how TPC is…

  10. Certification of thermal solar systems in the Netherlands and monitoring the results of certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, B.G.C. van der

    1996-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the solar energy market in the Netherlands, quality control of solar systems is well under way. An important tool to improve the infrastructure of the solar market is certification of solar energy systems. Certification in the Netherlands is being developed in two projects

  11. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure. Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  12. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  13. Birth Control: How to Use Your Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens ... MoreBMI Calculator Vasectomy: What to ExpectProgestin-Only Birth Control PillsDepo-Provera: An Injectable ContraceptiveTubal Sterilization (Tubal Ligation) ...

  14. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  15. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  16. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  17. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  18. Experiences of women who planned birth in a birth centre compared to alternative planned places of birth. Results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermes, M.A.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, L.C.; Wiegers, T.A.; Akker-van Marle, M.E.; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. de; Graaf, J.P. de

    2016-01-01

    Objective to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ

  19. Experiences of women who planned birth in a birth centre compared to alternative planned places of birth. Results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, I.C.; Wiegers, T.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graal, J. P. de

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design: this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ

  20. Birth-death processes and associated polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2003-01-01

    We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis

  1. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  2. Adoptive Parents' Attitudes Toward Open Birth Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissinger, Shirley

    1984-01-01

    Investigated adoptive parents' (N=42) attitudes toward the open birth record issues using a mail survey. Analysis indicated that parental fear was the most important variable. Most supported a measure allowing adult adoptees access to birth records, provided such access was agreeable to birth and adoptive parents. (JAC)

  3. Birth weight and perinatal mortality: A comparison of "optimal" birth weight in seven western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafmans, W.C.; Richardus, J.H.; Borsboom, G.J.J.M.; Bakketeig, L.; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Bergsjø, P.; Macfarlane, A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, P.; Mackenbach, J.; Aelvoet, W.; Alderdice, F.; Amelink, M.; Bakoula, C.; Blondel, B.; Bødker, B.; Bolumar, F.; Davidson, L.; Gissler, M.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Holt, J.; Kaminski, M.; Leidinger, J.; Lekea, V.; Lindmark, G.; Masuy-Stroobant, G.; Pal, K. van der; Penney, G.; Purificação Araújo, M. Da; Rantakallio, P.; Rebagliato, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have suggested that a population's entire birth weight distribution may be shifted towards higher or lower birth weights, and that optimal birth weight may be lower in populations with a lower average birth weight. We evaluated this hypothesis for seven western European

  4. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  5. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  6. Modeling The Effects of Mother’s Age at First Birth on Child Health at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-01-01

    This study models the impact of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth in Cameroon. The objectives are: (1) investigate the implication of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth; (2) examine the impact of mother’s age groups on birth weight, and (3) suggest economic policies to ameliorate the mother’s age – child health relationship. We make used of the control function approach to determine the relationship between mother’s age at first birth and birth...

  7. The partial-birth stratagem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy.

  8. Risk Attitudes and Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...

  9. Progressive Taxes and Firm Births

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ulrich Bacher; Marius Brülhart

    2013-01-01

    Tax reform proposals in the spirit of the 'flat tax' model typically aim to reduce three parameters: the average tax burden, the progressivity of the tax schedule, and the complexity of the tax code. We explore the implications of changes in these three parameters on entrepreneurial activity, measured by counts of firm births. The Swiss fiscal system offers sufficient intra-national variation in tax codes to allow us to estimate these effects with considerable precision. We find that high ave...

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in very preterm birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L K; Draper, E S; Manktelow, B N; Dorling, J S; Field, D J

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of very preterm birth over the past decade. Ecological study of all 549 618 births in the former Trent health region, UK, from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2003. All singleton births of 22(+0) to 32(+6) weeks gestation (7 185 births) were identified from population surveys of neonatal services and stillbirths. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence of very preterm birth (22-32 weeks) and extremely preterm birth (22-28 weeks) by year of birth and decile of deprivation (child poverty section of the Index of Multiple Deprivation). Incidence of very preterm singleton birth rose from 11.9 per 1000 births in 1994 to 13.7 per 1000 births in 2003. Those from the most deprived decile were at nearly twice the risk of very preterm birth compared with those from the least deprived decile, with 16.4 per 1000 births in the most deprived decile compared with 8.5 per 1000 births in the least deprived decile (incidence rate ratio 1.94; 95% CI (1.73 to 2.17)). This deprivation gap remained unchanged throughout the 10-year period. The magnitude of socio-economic inequalities was the same for extremely preterm births (22-28 weeks incidence rate ratio 1.94; 95% CI (1.62 to 2.32)). This large, unique dataset of very preterm births shows wide socio-economic inequalities that persist over time. These findings are likely to have consequences on the burden of long-term morbidity. Our research can assist future healthcare planning, the monitoring of socio-economic inequalities and the targeting of interventions in order to reduce this persistent deprivation gap.

  11. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  12. Revitalising the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort: background, aims and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Lund, Rikke

    2004-01-01

    mobility. At age 12 years, 9537 of these cohort members completed a questionnaire in school, which included cognitive measures and information on social aspirations and leisure time activities. In 1966 educational performance tests were administered for these boys and, in 1968, mothers of 2890 cohort......Recent research indicates that factors operating during childhood are related to adult health. Thus, longitudinal studies with information on subsequent phases may be key to understanding later health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to describe the history and design of a Danish birth...... cohort, and its revitalisation. In 1965, information from birth certificates for 11 591 of a total of 12 270 males born in 1953 in the Metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark were traced. These boys were the study population of a sociological investigation conducted with the aim of describing social...

  13. The Danish national quality database for births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database: The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population: The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables: Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous...... Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion: Measuring quality of care during...

  14. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way.

  15. Planned and unplanned home births and hospital births in Calgary, Alberta, 1984-87.

    OpenAIRE

    Abernathy, T J; Lentjes, D M

    1989-01-01

    Information collected on all home births in Calgary (Canada) between the years 1984 and 1987, was examined and analyzed according to whether the home birth environment had been planned or unplanned. The two groups were compared to each other and to all hospital births according to demographic characteristics of mothers, indicators of prenatal care, and birth outcome. Mothers who had planned their home birth were more likely to be primiparous, attend prenatal classes, obtain regular prenatal c...

  16. Implementation of thermographers' certification in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Laerte; Alves, Luiz M.; da Costa Bortoni, Edson

    2011-05-01

    In recent years Brazil has experienced extraordinary growth despite the recent economic global crisis. The demand for infrared thermography products and services has accompanied this growth. Like other non-destructive testing and inspection, the results obtained by thermography are highly dependent on the skills of thermographer. Therefore, it is very important to establish a serious and recognized process of certification to assess thermographers' qualifications and help services suppliers to establish credibility with their customers and increase the confidence of these costumers on the quality of these services. The Brazilian Society of Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, ABENDI, a non-profitable, private technical-scientific entity, recognized nationally and internationally, has observed the necessity of starting a process for certification of thermographers in Brazil. With support of a work group composed by experts from oil and energy industries, transportation, universities and manufactures, the activities started in 2005. This paper describes the economic background required for installation of the certification process, its initial steps, the main characteristics of the Brazilian certification and the expectation for initiating the certification process.

  17. Combating pharmacist shortage through labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M

    1994-06-01

    Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.

  18. Overview of the DOE packaging certification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Carlson, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carlson, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kapoor, A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the DOE packaging certification process, which is implemented by the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, under the Assistance Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, for packagings that are not used for weapons and weapons components, nor for naval nuclear propulsion. The overview will emphasize Type B packagings and the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) review that parallels the NRC packaging review. Other important elements in the DOE packaging certification program, such as training, methods development, data bases, and technical assistance, are also emphasized, because they have contributed significantly to the improvement of the certification process since DOE consolidated its packaging certification function in 1985. The paper finishes with a discussion of the roles and functions of the DOE Packaging Safety Review Steering Committee, which is chartered to address issues and concerns of interest to the DOE packaging and transportation safety community. Two articles related to DOE packaging certification were published earlier on the SARP review procedures and the DOE Packaging Review Guide. These articles may be consulted for additional information.

  19. Obtaining your annual internal taxation certificate

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    (cf. Article R IV 2.04 of the Staff Regulations) Your annual internal taxation certificate will state the taxable amount of your CERN remuneration, payments and other financial benefits and the amount of tax levied by the Organization during the previous financial year. In France, your tax return must be accompanied by this certificate. Current Members of the Personnel (including Members of the Personnel participating in a pre-retirement programme): - You will receive an e-mail containing a link to your printable annual certificate, which will be stored together with your pay and leave statements (e-Payslips). - You can also access your annual certificate via https://hrt.cern.ch (open 'My Payslips' at the bottom of the main menu.) - If you experience any technical difficulties in accessing your annual certificate (e.g. invalid AIS login or password), please contact CERN's AIS support team at ais.support@cern.ch. Former Members of the Personnel:- If you remember your AIS login and password, you can acc...

  20. BIRTH ORDER AMONG NORTHERN INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Agarwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the medical entrance examination from responded 360 medical students among 494 students admitted during 2005 – 2010. Results: The study revealed insignificant relationship between ages of entrance in medical college in both sexes. of 360 students responded 37% students were of first Birth order. Among those admitted in first attempt, 67% students were of first birth order and proportion of success in first attempt reduced with increasing birth order. Conclusion: Birth Order strongly influences academic achievements.

  1. 45 CFR 170.455 - Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.455 Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards. (a) ONC-ATCBs...

  2. 45 CFR 170.465 - Revocation of authorized testing and certification body status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.465 Revocation of authorized testing and certification body status. (a) Type-1...

  3. ISO and software quality assurance - licensing and certification of software professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, J.; Rodin, L.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on licensing and certifing of software professionals. Discussed in this report are: certification programs; licensing programs; why became certified; certification as a condition of empolyment; certification requirements; and examination structures.

  4. Epidemiologic characteristics of anophthalmia and bilateral microphthalmia among 2.5 million births in California, 1989-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gary M; Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Harris, John A; Finnell, Richard H; Lammer, Edward J

    2005-08-15

    There is a paucity of epidemiologic information about the eye malformations anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Using data from a large population-based registry, we explored prevalences and maternal/infant characteristics associated with anophthalmia and bilateral microphthalmia. Data were derived from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, a population-based active surveillance system for collecting information on infants and fetuses with congenital malformations using multiple source ascertainment. Approximately 2.5 million births (liveborn and stillborn) occurred during the ascertainment period, 1989-1997. Information on maternal and infant/fetal characteristics was obtained from California birth certificate and fetal death files. The prevalence per 10,000 livebirths and stillbirths for anophthalmia was 0.18 and for bilateral microphthalmia was 0.22. These estimates reflect prevalences among births without chromosomal anomalies. Relative risks of anophthalmia were modestly higher among women aged 40 or more (relative risk = 2.0, 95% confidence interval 0.5-8.6). Risks were substantially lower for those mothers with >12 years of education, even after adjusting for other study factors, relative risk = 0.6 (0.2-1.7). The risk of anophthalmia was approximately twofold among multiple births compared to singletons. Similar to results for anophthalmia, decreased risks for bilateral microphthalmia were observed for maternal education of 12 years or more and increased risks observed for multiple births. These data show descriptive epidemiologic features of anophthalmia and bilateral microphthalmia. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Trends and characteristics of home vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in the United States and selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Mathews, T J; Stotland, Naomi

    2012-04-01

    To examine trends and characteristics of home vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in the United States and selected states from 1990-2008. Birth certificate data were used to track trends in home and hospital VBACs from 1990-2008. Data on planned home VBAC were analyzed by sociodemographic and medical characteristics for the 25 states reporting this information in 2008 and compared with hospital VBAC data. In 2008, there were approximately 42,000 hospital VBACs and approximately 1,000 home VBACs in the United States, up from 664 in 2003 and 656 in 1990. The percentage of home births that were VBACs increased from less than 1% in 1996 to 4% in 2008, whereas the percentage of hospital births that were VBACs decreased from 3% in 1996 to 1% in 2008. Planned home VBACs had a lower risk profile than hospital VBACs with fewer births to teenagers, unmarried women, or smokers; fewer preterm or low-birth-weight deliveries; and higher maternal education levels. Recent increases in the proportion of U.S. women with a prior cesarean delivery mean that an increasing number of women are faced with the choice and associated risks of either VBAC or repeat cesarean delivery. Recent restrictions in hospital VBAC availability have coincided with increases in home VBACs; however, home VBAC remains rare, with approximately 1,000 occurrences in 2008. II.

  6. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  7. Facility certification program for coal miners pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, E.D.; Kelley, J.P.; Larson, V.L.; Herbert, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Public Law 91-173, often referred to as the Black Lung Law, called for a chest radiograph of all active coal miners at stated intervals. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health was responsible for carrying out the provisions of the law. Among other requirements was a provision for certification of radiological facilities where radiological examinations would be provide. A test object to be radiographed by each such facility was designed and sent to those facilities applying for certification. To date, 284 facilities have applied for certification of which 215 have been approved. A record has been kept of the number of times any approved facility submitted radiographs before approval. A complete listing of the types of equipment used, personnel qualifications and other pertinent data will be reported

  8. Certification of power generation from sewage gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the certification of power generated from sewage gas in packaged co-generation units in Switzerland. Since 2003, such electricity can be sold as 'green power' to consumers, who pay an additional charge for this ecologically generated power. Since the eco-balance of this electricity generated in wastewater treatment plant is considered as being excellent, the prestigious 'Naturemade Star' label has been awarded to it. This label sets most stringent requirements. The Canius wastewater treatment plant in the 'Lenzerheide' in eastern Switzerland is taken as an example to illustrate the procedure that has to be gone through to receive certification. This certification is carried out by independent auditors and guarantees that the 'green' electricity offered by the utility meets the high ecological criteria set by the label

  9. Sustainability, certification, and regulation of biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank G. A. Verheijen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has a relatively long half-life in soil and can fundamentally alter soil properties, processes, and ecosystem services. The prospect of global-scale biochar application to soils highlights the importance of a sophisticated and rigorous certification procedure. The objective of this work was to discuss the concept of integrating biochar properties with environmental and socioeconomic factors, in a sustainable biochar certification procedure that optimizes complementarity and compatibility between these factors over relevant time periods. Biochar effects and behavior should also be modelled at temporal scales similar to its expected functional lifetime in soils. Finally, when existing soil data are insufficient, soil sampling and analysis procedures need to be described as part of a biochar certification procedure.

  10. Compositional Safety Analysis using Barrier Certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pappas, George J.; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a compositional method for verifying the safety of a dynamical system, given as an interconnection of subsystems. The safety verification is conducted by the use of the barrier certificate method; hence, the contribution of this paper is to show how to obtain compositional...... conditions for safety verification. We show how to formulate the verification problem, as a composition of coupled subproblems, each given for one subsystem. Furthermore, we show how to find the compositional barrier certificates via linear and sum of squares programming problems. The proposed method makes...... it possible to verify the safety of higher dimensional systems, than the method for centrally computed barrier certificates. This is demonstrated by verifying the safety of an emergency shutdown of a wind turbine....

  11. 15 CFR 50.60 - Request for certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... set cost of the product (one certificate). Certification fees may increase somewhat if the customer.... These governmental units include a variety of legally defined general- and special-purpose governmental...

  12. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 85-17A18] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... to amend an Export [[Page 72325

  13. 27 CFR 5.55 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Requirements for Approval of... certificates of label approval and certificates of exemption from label approval, as well as appeal procedures...

  14. An eCertificate Program in Transportation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this project, researchers developed a proposal to extend the delivery of the recently developed : Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to a wider audience via : distance education (online or eCertificate)....

  15. Are all immigrant mothers really at risk of low birth weight and perinatal mortality? The crucial role of socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racape, Judith; Schoenborn, Claudia; Sow, Mouctar; Alexander, Sophie; De Spiegelaere, Myriam

    2016-04-08

    Increasing studies show that immigrants have different perinatal health outcomes compared to native women. Nevertheless, we lack a systematic examination of the combined effects of immigrant status and socioeconomic factors on perinatal outcomes. Our objectives were to analyse national Belgian data to determine 1) whether socioeconomic status (SES) modifies the association between maternal nationality and perinatal outcomes (low birth weight and perinatal mortality); 2) the effect of adopting the Belgian nationality on the association between maternal foreign nationality and perinatal outcomes. This study is a population-based study using the data from linked birth and death certificates from the Belgian civil registration system. Data are related to all singleton births to mothers living in Belgium between 1998 and 2010. Perinatal mortality and low birth weight (LBW) were estimated by SES (maternal education and parental employment status) and by maternal nationality (at her own birth and at her child's birth). We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios for the associations between nationality and perinatal outcomes after adjusting for and stratifying by SES. The present study includes, for the first time, all births in Belgium; that is 1,363,621 singleton births between 1998 and 2010. Compared to Belgians, we observed an increased risk of perinatal mortality in all migrant groups (p order to understand more fully the relationship between migration and perinatal outcomes. Further studies are needed to analyse more finely the impact of socio-economic characteristics on perinatal outcomes.

  16. Paternal effects on the human sex ratio at birth: evidence from interracial crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, M J; Erickson, J D; James, L M

    1984-01-01

    The effects of interracial crossing on the human sex ratio at birth were investigated using United States birth-certificate data for 1972-1979. The sex ratio was 1.059 for approximately 14 million singleton infants born to white couples, 1.033 for 2 million born to black couples, and 1.024 for 64,000 born to American Indian couples. Paternal and maternal race influences on the observed racial differences in sex ratio were analyzed using additional data on approximately 97,000 singleton infants born to white-black couples and 60,000 born to white-Indian couples. After adjustment for mother's race, white fathers had significantly more male offspring than did black fathers (ratio of sex ratios [RSR] = 1.027) and Indian fathers (RSR = 1.022). On the other hand, after adjustment for father's race, white mothers did not have more male offspring than did black mothers (RSR = 0.998) or Indian mothers (RSR = 1.009). The paternal-race effect persisted after adjustment for parental ages, education, birth order, and maternal marital status. The study shows that the observed racial differences in the sex ratio at birth are due to the effects of father's race and not the mother's. The study points to paternal determinants of the human sex ratio at fertilization and/or of the prenatal differential sex survival. PMID:6496474

  17. Maternal Demographic and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight in Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ming Li

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between birth weight and maternal sociodemographic characteristics was examined in a sample from two teaching hospitals in eastern Taiwan. Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted face- to-face interviews with women at antenatal clinics between 1998 and 1999 in Hualien City. One year later, we took the outcome of pregnancy from medical records and birth certificates from the Public Health Bureau of Hualien County. Of the 1,128 single live births, 6.8% had low birth weight (LBW using the World Health Organization cut-off of 2,500 g. LBW was more common in teenage ( 30 years, first-time, and unmarried mothers; those with basic/intermediate educational attainment; and residents of aboriginal districts. Teenage pregnancies were more likely than those in adults to be unplanned, and such mothers had smoking or alcohol-drinking behavior. Prevention of teenage pregnancy is crucial to lower LBW rates in eastern Taiwan. For adult mothers, basic or intermediate educational attainment, residence in an aboriginal district, and first-term pregnancy were significant factors associated with LBW, after adjustment for other psychosocial attributes, such as psychologic distress and poor family support. Thus, we should pay more attention when caring for pregnant women with such sociodemographic characteristics, and ensure that they have adequate prenatal care and can adopt a healthy lifestyle.

  18. Status of system 80+ design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that 1991 was a year of great progress in the design certification process for ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power's 1300 MWe evolutionary advanced light water reactor (ALWR) plant, System 80+. As the next generation of nuclear power plants move toward final design approval by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), elements of the design process that emphasize operation and maintenance have become the focus. For System 80+, licensing under the new design certification process is now concentrated on operational support, human engineering, plant layout, and computer-aided engineering

  19. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    . The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...... with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry...

  20. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. Results PTB rate of PTB poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies. PMID:18793437

  1. Identifying areas at risk of low birth weight using spatial epidemiology: A small area surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Talbot, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To assess the geographic distribution of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in New York State among singleton births using a spatial regression approach in order to identify priority areas for public health actions. LBW was defined as birth weight less than 2500g. Geocoded data from 562,586 birth certificates in New York State (years 2008-2012) were merged with 2010 census data at the tract level. To provide stable estimates and maintain confidentiality, data were aggregated to yield 1268 areas of analysis. LBW prevalence among singleton births was related with area-level behavioral, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using a Poisson mixed effects spatial error regression model. Observed low birth weight showed statistically significant auto-correlation in our study area (Moran's I 0.16 p value 0.0005). After over-dispersion correction and accounting for fixed effects for selected social determinants, spatial autocorrelation was fully accounted for (Moran's I-0.007 p value 0.241). The proportion of LBW was higher in areas with larger Hispanic or Black populations and high smoking prevalence. Smoothed maps with predicted prevalence were developed to identify areas at high risk of LBW. Spatial patterns of residual variation were analyzed to identify unique risk factors. Neighborhood racial composition contributes to disparities in LBW prevalence beyond differences in behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Small-area analyses of LBW can identify areas for targeted interventions and display unique local patterns that should be accounted for in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muglia Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990. Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty was the reference group. Results PTB th quartile (4.9%, p adjOR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35, with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52. Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  3. What we don't know can hurt us: Nonresponse bias assessment in birth defects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassle, Paula D; Cassell, Cynthia H; Shapira, Stuart K; Tinker, Sarah C; Meyer, Robert E; Grosse, Scott D

    2015-07-01

    Nonresponse bias assessment is an important and underutilized tool in survey research to assess potential bias due to incomplete participation. This study illustrates a nonresponse bias sensitivity assessment using a survey on perceived barriers to care for children with orofacial clefts in North Carolina. Children born in North Carolina between 2001 and 2004 with an orofacial cleft were eligible for inclusion. Vital statistics data, including maternal and child characteristics, were available on all eligible subjects. Missing 'responses' from nonparticipants were imputed using assumptions based on the distribution of responses, survey method (mail or phone), and participant maternal demographics. Overall, 245 of 475 subjects (51.6%) responded to either a mail or phone survey. Cost as a barrier to care was reported by 25.0% of participants. When stratified by survey type, 28.3% of mail respondents and 17.2% of phone respondents reported cost as a barrier. Under various assumptions, the bias-adjusted estimated prevalence of cost as barrier to care ranged from 16.1% to 30.0%. Maternal age, education, race, and marital status at time of birth were not associated with subjects reporting cost as a barrier. As survey response rates continue to decline, the importance of assessing the potential impact of nonresponse bias has become more critical. Birth defects research is particularly conducive to nonresponse bias analysis, especially when birth defect registries and birth certificate records are used. Future birth defect studies which use population-based surveillance data and have incomplete participation could benefit from this type of nonresponse bias assessment. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 103:603-609, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... data, views, or arguments to the above listed address. Please identify ``SOP: AIR-100-001 Standard... Certification Offices (ACOs). The certification programs include: Type certificate (TC), Amended Type Certificate (ATC), Supplemental Type Certificated ATC), Amended Supplemental Type Certificate (ASTC), and...

  5. Undergraduates' Intentions to Take Examinations for Professional Certification: Examinations of Four Competing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pi-Yueh; Hsu, Ping-Kun; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on professional certification has primarily focused on graduate certificates in intensive care nursing, writing certificates for practitioners, maintenance of certification in radiation oncology, and the certification of teachers and surgeons. Research on certification in the domain of business and management from an…

  6. Introduction of China's Compulsory Product Certification System (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Why does China establish a new Compulso-ry Product Certification System? For a long time, our compulsory product certification system has had problems such as lack of a unified management department, repeated assessments,repeated charging and no separation between certification activities and behaviors of law enforcement.The most obvious problem is that two certification management systems exist respectively for domestic products and imported products.

  7. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Outcomes of independent midwifery attended births in birth centres and home births: a retrospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yaeko; Eto, Hiromi; Iida, Mariko

    2013-08-01

    the objective of this study was to describe and compare perinatal and neonatal outcomes of women who received care from independent midwives practicing home births and at birth centres in Tokyo. a retrospective cohort study. birth centres and homes serviced by independent midwives in Tokyo. of the 43 eligible independent midwives 19 (44%) (10 assisted birth at birth centres, nine assisted home birth) participated in the study. A total of 5477 women received care during their pregnancy and gave birth assisted by these midwives between 2001 and 2006. researchers conducted a retrospective chart review of women's individual data. Collected data included demographic characteristics, process of pregnancy and perinatal and neonatal outcomes. We also collected data about independent midwives and their practice. of the 5477 women, 83.9% gave birth at birth centres and 16.1% gave birth at home. The average age was 31.7 years old and the majority (70.6%) were multiparas. All women had vaginal spontaneous deliveries, with no vacuum, forceps or caesarean section interventions. No maternal fatalities were reported, nor were breech or multiple births. The average duration of the first and second stages of labour was 14.9 hours for primiparas and 6.2 hours for multiparas. Most women (97.1%) gave birth within 24 hours of membrane rupture. Maternal position during labour varied and family attended birth was common. The average blood loss was 371.3mL, while blood loss over 500mL was 22.6% and over 1000mL was 3.6%. Nearly 60% of women had intact perinea. There were few preterm births (0.6%) and post mature births (1.3%). Infant's average birth weight was 3126g and 0.5% were low-birthweight-infants, while 3.3% had macrosomia. Among primiparas, the birth centre group had more women experiencing an excess of 500mL blood loss compared to the home birth group (27.2% versus 17.6% respectively; RR 1.54; 95%CI 1.10 to 2.16). Multiparas delivering at birth centres were more likely to have a

  9. Reasons Why Women Choose Home Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Angelie P. Andrino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal deaths in the Philippines remain high. These deaths are mostly due to the large proportion of home births, complications of pregnancy and delivery, and lack of access to facilities and competently trained staff. Utilizing a descriptive, one-shot survey design, the study aimed to determine the reasons why women in a municipality in Iloilo prefer home birth. The respondents were interviewed using a validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and interpret the findings. The study revealed that the proportion of home births progressively declined from 2012 to 2014. Birth being imminent or inevitable is the number one reason that supports home birth. Autonomy, safety, affordability, readily available birthing equipment and supplies, accessibility of birth attendant, remote access by going to the birthing center, lack of transportation, and bad weather conditions also led women to give birth at home. Women from the rural areas of the municipality utilized available resources in the community which prompted the predominance of home deliveries assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs and even midwives, who were readily available nearby. This study recommends continuous improvement in existing maternal health interventions and strategies through engagement of women in policy planning, improvement of health service delivery, infrastructural enhancement, better care practices and continuous health education.

  10. Twins: prevalence, problems, and preterm births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Suneet P; Scardo, James A; Hayes, Edward; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2010-10-01

    The rate of twin pregnancies in the United States has stabilized at 32 per 1000 births in 2006. Aside from determining chorionicity, first-trimester screening and second-trimester ultrasound scanning should ascertain whether there are structural or chromosomal abnormalities. Compared with singleton births, genetic amniocentesis-related loss at births is higher (0.9% vs 2.9%, respectively). Selective termination for an anomalous fetus is an option, although the pregnancy loss rate is 7% at experienced centers. For singleton and twin births for African American and white women, approximately 50% of preterm births are indicated; approximately one-third of these births are spontaneous, and 10% of the births occur after preterm premature rupture of membranes. From 1989-2000, the rate of preterm twin births increased, for African American and white women alike, although the perinatal mortality rate has actually decreased. As with singleton births, tocolytics should be used judiciously and only for a limited time (births. Administration of antenatal corticosteroids is an evidence-based recommendation. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Planned home birth: the professional responsibility response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the recrudescence of and new support for midwife-supervised planned home birth in the United States and the other developed countries in the context of professional responsibility. Advocates of planned home birth have emphasized patient safety, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and respect for women's rights. We provide a critical evaluation of each of these claims and identify professionally appropriate responses of obstetricians and other concerned physicians to planned home birth. We start with patient safety and show that planned home birth has unnecessary, preventable, irremediable increased risk of harm for pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. We document that the persistently high rates of emergency transport undermines patient safety and satisfaction, the raison d'etre of planned home birth, and that a comprehensive analysis undermines claims about the cost-effectiveness of planned home birth. We then argue that obstetricians and other concerned physicians should understand, identify, and correct the root causes of the recrudescence of planned home birth; respond to expressions of interest in planned home birth by women with evidence-based recommendations against it; refuse to participate in planned home birth; but still provide excellent and compassionate emergency obstetric care to women transported from planned home birth. We explain why obstetricians should not participate in or refer to randomized clinical trials of planned home vs planned hospital birth. We call on obstetricians, other concerned physicians, midwives and other obstetric providers, and their professional associations not to support planned home birth when there are safe and compassionate hospital-based alternatives and to advocate for a safe home-birth-like experience in the hospital. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Legal regulation of home births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors tried to find efficient legal frame for home births. The main problem is the risk of life and health of a mother and a baby. If a mother wants a home labor, there are no legal obstacles ^for her to take the risk of her own life, after consultation with health-care professionals. However, society is obligated to protect unborn child from irrational behavior of the mother, if she acts against child's best interests. Legal rules were analyzed by methods of neo-institutional economic theory, while the risks of life and health of a mother and a baby were analyzed by medical science methods.

  13. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Multimedia

    Rodgers, L

    2001-01-01

    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  14. 75 FR 28335 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Product Certification; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 97 / Thursday, May 20, 2010.... CPSC-2010-0038] RIN 3041-AC71 Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification AGENCY: Consumer... also address labeling of consumer products to show that the product complies with certification...

  15. 75 FR 48933 - 2010 Russian Export Certification for Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Export Certification for Fishery Products AGENCY: Seafood Inspection Program (SIP), National Marine... certification of seafood products exported from the United States to the Russian Federation. The purpose of the... regarding certification of the safety and sanitary condition of fish and fishery products for export to the...

  16. Certification. Tool for quality? Market and client for radiation experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaard, W.

    1999-01-01

    The role and impact of certification in the advisory work of radiation experts is briefly outlined. Certification is a guarantee for quality of the advice or a product in case there is a client and a market. In cases where there is not a client or a market certification will lead to 'window-dressing and a bureaucratic system

  17. 76 FR 69481 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... 1107 Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Pertaining to Product Certification AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... that the product complies with the certification requirements under section 14(a) of the Consumer...

  18. 14 CFR 21.273 - Airworthiness certificates other than experimental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Delegation Option Authorization... airworthiness certificate for aircraft manufactured under a delegation option authorization if he finds, on the... authorize any employee to sign airworthiness certificates if that employee— (1) Performs, or is in direct...

  19. 45 CFR 170.410 - Types of testing and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 170.410 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.410 Types...

  20. 45 CFR 170.450 - EHR module testing and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 170.450 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.450 EHR...

  1. 47 CFR 2.1043 - Changes in certificated equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certificated or formerly type accepted AM broadcast stereophonic exciter-generator with a certificated or... interconnection of a multiplexing exciter with a certificated or formerly type accepted AM broadcast transmitter... generators to a type accepted FM broadcast transmitter, provided the transmitter exciter is designed for...

  2. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the funds for redemption are raised by the issuance of mutual capital certificates approved pursuant... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563...-OPERATIONS Securities and Borrowings § 563.74 Mutual capital certificates. (a) General. No savings...

  3. Status of the safety certification process of the TRANSRAPID system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomerius, J [TUEV Rheinland, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Software, Elektronik, Bahntechnik

    1996-12-31

    Since 20 years TUeV Rheinland is involved in safety certification of maglev technology of the TRANSRAPID type. The process applied is called PASC (Programm Accompanying Safety Certification). The paper reports on safety assessment of relevant subsystems and components (TR07, OCS, guideway components) as well as safety certification in the final program. (HW)

  4. 20 CFR 656.24 - Labor certification determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification applications. (2) If the labor certification presents a special or unique problem, the Director of... opportunity as a college or university teacher, the U.S. worker must be at least as qualified as the alien. (3... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor certification determinations. 656.24...

  5. 14 CFR 121.437 - Pilot qualification: Certificates required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Certificates required... Pilot qualification: Certificates required. (a) No pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft (or... pilots) unless he holds an airline transport pilot certificate and an appropriate type rating for that...

  6. 29 CFR 102.115 - Certification of papers and documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of papers and documents. 102.115 Section 102... Certification and Signature of Documents § 102.115 Certification of papers and documents. The executive... Board in his place and stead shall certify copies of all papers and documents which are a part of any of...

  7. 7 CFR 946.60 - Inspection and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and certification. 946.60 Section 946.60... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Inspection and Certification § 946.60 Inspection and certification. (a... this subpart, each handler who first ships potatoes shall, prior to making shipment, cause each...

  8. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than...

  9. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The route specified on the Certificate of Inspection and the SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  10. 15 CFR 2011.105 - Form and applicability of certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Certificate of Quota Eligibility § 2011.105 Form and applicability of certificate. (a...; expected date of departure; expected date of arrival in U.S.; and expected port(s) of arrival in the United... shall affix a seal or other form of authentication and sign and date the certificate. (b) Other...

  11. Internal medicine board certification and career pathways in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Soichi; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ide, Hiroo; Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Shimpo, Masahisa; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2017-05-08

    Establishing and managing a board certification system is a common concern for many countries. In Japan, the board certification system is under revision. The purpose of this study was to describe present status of internal medicine specialist board certification, to identify factors associated with maintenance of board certification and to investigate changes in area of practice when physicians move from hospital to clinic practice. We analyzed 2010 and 2012 data from the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists. We conducted logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with the maintenance of board certification between 2010 and 2012. We also analyzed data on career transition from hospitals to clinics for hospital physicians with board certification. It was common for physicians seeking board certification to do so in their early career. The odds of maintaining board certification were lower in women and those working in locations other than academic hospitals, and higher in physicians with subspecialty practice areas. Among hospital physicians with board certification who moved to clinics between 2010 and 2012, 95.8% remained in internal medicine or its subspecialty areas and 87.7% maintained board certification but changed their practice from a subspecialty area to more general internal medicine. Revisions of the internal medicine board certification system must consider different physician career pathways including mid-career moves while maintaining certification quality. This will help to secure an adequate number and distribution of specialists. To meet the increasing demand for generalist physicians, it is important to design programs to train specialists in general practice.

  12. 29 CFR 570.12 - Revoked certificates of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revoked certificates of age. 570.12 Section 570.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age § 570.12 Revoked certificates of age...

  13. 22 CFR 92.38 - Forms of certificate of authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forms of certificate of authentication. 92.38... SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.38 Forms of certificate of authentication. The form of a certificate of authentication depends on the statutory requirements of the jurisdiction where the authenticated...

  14. 32 CFR 537.20 - Certification to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Certification to Congress. 537.20 Section 537.20... BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.20 Certification to Congress. Admiralty claims, including claims for... of the Army for approval and if in excess of $500,000 for certification to Congress for final...

  15. 13 CFR 120.644 - Transfers of Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers of Certificates. 120.644 Section 120.644 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Miscellaneous Provisions § 120.644 Transfers of Certificates. (a) General rule. Certificates are...

  16. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set...

  17. 13 CFR 120.610 - Form and terms of Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form and terms of Certificates. 120.610 Section 120.610 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.610 Form and terms of Certificates. (a) General form and content. Each...

  18. Administrative memo relative to the delivery of energy conservation certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This memo details the principles of the energy conservation certificates, the law texts of application, the part of the Government and the ADEME services, the certificates demand procedure, and the inscription of the certificates on the national registries. (A.L.B.)

  19. 7 CFR 205.406 - Continuation of certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.406 Continuation of certification. (a) To continue... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of certification. 205.406 Section 205.406...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.530 - Certification of exempt producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section 2103 of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 6502), a signed certification that the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of exempt producers. 1250.530 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Registration, Certification and Reports § 1250.530...

  1. 77 FR 28853 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 10-2A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Alaska Longline... Export Trade Certificate of Review Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC'') on May 7, 2012. This is the...

  2. 78 FR 13861 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 85-17A18] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S..., Office of Competition and Economic Analysis (OCEA), has issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of...

  3. 77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 10-3A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Alaska Longline... Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to the Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC...

  4. 78 FR 25060 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 92-11A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace... issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries Association of America on...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 411 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 411 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 411, App. A Appendix A to Part 411—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...

  6. 12 CFR 411.110 - Certification and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification and disclosure. 411.110 Section 411.110 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING General § 411.110 Certification and disclosure. (a) Each person shall file a certification, and a disclosure...

  7. 24 CFR 232.610 - Certification of cost requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of cost requirements... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Eligibility Requirements-Supplemental Loans To Finance Purchase and Installation of Fire Safety Equipment Cost Certification Requirements § 232.610 Certification of cost requirements...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity certificate for the marketing assistance loan collateral. (b) The exchange rate is the lesser of... assistance loan collateral. (3) Immediately exchanging the purchased commodity certificate for the outstanding loan collateral. (e) The authority to make commodity certificates available to the producer will...

  9. Wisconsin Certification Manual for Public Librarians. Bulletin No. 7075.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

    Designed to be used as a guide for public librarians and boards of trustees in meeting the requirements of Wisconsin's public librarian certification law, this manual is divided into two major sections covering public librarian certification and certification renewal/continuing education requirements. The first section includes discussions of…

  10. 19 CFR 191.10 - Certificate of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of delivery. 191.10 Section 191.10... TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.10 Certificate of delivery. (a) Purpose; when... other party a certificate of delivery, certified by the importer or other party through whose possession...

  11. 77 FR 2036 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 92-10A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace... an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries of America on September 27...

  12. 78 FR 78816 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 87-9A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to... issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Independent Film and Television Alliance (``IFTA...

  13. 78 FR 5778 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 92-11A01] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (92-11A01) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review... of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review...

  14. Vicarious birth experiences and childbirth fear: does it matter how young canadian women learn about birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women's confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during primary and secondary education, as an alternative to mass-mediated information about birth, can be evaluated as an approach to reduce young women's childbirth fear.

  15. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  16. Inclusion of non-viable neonates in the birth record and its impact on infant mortality rates in Shelby County, Tennessee, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Lee Williams

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Rates of infant death are one of the most common indicators of a population’s overall health status. Infant mortality rates (IMRs are used to make broad inferences about the quality of health care, effects of health policies and even environmental quality. The purpose of our study was threefold: i to examine the characteristics of births in the area in relation to gestational age and birthweight; ii to estimate infant mortality using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth, and iii to calculate proportional mortality ratios for each cause of death using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all Shelby County resident-linked birth and infant death certificates during the years 1999 to 2004. Descriptive test statistics were used to examine infant mortality rates in relation to specific maternal and infant risk factors. Through careful examination of 1999-2004 resident-linked birth and infant death data sets, we observed a disproportionate number of non-viable live births (≤20 weeks gestation or ≤350 grams in Shelby County. Issuance of birth certificates to these non-viable neonates is a factor that contributes to an inflated IMR. Our study demonstrates the complexity and the appropriateness of comparing infant mortality rates in smaller geographic units, given the unique characteristics of live births in Shelby County. The disproportionate number of pre-viable infants born in Shelby County greatly obfuscates neonatal mortality and de-emphasizes the importance of post-neonatal mortality.

  17. Birth Experience through an Existential Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina

    Background: The moment of birth is seen as a miracle, a journey and even a religious act. Research stress how giving birth might facilitate interference with previous conceptions of how to make meaning of life existentially. However, birth as an existential life transformative event, has been...... explored only briefly in empirical research. The aim of this study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore how first-time mothers experienced their first birth in relation to existential meaning-making. Secondly, to describe the relationship between considerations related to existential meaning-making and time...... of birth. Method: The study was based on a nationwide questionnaire, conducted among Danish first time mothers, who had given birth either preterm or full-term (n=517). The questionnaire consisted of 46 overall items. Eight core items were analysed in this study. Findings Preliminary findings show that new...

  18. Purulent Bacterial Meningitis at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Karimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which are known as the meninges. This infection may be caused by Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria. In this study, we presented the case of a female newborn with meningitis secondary to Streptococcus pneumonia. Her birth weight and height were normal. After 24 hours of birth, the neonate was diagnosed with tachypnea, without presenting any signs of fever or respiratory distress. The newborn was referred to Sheikh Children's Hospital, where chest X-ray showed clear lungs with no evidence of abnormality. Furthermore, the cardiothoracic ratio was normal. A complete blood count demonstrated white blood cell (WBC count of 5400/uL. In Blood/Culcture ratio (B/C test, Streptococcus pneumonia was reported, and the results of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis confirmed this result. Following 14 days of receiving antibiotic therapy, the results of CSF analysis were within the normal range. Her visual and hearing examinations were normal, and demonstrated improved situation. The infant was discharged with exclusive breastfeeding.

  19. 5 CFR 630.1207 - Medical certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1207 Medical certification. (a) An agency may require that a... family and medical leave exists. The agency may not require any personal or confidential information in... be binding on the agency and the employee. (f) To remain entitled to family and medical leave under...

  20. 15 CFR 996.22 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... express or implied warranty as to the merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose; conveys no express or implied liability on the part of the Government of the United States for the hydrographic...) Certification shall be for a term of 3 years unless otherwise specified by the Administrator. (d) A...

  1. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  2. 44 CFR 352.4 - Licensee certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... needed based on the criteria of decline or fail for the relevant State or local governments. (c) The... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING... under this part shall submit a certification to the host FEMA Regional Administrator that a decline or...

  3. Alternative Certification Teachers: Building Partnerships with Paraprofessionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Pierson, Melinda; Robinson, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    There were 282 special education teachers enrolled in an alternative certification program in education at a university in southern California who were surveyed over the course of two years to determine the extent of their training in working with paraprofessionals and the professional development they received on how to successfully work with the…

  4. Certification trails and software design for testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Design techniques which may be applied to make program testing easier were investigated. Methods for modifying a program to generate additional data which we refer to as a certification trail are presented. This additional data is designed to allow the program output to be checked more quickly and effectively. Certification trails were described primarily from a theoretical perspective. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the certification trail method is reported. The method was applied to nine fundamental, well-known algorithms for the following problems: convex hull, sorting, huffman tree, shortest path, closest pair, line segment intersection, longest increasing subsequence, skyline, and voronoi diagram. Run-time performance data for each of these problems is given, and selected problems are described in more detail. Our results indicate that there are many cases in which certification trails allow for significantly faster overall program execution time than a 2-version programming approach, and also give further evidence of the breadth of applicability of this method.

  5. 78 FR 28079 - Certificates of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Submissions Submit written submissions in the following way: Mail/Hand delivery/Courier (for paper, disk, or... certificates. For example, the Commission's ban on non-children's lawn darts at 16 CFR 1306.1 et seq. states that ``any lawn dart is a banned hazardous product.'' This appears to ban the entire product category...

  6. 16 CFR 306.6 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Include a delivery ticket or other paper with each transfer of automotive fuel. It may be an invoice, bill of lading, bill of sale, terminal ticket, delivery ticket, or any other written proof of transfer. It... new automotive fuel either with a delivery ticket or by sending a new letter of certification. (c...

  7. 7 CFR 27.81 - Fees; certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees; certificates. 27.81 Section 27.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Costs of Classification and Micronaire § 27.81 Fees...

  8. 78 FR 27343 - Medical Examiner's Certification Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... efficiency; (2) reflect current medical terminology and examination components; and (3) be a self-contained... 391 [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0178] RIN 2126-AB40 Medical Examiner's Certification Integration AGENCY...: FMCSA proposes to require certified medical examiners (MEs) performing physical examinations on drivers...

  9. 47 CFR 90.203 - Certification required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certificated for use under this part. (1) Effective October 16, 2002, except in the 1427-1432 MHz band, an equipment approval may no longer be obtained for in-hospital medical telemetry equipment operating under the provisions of this part. The requirements for obtaining an approval for medical telemetry equipment after...

  10. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  11. 2017 Guide to Nursing Certification Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, Lisa Morris; Schnur, Myrna Buiser; Deming, Cara; Fryling-Resare, Kim; Maroldo, Robert

    Nursing specialty certification is one way to enhance your professional development and to exhibit dedication to high-quality, safe patient care and a commitment of excellence to your organization. Use this resource to explore your options and contact the certifying body that meets your needs.

  12. 10 CFR 501.61 - Certification contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Exemptions and... render such electric powerplant capable of using coal or another alternate fuel as its primary energy... alternate fuel as its primary energy source. (b) A self-certification filed pursuant to § 501.61(a) shall be...

  13. 31 CFR 50.53 - Loss certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loss certifications. 50.53 Section 50.53 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... Treasury, that includes basic information about each underlying insured loss. For purposes of this section...

  14. 20 CFR 702.172 - Certification; definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification; definitions. 702.172 Section 702.172 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S... engaged in commerce but does not include military vessels or Coast Guard vessels. (b) “Federal Maritime...

  15. Certification plan for safety and PRA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Crowe, R.D.; Ades, M.J.

    1990-05-01

    A certification plan for computer codes used in Safety Analyses and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the operation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors has been prepared. An action matrix, checklists, and a time schedule have been included in the plan. These items identify what is required to achieve certification of the codes. A list of Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SA ampersand PRA) computer codes covered by the certification plan has been assembled. A description of each of the codes was provided in Reference 4. The action matrix for the configuration control plan identifies code specific requirements that need to be met to achieve the certification plan's objectives. The checklist covers the specific procedures that are required to support the configuration control effort and supplement the software life cycle procedures based on QAP 20-1 (Reference 7). A qualification checklist for users establishes the minimum prerequisites and training for achieving levels of proficiency in using configuration controlled codes for critical parameter calculations

  16. Motivation and benefits of implementation and certification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the research is to analyze the different aspects associated with the motivation and benefits of certified ISO 9001 companies in Portugal. A total of 426 certified Portuguese companies were surveyed. The response rate was equal to 61.03 percent. Our results suggest that the main motivation for certification were ...

  17. 47 CFR 76.912 - Joint certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.912 Joint certification. (a) Franchising authorities..., joint hearings, data collection, and ratemaking. Franchising authorities jointly certified to regulate their cable system(s) may make independent rate decisions. (b) Franchising authorities may apply for...

  18. 33 CFR 135.215 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... partnership applicant, or a director or other officer of a corporate applicant. (d) Financial data or other...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.215 Certification. (a) Applicants shall: (1) If the...

  19. 24 CFR 91.425 - Certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Consortia; Contents of Consolidated... restrictions on lobbying required by 24 CFR part 87, together with disclosure forms, if required by that part... the following certifications: (i) If it plans to use HOME funds for tenant-based rental assistance, a...

  20. Tiebreaker: Certification and Multiple Credit Ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G.J. Bongaerts (Dion); K.J.M. Cremers (Martijn); W.N. Goetzmann (William)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: This paper explores the role played by multiple credit rating agencies (CRAs) in the market for corporate bonds. Moody’s, S&P and Fitch operate in a competitive setting with market demand for both credit information and the certification value of a high rating. We